coronavirus

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pages: 652 words: 172,428

Aftershocks: Pandemic Politics and the End of the Old International Order by Colin Kahl, Thomas Wright

banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, future of work, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, job automation, Kibera, liberal world order, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, one-China policy, open borders, open economy, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, World Values Survey

“Coronavirus: Prime Minister Boris Johnson Tests Positive,” BBC, March 27, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-52060791; “What’s Gone Wrong with Covid-19 Testing in Britain,” The Economist, April 4, 2020, https://www.economist.com/britain/2020/04/04/whats-gone-wrong-with-covid-19-testing-in-britain; Andrew MacAskill, “UK Defends Coronavirus Response After Reuters Investigation,” Reuters, April 9, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-britain-modelling/uk-defends-coronavirus-response-after-reuters-investigation-idUSKCN21R33D.   70.  Colin Dwyer, “Boris Johnson: U.K. Is ‘Past the Peak’ of Its Coronavirus Outbreak,” NPR, April 30, 2020, https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/04/30/848496099/boris-johnson-u-k-is-past-the-peak-of-its-coronavirus-outbreak.   71.  “Coronavirus: Boris Johnson Says UK Is Past the Peak of Outbreak,” BBC, April 30, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-52493500; “In England, Reopening Has Not Been the Disaster Many Feared,” The Economist, September 3, 2020, https://www.economist.com/britain/2020/09/03/in-england-reopening-has-not-been-the-disaster-many-feared; James Gallagher, “Coronavirus: Oxford Vaccine Triggers Immune Response,” BBC, July 20, 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-53469839; Alistair Smout, “First Human Trial of Oxford Coronavirus Vaccine Shows Promise,” Reuters, July 20, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-oxford-vaccine/first-human-trial-of-oxford-coronavirus-vaccine-shows-promise-idUSKCN24L1MP.   72.  

See Chapter 7 for more details.     9.  “Europe Needs New Measures to Tackle Coronavirus Threat: Italian President,” Reuters, March 27, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-eu-italy/europe-needs-new-measures-to-tackle-coronavirus-threat-italian-president-idUSKBN21E36G.   10.  “Germany Bans Export of Medical Protection Gear Due to Coronavirus,” Reuters, March 4, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-germany-exports/germany-bans-export-of-medical-protection-gear-due-to-coronavirus-idUSL8N2AX3D9.   11.  “French Mayor Defends Smurf Rally After Outcry over Virus,” France 24, March 10, 2020, https://www.france24.com/en/20200310-french-mayor-defends-smurf-rally-after-outcry-over-virus; Antonia Noori Farzan, “‘We Must Not Stop Living’: French Mayor Defends Smurf Rally That Drew Thousands amid Coronavirus Fears,” Washington Post, March 11, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/03/11/smurf-coronavirus-france/.   12.  

Hiromi Murakami, “Resolved: Japan’s Response to Covid-19 Is Prudent,” CSIS, May 20, 2020, https://www.csis.org/analysis/resolved-japans-response-covid-19-prudent; “Avoid the Three Cs,” Prime Minister’s Office of Japan, https://www.mhlw.go.jp/content/10900000/000619576.pdf; Motoko Rich, Hisako Ueno, and Makiko Inoue, “Japan Declared a Coronavirus Emergency. Is It Too Late?,” New York Times, April 16, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/world/asia/japan-coronavirus-emergency.html.   47.  William Sposato, “Japan’s Halfhearted Coronavirus Measures Are Working Anyway,” Foreign Policy, May 14, 2020, https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/14/japan-coronavirus-pandemic-lockdown-testing/; Lawrence Repeta, “The Coronavirus and Japan’s Constitution,” Japan Times, April 14, 2020, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2020/04/14/commentary/japan-commentary/coronavirus-japans-constitution/; Mari Yamaguchi, “Japan’s State of Emergency Is No Lockdown.


pages: 475 words: 127,389

Apollo's Arrow: The Profound and Enduring Impact of Coronavirus on the Way We Live by Nicholas A. Christakis

agricultural Revolution, Atul Gawande, Boris Johnson, butterfly effect, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, Columbian Exchange, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, death of newspapers, disinformation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, global pandemic, global supply chain, helicopter parent, Henri Poincaré, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job satisfaction, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, mass incarceration, medical residency, meta-analysis, New Journalism, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school choice, security theater, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, trade route, Upton Sinclair

Myers, “The Army Corps of Engineers Has Two or Three Weeks to Get Thousands of New Hospital Beds Up and Running,” Military Times, March 27, 2020. 112 J. McKinley, “New York City Region Is Now the Epicenter of the Coronavirus Pandemic,” New York Times, March 22, 2020. 113 Ibid. 114 H. Cooper et al., “Coronavirus Hot Spots Emerging Near New York City,” New York Times, April 5, 2020. 115 M. Bryant, “New York Veterinarians Give Ventilators to ‘War Effort’ against Coronavirus,” The Guardian, April 2, 2020. 116 C. Campanile and K. Sheehy, “NY Issues Do-Not-Resuscitate Guideline for Cardiac Patients amid Coronavirus,” New York Post, April 21, 2020. 117 L. Widdicombe, “The Coronavirus Pandemic Peaks in New York’s Hospitals,” The New Yorker, April 15, 2020. 118 M.

Mosher, “Don’t Buy China’s Story: The Coronavirus May Have Leaked from a Lab,” New York Post, February 22, 2020. 70 A. Stevenson, “Senator Tom Cotton Repeats Fringe Theory of Coronavirus Origins,” New York Times, February 17, 2020. 71 Anonymous, “Coronavirus: Trump Stands by China Lab Origin Theory for Virus,” BBC, May 1, 2020. 72 K.G. Andersen et al., “The Proximal Origin of SARS-CoV-2,” Nature Medicine 2020; 26: 450–455; P. Zhou et al, “A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin,” Nature 2020; 579: 270–273. 73 S. Andrew, “Nearly 30% in the US Believe a Coronavirus Theory That’s Almost Certainly Not True,” CNN, April 13, 2020; W.

Reals, “Chinese Doctor Was Warned to Keep Quiet After Sounding the Alarm on Coronavirus,” CBS News, February 4, 2020. 18 K. Elmer, “Coronavirus: Wuhan Police Apologise to Family of Whistle-Blowing Doctor Li Wenliang,” South China Morning Post, March 19, 2020. 19 C. Buckley, “Chinese Doctor, Silenced After Warning of Outbreak, Dies from Coronavirus,” New York Times, February 6, 2020; Anonymous, “China Identifies 14 Hubei Frontline Workers, Including Li Wenliang, as Martyrs,” Global Times, April 2, 2020. 20 C. Huang et al., “Clinical Features of Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” The Lancet 2020; 395: 497–506. 21 M.H.


pages: 432 words: 143,491

Failures of State: The Inside Story of Britain's Battle With Coronavirus by Jonathan Calvert, George Arbuthnott

Boris Johnson, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, gig economy, global pandemic, Kickstarter, nudge unit, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Skype

‘UK has plans to deal with pandemic causing up to 315,000 deaths’, Guardian, 6 March 2020. 2. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’, Dispatches, Channel 4, 3 June 2020. 3. Ibid. 8: Herd Immunity 1. ‘Boris Johnson heckled during visit to flood-hit Bewdley’, The Times, 8 March 2020. 2. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’, Dispatches, Channel 4, 3 June 2020. 3. Ibid. 4. ‘Coronavirus: Care home residents could be “cocooned”’, BBC News, 11 March 2020. 5. ‘Haunted, exhausted and under attack as coronavirus death toll doubles’, The Sunday Times, 15 March 2020. 6. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’

‘Special Report: Into the fog – How Britain lost track of the coronavirus’, Reuters, 29 June 2020. 8. ‘Rory Stewart interview: Deploy the army to combat coronavirus’, Joe, 12 March 2020. 9. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’, Dispatches, Channel 4, 3 June 2020. 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 12. ‘How the alarm went off too late in Britain’s virus response’, Bloomberg, 24 April 2020. 9: Dither 1. ‘Public request to take stronger measures of social distancing across the UK with immediate effect’, 14 March 2020. 2. ‘Inside Westminster’s coronavirus blame game’, Financial Times, 16 July 2020. 3. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’

‘How the future PM, Boris Johnson, and NHS boss, Simon Stevens, formed an unlikely bond at Oxford’, Telegraph, 7 August 2019. 5. ‘Coronavirus: Did the government get it wrong?’, Dispatches, Channel 4, 3 June 2020. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid. 10: Disaster 1. ‘Coronavirus crisis: Sickness, fear and now isolation for Boris Johnson’, The Sunday Times, 29 March 2020. 2. ‘NHS staff feel like “cannon fodder” over lack of coronavirus protection’, Guardian, 22 March 2020. 3. ‘“No surprise” Boris Johnson got coronavirus when he failed to “practise what he preached”, scientists say’, Evening Standard, 28 March 2020. 4. ‘Coronavirus: Doctors “told not to discuss PPE shortages”’, BBC News, 15 May 2020. 5.


pages: 391 words: 112,312

The Plague Year: America in the Time of Covid by Lawrence Wright

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, business cycle, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, full employment, global pandemic, income inequality, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, meta-analysis, mouse model, Nate Silver, Plutocrats, plutocrats, QAnon, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Bannon, the scientific method, transcontinental railway

To their credit, Shi and Daszak have been warning for years that new pandemics could emerge from the bat caves of southern China. However, Shi has downplayed the likelihood that the miners who died in 2012 were infected by a coronavirus, claiming that they were sickened by a fungus that caused pneumonia. And yet her own lab had discovered the coronavirus antibodies in the miners. The doctor who treated them listed the probable cause of death as a SARS-like coronavirus from a horseshoe bat. * * * — There is another scenario that might account for the precocious adaptability of the coronavirus in humans. There is an experiment called “gain of function.” Suppose you have an animal virus that is potentially deadly but not yet contagious in humans.

in more than fifty years: Transcript for CDC Media Telebriefing: Update on 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Jan. 31, 2020. “The best way”: Bill Chappell, “Coronavirus: CDC Puts Americans Who Left Wuhan Into ‘Unprecedented’ 14-Day Quarantine,” NPR, Jan. 31, 2020. 6. “IT’S COMING TO YOU” “the fastest we’ve ever”: Rebecca Ballhaus and Stephanie Armour, “Health Chief’s Early Missteps Set Back Coronavirus Response,” Wall Street Journal, April 22, 2020. Azar denies the quote. German test: Peter Whoriskey and Neena Satija, “Coronavirus: German company developed 1.4m tests in six weeks while US production stalled,” Independent, Mar. 17, 2020.

fewer than 500: Julie Steenhuysen, Andrew Hay, and Brad Brooks, “Mixed messages, test delays hamper U.S. coronavirus response,” Reuters, Feb. 27, 2020. 1.6 million per week: “Scoop: Lab for coronavirus test kits may have been contaminated,” Axios, March 1, 2020. “filthy”: Interview with FDA officials. Sheila Kaplan, “C.D.C. Labs Were Contaminated, Delaying Coronavirus Testing, Officials Say,” New York Times, May 7, 2020. “When Dr. Stenzel”: FDA: “Regulatory history of CDC’s molecular diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2,” draft, Dec. 1, 2020. Biogen: Sarah Kaplan and Chris Mooney, “Genetic data show how a single superspreading event sent coronavirus across Massachusetts and the nation,” Washington Post, Aug. 25, 2020; Emma Brown, “A look inside coronavirus preparations at a major U.S. hospital,” Washington Post, March 9, 2020; “Second Presumptive Positive Case Identified by Massachusetts State Laboratory,” Massachusetts Department of Health, March 5, 2020.


pages: 199 words: 63,844

Breathtaking: Inside the NHS in a Time of Pandemic by Rachel Clarke

Airbnb, Boris Johnson, call centre, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disruptive innovation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, global pandemic, zero-sum game

Archer, B., ‘Boris Johnson braves coronavirus outbreak with pregnant fiancée to support England’, Daily Express, 8 March 2020. Peston, R., ‘British government wants UK to acquire coronavirus “herd immunity” ’, ITV News, 12 March 2020. Hunt, J., quoted in ‘Coronavirus: UK measures defended after criticism’, BBC News, 13 March 2020. ‘Has the Government Failed the NHS?’ BBC Panorama, 8 April 2020. A Long Deep Breath Bostridge, M., Florence Nightingale: The Woman and Her Legend (London: Penguin, 2020). Horton, R., ‘Scientists have been sounding the alarm on coronavirus for months. Why did Britain fail to act?’

., ‘Covid-19 and the Stiff Upper Lip – The Pandemic Response in the United Kingdom’, New England Journal of Medicine, 16 April 2020. Dunhill, L., ‘Critical care unit overwhelmed by coronavirus patients’, Health Service Journal, 20 March 2020. Jones, D., https://twitter.com/WelshGasDoc/status/1241083898999771137, 20 March 2020. Campbell, D., et al., ‘London hospitals struggle to cope with coronavirus surge’, Guardian, 20 March 2020. Hopson, C., ‘Confronting coronavirus in the NHS: The story so far’, NHS Providers, 15 April 2020. Cook, T., ‘I’m an ICU doctor. The NHS isn’t ready for the coronavirus crisis’, Guardian, 3 March 2020. COVID-19 Hospital Discharge Service Requirements, HM Government, 19 March 2020.

In medicine, a name is the first step towards controlling the menace of a new threat to life, even if all that is really achieved is a linguistic illusion of control. The WHO assigns the newest member of the coronavirus family the name SARS-CoV-2, which stands for ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.’ The infectious disease to which the virus gives rise is itself termed, with equal blandness, COVID-19, which refers to ‘coronavirus disease 2019’. These are uninspiring monikers – and deliberately so. Medical history is littered with examples of disease names that inadvertently insult or stigmatise people, places or animals.


pages: 1,072 words: 237,186

How to Survive a Pandemic by Michael Greger, M.D., FACLM

coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, double helix, friendly fire, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, inventory management, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, meta-analysis, New Journalism, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, phenotype, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, statistical model, stem cell, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, Westphalian system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus. J Virol. 94(7):e00127–20. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20. 42. Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric RS, Li F. 2020. Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus. J Virol. 94(7):e00127–20. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20. 43. Hu B, Zeng LP, Yang XL, Ge XY, Zhang W, Li B, Xie JZ, Shen XR, Zhang YZ, Wang N, et al. 2017. Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog. 13(11):e1006698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006698. 44.

Six weeks into the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak—it is time to consider strategies to impede the emergence of new zoonotic infections. Chin Med J (Engl). [accessed 2020 Mar 28]. https://doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000760. 87. Westcott B, Deng S. 2020 Mar 5. China has made eating wild animals illegal after the coronavirus outbreak. But ending the trade won’t be easy. CNN; [accessed 2020 Apr 8]. https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/05/asia/china-coronavirus-wildlife-consumption-ban-intl-hnk/index.html. 88. Loeb J. 2020. China bans sale of wildlife following coronavirus. Vet Record. 186(5):144–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.m495. 89.

[accessed 2020 Mar 31]. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19—16-march-2020. 2678. Normile D. 2020 Mar 17. Coronavirus cases have dropped sharply in South Korea. What’s the secret to its success? Science. [accessed 2020 Mar 31]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb7566. 2679. Khazan O. 2020 Mar 13. The 4 key reasons the U.S. is so behind on coronavirus testing. The Atlantic. [accessed 2020 Mar 31]; https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/03/why-coronavirus-testing-us-so-delayed/607954/. 2680. Meyer R, Madrigal AC. 2020 Mar 6. Exclusive: the strongest evidence yet that America is botching coronavirus testing. The Atlantic. [accessed 2020 Mar 31]; https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/03/how-many-americans-have-been-tested-coronavirus/607597/. 2681.


pages: 266 words: 80,273

Covid-19: The Pandemic That Never Should Have Happened and How to Stop the Next One by Debora MacKenzie

anti-globalists, butterfly effect, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Donald Trump, European colonialism, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, Just-in-time delivery, megacity, meta-analysis, microcredit, planetary scale, reshoring, supply-chain management, uranium enrichment

Authorities later… enforced: Josephine Ma and Zhuang Pinghui, “5 million left Wuhan before lockdown, 1,000 new coronavirus cases expected in city,” South China Morning Post, January 26, 2020, www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3047720/chinese-premier-li-keqiang-head-coronavirus-crisis-team-outbreak. 23. Chris Dye… the 23rd: Huaiyu Tian, et al., “An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China,” Science, March 31, 2020, doi.org/10.1126/science.abb6105. 24. My first… global: Debora MacKenzie, “New coronavirus looks set to cause a pandemic—how do we control it?” January 29, 2020, www.newscientist.com/article/2231864-new-coronavirus-looks-set-to-cause-a-pandemic-how-do-we-control-it. 25.

The quote is slightly different in its other iteration from October 1960. 3. Covid-19… November 2019: Josephine Ma, “Coronavirus: China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17.” 4. Secrecy… Tufekci: Zeynep Tufekci, “How the coronavirus revealed authoritarianism’s fatal flaw,” The Atlantic, February 22, 2020, www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2020/02/coronavirus-and-blindness-authoritarianism/606922. 5. by January 20th… China: James Kynge, Sun Yu, and Tom Hancock, “Coronavirus: the cost of China’s public health cover-up.” 6. I wrote… funding: Debora MacKenzie, “Can we afford not to track deadly viruses?”

Yet many… hit: Mike Stobbe, “Health official says US missed some chances to slow virus,” Associated Press, May 1, 2020, apnews.com/a758f05f337736e93dd0c280deff9b10. 13. The virus is… for war: Gary P. Pisano, Raffaella Sadun, and Michele Zanini, “Lessons from Italy’s response to coronavirus,” Harvard Business Review, March 27, 2020, hbr.org/2020/03/lessons-from-italys-response-to-coronavirus. 14. Some experts… meltdown too: Adam Tooze, “How coronavirus almost brought down the global financial system,” Guardian, April 14, 2020, www.theguardian.com/business/2020/apr/14/how-coronavirus-almost-brought-down-the-global-financial-system. 15. shut down… ever known: Christopher J. Fettweis, “Unipolarity, hegemony, and the new peace,” Security Studies 26, no. 3 (August 2017): 423–51, doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2017.1306394. 16.


pages: 289 words: 86,165

Ten Lessons for a Post-Pandemic World by Fareed Zakaria

Asian financial crisis, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global reserve currency, global supply chain, hiring and firing, housing crisis, imperial preference, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, invention of the wheel, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Snow's cholera map, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monroe Doctrine, Nate Silver, oil shock, open borders, out of africa, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, remote working, reserve currency, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, UNCLOS, universal basic income, urban planning, Washington Consensus, white flight, Works Progress Administration

,” Politico, March 30, 2020, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/03/30/coronavirus-masks-trump-administration-156327. 30 faulty test kits: Eric Lipton et al., “The C.D.C. Waited ‘Its Entire Existence’ for This Moment. What Went Wrong?,” New York Times, June 3, 2020. 30 “Not the United States”: Selena Simmons-Duffin, “As States Reopen, Do They Have the Workforce They Need to Stop Coronavirus Outbreaks?,” NPR, June 18, 2020. 32 750 million people: Raymond Zhong and Paul Mozur, “To Tame Coronavirus, Mao-Style Social Control Blankets China,” New York Times, February 15, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/15/business/china-coronavirus-lockdown.html. 32 built two new hospitals: Lingling Wei, “China’s Coronavirus Response Toughens State Control and Weakens the Private Market,” Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2020. 32 restricting the publication: Nectar Gan, Caitlin Hu, and Ivan Watson, “Beijing Tightens Grip over Coronavirus Research, amid US-China Row on Virus Origin,” CNN, April 16, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/12/asia/china-coronavirus-research-restrictions-intl-hnk/index.html. 33 dictatorships often mishandle: “Diseases Like Covid-19 Are Deadlier in Non-Democracies,” Economist, February 18, 2020. 33 respond to famines better: Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Anchor, 1999), 16. 33 over $6 trillion: Andrew Van Dam, “The U.S.

Some countries locked down fully, while others—using their own epidemiologists and models—did not. What should we make of all this? The reality is that science does not yield one simple answer, especially not with a new phenomenon like the coronavirus. Fauci, the head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, came to a reasonable conclusion given the initial evidence. Many scientists at first believed that the coronavirus was not a significant danger—but everyone was making quick judgments with little data. The novel coronavirus was just that, novel. Its transmission rates and lethality remained unclear. As the evidence changed, Fauci and others changed their minds. This is normal.

,” NPR, June 18, 2020. 32 750 million people: Raymond Zhong and Paul Mozur, “To Tame Coronavirus, Mao-Style Social Control Blankets China,” New York Times, February 15, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/15/business/china-coronavirus-lockdown.html. 32 built two new hospitals: Lingling Wei, “China’s Coronavirus Response Toughens State Control and Weakens the Private Market,” Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2020. 32 restricting the publication: Nectar Gan, Caitlin Hu, and Ivan Watson, “Beijing Tightens Grip over Coronavirus Research, amid US-China Row on Virus Origin,” CNN, April 16, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/12/asia/china-coronavirus-research-restrictions-intl-hnk/index.html. 33 dictatorships often mishandle: “Diseases Like Covid-19 Are Deadlier in Non-Democracies,” Economist, February 18, 2020. 33 respond to famines better: Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Anchor, 1999), 16. 33 over $6 trillion: Andrew Van Dam, “The U.S.


pages: 735 words: 165,375

The Survival of the City: Human Flourishing in an Age of Isolation by Edward Glaeser, David Cutler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, buttonwood tree, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of penicillin, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Fellow of the Royal Society, future of work, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, global village, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, industrial cluster, James Hargreaves, Jane Jacobs, job automation, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Snow's cholera map, knowledge worker, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, out of africa, place-making, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Richard Florida, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Socratic dialogue, spinning jenny, superstar cities, Tax Reform Act of 1986, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, union organizing, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Ardern and Bloomfield did: Cheng, “Covid 19 Coronavirus: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s D-Day Decision Already Made for Her.” Visits to sit-down restaurants: Glaeser et al., “Learning from Deregulation.” 100,000 COVID-19 cases by June 22: “Florida Coronavirus Map and Case Count,” The New York Times. on June 26: Tisch et al., “Florida Suspends Drinking at Bars.” grown to 250,000: “Florida Coronavirus Map and Case Count.” on July 6: Selig and Vazquez, “Miami-Dade Closing Indoor Dining amid Coronavirus Spike; Gyms Can Now Stay Open.” half a million Floridians: “Florida Coronavirus Map and Case Count.”

“Contamination at CDC Lab Delayed Rollout of Coronavirus Tests.” The Washington Post, April 18, 2020. www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/contamination-at-cdc-lab-delayed-rollout-of-coronavirus-tests/2020/04/18/fd7d3824-7139-11ea-aa80-c2470c6b2034_story.html. Wilson, Chris. “These Graphs Show How COVID-19 Is Ravaging New York City’s Low-Income Neighborhoods.” Time, April 15, 2020. https://time.com/5821212/coronavirus-low-income-communities. Wilson, Michael. “Coronavirus in N.Y.C.: Eerie Streetscapes Are Stripped of Commerce.” The New York Times, March 21, 2020. www.nytimes.com/2020/03/21/nyregion/coronavirus-empty-nyc.html.

Accessed December 26, 2020. www.who.int/westernpacific/news/feature-stories/detail/new-zealand-takes-early-and-hard-action-to-tackle-covid-19. ———. “Novel Coronavirus—China.” January 12, 2020. www.who.int/csr/don/12-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en. ———. “Novel Coronavirus—Thailand (Ex-China).” Accessed January 17, 2021. www.who.int/csr/don/14-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-thailand-ex-china/en. ——— (@WHO). “Preliminary investigations conducted by the Chinese authorities have found no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the novel #coronavirus (2019-nCoV) identified in #Wuhan, #China.” Twitter, January 14, 2020, 6:18 a.m. https://twitter.com/WHO/status/1217043229427761152. ———.


pages: 407 words: 108,030

How to Talk to a Science Denier: Conversations With Flat Earthers, Climate Deniers, and Others Who Defy Reason by Lee McIntyre

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alfred Russel Wallace, Boris Johnson, Climategate, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, different worldview, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Richard Feynman, scientific mainstream, selection bias, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steven Levy, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks

Emma Reynolds, “Some Anti-vaxxers Are Changing Their Minds Because of the Coronavirus Pandemic,” CNN, April 20, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/20/health/anti-vaxxers-coronavirus-intl/index.html; Jon Henley, “Coronavirus Causing Some Anti-vaxxers to Waver, Experts Say,” Guardian, April 21, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/21/anti-vaccination-community-divided-how-respond-to-coronavirus-pandemic; Victoria Waldersee, “Could the New Coronavirus Weaken ‘Anti-vaxxers’?” Reuters, April 11, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-antivax/could-the-new-coronavirus-weaken-anti-vaxxers-idUSKCN21T089. 4    Close Encounters with Climate Change Climate change denial represents the biggest, most important case of science denial in our time.

Emma Reynolds, “Some Anti-vaxxers Are Changing Their Minds because of the Coronavirus Pandemic,” CNN, April 20, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/20/health/anti-vaxxers-coronavirus-intl/index.html; Jon Henley, “Coronavirus Causing Some Anti-vaxxers to Waver, Experts Say,” Guardian, April 21, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/21/anti-vaccination-community-divided-how-respond-to-coronavirus-pandemic; Victoria Waldersee, “Could the New Coronavirus Weaken ‘Anti-vaxxers’?” Reuters, April 11, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-antivax/could-the-new-coronavirus-weaken-anti-vaxxers-idUSKCN21T089. 18. Andrew E. Kramer, “Russia Sets Mass Vaccinations for October After Shortened Trial,” New York Times, August 2, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/02/world/europe/russia-trials-vaccine-October.html. 19.

An even more fine-grained analysis has revealed that there was a correlation between specific Fox News programming and the prevalence of coronavirus cases and deaths. Zack Beauchamp, “A Disturbing New Study Suggests Sean Hannity’s Show Helped Spread the Coronavirus,” Vox, April 22, 2020, https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2020/4/22/21229360/coronavirus-covid-19-fox-news-sean-hannity-misinformation-death. 13. Dan Diamond and Nahal Toosi, “Trump Team Failed to Follow NSC’s Pandemic Playbook,” Politico, March 25, 2020, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/03/25/trump-coronavirus-national-security-council-149285. 14. Sharon LaFraniere et al., “Scientists Worry About Political Influence over Coronavirus Vaccine Project,” New York Times, August 2, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/02/us/politics/coronavirus-vaccine.html 15.


pages: 304 words: 95,306

Duty of Care: One NHS Doctor's Story of the Covid-19 Crisis by Dr Dominic Pimenta

3D printing, Boris Johnson, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, global pandemic, iterative process, Rubik’s Cube, school choice, Skype, stem cell

Should we test her for coronavirus? I ask myself and decide yes. On the way back with the machine, I ask the nurses to collect a viral swab for the usual viruses, and another one for coronavirus. They aren’t sure how to do a swab for coronavirus. I suppose no one here has done it, and I don’t know if there’s a special bottle. I call microbiology. There’s no answer. Then I try virology, and after 12 rings, I get through to a registrar. “Yes?” “I was just wondering if we could test a patient up on the heart ward for coronavirus?” “Any travel?” “No, but . . . ” “Any coronavirus contacts?” “No, but . . . ” “She doesn’t meet the criteria.

That sixth patient never arrived and, fortunately, all of the five survived, but even that short run gave me a now all-too-familiar sinking feeling, as if we were being overrun. Five years ago, I saw the only other serious possible coronavirus patient I’d ever seen. She was a young lady, just off the plane from Qatar, who was feverish and barely able to breathe. She had suspected MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), a cousin of the coronavirus we’re now facing. A few years before that we’d had SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, also a type of coronavirus) scares when we were travelling in Bali. But these incidents simply became touchstones of interest, isolated cases and potential diagnoses to learn from.

The last thing we should be doing is discouraging people from identifying to health professionals that they have suspected coronavirus and hiding them in the community. I tweet along these lines on one of my commutes to work, a brisk chilly run to the station and then 30 minutes down the Piccadilly line. Swiping through my Twitter feed, something catches my eye. In the replies I find a recurring theme, with people dismissing coronavirus entirely as “just flu” and declaring everything else “media hysteria”. Up until that point I haven’t really looked hard at the research around the “Wuhan coronavirus”. Trying to catch the tube Wi-Fi, I spend the journey trawling the literature, trying to answer the question: is it worse than everyday annual flu?


pages: 700 words: 160,604

The Code Breaker: Jennifer Doudna, Gene Editing, and the Future of the Human Race by Walter Isaacson

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anne Wojcicki, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bernie Sanders, Colonization of Mars, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Henri Poincaré, iterative process, Joan Didion, linear model of innovation, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, mouse model, Silicon Valley, Skype, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

., “Inside the Coronavirus Testing Failure”; David Willman, “Contamination at CDC Lab Delayed Rollout of Coronavirus Tests,” Washington Post, Apr. 18, 2020. 4. JoNel Aleccia, “How Intrepid Lab Sleuths Ramped Up Tests as Coronavirus Closed In,” Kaiser Health News, Mar. 16, 2020. 5. Julia Ioffe, “The Infuriating Story of How the Government Stalled Coronavirus Testing,” GQ, Mar. 16, 2020; Boburg et al., “Inside the Coronavirus Testing Failure.” Greninger’s email to a friend is in the excellent Washington Post reconstruction. 6. Boburg et al., “Inside the Coronavirus Testing Failure”; Patrick Boyle, “Coronavirus Testing: How Academic Medical Labs Are Stepping Up to Fill a Void,” AAMC, Mar. 12, 2020. 7. Author’s interview with Eric Lander; Leah Eisenstadt, “How Broad Institute Converted a Clinical Processing Lab into a Large-Scale COVID-19 Testing Facility in a Matter of Days,” Broad Communications, Mar. 27, 2020.

., Neena Satija, and Amy Goldstein, “Inside the Coronavirus Testing Failure,” Washington Post, Apr. 3, 2020; Robert Baird, “What Went Wrong with Coronavirus Testing in the U.S.,” New Yorker, Mar. 16, 2020; Michael Shear, Abby Goodnough, Sheila Kaplan, Sheri Fink, Katie Thomas, and Noah Weiland, “The Lost Month: How a Failure to Test Blinded the U.S. to COVID-19,” New York Times, Mar. 28, 2020. 2. Kary Mullis, “The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction,” Scientific American, Apr. 1990. 3. Boburg et al., “Inside the Coronavirus Testing Failure”; David Willman, “Contamination at CDC Lab Delayed Rollout of Coronavirus Tests,” Washington Post, Apr. 18, 2020. 4.

That meeting, which is the one described in the introduction of this book, was at 2 p.m. on Friday, March 13—the day after Doudna and her husband made their predawn drive to Fresno to retrieve their son from his robotics competition. SARS-CoV-2 The rapidly spreading new coronavirus had by then been given an official name: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2. It was so named because it was similar in its symptoms to the SARS coronavirus that spread out of China in 2003, infecting more than eight thousand people worldwide. The disease caused by the new virus was named COVID-19. Viruses are deceptively simple little capsules of bad news.I They are just a tiny bit of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, inside a protein shell.


pages: 106 words: 33,210

The COVID-19 Catastrophe: What's Gone Wrong and How to Stop It Happening Again by Richard Horton

Boris Johnson, cognitive bias, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, global pandemic, global village, Herbert Marcuse, informal economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea

Four human coronaviruses cause only mild to moderate symptoms – NL63 (identified in the Netherlands in 2004), HKU1 (discovered in Hong Kong in 2005) and OC43 and 229E (both major causes of the common cold). But two coronaviruses pose much more serious threats to human health – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Could the virus discovered in Wuhan be a seventh and also more dangerous type of coronavirus? The genetic code of the novel virus was quickly sequenced. Comparisons with existing viral genomes showed that it was closely related to a bat SARS-like strain. Those four letters – S-A-R-S – struck fear and not a little panic into Chinese health officials when the news arrived in Beijing.

., Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19, Lancet Infectious Diseases, 11 March 2020. 6. Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team, The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) – China 2020, China CDC Weekly, 2/8 (2020): 113–22. 7. Kiesha Prem et al., The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China, Lancet Public Health, 25 March 2020. 8. Benjamin J. Cowling et al., Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong, The Lancet, 17 April 2020. 9.

Because we can’t afford to fail again. We may not have a second chance. Notes 1. Chaolin Huang et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, The Lancet, 24 January 2020. 2. Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan et al., A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission, The Lancet, 24 January 2020. 3. Roujian Lu et al., Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding, The Lancet, 29 January 2020. 4. Joseph T. Wu et al., Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China, The Lancet, 31 January 2020. 5.


pages: 82 words: 24,150

The Corona Crash: How the Pandemic Will Change Capitalism by Grace Blakeley

asset-backed security, basic income, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, debt deflation, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, don't be evil, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, global pandemic, global value chain, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Martin Wolf, Modern Monetary Theory, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pensions crisis, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, quantitative easing, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, reshoring, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, yield curve

Central bankers and politicians have staged unprecedented economic interventions, not to help the most vulnerable through this crisis, but to save capitalism from itself. The beneficiaries will be big business, big banks and powerful political interests. As the coronavirus unfolds in the UK, the Right is in power, and they are demanding that journalists, citizens and even health officials fall in line behind the government narrative. Questioning government policy – whether on monetary policy, statutory sick pay or welfare payments – is ‘politicising’ a public health crisis. The idea that the coronavirus crisis can be ‘politicised’ is to imply that it is not already an inherently political event. Of course, the outbreak of the virus was a natural event – though one that seems to have been prompted by unsustainable farming practices undertaken in the name of profit maximisation.13 But its economic impact, and, in particular, the distribution of costs, could not be more political.

Bangladesh announced several fiscal measures worth nearly $8 billion34 – or 2.5 per cent of the country’s GDP – but began to reopen many of its textile factories early to boost exports, potentially worsening the spread of the virus and putting workers’ lives in jeopardy. Over the long term, as the coronavirus crisis continues and the impact of climate breakdown begins to hit both nations, the favour of international investors will do little to help these states. The response to both crises will require a significant increase in government borrowing, potentially leading to a loss of confidence among notoriously fickle bond investors. But without significant increases in state spending, tens of thousands more people could be killed over the coming years by both coronavirus and the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters associated with climate breakdown.

From the structural adjustment programmes of the 1980s to modern-day Greece, the long arm of the imperial creditor has been used many times to subject peripheral states to the discipline of capital. The coronavirus pandemic will only deepen these relationships of imperial extraction. 4 Reconstruction It is often said that, in the midst of a crisis, everyone is a socialist. With massive state intervention now the only thing standing between economies battered by the coronavirus pandemic and global economic meltdown, few politicians or economists are calling on governments to step back, let businesses fail, banks go bust and homeowners default on their mortgages – even if some countries have attempted to extricate themselves from lockdown and return to ‘business as usual’ before getting the virus under control.1 In normal times, neoliberals have a knee-jerk reaction against any interference in the operation of supposedly free, competitive markets.


pages: 506 words: 133,134

The Lonely Century: How Isolation Imperils Our Future by Noreena Hertz

"side hustle", Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, Cass Sunstein, centre right, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, independent contractor, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Pepto Bismol, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, rent control, RFID, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Great Good Place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, Wall-E, WeWork, working poor

OECD, ‘Social Expenditure: Aggregated data’, OECD Social and Welfare Statistics (database), https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00166-en (accessed 30 June 2020). socialexp/social-spending.htm. 8 ‘Fauci, Governors Get Highest Marks For Response To Coronavirus, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Majority Say Trump’s Response Not Aggressive Enough’, Quinnipiac University, 8 April 2020, https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3658. 9 Luke Savage, ‘The Coronavirus Has Created Record Support for Medicare For All’, Jacobin, 2 April 2020, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/04/coronavirus-pandemic-medicare-for-all-support; original poll at Yusra Murad, ‘As Coronavirus Surges, ‘Medicare For All’ Support Hits 9-Month High’, Morning Consult, 1 April 2020, https://morningconsult.com/2020/04/01/medicare-for-all-coronavirus-pandemic/. 10 Laura Gardiner, ‘The shifting shape of social security: Charting the changing size and shape of the British welfare system’, Resolution Foundation, November 2019, https://www.resolutionfoundation.org/app/uploads/2019/11/The-shifting-shape-of-social-security.pdf. 11 Phillip Inman, ‘Rightwing thinktanks call time on age of austerity’, Guardian, 16 May 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/may/16/thatcherite-thinktanks-back-increase-public-spending-in-lockdown. 12 ‘A New Deal For The Arts’, The National Archives, https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/new_deal_for_the_arts/index.html#. 13 Although some countries have considerably more leeway here than others. 14 Jonathan Nicholson, ‘Tax “excess” profits of big money-making companies to fix coronavirus economy, scholar urges’, MarketWatch, 30 April 2020, https://www.marketwatch.com/story/tax-excess-profits-of-big-money-making-companies-to-fix-coronavirus-economy-scholar-urges-2020-04-30. 15 Tommy Wilson, ‘Budget wish list – look after those who look after others,’ New Zealand Herald, 31 May 2019, https://www.nzherald.co.nz/premium/news/article.cfm?

from=mdr; Mia Jankowicz, ‘More People Are Now in “Lockdown” Than Were Alive During World War II’, ScienceAlert, 25 March 2020, https://www.sciencealert.com/one-third-of-the-world-s-population-are-now-restricted-in-where-they-can-go. 2 Ido Efrati, ‘Calls to Israel’s Mental Health Hotlines Spike during Coronavirus Crisis’, Haaretz.com, 22 March 2020, https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-calls-to-israel-s-mental-health-hotlines-spike-during-coronavirus-crisis-1.8698209?=&ts=_1585309786959. 3 ‘Coronavirus: “My Mum Won’t Hug Me” – Rise in Calls to Childline about Pandemic’, Sky News, 27 March 2020, https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-my-mum-wont-hug-me-rise-in-calls-to-childline-about-pandemic-11964290. The surge in loneliness is not limited to children. Shortly before the UK lockdown went into effect on 23 March, 10% of UK adults reported feelings of loneliness in the past two weeks.

Whilst a survey conducted in April 2020 in the US also found significant increases in loneliness during lockdown, especially amongst millennials and Generation K. See, respectively, ‘Loneliness During Coronavirus’, Mental Health Foundation, 16 June 2020, https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/coronavirus/coping-with-loneliness; ‘Report: Loneliness and Anxiety During Lockdown’, SocialPro, April 2020, https://socialpronow.com/loneliness-corona/. 4 Peter Hille, ‘Coronavirus: German Phone Helplines at “Upper limits”’, DW.com, 24 March 2020, https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-german-phone-helplines-at-upper-limits/a-52903216. 5 Cigna, ‘Loneliness and the Workplace: 2020 U.S. Report’, January 2020, https://www.multivu.com/players/English/8670451-cigna-2020-loneliness-index/docs/CignaReport_1579728920153-379831100.pdf. 6 ‘Two Thirds of Germans Think the Country Has a Major Loneliness Problem’, The Local (Germany), 23 March 2018, https://www.thelocal.de/20180323/two-thirds-of-germans-think-the-country-has-a-major-loneliness-problem. 7 Janene Pieters, ‘Over a Million Dutch Are Very Lonely’, NL Times, 21 September 2017, https://nltimes.nl/2017/09/21/million-dutch-lonely. 8 Rick Noack, ‘Isolation is rising in Europe.


pages: 89 words: 27,057

COVID-19: Everything You Need to Know About the Corona Virus and the Race for the Vaccine by Michael Mosley

Boris Johnson, call centre, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, microbiome, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley

via%3Dihub 34 http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2019-12-19-new-mers-vaccine-clinical-trial-starts-saudi-arabia 35 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/world/europe/coronavirus-vaccine-update-oxford.html 36 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851497/ 37 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/world/europe/coronavirus-vaccine-update-oxford.html 38 https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiaa152/5814216 39 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/opinion/coronavirus-vaccine-covid.html 40 https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331976/WHO-2019-nCoV-Ethics_criteria-2020.1-eng.pdf?ua=1 41 https://www.bdi.ox.ac.uk/news/digital-contact-tracing-can-slow-or-even-stop-coronavirus-transmission-and-ease-us-out-of-lockdown 42 https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/health-coronavirus-usa-cost/ This publication contains the opinions and ideas of its author.

The first warnings that there were some potentially very dangerous pathogens living in the bat caves of China came in 2013, when scientists working at the Wuhan Institute of Virology reported that they had isolated a coronavirus from horseshoe bats that could infect human cells. Researchers from Harvard Medical School, who later studied this same coronavirus in the lab, found that it was especially good at infecting cells grown from the human respiratory tract. The Harvard scientists warned that this particular coronavirus was “poised for human emergence.” They were concerned that it might jump from the bats and start infecting humans at any time. They were right.

Tragic though his death was, he was just one of hundreds of doctors, nurses, paramedics, and other caregivers who would perish over the next few months. Day 43 February 11th. The new viral infection was given a name: Covid-19, short for “coronavirus disease 2019.” Day 48 I’d been following the unfolding story of this pandemic with increasing alarm, and on February 16th I wrote a column for a national newspaper, The Mail on Sunday, entitled “How to beat coronavirus? Sing Happy Birthday as you wash your hands.” It was obvious to me that this coronavirus was no longer a distant threat and it was time to start taking precautions. I suggested in my column that people should avoid shaking hands, hugging others, and that we should all wash our hands as often as possible for as long as it takes to sing “Happy Birthday to You” twice.


pages: 296 words: 96,568

Vaxxers: The Inside Story of the Oxford AstraZeneca Vaccine and the Race Against the Virus by Sarah Gilbert, Catherine Green

Boris Johnson, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, discovery of DNA, disinformation, en.wikipedia.org, global pandemic, lone genius, profit motive, Skype

s=20. 4. https://www.express­.co.uk/news­/uk/1263980/coronavirus­-vaccine-oxford­-university-uk-covid19­-testing-cure-spt. 5. https://www.ft.com/content­/b053f55b-2a8b-436c-8154-0e93dcdb3c1a. 6. https://www.thetimes.c­o.uk/article/russians-spread­-fake-news-over-oxford-­coronavirus-vaccine­-2nzpk8vrq. 7. https://edition.independent­.co.uk/editi­ons/uk.co.independent.is­sue.271120/data/­9726097/in­dex.html; https://www.te­legraph.co.uk/news­/2020/11/26/astrazeneca-running­-new-coronavirus­-vaccine-trial/; https://www.theguardian.com/world­/2020/nov/26/scrutiny-grows­-over-oxford-universityast­razeneca-vaccine; https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/astrazeneca-defends­-oxford-coronavirus-vaccine-as­-disquiet-mounts-over-the-­results-mf6t57rnr; https://www.politico.eu/article/questions-­grow-over-astrazeneca-­coronavirus-vax-trials/; https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news­/uk-news/chris-whitty-oxford-vaccine­-error-19354045. 8. https://www.handelsblatt.com­/politik/deutschland/pandemie-bekaempfung­-corona-impfstoff-diskussion-um­-wirksamkeit-von-astra-zeneca­-vakzin-bei-senioren/26849788.html and https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-eu-astrazeneca/germany-fears-astrazeneca-vaccine-wont-get-eu-approval-for-those-over-65-bild-idUSL8N2K05OP. 9. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?

Very late at night on 8 January came official confirmation on ProMedMail that we were looking at a novel (meaning a previously unknown) coronavirus. A number of epidemiologists immediately posted on ProMedMail to say ‘I told you so’. And they were right, they had told us. As experts in this area they had been warning for some time that there was likely to be an outbreak of a novel coronavirus, most likely starting in China. On Friday the 10th, China reported the first fatality, a 61-year-old man. By the end of that Friday, Tess and I had decided that as soon as we could get hold of the genome sequence of the novel coronavirus we would start to make a vaccine. We would follow the same design approach we had used for our MERS vaccine, and go as fast as we could.

Telegraph: ‘Oxford scientists discover vaccine offers “double defence” against Covid’, https://www.telegraph.co.­uk/news/2020/07/15/coronavirus-vaccine­-breakthrough-oxford-scientists­-discover/. The Times: ‘Success of early trials lifts hope for vaccine’, https://www.thetimes.co­.uk/article/coronavirus-vaccine­-hopes-raised-by-success-of­-early-trials-c2gv2cpsd. The i: ‘All over the shop: muddle on face masks’, https://twitter.com/theipaper/­status/1283510998218006528. 3. https://twitter.com/NDMOxford/status/­1284038977159344128?s=20. 4. https://www.express­.co.uk/news­/uk/1263980/coronavirus­-vaccine-oxford­-university-uk-covid19­-testing-cure-spt. 5. https://www.ft.com/content­/b053f55b-2a8b-436c-8154-0e93dcdb3c1a. 6. https://www.thetimes.c­o.uk/article/russians-spread­-fake-news-over-oxford-­coronavirus-vaccine­-2nzpk8vrq. 7. https://edition.independent­.co.uk/editi­ons/uk.co.independent.is­sue.271120/data/­9726097/in­dex.html; https://www.te­legraph.co.uk/news­/2020/11/26/astrazeneca-running­-new-coronavirus­-vaccine-trial/; https://www.theguardian.com/world­/2020/nov/26/scrutiny-grows­-over-oxford-universityast­razeneca-vaccine; https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/astrazeneca-defends­-oxford-coronavirus-vaccine-as­-disquiet-mounts-over-the-­results-mf6t57rnr; https://www.politico.eu/article/questions-­grow-over-astrazeneca-­coronavirus-vax-trials/; https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news­/uk-news/chris-whitty-oxford-vaccine­-error-19354045. 8. https://www.handelsblatt.com­/politik/deutschland/pandemie-bekaempfung­-corona-impfstoff-diskussion-um­-wirksamkeit-von-astra-zeneca­-vakzin-bei-senioren/26849788.html and https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-eu-astrazeneca/germany-fears-astrazeneca-vaccine-wont-get-eu-approval-for-those-over-65-bild-idUSL8N2K05OP. 9. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

“New World Curriculum,” The Economist. 17.Shalini Ramachandran, Laura Kusisto, and Katie Hoanan, “How New York’s Coronavirus Response Made the Pandemic Worse,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2020. 18.Full disclosure: Paul Deighton is chairman of The Economist. 19.Gordon Lubold and Paul Vieira, “US Drops Proposal to Put Troops at Canadian Border,” Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2020. 20.Teresa Coratella, “Whatever It Takes: Italy and the Covid-19 Crisis,” European Council on Foreign Relations, March 18, 2020. 21.Andy Hoffman, “Sex Workers Can Get Back to Business in Switzerland, but Sports Remain Prohibited,” Bloomberg, May 20, 2020. 22.YouGov, “Americans Trust Local Governments over the Federal Government on COVID-19,” April 27, 2020. 23.John Lichfield, “Coronavirus: France’s strange defeat,” Politico, May 8, 2020. 24.Anne Applebaum, “The Coronavirus Called America’s Bluff,” The Atlantic, March 15, 2020. CHAPTER FIVE: THE MORBID SYMPTOMS 1.“The Right Medicine for the World Economy,” The Economist, March 7, 2020. 2.Song Luzheng, “Many Western Governments Ill-Equipped to Handle Coronavirus,” Global Times, March 15, 2020. 3.Iain Marlow, “China Trolls US over Protests After Trump Criticized Hong Kong,” Bloomberg, June 1, 2020. 4.

New York Times, March 19, 2020. 6.Gary Bass, “The Athenian Plague: A Cautionary Tale of Democracy’s Fragility,” New Yorker, June 10, 2020. 7.Doug Klain, “Azerbaijan’s Strongman Senses Opportunity in Coronavirus Pandemic,” Atlantic Council, March 19, 2020. 8.Marc Champion, “Coronavirus Is a Stress Test Many World Leaders Are Failing,” Bloomberg, May 22, 2020. 9.“Leviathan Rising,” The Economist, March 21, 2020, 24. 10.Sebastian Mallaby, “The Age of Magic Money,” Foreign Affairs, May 29, 2020. 11.June 18, 2020. 12.“The Fiscal Response to the Economic Fallout from the Coronavirus,” Bruegel Datasets, May 27, 2020. 13.Isabel Reynolds and Emi Urabe, “Japan to Fund Firms to Shift Production Out of China,” Bloomberg, April 8, 2020. 14.Catarina Saraiva, “Unrest Spotlights Depth of Black Americans’ Economic Struggle,” Bloomberg, June 2, 2020. 15.Public Health England, “Disparities in the Risk and Outcomes of COVID-19,” June 2020. 16.Gerald Seib and John McCormick, “Coronavirus Means the Era of Big Government Is . . .

It led the airlift that saved Berlin. It stood up against the spread of Communism in Europe and Southeast Asia. For all its failures in Iraq, it nevertheless led an international coalition against Saddam. With the Coronavirus, it has looked weak, ineffective, and, frankly, weird. What should the rest of the world make of a country whose leader suggests injecting bleach to counteract the Coronavirus? Covid was a devastating epiphany for the United States—a moment when a country “long accustomed to thinking of itself as the best, most efficient, and most technically advanced society in the world is about to be proved an unclothed emperor,” as Anne Applebaum has put it.24 “Empire” seems an appropriate word.


Border and Rule: Global Migration, Capitalism, and the Rise of Racist Nationalism by Harsha Walia

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, G4S, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, land reform, late capitalism, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, pension reform, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, special economic zone, Steve Bannon, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

-Mexico Border Since July 2017: ACLU,” Associated Press, October 25, 2019, https://globalnews.ca/news/6081217/migrant-children-separated-tally-aclu/; American Civil Liberties Union, “Family Separation: By the Numbers,” www.aclu.org/issues/immigrants-rights/immigrants-rights-and-detention/family-separation; Associated Press, “Tally of Children Split at US Border Tops 5,400 in New Count,” Al Jazeera, October 24, 2019, www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/10/tally-children-split-border-tops-5400-count-191025020652717.html. 5.Sara Boboltz, “18 Migrant Infants and Toddlers Separated for Weeks or Months, House Report Finds,” Huffington Post, July 12, 2019, www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/migrant-infants-toddlers-separated_n_5d288c60e4b0060b11eb0ec7; Associated Press, “‘I Can’t Feel My Heart’: Children Separated Under Trump Show Signs of PTSD, Watchdog Finds,” Guardian, September 5, 2019, www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/sep/04/child-separation-ptsd-trump-zero-tolerance. 6.Gaby Del Valle, “The Most Horrifying Allegations in the ACLU’s Newest Family Separation Lawsuit,” Vice, October 4, 2019, www.vice.com/en_ca/article/8xwvy5/the-most-horrifying-allegations-in-the-aclus-newest-family-separation-lawsuit. 7.Ted Hesson and Mica Rosenberg, “U.S. Deports 400 Migrant Children under New Coronavirus Rules,” Reuters, April 7, 2020, www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-deportations/u-s-deports-400-migrant-children-under-new-coronavirus-rules-idUSKBN21P354; Nick Miroff, “Under Coronavirus Immigration Measures, U.S. is Expelling Border-Crossers to Mexico in an Average of 96 Minutes,” Washington Post, March 30, 2020, www.washingtonpost.com/immigration/coronavirus-immigration-border-96-minutes/2020/03/30/13af805c-72c5-11ea-ae50-7148009252e3_story.html; Nina Lakhani, “US Using Coronavirus Pandemic to Unlawfully Expel Asylum Seekers, Says UN,” Guardian, April 17, 2020, www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/17/us-asylum-seekers-coronavirus-law-un. 8.Nick Miroff, “Under Trump Border Rules, U.S.

Madan, “Millions of Immigrant Families Won’t Get Coronavirus Stimulus Checks, Experts Say,” Miami Herald, March 26, 2020, www.miamiherald.com/news/local/immigration/article241531211.html#storylink=cpy. 26.Americans for Tax Fairness and Institute for Policy Studies, “Tale of Two Crises: Billionaires Gain as Workers Feel Pandemic Pain,” May 21, 2020, https://americansfortaxfairness.org/wp-content/uploads/2020-5-21-Billionaires-Press-Release-at-Two-month-Covid-Pandemic-FINAL.pdf. 27.Eren Orbey, “Trump’s “Chinese Virus” and What’s at Stake in the Coronavirus’s Name,” New Yorker, March 25, 2020, www.newyorker.com/culture/cultural-comment/whats-at-stake-in-a-viruss-name; Salvador Rizzo, “Trump’s Wobbly Claim That His Wall Could Stop the Coronavirus,” Washington Post, March 12, 2020, www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/03/12/trumps-wobbly-claim-that-his-wall-could-stop-coronavirus/. 28.Arelis R. Hernández and Nick Miroff, “Facing Coronavirus Pandemic, Trump Suspends Immigration Laws and Showcases Vision for Locked-Down Border,” Washington Post, April 3, 2020, www.wasMngtonpost.com/national/coronavirus-trump-immigration-border/2020/04/03/23cb025a-74f9-11ea-ae50-7148009252e3_story.html. 29.Geoffrey York, “African Countries Move to Restrict European Visitors amid Coronavirus Pandemic,” Globe and Mail, March 11, 2020, www.theglobeandmail.com/world/article-african-countries-move-to-restrict-european-visitors-amid-coronavirus/. 30.S.

“Italy Closes Ports to Refugee Ships Because of Coronavirus,” Al Jazeera, April 8, 2020, www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/italy-closes-ports-refugee-ships-coronavirus-200408091754757.html; Faisal Mahmud, “Rohingya Stranded at Sea, Bangladesh Says Not Its Responsibility,” Al Jazeera, April 23, 2020, www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/rohingya-stranded-sea-bangladesh-responsibility-200425082607464.html; Lydia Gall, “Hungary Weaponizes Coronavirus to Stoke Xenophobia,” Human Rights Watch, March 19, 2020, www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/19/hungary-weaponizes-coronavirus-stoke-xenophobia. 19.Human Rights Watch, “Lebanon: Refugees at Risk in COVID-19 Response,” April 2, 2020, www.hrw.org/news/2020/04/02/lebanon-refugees-risk-covid-19-response. 20.Hsiao-Hung Pai, “The Coronavirus Crisis Has Exposed China’s Long History of Racism,” Guardian, April 25, 2020, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/25/coronavirus-exposed-china-history-racism-africans-guangzhou; Geoffrey York, “African Diplomats Protest Alleged Racism and Inhumane Treatment of Migrants in China,” Globe and Mail, April 12, 2020, www.theglobeandmail.com/world/article-african-diplomats-protest-alleged-racism-and-inhumane-treatment-of/. 21.Rozanna Latiff, “Malaysia Rounds Up Migrants to Contain Coronavirus, U.N.


Reset by Ronald J. Deibert

23andMe, active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, availability heuristic, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Cal Newport, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, liberal capitalism, license plate recognition, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megastructure, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, New Journalism, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, QAnon, ransomware, Robert Mercer, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sorting algorithm, source of truth, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, the medium is the message, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

., Stubbs, J., & Bing, C. (2020, March 23). Exclusive: Elite hackers target WHO as coronavirus cyberattacks spike. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-who-hack-exclusive/exclusive-elite-hackers-target-who-as-coronavirus-cyberattacks-spike-idUSKBN21A3BN Mistakenly removed links: Orr, C. (2020, March 17). Facebook is removing links to coronavirus information on government websites. Retrieved from https://www.nationalobserver.com/2020/03/17/news/facebook-removing-links-coronavirus-information-government-websites Platforms introduced measures to point users: Gadde, V., & Derella, M. (2020, March 16).

“Shoot them dead”: Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte orders police and military to kill citizens who defy coronavirus lockdown. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/rodrigo-duterte-philippines-president-coronavirus-lockdown-shoot-people-dead/?ftag=CNM-00-10aab7e&linkId=85694802; Gebrekidan, S. (2020, March 30). For autocrats, and others, coronavirus is a chance to grab even more power. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/30/world/europe/coronavirus-governments-power.html; Gershgorn, D. (2020, April 9). We mapped how the coronavirus is driving new surveillance programs around the world. Retrieved from https://onezero.medium.com/the-pandemic-is-a-trojan-horse-for-surveillance-programs-around-the-world-887fa6f12ec9; See also Kamradt-Scott, A., & McInnes, C. (2012).

Retrieved from https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2020/02/russian-disinformation-coronavirus/ Widely accepted throughout Chinese society: Gilbert, D. (2020, April 6). The Chinese government has convinced its citizens that the U.S. Army brought coronavirus to Wuhan. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/wxe9yq/the-chinese-government-has-convinced-its-citizens-that-the-us-army-brought-coronavirus-to-wuhan One YouTube video … falsely claimed that Africa was immune: Shanapinda, S. (2020, April 7). No, 5G radiation doesn’t spread the coronavirus. Here’s how we know. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/no-5g-radiation-doesnt-cause-or-spread-the-coronavirus-saying-it-does-is-destructive-135695 More than thirty incidents of arson and vandalism: Satariano, A., & Alba, D. (2020, April 10).


pages: 197 words: 53,831

Investing to Save the Planet: How Your Money Can Make a Difference by Alice Ross

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, barriers to entry, British Empire, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, decarbonisation, diversification, Elon Musk, energy transition, family office, food miles, global pandemic, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, hiring and firing, impact investing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Lyft, off grid, oil shock, passive investing, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, risk tolerance, risk/return, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Tragedy of the Commons, uber lyft

EV Volumes, which collates monthly figures on electric vehicle sales, warned that the coronavirus fall-out could further impact sales in 2020, though this was likely to apply to sales of all cars as factory production slowed. A report from Wood Mackenzie, an energy consultancy, in April 2020 warned that electric vehicle sales were likely to drop drastically for the year, predicting global sales of just 1.3m, down from 2.2m in 2019. ‘Most new EV buyers are still first-time owners of the technology,’ a Wood Mackenzie analyst, Ram Chandrasekaran, wrote in a research note. ‘The uncertainty and fear created by the [coronavirus] outbreak have made consumers less inclined to adopt a new technology.’

Corporate decisions affecting workers … have become increasingly important as a wider array of investors have begun looking at companies through an ESG lens.’ Analysts at Barclays predicted that the coronavirus crisis could even accelerate investors’ interest in climate change, arguing that while ESG implementation might be delayed in the short term, ‘it is unlikely to be abandoned in the long run – and it may even accelerate in a post-Covid-19 world’. Of course, not all the developments were positive. The Financial Times warned in April that the coronavirus outbreak had delayed most of the big climate events and policy announcements expected in 2020. Glen Peters, research director at the Center for International Climate Research in Oslo, warned that climate might not be mentioned in policy discussions in the near term, telling the Financial Times: ‘It’s going to put a pause on anything climate related.’

But then I thought: surely the average investor on the street could get involved too, by looking at what was in their pension fund, for example, or thinking about whether they should invest in fossil fuel companies. It seemed to me that explaining what we can do to fight climate change as investors as well as consumers would give people some sense of control over the situation. Looking back at that time, some things have changed. The bad news we got used to waking up to in 2020 was of course the coronavirus: the daily death tolls, the hit to the economy. The climate crisis seemed almost to have been sidelined. I wrote much of this book in lockdown at my home in London while my two young children were out of school. It was a busy, stressful time. But it was also a quiet time. I was woken up, like so many others, not by planes roaring overhead to Heathrow but by birdsong.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, super pumped, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

In 2000, 1.9 million cars were sold in China, 17.3 million in the United States. By 2019, the number was 25 million in China and 17 million in the United States. The weight of China in the world economy was made clear by the novel coronavirus. When the SARS epidemic began in 2002, China accounted for only 4 percent of world GDP. When the coronavirus hit in 2020, it was 16 percent, meaning that the economic impact would reverberate around the world even before the coronavirus shut down much of the rest of the world.7 When GDP is measured by exchange rates, the U.S. economy is still larger than China’s. By the other major measure of GDP—purchasing power parity—China is already the largest economy in the world.

Economy,” Dallas Federal Reserve, May 2020. 6. Coronavirus Task Force Briefing, March 19, 2020 (“person driving the car”); Javier Blas, “Trump’s Oil,” Bloomberg, April 13, 2020 (“so low” and “wiped out”); Coronavirus Task Force Briefing, April 1, 2020; Donald J. Trump, Tweet, April 2, 2020 (“my friend”). 7. Frank Kane, “Saudi Arabia Calls ‘Urgent Meeting of Oil Producers’,” Arab News, April 2, 2020; Meeting on the Situation in Global Energy Markets, April 3, 2020, Kremlin website. 8. Mohammad Barkindo, Remarks to OPEC+ Ministerial Meeting, April 9, 2020. 9. Coronavirus Task Force Briefing, April 8, 2020 (“hated OPEC”); Dan Brouillette, Remarks for G20 Extraordinary Energy Ministers Meeting, April 10, 2020; Benoit Faucon, Summer Said, and Tim Puko, “U.S., Saudi Arabia, Russia Lead Pact,” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2020; “The Largest Oil Supply Cut in History,” Oil Market Insight, IHS Markit, April 12, 2020. 10.

Criticism of China is one thing that unites divided Democrats and Republicans in the United States, and the national security establishments in both countries increasingly focus on the other as the future adversary. Yet the two countries are more integrated economically and more interdependent than many recognize, as the 2020 coronavirus outbreak unhappily demonstrated; and they are mutually dependent on global prosperity. But that reality counts for less as calls grow louder for “decoupling” between the world’s two largest economies, accompanied by growing mistrust, which has been amplified by the coronavirus crisis, one of the lasting consequences of which will be greater tension between the two countries. * * * — The Middle East’s geographic boundaries were continually redrawn throughout antiquity, with the rise and fall of so many empires.


pages: 372 words: 98,659

The Miracle Pill by Peter Walker

active transport: walking or cycling, agricultural Revolution, autonomous vehicles, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, Coronary heart disease and physical activity of work, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, experimental subject, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, the built environment, twin studies, Wall-E, washing machines reduced drudgery

Chapter 10 1 Dr Sabine L. van Elsland, Ryan O’Hare, ‘COVID-19: Imperial researchers model likely impact of public health measures’, Imperial College News, 17 March 2020. 2 Damian Carrington, ‘Indoor and outdoor air pollution “claiming at least 40,000 UK lives a year” ’, The Guardian, 22 February 2016. 3 Fiona Harvey, ‘Air pollution: UK government loses third court case as plans ruled “unlawful” ’, The Guardian, 21 February 2018. 4 Interview with the author. 5 Interview with the author. 6 Interview with the author. 7 David C. Nieman, ‘Coronavirus disease-2019: A tocsin to our aging, unfit, corpulent, and immunodeficient society’, Journal of Sport and Health Science, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2020): 293–301. 8 Peter Walker, Matthew Taylor, ‘Labour to plan green economic rescue from coronavirus crisis’, The Guardian, 17 May 2020. Interview took place on 15 May. 9 Briefing to political journalists in the daily ‘lobby’ conference (held via telephone conference call amid coronavirus). 10 Matthew Taylor, ‘Large areas of London to be made car-free as lockdown eased’, The Guardian, 15 May 2020. 11 Interview with the author. 12 Interview with the author. 13 Interview with the author. 14 Interview with the author. 15 Interview with the author. 16 Interview with the author.

It forms part of a wider shift in healthcare focus from infectious viral and bacterial illnesses and onto so-called non-communicable diseases, or NCDs, which are often linked to lifestyle or environment. To an extent, this focus has shifted back with the sudden arrival of coronavirus. But even here NCDs play a key role, given an emerging link between conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure and poor coronavirus outcomes. Academics gauge the impact of NCDs using a tool called Burden of Disease, which simply multiplies the risk an ailment poses to an individual by the extent of its spread. This system has been used to devise what public health officials call the ‘four by four’ threat – a list of the four most damaging NCDs around the world, and the four primary risk factors behind them.

And it is an undeniable paradox to have spent my days chronicling successive government failures over one public health disaster when, at precisely the same moment, many of them are tackling another life-threatening crisis with genuine boldness. In terms of scale, inactivity is not quite so acute as coronavirus, which, according to the scientific modelling which eventually persuaded Johnson to confine people to their homes, could have killed between 250,000 and 500,000 people in the UK alone if nothing was done.1 Coronavirus has also provoked a particularly urgent response by being new, rapid in its destructiveness, and directly fatal. In contrast, someone in their twenties who flops down on a sofa tonight might not start to feel the impact of an inactive lifestyle for several decades, and then only through the impact of various chronic illnesses.


pages: 491 words: 141,690

The Controlled Demolition of the American Empire by Jeff Berwick, Charlie Robinson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Corrections Corporation of America, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, dark matter, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, epigenetics, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial independence, global pandemic, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mandatory minimum, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, private military company, Project for a New American Century, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, security theater, self-driving car, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, South China Sea, surveillance capitalism, too big to fail, unpaid internship, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working poor

These are just some of the conspiracy “myths” that have been proven since the onset of the Coronavirus. From mind control to population control, crowd control, and exchange control – if people do not see a pattern here, they may beyond help. But first, it is important to have a look at the Coronavirus Plandemic and the events of 2020 that made the world go boom! Virus X Pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan, China was first reported to the WHO Country Office in China on 31 December 2019. The outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. On 11 February 2020, WHO announced a name for the new coronavirus disease: COVID-19.

Recently, the Center for Health Security has received questions about whether that pandemic exercise predicted the current novel coronavirus outbreak in China. To be clear, the Center for Health Security and partners did not make a prediction during our tabletop exercise. For the scenario, we modeled a fictional coronavirus pandemic, but we explicitly stated that it was not a prediction. Instead, the exercise served to highlight preparedness and response challenges that would likely arise in a very severe pandemic. We are not now predicting that the nCoV-2019 outbreak will kill 65 million people. Although our tabletop exercise included a mock novel coronavirus, the inputs we used for modeling the potential impact of that fictional virus are not similar to nCoV-2019. ”Event 201” was the fourth major pandemic exercise that the Center for Health Security has run – a mere three months before the official outbreak of…guess what…a coronavirus pandemic.

“It’s called the American dream – because you have to be asleep to believe it.” Bang! Because of worldwide Coronavirus lockdowns, millions of people have been forced out of their jobs and their businesses – over 40 million in the US alone! Small businesses have been buried already, large businesses are starting to stink and economies are flailing helplessly. In March 2020, the world’s seven key western economies, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the US, pledged to fight off a world-wide Great Depression by standing united against the Coronavirus economic meltdown. It is a beautiful thing all this love and trust and cooperation.


pages: 521 words: 110,286

Them and Us: How Immigrants and Locals Can Thrive Together by Philippe Legrain

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, centre right, Chelsea Manning, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, demographic dividend, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Jony Ive, labour market flexibility, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, postnationalism / post nation state, purchasing power parity, remote working, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, WeWork, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

Former president Nicolas Sarkozy said, ‘the only community that matters is the French community… We will no longer settle for integration that does not work, we will require assimilation.’24 François Fillon, the eventual conservative candidate, argued that immigration should be ‘reduced to a strict minimum’.25 But Emmanuel Macron, a social liberal political newcomer, ultimately beat Le Pen to the presidency in 2017 by attacking the far-right leader’s vision of a ‘fractured, closed France’ and declaring that he was ‘for an open society’ and ‘a progressive world’, although his policies in office have not always lived up to that positive rhetoric.26 The coronavirus crisis has also highlighted the contribution that immigrants make. When he emerged from hospital after almost dying from coronavirus, Boris Johnson paid heartfelt tribute to his nurses ‘Jenny from New Zealand’ and ‘Luis from Portugal’, two of the thousands of immigrants who serve in the UK’s National Health Service (NHS).27 The lockdowns imposed in many countries to limit viral transmission have likewise underscored the essential functions performed by key workers – often immigrants previously dismissed as ‘unskilled’ – such as caring for the elderly, providing public transport and picking, packing, stacking and delivering food.

In every Western country surveyed by Pew except Italy and Greece, a majority of young people favour more diversity – in the UK nearly four in five do – and in every country that proportion is higher than among older people.3 Younger, more educated locals are much, much keener on admitting more migrants from poorer non-European countries than older, less educated locals.4 Sadly, the trends pushing towards closing borders and stamping on difference are powerful too. Governments around the world have shut borders to limit coronavirus transmission, and greater restrictions may remain once the pandemic passes. Economies may not bounce back quickly from their coronavirus collapse and high unemployment may endure. Public finances and public services are often strained. Housing in desirable cities remains unaffordable for most. Small towns are sometimes left behind by economic progress. Cultural fears compound economic concerns.

E3 visas are for Australian professionals. 35 US Department of State, ‘Report of the Visa Office 2018’, Table XVI(B). https://travel.state.gov/content/dam/visas/Statistics/AnnualReports/FY2018AnnualReport/FY18AnnualReport%20-%20TableXVIB.pdf 36 The US offers 124,365 EB-1, EB-2 and EB-3 permanent work visas a year. 37 Jessica Kwong, ‘H-1B Visa Program and Trump: How High-Skilled Immigrants are being Threatened by President’s Administration’, Newsweek, 1 March 2018. http://www.newsweek.com/h-1b-visa-program-trump-administration-824688 38 ‘Presidential Executive Order on Buy American and Hire American’, 18 April 2017. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/presidential-executive-order-buy-american-hire-american/ 39 William Kerr, The Gift of Global Talent, 2018 40 Demetri Sevastopulo and Yuan Yang, ‘Ex-Google chief warns of need for AI co-operation with China’, Financial Times, 5 November 2019. https://www.ft.com/content/6a1de5b6-ff5f-11e9-b7bc-f3fa4e77dd47 41 ‘Relations between China and America are infected with coronavirus’, The Economist, 26 March 2020. https://www.economist.com/united-states/2020/03/26/relations-between-china-and-america-are-infected-with-coronavirus 42 Michael Savage, ‘NHS winter crisis fears grow after thousands of EU staff quit’, Guardian, 24 November 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/nov/24/nhs-winter-crisis-thousands-eu-staff-quit 43 Alan Travis, ‘UK hits visa cap on skilled workers for third month in row’, Guardian, 18 February 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/feb/18/uk-hits-skilled-worker-visa-cap-third-month-home-office-refuses-applications 44 Jack Graham, ‘The New Global Talent Race’, OPEN, 13 June 2018. http://www.opennetwork.net/the-new-global-talent-race/ 45 Hugo O’Doherty, ‘Canada Immigration Levels Plan: 2019–2021’, Moving2Canada, 31 October 2018. https://moving2canada.com/canada-immigration-levels-plan-2019-2021/ 46 Government of Canada, ‘Hire a top foreign talent through the Global Talent Stream’.


pages: 285 words: 98,832

The Premonition: A Pandemic Story by Michael Lewis

Airbnb, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, double helix, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Mark Zuckerberg, out of africa, QAnon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, telemarketer, the new new thing, working poor, young professional

Joe’s team took the lung sample sent by the CDC, dissolved it, and washed the genetic material across the Virochip. Bits of it had attached to bits of three different previously identified viruses: a cow coronavirus, a bird coronavirus, and a human coronavirus. “It was like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle from three different puzzles,” says DeRisi. “They didn’t fit together. It said to us this is a novel coronavirus.” The new virus’s similarity to known viruses inside cows, birds, and people did not imply that it had come from a cow or a bird or a person. The so-called reservoir species—the animal harboring the virus before the virus jumped into humans—remained a mystery.

Then he went to work on the lung. Twenty-four hours later his lab had identified the pathogen that had killed its original owner: a new coronavirus. Back in March 2003, this was shocking news. No one had ever heard of a coronavirus causing severe illness in people. Coronaviruses could be deadly to animals, but in people they’d always manifested themselves as the common cold. The World Health Organization would eventually give the disease caused by this coronavirus its name: severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS. “After that I was hooked,” said Joe. “I said I want to do more of this.” Joe sensed that the CDC was stunned by what the DeRisi Lab had done, and by how quickly they’d done it.

“Sending tests even to the CDC was taking days, not hours,” said Joe. A test that took ten days to process was a pointless test. Absent fast tests, hospitals were being forced to treat everyone who rolled into the parking lot with coronavirus-like symptoms as if they had the virus, when more often than not they did not. Beds in the coronavirus wing were being taken by people who didn’t need them. Nurses and doctors were running through scarce protective gear they needed for actual coronavirus patients. But the biggest problem of having no tests was not knowing where the virus was and where it was not. Without fast tests, you could not isolate the people who needed to be isolated, or liberate the people who didn’t.


pages: 426 words: 136,925

Fulfillment: Winning and Losing in One-Click America by Alec MacGillis

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, edge city, future of work, global pandemic, high net worth, housing crisis, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, McMansion, new economy, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

., gentrification devastating to; see also Carver Road community; Central District Africatown Albuquerque, New Mexico Allen, Mike Allen, Paul: Microsoft co-established in Seattle by; Microsoft co-founded by; South Lake Union campus and All States Amazombies Amazon: annual sales growth at; antitrust law investigations involving; career day; convenience of; coronavirus pandemic and necessity of; coronavirus pandemic benefiting; coronavirus pandemic worker precautionary measures; counterfeit goods sold on; delivery and transportation expansion; drug testing at; employee nondisclosure agreements; employment growth at; on failure; financial institutions compared to; gatekeeper fees collected by; hiring events and introduction for workers; injury report rates; last leg delivery handled by; lobbying spending by; market valuation of; minimum wage announcement; office of economic development; origins of; power and influence of; PR push; public sector division; railroad giants compared to; renewable energy investments of; retail job losses due to; RFPs; Ring doorbell cameras; STAR method for decision-making; start-up ideas for; streaming media service; tax avoidance strategies of; trust and respect for; unions blocked by; wage and working condition concerns at; warehouse expansion nationwide; war zone analogy; worker discontent; as world’s highest-valued company; see also specific locations; specific topics Amazon Associate Virtual Job Tryout Amazon Day Expo: Collins involved in; Gandara, T., protesting; goal of; Grubbs attending; introductions and parameters for; Lee involved in; Marin involved in; naming of; trade-off discussion at; Westin supporting Amazon HQ2 headquarters: arguments for selecting location of; Baltimore bid for; bidding war; bidding war winners; career day for interest in new; Crystal City location; finalists for; need for; public competition for location selection of; resistance to New York City; Rubenstein interest in; secrecy around bids for; victims of selection process for; Washington, D.C., benefiting from new; see also Arlington, Virginia Amazon Web Services (AWS): Columbus, Ohio, as interest of; Columbus, Ohio, suburbs establishment of; Columbus, Ohio, suburbs selected for; community nondisclosure agreements; creation of; in Northern Virginia; Northern Virginia communities protesting; Public Sector Summit; secrecy of; at Virginia Data Center Leadership Awards; Worldwide Public Sector antitrust law hearings/investigations: activism fueling; Athena coalition on; Bezos testifying at; Cicilline speaking at; Congress presiding over; Jayapal speaking at; Khan on; Mitchell on; ruling on; Sutton testifying at; on third-party seller online sale fees antitrust prosecution Apple: antitrust law investigations involving; coronavirus pandemic benefiting Argote, Israel Espana Arlington, Virginia: as Amazon HQ2 headquarters selection; Crystal City in; donations toward housing affordability in; housing prices rising in; National Landing outside; Washington, D.C., benefiting from new site in Armitage, James Art of the Deal, The (Trump) Athena coalition Autor, David Autry, Clint AWS, see Amazon Web Services Baker, James III Ballard, Brian: Amazon hiring; Florida governor campaign work by; Trump support from Baltimore, Maryland: African American population in; Amazon arrival in; Amazon delivery van death near; Amazon employee homicides in; Amazon HQ2 headquarter bid from; Brick + Board company in; brick industry in; Bryant of; coronavirus pandemic in; corruption of city government; demolitions in; discrimination battles improving; drug overdoses in; Gray protests in; heart-pine flooring from; homicide rate in; Humanim in; income decline in; Jackson on demolition in; JLL in; Johnson, D., post-demolition work in; Package Rescue business in; Pollock of; population decline in; post-demolition work in; rail transit line proposal in; road trip from; robotic pickers in; salvage market in; tornado hitting; Washington, D.C., bricks from; Washington, D.C., compared to; see also Bodani, William Kenneth, Jr.; Sparrows Point Baltimore Brick Company bankruptcy: Bethlehem Steel filing for; the Bon-Ton filing for Baron, Marty Barry, Bill Bent, Luther Bethlehem Steel: anti-steelworker union propaganda; bankruptcy filed by; Bodani, W.

., presidential votes from; coronavirus pandemic in; fork incident near; Hutchison of; industries in early; Obama support from; poverty in; Rocky Shoes & Boots in; shoe industry in; state representative campaign video on; Texas Roadhouse near; Trump presidential votes from; Trump support in; William Brooks Shoe Company in; see also Sappington, Taylor New Albany, Ohio Newman, NaTasha New York City: as Amazon HQ2 headquarters selection; Amazon seizing coronavirus pandemic opportunity in; Amazon shipping congestion across; Bloomberg as former mayor of; Facebook seizing coronavirus pandemic opportunity in; Google headed to; hyper-prosperity issues in; population relocation during coronavirus pandemic; resistance to Amazon HQ2 headquarters in Nides, Tom Nixon, Richard nondisclosure agreements: Amazon employee; AWS community Northern Virginia: Arlington in; AWS in; AWS and Dominion Power protests in; Carver Road community in; Data Center Alley in; data center consolidation in; data center expansion in; Grayson of; Haymarket in; small business endeavors in; Virginia Data Center Leadership Awards in Nuti, Bill Obama, Barack: Amazon praised by; Carney working under; job loss during early presidency of; Nelsonville, Ohio, supporting; Office of Management and Budget under; Sappington endorsement from; Sappington supporting; Swallows job changes during presidency of; Wall Street unaccountable under; Washington, D.C., transformation following election of Obetz, Ohio Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Rhodes fatality reported to; Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Rhodes investigation by; Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Shoemaker fatality investigation by; citation manipulation by; forklift hazard warning from; Kilp of Odeh, Khuloud Office Depot office of economic development Office of Management and Budget office supplies: coolofficesupplies.com selling; El Paso Independent School District buying; El Paso Office Products selling; Faber-Castell selling; Pencil Cup Office Products selling; procurement as counterpart to; RFPs for; trade show; Tucker fighting Amazon over Ohio: Amazon employee injuries in; Amazon interest in; Amazon new warehouse plan in; Amazon warehouse approval in; Amazon warehouse openings in; Dublin; Etna; food-stamp recipients in; Hilliard; JobsOhio; Little Cities of Black Diamonds in; mall closures in; Monroe; New Albany; Obetz; sales tax assessment in; state representative race in; tax credits in; tax exemptions in; see also Columbus, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Nelsonville, Ohio Ohio Development Services Agency Olah, David Olszewski, Johnny, Jr.

Louis move for Dunbar, Paul Laurence Durkan, Jenny Easter Sunday e-commerce: Amazon control of; Amazon expanding sales in; the Bon-Ton trying; growth of; repercussions of expanding Economic Club economic concentration economic location Edwards, Gary Edwards, Jay Elliott Bay Book Company El Paso, Texas: Amazon Day Expo in; coronavirus pandemic in; grocery near border of; Pencil Cup Office Products in; Sturgis & Co. in; UTEP; see also Gandara, Teresa; Grodin, Sandy El Paso Independent School District El Paso Office Products energy consumption entitlement Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip Etna, Ohio Faber-Castell Facebook: antitrust law investigations involving; The Bon-Ton Family on; coronavirus pandemic benefiting; journalism takeover by; total capital spending soar for failure FBA, see Fulfillment by Amazon FDR, see Roosevelt, Franklin D.


pages: 161 words: 37,042

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) by Crawford, Dorothy H.

clean water, coronavirus, discovery of penicillin, Francisco Pizarro, hygiene hypothesis, Louis Pasteur, megacity, Nelson Mandela, stem cell

This rapid dissemination of the virus threatened to cause a pandemic, but surprisingly by July 2003 it was over, the final toll being around 8,000 cases and 800 deaths involving 29 countries across 5 continents. SARS coronavirus spreads through the air and causes disease in almost everyone it infects. After an incubation period of 2 to 14 days, victims develop fever, malaise, muscle aches, and a cough, sometimes progressing rapidly to viral pneumonia that requires intensive care, with mechanical ventilation in around 20% of cases. But with no known treatment or preventive vaccine, how was the epidemic conquered so effectively? Left to its own devices, SARS coronavirus would undoubtedly have continued its trail of destruction but, fortunately, many of its characteristics played into the hands of those trying to stop it, and contributed to its speedy demise.

Once all these factors were appreciated, old-fashioned barrier nursing and isolation of patients and their contacts were enough to interrupt virus spread and prevent a pandemic. Unlike SARS coronavirus, HIV has been spreading among humans since the early 1900s and despite drugs which control the infection, it is still on the increase in certain areas of the world. Currently, there are 33 million people living with . We now know that re0SHIV, and it has caused over 25 million deaths since the first report of AIDS in 1981. It is interesting to examine the reasons for this lack of control, and to contrast these with the success of the SARS control programme. Firstly, although SARS coronavirus had spread internationally by the time it was recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO), it had only infected humans for a few months.

However, on occasions viruses do enter and successfully replicate in cells of a new host species, but after a window of opportunity lasting about a week during which they can colonize the host and reproduce, their offspring must move on to another susceptible host before the developing host immunity wipes them out. SARS coronavirus and H5N1 (bird) flu have both managed to infect humans but differ in their success to date. Whereas SARS coronavirus can spread between humans, H5N1 flu, which first jumped from birds to humans in 1997, is unable to do so. This flu virus strain is still poorly adapted to its new (human) host, and we will be in danger of an H5N1 flu pandemic only once it evolves an efficient method of spreading between us.


pages: 334 words: 91,722

Brexit Unfolded: How No One Got What They Want (And Why They Were Never Going To) by Chris Grey

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, game design, global pandemic, imperial preference, John Bercow, non-tariff barriers, open borders, reserve currency, Robert Mercer

For another, it offered a shield for the effects of Brexit because the economic impacts of coronavirus were so huge. Economists could warn that the Brexit effects would be far more significant in the longer term than those of coronavirus but, in the political here-and-now, those effects would be dwarfed. That meant that the inevitably adverse consequences of a trade deal (compared with EU membership) could more easily be concealed. On the other hand, it potentially made a no-deal Brexit more politically viable. However, neither was risk-free since both meant a double hit from Brexit and from coronavirus. At all events, from March onwards the Brexit process and the coronavirus pandemic became inextricably intertwined.

The same was true of Cummings and, for that matter, the entire Brexit high command, which had always been characterised by protest and victimhood, not competence and responsibility. That was – literally – fatal in terms of dealing with coronavirus, as was shown during 2020 by the much higher death rate than that of most other countries. But that in turn meant that the coronavirus crisis held up a mirror to the nature and limitations of how Brexiters had approached Brexit and how the Brexit government was pursuing it. However, if a government configured solely by Brexit was ill-equipped to deal with coronavirus, the pandemic crisis offered the government a convenient cover for how it was dealing with Brexit. For one thing, it meant that Brexit was no longer in the headlines.

But just as they were about to begin, something entirely unexpected and unprecedented was emerging which was to push Brexit from the headlines and to colour the entire negotiating proceedings: the global pandemic of a new and deadly virus. THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC AND BREXIT There is no doubt a book to be written just on the way that the coronavirus – or Covid-19 – pandemic and Brexit intersected. For one thing, it meant that the future terms negotiations often took place by video conference, rather than face to face, which may have inflected them differently. It also meant that, at key times, members of the negotiating teams were in isolation and for a while the British Prime Minister was actually hospitalised.


pages: 245 words: 75,397

Fed Up!: Success, Excess and Crisis Through the Eyes of a Hedge Fund Macro Trader by Colin Lancaster

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, always be closing, asset-backed security, beat the dealer, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, bond market vigilante , Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy the rumour, sell the news, Carmen Reinhart, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, collateralized debt obligation, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Edward Thorp, family office, fiat currency, fixed income, Flash crash, global pandemic, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, index arbitrage, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Modern Monetary Theory, moral hazard, National Debt Clock, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, Northern Rock, oil shock, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical arbitrage, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, two and twenty, value at risk, WeWork, yield curve, zero-sum game

There are reports of blood clotting disorders and bleeding in the brain. The Big D appointed VP Pence to lead a coronavirus task force. Right before putting Pence in charge, Trump downplayed the severity of the situation, claiming the number of US coronavirus cases “within a couple of days is going to be down to close to zero.” Today’s COVID-19 headlines: California is monitoring 8,400; twenty-eight cases in the state. Dozens of hospital staffers who treated a US patient with a coronavirus of unknown origin are being monitored. 700 in New York are asked to self-isolate. Northern Ireland confirms first case.

Part 2: The Crash Chapter 4 The Virus Spreads January 2020 1/1/20—Huanan Seafood Market closed by local authorities in response to illness outbreak. 1/3/20—ISM manufacturing declines to 47.2, its lowest print in a decade. 1/7/20—At a closed politburo meeting, Xi Jinping requests prevention and control work to address the new coronavirus. 1/8/20—South Korea announces its first case of coronavirus from China: a woman who had recently traveled to Wuhan. 1/10/20—Payrolls miss at 145K; unemployment steady at 3.5%; average hourly earnings at 2.9%, first time -3% since July 2018. 1/11/20— China reports its first COVID-19 death. 1/11/20—WHO announces: “The Chinese government reports that there is no clear evidence that the virus passes easily from person to person.” 1/15/20—Phase 1 of US/China trade deal signed. 1/16/20—Trump impeachment trial begins in the Senate. 1/16/20—Japan announces first COVID-19 case. 1/20/20—First reported case of COVID-19 in the USA. 1/23/20—Wuhan goes into lockdown. 1/30/20—FOMC leaves rates unchanged, downgrades household spending description to “moderate” from “strong.” 1/30/20—WHO declares “global health emergency.” 1/31/20—President Trump bans Chinese travelers from entering the USA.

In the deck of materials used for the earnings call, one slide shows white unicorns running up a mountain, implying performance. But there’s a ditch, or some sort of valley, that two of the unicorns have fallen into. This is labelled “The Valley of Coronavirus.” Only one unicorn looks as if it has made it out of the valley and back up the mountain. “If I were to describe it,” Masa Son tells his online audience, “unicorns that had been climbing uphill hard are suddenly faced with a coronavirus valley, and they are falling into that valley.” “Vision Fund’s results are not something to be proud of,” he says. “If the results are bad, you can’t raise money from investors.


pages: 428 words: 103,544

The Data Detective: Ten Easy Rules to Make Sense of Statistics by Tim Harford

access to a mobile phone, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, algorithmic bias, Automated Insights, banking crisis, basic income, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, Diane Coyle, disinformation, Donald Trump, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, experimental subject, financial innovation, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, income inequality, Isaac Newton, job automation, Kickstarter, life extension, meta-analysis, microcredit, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Netflix Prize, Paul Samuelson, publication bias, publish or perish, random walk, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, replication crisis, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, universal basic income, When a measure becomes a target

John P. A. Ioannidis, “A Fiasco in the Making?,” Stat, March 17, 2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/a-fiasco-in-the-making-as-the-coronavirus-pandemic-takes-hold-we-are-making-decisions-without-reliable-data/. 8. “Taiwan Says WHO Failed to Act on Coronavirus Transmission Warning,” Financial Times, March 20, 2020, https://www.ft.com/content/2a70a02a-644a-11ea-a6cd-df28cc3c6a68. 9. Demetri Sevastopulo and Hannah Kuchler, “Donald Trump’s Chaotic Coronavirus Crisis,” Financial Times, March 27, 2020, https://www.ft.com/content/80aa0b58-7010-11ea-9bca-bf503995cd6f. 10. David Card, “Origins of the Unemployment Rate: The Lasting Legacy of Measurement without Theory,” UC Berkeley and National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, February 2011, http://davidcard.berkeley.edu/papers/origins-of-unemployment.pdf. 11.

The statistics for a huge range of important issues that predate the coronavirus have been painstakingly assembled over the years by diligent statisticians, and often made available to download, free of charge, anywhere in the world. Yet we are spoiled by such luxury, casually dismissing “lies, damned lies, and statistics.” The case of COVID-19 reminds us how desperate the situation can become when the statistics simply aren’t there. * * * — Darrell Huff made statistics seem like a stage magician’s trick: all good fun but never to be taken seriously. Long before the coronavirus, I’d started to worry that this isn’t an attitude that helps us today.

Whether we were evaluating the prevalence of strokes, the evidence that debt damages economic growth, or even the number of times in The Hobbit that the word “she” is used, the numbers could illuminate the world as well as obscure it. As the coronavirus pandemic has so starkly illustrated, we depend on reliable numbers to shape our decisions—as individuals, as organizations, and as a society. And just as with coronavirus, the statistics have often been gathered only when we’ve been faced with a crisis. Consider the unemployment rate—a measure of how many people want jobs but do not have them. It’s now a basic piece of information for any government wanting to understand the state of the economy, but back in 1920, nobody could have told you how many people were searching for work.10 Only when severe recessions made the question more politically pertinent did governments begin to collect the data that could answer it.


pages: 475 words: 134,707

The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health--And How We Must Adapt by Sinan Aral

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, death of newspapers, disinformation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, hive mind, illegal immigration, income inequality, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, performance metric, phenotype, recommendation engine, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social software, social web, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra

Fake News as Public Health Crisis In March 2020, a deliberate misinformation campaign spread fear among the American public by propagating the false story that a nationwide quarantine to contain the coronavirus pandemic was imminent. The National Security Council had to publicly disavow the story. And that wasn’t the only fake news spreading about the virus. The Chinese government spread false conspiracy theories blaming the U.S. military for starting the pandemic. Several false coronavirus “cures” killed hundreds of people who drank chlorine or excessive alcohol to rid themselves of the virus. There was, of course, no cure or vaccine at the time. International groups, like the World Health Organization (WHO), fought coronavirus misinformation on the Hype Machine as part of their global pandemic response.

International groups, like the World Health Organization (WHO), fought coronavirus misinformation on the Hype Machine as part of their global pandemic response. My group at MIT supported the COVIDConnect fact-checking apparatus, the official WhatsApp coronavirus channel of the WHO, and studied the spread and impact of coronavirus misinformation worldwide. But we first glimpsed the destructive power of health misinformation on the Hype Machine the year before the coronavirus pandemic hit, during the measles resurgence of 2019. Measles was declared eliminated in the United States in 2000. But while only 63 cases were reported in 2010, over 1,100 cases were reported in the first seven months of 2019, a nearly 1,800 percent increase.

As we’ve seen, this is the signature of a fake news crisis: it spreads faster than it can be corrected, so it’s hard to clean up, even with a healthy dose of the truth. The threat of election manipulation in 2020 is even higher due to the chaos caused by the coronavirus pandemic. With uncertainty around the viability of in-person voting, questions about voting by mail, and calls to delay the election, there can be no doubt that foreign actors will look to leverage the confusion caused by the coronavirus to disrupt our democratic process. While some claim fake news is benign, during protests and confusion, amid the smoke, fire, and foreign interference, months from the most consequential election of our time, it is a real threat—not only to the election, but to the sanctity and peace of the election process.


pages: 412 words: 115,048

Dangerous Ideas: A Brief History of Censorship in the West, From the Ancients to Fake News by Eric Berkowitz

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, coronavirus, COVID-19, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Index librorum prohibitorum, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, microaggression, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, New Urbanism, pre–internet, QAnon, Ralph Nader, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, source of truth, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks

“Singapore Fake News Law a ‘Disaster’ for Freedom of Speech, Says Rights Group,” Guardian, May 9, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/09/singapore-fake-news-law-a-disaster-for-freedom-of-speech-says-rights-group. 91. Paul Mozur, “Coronavirus Outrage Spurs China’s Internet Police to Action,” New York Times, March 16, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/16/business/china-coronavirus-internet-police.html?searchResultPosition=1. 92. Jane Li, “A Keyboard Encryption App Used to Skirt Coronavirus Censorship Was Removed by Apple in China,” Quartz, March 20, 2020, https://qz.com/1822127/encryption-app-to-avoid-coronavirus-censorship-removed-by-apple-in-china/; Alex Hern, “Apple Removes two podcasts from China store after censorship demands,” Guardian, June 12, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/jun/12/apple-removes-two-podcast-apps-from-china-store-after-censorship-demands. 93.

Zeynep Tufecki, “Wikileaks Isn’t Whistleblowing,” New York Times, November 4, 2016, https://www.nytimes.corn/2016/11/05/opinion/what-were-missing-while-we-obsess-over-john-podestas-email.html. 102. Bobby Allyn, “Researchers: Nearly Half of Accounts Tweeting About Coronavirus Are Likely Bots,” NPR, May 20, 2020, https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/05/20/859814085/researchers-nearly-half-of-accounts-tweeting-about-coronavirus-are-likely-bots; Thor Benson, “Trolls and Bots Are Flooding Social Media with Disinformation Encouraging States to End Quarantine,” Business Insider, April 20, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/trolls-bots-flooding-social-media-with-anti-quarantine-disinformation-2020-4. 103.

Steve Stecklow, “Why Facebook Is Losing the War on Hate Speech in Myanmar,” Reuters, August 15, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/myanmar-facebook-hate. 67. Tech Transparency Project, “Extremists Are Using Facebook to Organize for Civil War amid Coronavirus,” Campaign for Accountability, April 22, 2020, https://www.techtransparencyproject.org/articles/extremists-are-using-facebook-to-organize-for-civil-war-amid-coronavirus. 68. Chris Rodrigo, “Critics Fear Facebook Fact-Checkers Losing Misinformation Fight,” Hill, January 20, 2020, https://thehill.com/policy/technology/478896-critics-fear-facebook-fact-checkers-losing-misinformation-fight. 69.


pages: 371 words: 109,320

News and How to Use It: What to Believe in a Fake News World by Alan Rusbridger

airport security, basic income, Boris Johnson, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Google Earth, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Murray Gell-Mann, Narrative Science, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, profit motive, publication bias, Seymour Hersh, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, the scientific method, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism

‘Duncan Campbell and David Hencke among those leaving Guardian’. The Guardian, 19 June 2009. <https://www.theguardian.com/media/2009/jun/19/duncan-campell-david-hencke-guardian> Burchard, Hans von der, and Cornelius Hirsch. ‘Europe’s citizens back their leaders’ coronavirus response, say polls’. Politico, 20 March 2020. <https://www.politico.eu/article/europes-citizens-back-their-leaders-coronavirus-response-say-polls/> Byers, Dylan. ‘The New Yorker passed on Seymour Hersh’s Bin Laden story’. Politico, 11 May 2015. <https://www.politico.com/blogs/media/2015/05/the-new-yorker-passed-on-seymour-hershs-bin-laden-206933.html> Cagé, Julia.

<https://www.monbiot.com/registry-of-interests/> Monck, Adrian with Mike Hanley. Can You Trust the Media? London: Icon Books, 2008. Montanaro, Domenico. ‘Poll: Americans Don’t Trust What They’re Hearing From Trump On Coronavirus’. NPR Special Series: The Coronvirus Crisis, 17 March 2020. <https://www.npr.org/2020/03/17/816680033/poll-americans-dont-trust-what-they-re-hearing-from-trump-on-coronavirus> Morello, Lauren. ‘“Climategate” Scientist Admits “Awful E-Mails,” but Peers Say IPCC Conclusions Remain Sound’. The New York Times, 2 March 2010. <https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/cwire/2010/03/02/02climatewire-climategate-scientist-admits-awful-e-mails-b-66224.html?

<https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/journalists-uk> Tiku, Nitasha. ‘Julian Assange Picks a Media Fight With the Guardian’. New York Magazine, 21 December 2010. <https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2010/12/julian_assange_picks_a_media.html> The Times. ‘The Times view on the press under coronavirus’. 4 April 2020. <https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/the-times-view-on-the-press-under-coronavirus-7cvfk36vl> Timm, Trevor. ‘The media’s reaction to Seymour Hersh’s bin Laden scoop has been disgraceful’. Columbia Journalism Review, 15 May 2015. <https://www.cjr.org/analysis/seymour_hersh_osama_bin_laden.php> Tobitt, Charlotte. ‘“Cancer battle freed me up to work on Oxfam scoop and stumble into NHS drugs story”, says Times reporter Sean O’Neill’.


pages: 529 words: 150,263

The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris by Mark Honigsbaum

Asian financial crisis, biofilm, Black Swan, clean water, coronavirus, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, indoor plumbing, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, Pearl River Delta, Ronald Reagan, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl

However, the patients with SARS that Peiris had investigated showed no evidence of metapneumovirus, only the coronavirus. Nor were the coronavirus or antibodies to the coronavirus found in other patients who did not have SARS. Peiris was therefore sure that the new coronavirus was the cause of SARS and that it had been newly introduced to humans, and he submitted a paper to this effect to the British medical journal The Lancet. Researchers at Erasmus University in Rotterdam eventually resolved the dispute by performing an experiment on macaques, one group of which was infected with the coronavirus, a second with the human metapneumovirus, and a third with both viruses.

To be sure there had not been an error, Peiris also spun the fluid containing the virus in a high-speed centrifuge and asked Lim to look at the concentrated virus particles under an electron microscope. Each virus particle was ringed by a halo of tiny spikes as if it were wearing a crown—that too, strongly suggested a coronavirus. Peiris was now confident that SARS was a coronavirus. He speculated that the reason the homology was not perfect was that it was very likely a new type of coronavirus that had emerged recently from an animal reservoir and therefore had yet to be typed by GenBank. Using the partial genetic sequence of the virus, Peiris and his colleagues set up a PCR test to detect the virus, and on March 28 made the test available to hospitals in Hong Kong and to the WHO.

Events now moved rapidly. Within three days of the WHO’s receiving this information, two other laboratories also reported finding the coronavirus, and by March 25 the CDC had uploaded images of the virus to a secure WHO website, prompting Peiris’s group to do the same. Nonetheless, some researchers continued to insist that SARS was caused by a paramyxovirus or perhaps the human metapneumovirus. This prompted speculation that the viruses worked synergistically, with the coronavirus weakening the immune system to the point where the other viruses colonized the respiratory tract, triggering SARS’s distinctive pathology.


pages: 460 words: 107,454

Stakeholder Capitalism: A Global Economy That Works for Progress, People and Planet by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Apple II, Asian financial crisis, Asperger Syndrome, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, cyber-physical system, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, don't be evil, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google bus, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, independent contractor, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, precariat, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen special economic zone , Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Notes 1 “Why New Zealand Decided to Go for Full Elimination of the Coronavirus,” Alice Klein, New Scientist, June 2020, https://www.newscientist.com/article/2246858-why-new-zealand-decided-to-go-for-full-elimination-of-the-coronavirus/#ixzz6T1rYuK5U. 2 “New Zealand Isn't Just Flattening the Curve. It's Squashing It,” Anna Fifield, The Washington Post, April 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/new-zealand-isnt-just-flattening-the-curve-its-squashing-it/2020/04/07/6cab3a4a-7822-11ea-a311-adb1344719a9_story.html. 3 “Why New Zealand Decided to Go for Full Elimination of the Coronavirus,” Alice Klein, New Scientist, June 2020, https://www.newscientist.com/article/2246858-why-new-zealand-decided-to-go-for-full-elimination-of-the-coronavirus/#ixzz6T1rYuK5U. 4 PM Jacinda Ardern's full lockdown speech, Newsroom, March 2020, https://www.newsroom.co.nz/2020/03/23/1096999/pm-jacinda-arderns-full-lockdown-speech. 5 “The World's Youngest Female Leader Takes Over in New Zealand,” The Economist, October 2017, https://www.economist.com/asia/2017/10/26/the-worlds-youngest-female-leader-takes-over-in-new-zealand. 6 “New Zealand Isn't Just Flattening the Curve.

The director had called to update me on the epidemic that had hit China hard earlier that winter: COVID-19. Initially confined to the city of Wuhan, this novel coronavirus, which often causes a severe respiratory disease, was rapidly becoming a primary public health concern across the country. Our colleague explained that much of Beijing’s population had travelled beyond the city to attend Lunar New Year celebrations and, as they returned, they carried the novel coronavirus with them, causing an outbreak and subsequent lockdown in the capital. My colleague kept his cool, providing objective facts on what the lockdown meant for our employees and operations.

la=en. 14 This concerns GDP growth based on market exchange rates (see corresponding row on table cited in footnotes 11 and 12). 15 “World Bank Country and Lending Groups,” World Bank, https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. 16 “The Great Emerging-Market Growth Story is Unravelling,” The Financial Times, June 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/ad11f624-8b8c-11e9-a1c1-51bf8f989972. 17 See the IMF estimate of 2019 above. For the IIF estimate of Q1 2020, see https://www.iif.com/Portals/0/Files/content/Research/Global%20Debt%20Monitor_July2020.pdf. 18 “Coronavirus Lifts Government Debt to WWII Levels—Cutting It Won't Be Easy,” The Wall Street Journal, August 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-lifts-government-debt-to-wwii-levelscutting-it-wont-be-easy-11598191201. 19 “Resolving Global Debt: An Urgent Collective Action Cause,” Geoffrey Okamoto, IMF First Deputy Managing Director, October 2020, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/10/01/sp100120-resolving-global-debt-an-urgent-collective-action-cause. 20 “Gross Debt Position, % of GDP,” Fiscal Monitor, International Monetary Fund, April 2020, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/G_XWDG_G01_GDP_PT@FM/ADVEC/FM_EMG/FM_LIDC. 21 “Inflation Rate, Average Consumer Prices, Annual Percent Change, Advanced Economies,” World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, April 2020, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PCPIPCH@WEO/ADVEC/OEMDC. 22 International Monetary Fund, DataMapper, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/GGXWDG_NGDP@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD. 23 “Youth Dividend or Ticking Time Bomb?”


pages: 460 words: 107,454

Stakeholder Capitalism: A Global Economy That Works for Progress, People and Planet by Klaus Schwab, Peter Vanham

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Apple II, Asian financial crisis, Asperger Syndrome, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, cyber-physical system, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, don't be evil, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google bus, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, independent contractor, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, precariat, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen special economic zone , Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Notes 1 “Why New Zealand Decided to Go for Full Elimination of the Coronavirus,” Alice Klein, New Scientist, June 2020, https://www.newscientist.com/article/2246858-why-new-zealand-decided-to-go-for-full-elimination-of-the-coronavirus/#ixzz6T1rYuK5U. 2 “New Zealand Isn't Just Flattening the Curve. It's Squashing It,” Anna Fifield, The Washington Post, April 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/new-zealand-isnt-just-flattening-the-curve-its-squashing-it/2020/04/07/6cab3a4a-7822-11ea-a311-adb1344719a9_story.html. 3 “Why New Zealand Decided to Go for Full Elimination of the Coronavirus,” Alice Klein, New Scientist, June 2020, https://www.newscientist.com/article/2246858-why-new-zealand-decided-to-go-for-full-elimination-of-the-coronavirus/#ixzz6T1rYuK5U. 4 PM Jacinda Ardern's full lockdown speech, Newsroom, March 2020, https://www.newsroom.co.nz/2020/03/23/1096999/pm-jacinda-arderns-full-lockdown-speech. 5 “The World's Youngest Female Leader Takes Over in New Zealand,” The Economist, October 2017, https://www.economist.com/asia/2017/10/26/the-worlds-youngest-female-leader-takes-over-in-new-zealand. 6 “New Zealand Isn't Just Flattening the Curve.

The director had called to update me on the epidemic that had hit China hard earlier that winter: COVID-19. Initially confined to the city of Wuhan, this novel coronavirus, which often causes a severe respiratory disease, was rapidly becoming a primary public health concern across the country. Our colleague explained that much of Beijing’s population had travelled beyond the city to attend Lunar New Year celebrations and, as they returned, they carried the novel coronavirus with them, causing an outbreak and subsequent lockdown in the capital. My colleague kept his cool, providing objective facts on what the lockdown meant for our employees and operations.

la=en. 14 This concerns GDP growth based on market exchange rates (see corresponding row on table cited in footnotes 11 and 12). 15 “World Bank Country and Lending Groups,” World Bank, https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. 16 “The Great Emerging-Market Growth Story is Unravelling,” The Financial Times, June 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/ad11f624-8b8c-11e9-a1c1-51bf8f989972. 17 See the IMF estimate of 2019 above. For the IIF estimate of Q1 2020, see https://www.iif.com/Portals/0/Files/content/Research/Global%20Debt%20Monitor_July2020.pdf. 18 “Coronavirus Lifts Government Debt to WWII Levels—Cutting It Won't Be Easy,” The Wall Street Journal, August 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-lifts-government-debt-to-wwii-levelscutting-it-wont-be-easy-11598191201. 19 “Resolving Global Debt: An Urgent Collective Action Cause,” Geoffrey Okamoto, IMF First Deputy Managing Director, October 2020, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/10/01/sp100120-resolving-global-debt-an-urgent-collective-action-cause. 20 “Gross Debt Position, % of GDP,” Fiscal Monitor, International Monetary Fund, April 2020, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/G_XWDG_G01_GDP_PT@FM/ADVEC/FM_EMG/FM_LIDC. 21 “Inflation Rate, Average Consumer Prices, Annual Percent Change, Advanced Economies,” World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, April 2020, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PCPIPCH@WEO/ADVEC/OEMDC. 22 International Monetary Fund, DataMapper, https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/GGXWDG_NGDP@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD. 23 “Youth Dividend or Ticking Time Bomb?”


pages: 669 words: 195,743

Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic by David Quammen

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, conceptual framework, coronavirus, dark matter, digital map, double helix, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, South China Sea, urban sprawl

Just after the epidemic ended, his HKU team started trapping animals out there to look for evidence of coronavirus. They focused first on civets, capturing and sampling almost two dozen. From each animal they took a respiratory swab and a fecal swab—zip zap, thank you very much—and then released the civet back to the Hong Kong wilds. Each sample was screened by PCR methodology using what the technical lingo calls “consensus primers,” meaning generalized molecular jump-starters that would amplify RNA fragments shared commonly among coronaviruses, not just those unique to the SARS-like coronavirus that Guan Yi had found in his civets. So how much coronavirus did Poon find? I asked.

So the culturing work had established that an unknown coronavirus was present in SARS patients—some of them, anyway—but that didn’t necessarily mean it had caused the disease. To establish causality, Peiris’s team tested blood serum from SARS patients (because it would contain antibodies) against the newfound virus in culture. This was like splashing holy water at a witch. The antibodies recognized the virus and reacted strongly. Less than a month later, based on that evidence plus other confirming tests, Malik Peiris and his colleagues published a paper cautiously announcing this new coronavirus as “a possible cause” of SARS.

Less than a month later, based on that evidence plus other confirming tests, Malik Peiris and his colleagues published a paper cautiously announcing this new coronavirus as “a possible cause” of SARS. They were right, and the virus became known as SARS coronavirus, inelegantly abbreviated as SARS-CoV. It was the first coronavirus ever found to inflict serious illness upon humans. (Several other coronaviruses are among the many viral strains responsible for common colds. Still others cause hepatitis in mice, gastroenteritis in pigs, and respiratory infection in turkeys.) SARS-CoV has no ominous ring. In older days, the new agent would have received a more vivid, geographical moniker such as Foshan virus or Guangzhou virus, and people would have run around saying: Watch out, he’s got Guangzhou!


The Atlas of Disease by Sandra Hempel

clean water, coronavirus, global pandemic, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, out of africa, trade route, wikimedia commons

By the end of April tourism in Thailand was down by 70 per cent and Singapore by 60 per cent. The British Foreign Office meanwhile was advising against travel to Hong Kong, parts of China and Toronto. A new — and fatal — coronavirus In April 2003, researchers in Hong Kong published a paper identifying a new type of what is known as a coronavirus as a likely cause of SARS. The term ‘coronavirus’ comes from the Latin for ‘crown’ or ‘halo’ and refers to the crown-like spikes on the pathogen’s surface. This particular coronavirus, SARS-CoV, does not appear to have been seen before in humans or in animals. Coronaviruses are common and most, like the common cold, are not dangerous.

In 2012, however, the United States declared the SARS virus a ‘select agent’, meaning that it had the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. That same year another new coronavirus emerged in Saudi Arabia. A patient died in a hospital in Jeddah from acute pneumonia and organ failure. Doctors were unable to identify the pathogen involved and sent sputum samples to a laboratory in Holland, where the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified as the cause of what is known as Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS. The illness is similar to SARS and carries a mortality rate of around 40 per cent.

In February 2018, doctors in England were once more alerted to an ‘exceptional increase’ in scarlet fever. The reasons for these upsurges are not understood, although a decrease in immunity in the general population, a stronger strain of bacteria and a combination of both have been suggested as possible causes. SARS Causal agent Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus or SARS-CoV Transmission Not completely understood but thought to be through close contact with an infected person, mainly through the respiratory route, and also through contact with infected surfaces Symptoms Influenza-like, including fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, diarrhoea and shivering Incidence No reports of SARS since 2004, as of mid-2018 Prevalence Currently no cases reported but potential to break out and spread worldwide Prevention Fast reporting of new outbreaks, isolation of infected individuals and contacts Treatment No specific treatment but general antiviral drugs and treatment to support breathing, prevent or treat pneumonia and reduce swelling in the lungs Global strategy Worldwide surveillance to detect new outbreaks, fast reporting of cases and containment Microscopic image of the coronavirus that causes SARS.


pages: 329 words: 100,162

Hype: How Scammers, Grifters, and Con Artists Are Taking Over the Internet―and Why We're Following by Gabrielle Bluestone

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, cashless society, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, financial thriller, forensic accounting, gig economy, global pandemic, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, Hyperloop, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, WeWork

It was never going to work.” The coronavirus ultimately gave Son a chance to claw back some of Neumann’s parachute. But it also revealed the weaknesses in his portfolio, which had become worth less than the cost of its investments in early May 2020. According to the New York Times, Son held an earnings call where he compared himself to Jesus and the Beatles and spoke of a brighter future by referencing a graphic of two unicorns falling into a hole in the ground. “Our unicorns are facing serious challenges against the background of the coronavirus outbreak, but I believe that some of them will fly over the Valley of Coronavirus and go beyond and fly high,” he said.

Julia Alexander, "Creators Finally Know How Much Money YouTube Makes, and They Want More of It," The Verge, February 4, 2020, https://www.theverge.com/2020/2/4/21121370/youtube-advertising-revenue-creators-demonetization-earnings-google. 14. Taylor Lorenz, "Welcome to the Era of Branded Engagements," The Atlantic, June 20, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2019/06/was-viral-proposal-staged/592141/. 15. Koh Ewe, "Influencer Licks Toilet Seat for TikTok Fame in ‘Coronavirus Challenge,’" VICE News, March 18, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/5dm43a/coronavirus-influencer-lick-toilet-seat-tiktok. 16. Dee LaVigne, "I Buy the Cheapest Thing on Hermes!!!," YouTube video, April 2, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1b7j4XnMfc. 17. Sophie Shohet | Fashion Beauty Lifestyle, "I Looked for the Cheapest Thing Cartier Sold... 6 *Insane* Luxury Items Under £495 | Selfridges AD," YouTube video, June 17, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?

What was, in 2009, intentionally surreal, now seems almost banal, what with the former Goop employee who staged a sponsored multi-city engagement extravaganza for a live audience of about 5,000 emotionally invested strangers (and lost her day job not long after it went viral for all the wrong reasons),14 or the TikTok users who caught coronavirus after participating in a viral toilet-seat-licking challenge for clout.15 “I think now, with influencer marketing, what was covert has now become overt,” Borte said. For one thing, Audi’s costarring role opposite Duchovny in The Joneses turned out to be a precipitating event in the car company’s rather clichéd move into the arena of life imitating art.


pages: 250 words: 75,151

The New Nomads: How the Migration Revolution Is Making the World a Better Place by Felix Marquardt

agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carbon footprint, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, Donald Trump, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, out of africa, phenotype, place-making, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, QAnon, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sustainable-tourism, technoutopianism, Yogi Berra, young professional

We would not have developed farms, cities, nation states, multinational companies, without this ability to define and maintain a group. Self-realisation, the scientific revolution and indeed modernity are all premised on it. But it has served its purpose and now become a problem. The time has come to leave it behind. How? Just as it has brought the world to a halt, the coronavirus pandemic is an opportunity to pause and take stock of the complexities of our present and the causal link between phenomena – specifically economic growth, energy consumption, (im)mobility, (in)equality, environmental degradation, the rise of religious extremism, nationalism and populism. And to recognise that the prosperity and open-minded, pro-immigration stance of the relatively mobile few is predicated on the relative lack of prosperity and mobility of the many,8 rather than on moral virtue.

The result was that a record low of 6,300 individuals stayed in the country after their studies. Boris Johnson’s administration reversed the policy in 2019, and so we may see greater numbers of young people staying in Britain after their studies. However, the first intake that this will affect is the coronavirus intake. It is a cliché, but the youth are the future. Any sane country should be at pains to attract young, dynamic people – not create a ‘hostile environment’ that pushes them away. Both the Barrez-vous! movement and the Youthonomics Global Index were driven in part by good intentions: to help young people to flourish in what seemed like a world where the odds were stacking up against them.

It should also be remembered that the majority of terrorist attacks conducted in the name of an insane interpretation of Islam in Europe have been perpetrated by those radicalised in Europe, not foreigners coming to Europe. What holds for refugees holds for them, too – societies without alienated, desperate people do not produce terrorists. The same can be said of health concerns, which are largely overblown to start with. TB and coronavirus are a danger if they go undetected. Having a system in place that allows people to seek asylum easily means that illnesses can be screened for. The real danger occurs when, due to the difficulty posed by crossing borders, refugees sneak in with health problems, work in undocumented positions and are, by and large, invisible to health professionals and epidemiologists.


pages: 565 words: 134,138

The World for Sale: Money, Power and the Traders Who Barter the Earth’s Resources by Javier Blas, Jack Farchy

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate raider, COVID-19, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, foreign exchange controls, Great Grain Robbery, invisible hand, John Deuss, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, margin call, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, oil-for-food scandal, Oscar Wyatt, price anchoring, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

For the 2019 sanctions, see: ‘The United States to Impose Sanctions On Chinese Firm Zhuhai Zhenrong Company Limited for Purchasing Oil From Iran’, US State Department, 22 July 2019, accessed: https://www.state.gov/the-united-states-to-impose-sanctions-on-chinese-firm-zhuhai-zhenrong-company-limited-for-purchasing-oil-from-iran/ . 45 Ian Taylor, interview with the authors, London, February 2019. 46 This account of Glencore’s trading in 2020 is based on an interview with a senior executive, who declined to be named, as well as the company’s statements, and publicly-available information on ship movements. 47 ‘Texas Regulators Weigh Historic Oil Cuts as Coronavirus Pandemic Saps Demand’, Wall Street Journal , 14 April 2020, accessed: https://www.wsj.com/articles/texas-regulators-weigh-historic-oil-cuts-after-coronavirus-11586886293 . 48 Steve Kalmin, Glencore’s chief financial officer, told journalists in August 2020 that the return on equity on the company’s contango deals was as much as 100% ‘in some cases’. 4 9 According to the estimates of several leading oil traders.

What’s more, much of the time, commodity markets are either over- or under-supplied. The traders, ever nimble and flexible, are always ready to take a commodity off a producer’s hands as long as the price is right, or to supply it if a consumer is willing to pay. For an example of how that works in practice, look no further than the oil price crash of 2020. As the coronavirus pandemic spread across the world, grounding flights and forcing people to stay at home, the price of oil spiralled lower and lower, briefly trading below zero for the first time ever. And so the traders stepped in, buying oil at dirt-cheap prices, and then storing it until demand recovered. Some even bought a few barrels at negative prices, meaning that producers had to pay them to take it off their hands.

As commodity demand tumbled in the wake of the financial crisis, oil traders like Vitol made a killing buying up unwanted oil and storing it – doing a version of the deals that Andy Hall had done nearly twenty years earlier. It was a trade they would repeat to great profit every time the market was oversupplied – not least in 2020, when the coronavirus pandemic struck. Aluminium traders were also cashing in enormous profits by funnelling surplus metal into warehouses. ‘We milked the cow every day,’ recalls one top aluminium trader of his profits in that period. 20 The commodity traders were enjoying a bounty, but for a world that was suffering from hunger and recession, their success was an affront.


pages: 569 words: 156,139

Amazon Unbound: Jeff Bezos and the Invention of a Global Empire by Brad Stone

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, air freight, Airbnb, Amazon Picking Challenge, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business climate, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, computer vision, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, disinformation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, future of work, global pandemic, income inequality, independent contractor, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, private space industry, quantitative hedge fund, remote working, RFID, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, Uber for X, union organizing, WeWork

at least five Amazon workers in Italy and Spain: Matt Day, Daniele Lepido, Helen Fouquet, and Macarena Munoz Montijano, “Coronavirus Strikes at Amazon’s Operational Heart: Its Delivery Machine,” Bloomberg, March 16, 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-16/coronavirus-strikes-at-amazon-s-operational-heart-its-delivery-machine?sref=dJuchiL5 (January 26, 2021). French FCs would stay closed for a month: Matthew Dalton, “Amazon Shuts French Warehouses After Court Orders Coronavirus Restrictions,” Wall Street Journal, April 16, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-shuts-warehouses-in-france-11587036614 (January 26, 2021); Mathieu Rosemain, “Amazon’s French Warehouses to Reopen with 30% Staff—Unions,” Reuters, May 18, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-amazon-france/amazons-french-warehouses-to-reopen-with-30-staff-unions-idINKBN22U27G?

Jumpp gave an interview to CBS’s 60 Minutes: “Amazon worker: At least 600 Amazon employees stricken by coronavirus,” CBS, May 10, 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/amazon-workers-with-coronavirus-60-minutes-2020-05-10/ (February 16, 2021). around twenty thousand: Amazon’s “Update on COVID-19 Testing.” Amazon also dismissed Katie Doan, a Whole Foods employee: Lauren Kaori Gurley, “Whole Foods Just Fired an Employee Who Kept Track of Corona Virus Cases,” Motherboard, March 29, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en/article/y3zd9g/whole-foods-just-fired-an-employee-who-kept-track-of-coronavirus-cases (February 28, 2021). Bashir Mohamed, a Somali FC worker: Sarah Ashley O’Brien, “Fear and a firing inside an Amazon warehouse,” CNN, April 22, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/22/tech/amazon-warehouse-bashir-mohamed/index.html (February 28, 2021).

Amazon stopped all nonessential employee travel: Jeffrey Dastin, “Amazon Defers ‘Non-essential’ Moves Even in U.S. as Corporate Travel Bans Spread,” Reuters, February 28, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-amazon-com/amazon-defers-non-essential-moves-even-in-u-s-as-corporate-travel-bans-spread-idUSKCN20M2TZ (January 26, 2021). work from home for two weeks: Taylor Soper, “Amazon Changes Coronavirus Plan, Tells Seattle Area Employees to Work from Home until March 31,” GeekWire, March 4, 2020, https://www.geekwire.com/2020/amazon-changes-coronavirus-plan-tells-seattle-area-employees-work-home-march-31/ (January 26, 2021). for the rest of the year: Monica Nickelsburg, “Amazon Extends Work from Home Policy to January 2021, Opens Offices with New Safety Measures,” GeekWire, July 15, 2020, https://www.geekwire.com/2020/amazon-extends-work-home-policy-january-2021-opens-offices-new-safety-measures/ (January 26, 2021).


pages: 340 words: 90,674

The Perfect Police State: An Undercover Odyssey Into China's Terrifying Surveillance Dystopia of the Future by Geoffrey Cain

airport security, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, European colonialism, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, phenotype, pirate software, purchasing power parity, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, speech recognition, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, trade route, undersea cable, WikiLeaks

Jeff Kao, Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur and Aaron Krolik, “Leaked Documents Show How China’s Army of Paid Internet Trolls Helped Censor the Coronavirus,” ProPublica and New York Times, December 19, 2020, https://www.propublica.org/article/leaked-documents-show-how-chinas-army-of-paid-internet-trolls-helped-censor-the-coronavirus. 11. Associated Press, “China Delayed Releasing Coronavirus Info, Frustrating WHO,” June 3, 2020, https://apnews.com/article/3c061794970661042b18d5aeaaed9fae. 12. Steven Erlanger, “Global Backlash Builds against China over Coronavirus,” New York Times, May 3, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/03/world/europe/backlash-china-coronavirus.html. 13. US Consulate General in Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China, “Event: Discrimination against African-Americans in Guangzhou,” April 13, 2020, https://china.usembassy-china.org.cn/health-alert-u-s-consulate-general-guangzhou-peoples-republic-of-china/. 14.

World Health Organization, “Pneumonia of Unknown Cause—China,” January 5, 2020, https://www.who.int/csr/don/05-january-2020-pneumonia-of-unkown-cause-china/en/. 8. “The Coronavirus Didn’t Really Start at the Wuhan ‘Wet Market’,” Live Science, May 28, 2020, https://www.livescience.com/covid-19-did-not-start-at-wuhan-wet-market.html. 9. Aylin Woodward, “At Least 5 People in China Have Disappeared, Gotten Arrested, or Been Silenced after Speaking Out about the Coronavirus—Here’s What We Know About Them,” Business Insider, February 20, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/china-coronavirus-whistleblowers-speak-out-vanish-2020-2. 10. Jeff Kao, Raymond Zhong, Paul Mozur and Aaron Krolik, “Leaked Documents Show How China’s Army of Paid Internet Trolls Helped Censor the Coronavirus,” ProPublica and New York Times, December 19, 2020, https://www.propublica.org/article/leaked-documents-show-how-chinas-army-of-paid-internet-trolls-helped-censor-the-coronavirus. 11.

Lijian Zhao, Twitter post, March 12, 2020, 10:37 p.m. Beijing time, https://twitter.com/zlj517/status/1238111898828066823. 15. Selam Gebredikan, “For Autocrats, and Others, Coronavirus Is a Chance to Grab Even More Power,” New York Times, March 30, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/30/world/europe/coronavirus-governments-power.html. 16. Krystal Hu, “Exclusive: Amazon Turns to Chinese Firms on U.S. Blacklist to Meet Thermal Camera Needs,” Reuters, April 29, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-amazon-com-cameras-idUSKBN22B1AL. 17. Sam Biddle, “Police Surveilled George Floyd Protests with Help from Twitter-Affiliated Startup Dataminr,” Intercept, July 9, 2020, https://theintercept.com/2020/07/09/twitter-dataminr-police-spy-surveillance-black-lives-matter-protests/. 18.


pages: 447 words: 111,991

Exponential: How Accelerating Technology Is Leaving Us Behind and What to Do About It by Azeem Azhar

23andMe, 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, digital map, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Garrett Hardin, gender pay gap, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, hiring and firing, hockey-stick growth, ImageNet competition, income inequality, independent contractor, industrial robot, intangible asset, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, price anchoring, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, subscription business, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, Tragedy of the Commons, Turing machine, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, winner-take-all economy, Yom Kippur War

v=2HMPRXstSvQ> [accessed 24 February 2021]. 6 Paul Daugherty, H. James Wilson and Paul Michelman, ‘Revisiting the Jobs That Artificial Intelligence Will Create’, MIT Sloan Management Review (Summer 2017). 7 Lana Bandoim, ‘Robots Are Cleaning Grocery Store Floors During the Coronavirus Outbreak’, Forbes, 8 April 2020 <https://www.forbes.com/sites/lanabandoim/2020/04/08/robots-are-cleaning-grocery-store-floors-during-the-coronavirus-outbreak/> [accessed 24 February 2021]. 8 Jame DiBiasio, ‘A.I. Drives China Techfins into Car Insurance – and Beyond’, Digital Finance, 3 June 2020 <https://www.digfingroup.com/insurtech-ai/> [accessed 24 February 2021]. 9 Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?’

I use the term in a slightly different context, referring to the overall breakdown of the thesis that technology necessarily enables single large global markets, mediated by a set of common rules. 4 Philip Garnett, Bob Doherty, and Tony Heron, ‘Vulnerability of the United Kingdom’s Food Supply Chains Exposed by COVID-19’, Nature Food, 1(6), 2020, pp. 315–318 <https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-020-0097-7>. 5 Alex Lee, ‘How the UK’s Just-in-Time Delivery Model Crumbled under Coronavirus’, Wired, 30 March 2020 <https://www.wired.co.uk/article/stockpiling-supermarkets-coronavirus> [accessed 11 September 2020]. 6 UBS, The Food Revolution, July 2019 <https://www.ubs.com/global/en/ubs-society/our-stories/2019/future-of-food/_jcr_content/mainpar/toplevelgrid_1749059381/col1/linklist/link.1695495471.file/bGluay9wYXRoPS9jb250ZW50L2RhbS91YnMvZ2xvYmFsL3Vicy1zb2NpZXR5LzIwMTkvZm9vZC1yZXZvbHV0aW9uLWp1bHkucGRm/food-revolution-july.pdf>. 7 ‘Growing Higher – New Ways to Make Vertical Farming Stack up’, The Economist, 31 August 2019 <https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2019/08/31/new-ways-to-make-vertical-farming-stack-up> [accessed 4 August 2020]. 8 ‘World’s Biggest Rooftop Greenhouse Opens in Montreal’, Phys.org, 26 August 2020 <https://phys.org/news/2020-08-world-biggest-rooftop-greenhouse-montreal.html> [accessed 5 September 2020]. 9 Elizabeth Curmi et al., ‘Feeding the Future’, Citi Global Perspectives and Solutions, November 2018 <https://www.citivelocity.com/citigps/feeding-the-future/> [accessed 18 March 2021]. 10 Joel Jean, Patrick Richard Brown and Institute of Physics (Great Britain), Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies (Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing, 2020), pp. 1–5 <https://iopscience.iop.org/book/978-0-7503-2152-5> [accessed 12 October 2020]. 11 Brendan Coyne, ‘Vehicle-to-Grid: Are We Nearly There Yet?’

It creeps up on you and then explodes – one moment everything seems fine, the next your health service is on the verge of being overwhelmed by a new disease. And humans struggle to conceptualise the speed of that shift, as shown by the lackadaisical responses of many governments to the spread of coronavirus, particularly in Europe and America. At the same time, the pandemic revealed the full power of recent inventions. In most of the developed world, lockdowns were only possible due to widespread access to fast internet. Those of us locked at home spent much of the pandemic glued to our phones. And, most strikingly of all, within a year scientists had developed dozens of new vaccines – which, as we’ll see, were made possible by new innovations like machine learning.


pages: 272 words: 76,154

How Boards Work: And How They Can Work Better in a Chaotic World by Dambisa Moyo

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Boeing 737 MAX, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, don't be evil, Donald Trump, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global pandemic, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, long term incentive plan, Lyft, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, remote working, Ronald Coase, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, WeWork, women in the workforce

To reframe this in a crude way, someone interested in gaining a place on a corporate board must ask themselves: Who from the management team would call me for advice, and when and why? Diversity is just one of the many major issues facing boards today. I conceived this book, and wrote most of it, well before the coronavirus pandemic of 2020. But the first months of the pandemic only reinforced my conclusions about the importance of functional, decisive, and wisely run boards. The coronavirus may have amplified the challenges facing today’s global companies, but I believe now more than ever in the positive role these corporations—and their boards—can play in society. Businesses are reckoning with a period of shocks, tremendous uncertainty, and heightened complexity that is testing whether corporations, and indeed capitalism itself, will survive.

They are increasingly serving as agents of change, pushing for reforms and innovation in areas previously thought to be solely the purview of government—from environmental change to diversity and inclusion across the workforce. Finally, corporations make invaluable contributions to human progress, joining with government to respond to global crises like the 2020 pandemic. Leading pharmaceutical companies were at the forefront of the development of a vaccine and treatments against the coronavirus, producers and suppliers mobilized to keep essential goods moving toward society’s most vulnerable, and formerly obscure industrial companies took center stage as providers of necessary equipment such as face masks, respirators, and ventilators. So the fates of corporations and society as a whole are closely linked.

Leaving a good legacy is becoming harder, however, as the corporate board’s oversight role becomes ever more challenging and baseline notions about shareholder value and social responsibility shift with the changing times. Twenty-first-century companies are buffeted by unprecedented economic headwinds. Particularly after the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, the global economy is facing a deep and protracted recession, adding to already slowing long-term economic growth trends. Furthermore, de-globalization—in the form of new trade tariffs, capital controls, and increased barriers to immigration—threatens to harm global commerce and limit investment flows and the movement of labor, thereby worsening an already dire economic outlook.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus, Yochai Benkler

Remarks by President Trump Before Marine One Departure, February 23, 2020, whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-marine-one-departure-83/ ; Remarks by President Trump in Meeting with African American Leaders, February 27, 2020, whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-meeting-african-american-leaders/ . 2. Farhad Manjoo, “How the World’s Richest Country Ran Out of a 75-Cent Face Mask,” The New York Times , March 25, 2020, nytimes.com/2020/03/25/opinion/coronavirus-face-mask.html . 3. Margot Sanger-Katz, “On Coronavirus, Americans Still Trust the Experts,” The New York Times , June 27, 2020, nytimes.com/2020/06/27/upshot/coronavirus-americans-trust-experts.html . INTRODUCTION: GETTING IN 1. Jennifer Medina, Katie Benner, and Kate Taylor, “Actresses, Business Leaders and Other Wealthy Parents Charged in U.S. College Entry Fraud,” The New York Times , March 12, 2019, nytimes.com/2019/03/12/us/college-admissions-cheating-scandal.html . 2.

Goodman, “The Nordic Way to Economic Rescue,” The New York Times , March 28, 2020, nytimes.com/2020/03/28/business/nordic-way-economic-rescue-virus.html ; Richard Partington, “UK Government to Pay 80% of Wages for Those Not Working in Coronavirus Crisis,” The Guardian , March 20, 2020, theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/mar/20/government-pay-wages-jobs-coronavirus-rishi-sunak ; Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman, “Jobs Aren’t Being Destroyed This Fast Elsewhere. Why Is That?,” The New York Times , March 30, 2020, nytimes.com/2020/03/30/opinion/coronavirus-economy-saez-zucman.html . 53. Oren Cass, The Once and Future Worker , pp. 79–99. 54. Ibid., pp. 115–39. 55. Ibid., pp. 25–28, 210–12. 56.

SANDEL Liberalism and the Limits of Justice Liberalism and Its Critics (editor) Democracy’s Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy Public Philosophy: Essays on Morality in Politics The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering Justice: A Reader (editor) Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets Encountering China: Michael Sandel and Chinese Philosophy (co-editor) For Kiku, with love Prologue When the coronavirus pandemic hit in 2020, the United States, like many other countries, was unprepared. Despite warnings the previous year from public health experts about the risk of a global viral contagion, and even as China contended with its outbreak in January, the United States lacked the ability to conduct the widespread testing that might have contained the disease.


pages: 661 words: 185,701

The Future of Money: How the Digital Revolution Is Transforming Currencies and Finance by Eswar S. Prasad

access to a mobile phone, Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, bank run, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, buy and hold, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, central bank independence, cloud computing, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversified portfolio, Dogecoin, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, global reserve currency, index fund, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, litecoin, loose coupling, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Money creation, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, profit motive, QR code, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, risk/return, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart contracts, special drawing rights, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, WeWork, wikimedia commons, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Part 3: Helicopter Money,” Brookings Institution (blog), April 11, 2016, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/ben-bernanke/2016/04/11/what-tools-does-the-fed-have-left-part-3-helicopter-money/; and Jordi Galí, “Helicopter Money: The Time Is Now,” VoxEU, CEPR (blog), March 17, 2020, https://voxeu.org/article/helicopter-money-time-now. The March 2020 coronavirus stimulus bill is described in this article: Emily Cochrane and Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “$2 Trillion Coronavirus Stimulus Bill Is Signed into Law,” New York Times, March 27, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/27/us/politics/coronavirus-house-voting.html. The Economic Impact Payments are described at https://www.irs.gov/coronavirus/economic-impact-payments. The status of the payments as of June 2020 is summarized at “Economic Impact Payments Issued to Date,” US House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means, June 2020, https://waysandmeans.house.gov/sites/democrats.waysandmeans.house.gov/files/documents/2020.06.04%20EIPs%20Issued%20as%20of%20June%204%20FINAL.pdf.

Dollars Repatriated from Asia on Coronavirus Caution,” Reuters, March 6, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-fed-dollars/fed-quarantines-us-dollars-repatriated-from-asia-on-coronavirus-caution-idUSKBN20T1YT; and Kate Davidson and Tom Fairless, “Fed Stores Dollars Arriving from Asia as Coronavirus Precaution,” Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/fed-delays-processing-dollar-bills-from-asia-amid-coronavirus-fears-11583512719. The New York University research is summarized here: Michaeleen Doucleff, “Dirty Money: A Microbial Jungle Thrives in Your Wallet,” NPR, April 23, 2014, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/04/23/305890574/dirty-money-a-microbial-jungle-thrives-in-your-wallet.

Cash Is Not Clean The allocation of new banknotes to Wuhan and the requirement that banknotes be disinfected were reported in Chinese official media: Wang Tianyu, “Central Bank Allocates 4 Billion Yuan in New Banknotes to Wuhan,” China Global Television Network, February 15, 2020, https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-02-15/Central-bank-allocates-4-billion-yuan-in-new-banknotes-to-Wuhan-O69Pj35nNu/index.html; and “China Ensures Timely Money Transfer, Disinfects Banknotes amid Fight against Coronavirus,” Xinhuanet, February 15, 2020, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-02/15/c_138786757.htm. The Guangzhou branch’s actions to destroy banknotes is described here: Karen Yeung, “China Central Bank Branch to Destroy Banknotes from Coronavirus-Hit Sectors,” South China Morning Post, February 16, 2020, https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/3050868/fresh-cash-old-china-central-bank-branch-destroy-banknotes. The Fed’s actions are reported in Pete Schroeder and Anna Irrera, “Fed Quarantines U.S. Dollars Repatriated from Asia on Coronavirus Caution,” Reuters, March 6, 2020, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-fed-dollars/fed-quarantines-us-dollars-repatriated-from-asia-on-coronavirus-caution-idUSKBN20T1YT; and Kate Davidson and Tom Fairless, “Fed Stores Dollars Arriving from Asia as Coronavirus Precaution,” Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/fed-delays-processing-dollar-bills-from-asia-amid-coronavirus-fears-11583512719.


pages: 442 words: 85,640

This Book Could Fix Your Life: The Science of Self Help by New Scientist, Helen Thomson

caloric restriction, caloric restriction, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, global pandemic, hedonic treadmill, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, meta-analysis, microbiome, placebo effect, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Steve Jobs, sunk-cost fallacy, survivorship bias, Walter Mischel

So if you do decide to have that extra pint of lager, with its two units of alcohol, think about whether it’s worth the effort of working out for an extra twenty minutes to balance the books. HOW TO STOP OVEREATING If you feel like your diet has completely gone to pot during a year of coronavirus lockdowns in which you’ve struggled to find your regular food, and been stressed and bored – known risk factors for overeating – then you’re not alone. Emerging evidence suggests that many people, in the UK at least, are struggling to resist the comforts of food more than ever. Weight gain and its negative impact on our health might be an unforeseen consequence of the coronavirus pandemic. An unhealthy diet is often blamed on poor choices and a lack of willpower. We’ve already looked in Chapter 6 at some ways you can train your brain into choosing healthier foods.

You should also consult a medical practitioner before making changes to your diet or exercise regime, especially if you have pre-existing health conditions. 1 HOW NOT TO WORRY IT IS A HOT and sticky June 2020 as I write this, and I am sitting in my tiny box room. It is a nursery masquerading as an office as my family enters month four of lockdown, amid the worldwide coronavirus pandemic. Starting at 6.30 a.m., my husband and I split each day in half – one of us cares for our daughter while the other goes to work upstairs. At 1 p.m., we swap shifts. At 6.30 p.m. we share an evening routine of bath, stories and bed. A quick dinner, half an hour of TV, and then bed for me, too.

On repeat. Like many others, we’ve not seen our family or friends since Christmas. We spend only an hour or so a day in a nearby park, and mostly get our food via deliveries. Oh, and I’m also eight months pregnant. To say that this is a challenging time is an understatement. Like most people during the coronavirus crisis, the worry has at times got to me. I worry about my daughter and how she’s missing her pals at nursery, and fear I am only inadequately fulfilling her needs. I worry about whether I’m going to get this book finished on time, or whether I’ll end up doing less than the perfect job I want to.


pages: 524 words: 130,909

The Contrarian: Peter Thiel and Silicon Valley's Pursuit of Power by Max Chafkin

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, anti-communist, bank run, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, borderless world, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, David Graeber, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Extropian, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hockey-stick growth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, QAnon, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technology bubble, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K, yellow journalism

a record price: “Peter Thiel Buys Maui Home for a Record $27 Million,” The Wall Street Journal, July 15, 2011, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304911104576444362936635124. and ultimately flawed: Riley Beggin, “Report: The CDC Contaminated Its First Coronavirus Tests, Setting US Back,” Vox, April, 18, 2020, https://www.vox.com/2020/4/18/21226372/coronavirus-tests-cdc-contaminated-delay-testing. “Software is eating the world”: Marc Andreessen, “Why Software Is Eating the World,” Andreessen Horowitz, August 20, 2011, https://a16z.com/2011/08/20/why-software-is-eating-the-world/. two more contracts, worth $25 million: Dave Nyczepir, “HHS Cites Coronavirus ‘Urgency’ in Speedy Palantir Contract Awards,” FedScoop, May 8, 2020, https://www.fedscoop.com/hha-covid-funds-palantir/.

“numbers are being cooked”: Graig Graziosi, “Republican Senate Hopeful Says Coronavirus Numbers Being ‘Cooked’ to Hurt Trump,” The Independent, July 28, 2020, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/coronavirus-deaths-trump-republican-senate-kris-kobach-a9642731.html. Tesla workers in Fremont: Neal E. Boudette, “Hundreds of Tesla Workers Tested Positive for the Virus after Elon Musk Reopened a Plant, Data Shows,” The New York Times, March 13, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/13/world/tesla-elon-musk-coronavirus-outbreak.html. virus as the “sniffles”: “Trump Says Son Barron’s Covid Illness ‘‘Just Went Away,’ ” NBC News, October 22, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/video/trump-says-son-barron-s-covid-illness-just-went-away-94447173800.

It was all working. 20 BACK TO THE FUTURE Just as the American public was coming to the realization that the coronavirus was spreading rapidly and that life was going to be profoundly different for some indeterminate amount of time, Peter Thiel left Los Angeles. Conventional wisdom had it that he’d gone to New Zealand—to the Plasma House and its panic room or perhaps to a bunker on the South Island farm he’d bought. New Zealand was living up to its reputation as an ideal apocalypse destination. The country had locked down early and closed its borders to noncitizens. It would suffer only twenty-five deaths from coronavirus through the end of 2020. But Thiel never made it to New Zealand—and, in fact, he’d essentially ignored his newly adopted homeland since the end of 2017, when he’d attended Simon Denny’s art exhibit The Founder’s Paradox, which explored the mythology of tech founders as the godlike figures that Silicon Valley, and especially Thiel, had promoted.


How to Work Without Losing Your Mind by Cate Sevilla

coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, gender pay gap, global pandemic, Google Hangouts, job satisfaction, microaggression, period drama, remote working, side project, Skype, women in the workforce

But it would be naive and, quite frankly, silly of us to give a celebratory Mary Tyler Moore beret-toss when we know that, actually, things are still unequal. We shouldn’t exactly be grateful that we’re no longer only relegated to secretary or assistant positions, or thrilled that we’re even ‘allowed’ to be at work. In fact, during the coronavirus pandemic, it became alarmingly clear that women are indeed the backbone of our economy and what keeps our societies functioning. The New York Times reported in April 2020 that while normally men make up the majority of the American workforce, during the pandemic when everything was stripped back to the bare necessities – one in three jobs held by a woman was designated as essential.6 From nurses and pharmacy technicians to supermarket cashiers, the New York Times wrote that this ‘unseen labor force’ whose work is often ‘underpaid and undervalued’ is actually what ‘keeps the country running and takes care of those most in need, whether or not there is a pandemic’.

What I’m trying to say is that none of that is authentic – it’s performative and even reductive. Because at the heart of the troubles many of us have with ‘adulting’ is a real, generational issue. It’s not laziness, sensitivity or a deficiency – it’s a symptom of a wider cultural problem. Our culture of burnout and over-productivity was laid bare as the coronavirus pandemic progressed. ‘We’re not working from home in a pandemic,’ we were told by different people in various ways, ‘You’re at home, in a pandemic, trying to work.’ Instead of hustling, the popular thing to do was to encourage others to look after themselves, to remind us all that self-care mattered more than ever, and that rest was important too.

The complicated etiquette of virtual meetings and video calls Whether it’s Zoom or Google Meetup, Skype or Microsoft Teams – taking part in a video call or ‘virtual meeting’ is more complicated than you might expect. If you work at a tech company or an international firm with remote workers, you were probably already very familiar with video meetings before coronavirus happened. However, the pandemic saw more of us using these apps for virtual meetings than ever before, and it became quite clear that the etiquette of how they should run was as fuzzy as the resolution of your colleagues’ webcams. To clear a few things up, here are some best practices: Have a dedicated moderator For meetings with more than two people, whoever is owning the meeting needs to set up the call, and everyone on it.


pages: 265 words: 93,354

Please Don't Sit on My Bed in Your Outside Clothes: Essays by Phoebe Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, butterfly effect, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Attenborough, desegregation, different worldview, disinformation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gig economy, global pandemic, hiring and firing, independent contractor, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joan Didion, Lyft, mass incarceration, microaggression, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rosa Parks, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, uber lyft, unpaid internship

“God bless Frito-Lay and 2020,” I say to myself as I pop open a fresh bag of Cheetos. The. End. Not bad, eh, dear reader? In all seriousness, while not everyone had a speech prepared, many of us did anticipate that 2020 was going to kick off the decade in spectacular or at least better fashion, which helps explain why the coronavirus felt like such a deeply personal attack. These are 100 percent valid reactions to the new world we’re navigating. We have the right to feel duped. To lose faith and question whether we should’ve had it in the first place. For many, those fun butterflies in our stomachs have been replaced by, well, sheer panic, and that overwhelming sense of losing control—be it of our jobs, our daily routines, our finances, our health, or simply how we can spend our time—was paralyzing.

Not that we ever had that much control in the first place, but we told ourselves what we had to in order to function, as the alternative—nihilism—seemed too dark a path to walk. So we devised plans. Set goals. Did all the things one does when constructing a life, like loving, hoping, fighting, hustling, thinking about tomorrow, etc. We were vulnerable in the face of the unknowable, and that was hard enough in our pre-coronavirus normal. Starting over and being vulnerable in a world that is nothing like what you had constructed for yourself was scary, frustrating, and heartbreaking. Beginning again can feel like yet another tiny death of who you are and what you knew. And the older I get, it seems that adulthood is nothing but those tiny little deaths.

.* That way, I can look back and remember that people put themselves on the line so I could be here. That my parents lovingly teased me over FaceTime so I’d laugh. That I played a bootleg version of “Lean on Me” for my boyfriend when he had a down day on a cheap keyboard I purchased. That despite the tiny and not-so-tiny deaths that the coronavirus brought, there were also all those little sparks of joy, those small, happy moments that helped make my life, my life. Same with those sad times. So, dear reader, my hope is this: that when you look back on 2020, if you need to punch, yell, kick, scream for the dreams deferred and the lives lost, do it.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, disinformation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta-analysis, microbiome, Money creation, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-Keynesian economics, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

But then we have to figure out just how we change everything to create a better society that works for people and planet. XR is a recognition of emergency. We have learned a lot about emergencies over the past year, with the rise of the coronavirus pandemic. The pandemic joined us in a mass of shared vulnerability, and we had to move quickly and make difficult decisions in order to protect humanity – to protect life. The fact that most countries managed to do this is a fairly hopeful sign. It shows what we can achieve when we take a crisis seriously. Coronavirus is being taken pretty seriously precisely because of its having fallen most heavily first upon the global North. The wake-up call it embodies needs so badly to be heard, because the slower climate emergency is simultaneous with it – and it poses a disproportionate threat to the global South, where it is already inflicting mass suffering.

And we must be aware that some governments will respond with worsening environmental racism and hidden agendas of eco-fascism. These are agendas to pit various groups against each other (and also against diverse forms of Life). They require solidarity in response. If the coronavirus is teaching us something about solidarity in action, then that is a real hope in this dangerous hour. Less is More offers incisive new ideas for what lies on the other side of the coronavirus emergency. Ideas for how we can prevent the ruin of our climate, roll back the ongoing sixth mass extinction, and avert societal collapse. It gives us a glimpse of how we can build something better out of the wreckage of what is.

It gives us a glimpse of how we can build something better out of the wreckage of what is. Jason Hickel offers a raft of intersecting, overlapping and mutually reinforcing ideas from history, economics, anthropology, philosophy, science, and more. This is the kind of broad thinking that’s required to achieve the rapid transition we need. The coronavirus crisis made it evident that if governments are determined enough and driven enough by circumstances — and by the will of their peoples — then they can do things that they have been calling impossible for years: a citizens’ income, debt cancellation, wealth taxes, nationalisations where necessary, you name it.


pages: 387 words: 123,237

This Land: The Struggle for the Left by Owen Jones

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, European colonialism, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, housing crisis, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, short selling, The Spirit Level, War on Poverty

Unemployment was projected to hit low-paid workers hardest,4 and food bank use jumped 326 per cent.5 While those on poverty wages had little choice but to risk their health and indeed their lives, middle-class professionals could work safely from home; some even enjoyed increases in their savings as outgoings on pre-coronavirus leisure activities – restaurants, theatres, holidays – stopped. According to the Office for National Statistics, by June 2020 coronavirus had killed 1 in every 1,701 people in England’s least deprived areas; in the most deprived areas, that figure was 1 in 779.6 That the Conservative government responded to the pandemic with the greatest expansion of the state in peacetime history, including paying the wages of millions of workers and securing the incomes of self-employed people, proves one thing: the state can intervene on a colossal scale for the social good, if the will is there.

Turns out, there was after all. The fact is, however, that this change of direction is an unnatural one for a Conservative Party in thrall to vested interests which prioritize economic considerations over human lives. In most respects, its approach to the coronavirus has been catastrophic, leading to the avoidable deaths of tens of thousands. On 5 March 2020, as the first British death from coronavirus was reported, Boris Johnson publicly declared that government advice was ‘wash your hands and business as usual’. A decade of Conservative austerity meant there was not enough personal protective equipment to ensure the safety of frontline workers; lockdown was delayed in pursuit of a hideous policy of ‘herd immunity’; social care was left chronically underfunded and underprepared; testing capacity was not invested in.

It nurtured a new ecosystem of think tanks, economists and intellectuals who are seriously engaged in debating what a new world could look like, brimming with ideas such as the four-day working week, a Green Industrial Revolution, and the democratization of the workplace and the economy. Just over three months after the 2019 election, British society was shut down in response to the coronavirus pandemic. ‘Boris must embrace socialism immediately to save the liberal free market,’ boomed the Telegraph, as the age of coronavirus dawned. Undoubtedly, the Conservative government had no choice but to enact the most dramatic expansion of the state in peacetime, which included paying the wages of half the country’s workforce. Yet this move was designed to preserve the existing failed model of capitalism, not to lay the foundations of a better alternative.


pages: 326 words: 106,053

The Wisdom of Crowds by James Surowiecki

AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, experimental economics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Howard Rheingold, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, interchangeable parts, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market design, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, offshore financial centre, Picturephone, prediction markets, profit maximization, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

What’s intriguing about science from the perspective of collective problem solving is that it is the community as a whole that bestows the recognition, which is to say that it’s the community as a whole that decides whether or not a scientific hypothesis is true and whether it’s original. This doesn’t mean that scientific truth is in the eye of the beholder. The coronavirus caused SARS before the WHO announced that the coronavirus caused SARS. But in scientific terms, the coronavirus only became the cause of SARS once other scientists had scrutinized the work of the labs and accepted it as proving what they said it proved. Academic labs and corporate research labs across the world are now busy working on possible tests and vaccines for SARS, all predicated on the idea that the SARS virus is a coronavirus. They are doing so only because the scientific community has reached—in an indirect way—a consensus on the issue.

That same day, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control in the United States separately isolated a virus that, under the electron microscope, looked like what’s called a coronavirus. This was something of a surprise. Coronaviruses make animals very sick, but in humans their effects tend to be rather mild. But over the next week, labs in the network detected the coronavirus in a wide variety of samples from people who had been diagnosed with SARS. Labs in Germany, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong began sequencing the virus. In early April, monkeys in the Netherlands laboratory who had been infected with the coronavirus came down with full-blown cases of SARS. By April 16, a mere month after their collaboration had begun, the labs were confident enough to announce that the coronavirus did, in fact, cause SARS.

By April 16, a mere month after their collaboration had begun, the labs were confident enough to announce that the coronavirus did, in fact, cause SARS. The discovery of the SARS virus was, by any measure, a remarkable feat. And when we’re faced with a remarkable feat, our natural inclination is to ask: Who did it? Who actually discovered the cause of SARS? But the truth is, that’s an impossible question to answer. We know the name of the person who first spotted the coronavirus. She was an electron microscopist named Cynthia Goldsmith, who worked in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lab in Atlanta. But you can’t say she discovered what caused SARS, since it took weeks of work by labs all over the world to prove that the coronavirus actually made people sick.


pages: 309 words: 81,243

The Authoritarian Moment: How the Left Weaponized America's Institutions Against Dissent by Ben Shapiro

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, gender pay gap, global pandemic, Herbert Marcuse, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, microaggression, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, obamacare, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, War on Poverty, yellow journalism

Julia Marcus, epidemiologist at Harvard Medical School, and Gregg Gonsalves, epidemiologist at Yale School of Public Health, penned an article at The Atlantic claiming, “Public-health experts are weighing these same risks at a population level, and many have come to the conclusion that the health implications of maintaining the status quo of white supremacy are too great to ignore, even with the potential for an increase in coronavirus transmission from the protests.”10 The University of California, San Francisco, hospital gave doctors of color a day off after Floyd’s death; many of those doctors joined protests. One, Dr. Maura Jones, explained, “I would argue that, yeah I’m a doctor and I encourage you to social distance and I care about coronavirus and I know that it’s a real threat, but racism is, to me to my family, the bigger threat right now and it has been for hundreds of years.”

Vincent Barone, “NYC Black Lives Matter marches can continue despite large-event ban, de Blasio says,” NYPost.com, July 9, 2020, https://nypost.com/2020/07/09/nyc-allows-black-lives-matter-marches-despite-ban-on-large-events/. 9. Rachel Weiner, “Political and health leaders’ embrace of Floyd protests fuels debate over coronavirus restrictions,” WashingtonPost.com, June 11, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/political-and-health-leaders-embrace-of-floyd-protests-fuels-debate-over-coronavirus-restrictions/2020/06/11/9c60bca6-a761-11ea-bb20-ebf0921f3bbd_story.html. 10. Julia Marcus and Gregg Gonsalves, “Public-Health Experts Are Not Hypocrites,” TheAtlantic.com, June 11, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/06/public-health-experts-are-not-hypocrites/612853/. 11.

Isaac Scher, “NYC’s contact tracers have been told not to ask people if they’ve attended a protest,” BusinessInsider.com, June 15, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/nyc-contact-tracers-not-asking-people-attend-george-floyd-protest-2020-6. 15. “COVID-19 Hospitalization and Death by Age,” CDC.gov, August 18, 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-age.html. 16. Yascha Mounk, “Why I’m Losing Trust in the Institutions,” Persuasion.community, December 23, 2020, https://www.persuasion.community/p/why-im-losing-trust-in-the-institutions. 17. Abby Goodnough and Jan Hoffman, “The Elderly vs. Essential Workers: Who Should Get the Coronavirus Vaccine First?,” NYTimes.com, December 5, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/05/health/covid-vaccine-first.html. 18.


pages: 816 words: 191,889

The Long Game: China's Grand Strategy to Displace American Order by Rush Doshi

American ideology, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Bretton Woods, capital controls, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, defense in depth, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, global pandemic, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, kremlinology, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, offshore financial centre, positional goods, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, special economic zone, trade liberalization, transaction costs, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, zero-sum game

,” in Chinese Politics as Fragmented Authoritarianism (New York: Routledge, 2017), 38–55. 55Suisheng Zhao, “China’s Foreign Policy Making Process: Players and Institutions,” in China and the World, ed. David Shambaugh (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020), 94. 56Li Yuan, “Coronavirus Crisis Shows China’s Governance Failure,” New York Times, February 4, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/04/business/china-coronavirus-government.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage. 57Quoted in Jerry F. Hough and Merle Fainsod, How the Soviet Union Is Governed (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979), 19. 58See Shambaugh, China’s Communist Party, 141–43. 59Yun Sun, “Chinese Public Opinion: Shaping China’s Foreign Policy, or Shaped by It?

From China’s perspective—which is highly sensitive to changes in its perceptions of American power and threat—these two events were shocking. Beijing believed that the world’s most powerful democracies were withdrawing from the international order they had helped erect abroad and were struggling to govern themselves at home. The West’s subsequent response to the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, and then the storming of the US Capitol by extremists in 2021, reinforced a sense that “time and momentum are on our side,” as Xi Jinping put it shortly after those events.3 China’s leadership and foreign policy elite declared that a “period of historical opportunity” [历史机遇期] had emerged to expand the country’s strategic focus from Asia to the wider globe and its governance systems.

China’s second strategy of displacement (2008–2016) sought to build the foundation for regional hegemony in Asia, and it was launched after the Global Financial Crisis led Beijing to see US power as diminished and emboldened it to take a more confident approach. Now, with the invocation of “great changes unseen in a century” following Brexit, President Trump’s election, and the coronavirus pandemic, China is launching a third strategy of displacement, one that expands its blunting and building efforts worldwide to displace the United States as the global leader. In its final chapters, this book uses insights about China’s strategy to formulate an asymmetric US grand strategy in response—one that takes a page from China’s own book—and would seek to contest China’s regional and global ambitions without competing dollar-for-dollar, ship-for-ship, or loan-for-loan.


pages: 231 words: 71,299

Culture Warlords: My Journey Into the Dark Web of White Supremacy by Talia Lavin

4chan, coronavirus, COVID-19, disinformation, Donald Trump, epigenetics, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, mass immigration, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, phenotype, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Perhaps most chillingly, white supremacists embraced the social chaos created by the economic collapse and fear caused by the novel coronavirus in 2020, reveling among themselves about its implications as a precursor to their beloved “Boogaloo.” On March 24, 2020, thirty-six-year-old Timothy Wilson was shot dead in a conflict with the FBI in Kansas City, Missouri. He had been under investigation as a domestic terrorist for months, and had been planning to bomb a building in the Kansas City area to gain attention for his white-supremacist views. Amid the terror surrounding the novel coronavirus, the FBI said, he decided to take advantage of “the increased impact given the media attention on the health sector” and planned to set off a car bomb at a hospital.

The most popular name for it is “the Boogaloo,” a reference to a widely panned 1984 sequel to a breakdancing movie, Breakin’ 2: Electric Boogaloo, only the sequel in question here is to the Civil War. In the late spring of 2020, the term Boogaloo experienced an explosion of popularity, as a series of far-right protests against coronavirus quarantine and lockdown orders by state governments spread across the United States. The protesters were a loose coalition of heavily armed white nationalists, antivaccine activists, conspiracy theorists, and members of the antigovernment militia movement. As the watchdog group the Tech Transparency Project reported, a large network of Facebook pages dedicated to the Boogaloo—and variants like “big luau,” “boog,” and “big igloo,” designed to evade moderators—shared extremist content, including a report on how to disrupt US government supply lines and assassinate government officials.

After years of measures to torment migrants—such as the administration’s “Remain in Mexico” policy, which stranded tens of thousands of asylum seekers in squalid and dangerous refugee camps on the Mexican side of the US border—and slash legal immigration, Miller quietly took advantage of the uncertainty and fear of the coronavirus pandemic of 2020 to enact the most ambitious anti-immigration actions of the Trump administration. While the justification for new anti-immigrant policies was putatively economic, Miller helped to ensconce in federal policy the long-held white-supremacist belief that immigrants bring disease. On April 22, 2020, Trump signed a Miller-engineered executive order barring new green cards from being issued.


pages: 223 words: 60,936

Remote Work Revolution: Succeeding From Anywhere by Tsedal Neeley

Airbnb, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, cloud computing, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, discrete time, Donald Trump, future of work, global pandemic, iterative process, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mass immigration, natural language processing, remote work: asynchronous communication, remote working, Silicon Valley

A kind of litmus test for competent framing of the situation was apparent in the varying responses leaders adopted in late 2019 and early 2020, when the world first became aware of the existence and threat of a novel coronavirus spreading rapidly across national borders. Consider, first, how the leadership in New Orleans, Louisiana, framed the situation. In the month or so leading up to the annual Mardi Gras festival, which attracts more than a million people from all over the world, the U.S. government issued a report that the novel coronavirus detected in China was a low threat to the American public. The mayor, along with the city’s top health official and the carnival planners, took the report at face value.

The future is in remote work. None of these trends or predictions, however, accounted for a global pandemic that would require the wholesale migration of nearly entire companies to remote work in a matter of weeks. The remote work revolution, long in coming, was accelerated by the sudden and severe coronavirus outbreak. Chances are you are part of the massive transition that has forced companies to rapidly advance their digital footprint including cloud, storage, cybersecurity, and device and tool usages to accommodate their new virtual workforce. These changes have opened up a whole new scope of untold opportunities for people and organizations across the globe.

These key features of the agile process seem to make it incompatible with distributed teams or people working remotely. However, as you will see later in the chapter, agile processes have been scaled to globally distributed teams with great success, and have also thrived in a remote format—even for collocated agile teams suddenly ordered to stay at home as the coronavirus raged. Remote teams and managers can take heart—if a methodology that’s so intensely dependent on daily, collocated meetings can be transformed to remote success, then anything can. BEYOND SOFTWARE The Agile Manifesto originated in software development, but since then its methods have become appealing in a world where product cycles are shorter and shorter, and information becomes more and more plentiful.


pages: 400 words: 121,988

Trading at the Speed of Light: How Ultrafast Algorithms Are Transforming Financial Markets by Donald MacKenzie

algorithmic trading, automated trading system, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, centralized clearinghouse, Claude Shannon: information theory, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Google Earth, Hacker Ethic, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, inventory management, light touch regulation, linked data, low earth orbit, market design, market microstructure, Martin Wolf, Renaissance Technologies, Satoshi Nakamoto, Small Order Execution System, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Great Moderation, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Wall Street Journal, March 25. Available at https://wsj.com/articles/thinning-liquidity-in-key-futures-market-worries-traders-11553515200, accessed December 24, 2019. ________. 2020. “Post-Flash Crash Fixes Bolstered Markets during Coronavirus Selloff.” Wall Street Journal, May 5. Available at https://www.wsj.com/articles/post-flash-crash-fixes-bolstered-markets-during-coronavirus-selloff-11588671000, accessed May 5, 2020. Pagliari, Stefano, and Kevin Young. 2016. “The Interest Ecology of Financial Regulation: Interest Group Plurality in the Design of Financial Regulatory Policies.” Socio-Economic Review 14/2: 309–337.

The market-data-processing firm Exegy continuously measures the numbers of messages flowing through its equipment in NY4; at the time of writing, the peak recorded on its system was a burst equivalent to 105.3 million messages per second, at 2:39 p.m. on July 19, 2018.11 The core systems of automated trading can keep working with little direct human intervention. That became evident in March 2020, as lockdowns belatedly began in Western countries and it finally became clear to their financial markets just how serious the coronavirus epidemic was. Huge amounts of turbulent trading took place, and crucial markets were badly disrupted, including the market for the traditionally safest of safe assets, Treasurys, which as already noted are the sovereign debt securities of the United States. In April, the prices of oil futures even briefly became negative, as a result of the combination of reduced demand for oil and difficulties in storing it.

I was also taken on tours of trading floors, including the two that still had genuinely significant roles: the main trading room of the New York Stock Exchange, which is important during the NYSE’s daily opening and closing auctions, and the section of the trading floor of the Chicago Board Options Exchange which trades options on the Standard & Poor’s 500 share-price index. (Face-to-face trading had, of course, to be suspended as the coronavirus epidemic peaked, and at the time of writing, in June 2020, it has restarted only partially.) I’m not an economist, and this book does not try to answer the questions that economists have traditionally asked about HFT, such as whether it increases market liquidity or volatility; see the appendix on the literature on HFT.


pages: 206 words: 68,757

Four Thousand Weeks: Time Management for Mortals by Oliver Burkeman

"side hustle", airport security, Albert Einstein, Cal Newport, coronavirus, COVID-19, Douglas Hofstadter, Frederick Winslow Taylor, gig economy, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Inbox Zero, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Parkinson's law, profit motive, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

It’s hard to imagine a crueler arrangement: not only are our four thousand weeks constantly running out, but the fewer of them we have left, the faster we seem to lose them. And if our relationship to our limited time has always been a difficult one, recent events have brought matters to a head. In 2020, in lockdown during the coronavirus pandemic, with our normal routines suspended, many people reported feeling that time was disintegrating completely, giving rise to the disorienting impression that their days were somehow simultaneously racing by and dragging on interminably. Time divided us, even more than it had before: for those with jobs and small children at home, there wasn’t enough of it; for those furloughed or unemployed, there was too much.

Whenever I’m feeling resentful about deadlines, or the toddler’s unpredictable sleep patterns, or other incursions upon my temporal sovereignty, I try to remember the cautionary tale of Mario Salcedo, a Cuban American financial consultant who almost certainly holds the record for the number of nights spent aboard cruise ships. There’s little question that Super Mario—as he’s known to the staff of Royal Caribbean Cruises, the firm to which he’s been loyal for most of his two decades, as a resident of the oceans, with the 2020 coronavirus pandemic the only major interruption—is in full control of his time. “I don’t have to take out the garbage, I don’t have to clean, I don’t have to do laundry—I’ve eliminated all those non-value-added activities, and just have all the time in the world to enjoy what I like to do,” he once told the filmmaker Lance Oppenheim, poolside on board the Enchantment of the Seas.

For the least privileged, the dominance of this kind of freedom translates into no freedom at all: it means unpredictable gig-economy jobs and “on-demand scheduling,” in which the big-box retailer you work for might call you into work at any moment, its labor needs calculated algorithmically from hour to hour based on sales volume—making it all but impossible to plan childcare or essential visits to the doctor, let alone a night out with friends. But even for those of us who genuinely do have much more personal control over when we work than previous generations ever did, the result is that work seeps through life like water, filling every cranny with more to-dos, a phenomenon that seemed to only intensify during the coronavirus lockdown. It starts to feel as though you, your spouse, and your closest friends have all been assigned to different color-coded Soviet work groups. The reason it’s so hard for my wife and me to find an hour in the week for a serious conversation, or for me and my three closest friends to meet for a beer, isn’t usually that we “don’t have the time,” in the strict sense of that phrase, though that’s what we may tell ourselves.


pages: 665 words: 159,350

Shape: The Hidden Geometry of Information, Biology, Strategy, Democracy, and Everything Else by Jordan Ellenberg

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, autonomous vehicles, British Empire, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, East Village, Edmond Halley, Elliott wave, Erdős number, facts on the ground, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, greed is good, Henri Poincaré, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Bachelier, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Milgram experiment, Nate Silver, Paul Erdős, pets.com, pez dispenser, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Ralph Nelson Elliott, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Snapchat, social graph, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

His answer: Robert Plot and Michael Burghers, The Natural History of Oxford-Shire: Being an Essay Towards the Natural History of England (Printed at the Theater in Oxford, 1677): 136–39. Biodiversoty Heritage Library, https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/186210#page/11/mode/1up. “Coronavirus Models”: Zeynep Tufekci, “Don’t Believe the COVID-19 Models,” Atlantic, Apr. 2, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2020/04/coronavirus-models-arent-supposed-be-right/609271. a photo of a protester: Photo by Jim Mone/Associated Press, http://journaltimes.com/news/national/photos-protesters-rally-against-coronavirus-restrictions-in-gatherings-across-us/collection_b0cd8847-b8f4-5fe0-b2c3-583fac7ec53a.html#48. There was an intellectual dustup: Yarden Katz, “Noam Chomsky on Where Artificial Intellgence Went Wrong,” Atlantic, Nov. 1, 2012, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/11/noam-chomsky-on-where-artificial-intelligence-went-wrong/261637/, and the combative but very informative Peter Norvig, “On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning,” available at http://norvig.com/chomsky.html.

The next thousand deaths happened in four days. On March 9, 2020, after the disease had already started to spread worldwide, one U.S. government official* aggressively downplayed the threat, comparing it with the thousands of Americans who succumb to flu each year: “At this moment there are 546 confirmed cases of CoronaVirus, with 22 deaths. Think about that!” A week later, twenty-two Americans were dying of COVID-19 every day. A week after that, it was almost ten times that many. The thing about geometric progressions is, there are good ones and there are bad ones. Suppose the carriers of a disease pass their little friend along to 0.8 people on average instead of 2.

If there are sixteen thousand soldiers, you have 3,200 groups; of those, 2,880 get cleared, leaving 320 groups consisting of 1,600 soldiers you have to go back and test one by one. So in all you ran the test 3,200 + 1,600 = 4,800 times, a big saving over testing 16,000 soldiers one by one! And you can do even better; Dorfman works out that with a 2% prevalence rate, the optimum group size is eight, which brings you down to about 4,400 tests. The relevance to coronavirus is clear: if we don’t have enough tests to test everyone one by one, maybe we can swab seven or eight people’s nostrils, put the specimens all in a single container, and test them all at once. Caveat: the Dorfman protocol for detecting syphilis was never actually used. Dorfman wasn’t even working for the army; he was at the Office of Price Control when he and his colleague David Rosenblatt hatched the idea of group testing for syphilis, the day after Rosenblatt reported for his own induction and had his Wasserman test.


pages: 344 words: 104,522

Woke, Inc: Inside Corporate America's Social Justice Scam by Vivek Ramaswamy

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, cleantech, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, desegregation, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fudge factor, full employment, glass ceiling, global pandemic, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, impact investing, independent contractor, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, microaggression, Network effects, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, random walk, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, source of truth, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Vanguard fund, WeWork, zero-sum game

Facts are important inputs to making sound policy decisions, but facts and policy judgments are not the same thing. It’s one thing for someone to wrongly assert that bandanas were more effective than N95 masks in preventing person-to-person transmission of the coronavirus. It’s another matter entirely to treat anti-lockdown arguments as though those arguments themselves are incorrect “facts.” Whether a lockdown of certain businesses to prevent the coronavirus from spreading is the right policy isn’t a matter of “fact” or “science.” It’s a policy judgment, and the best policy may vary depending on what the business is, where it is, and myriad other factors.

“The Right to Vote Is Fundamental—a Letter from Biotechnology Industry Leaders.” Endpoints News, 15 Apr. 2021, endpts.com/the-right-to-vote-is-fundamental-a-letter-from-biotechnology-industry-leaders/. 12. Gore, Al, and David Blood. “Capitalism after the Coronavirus.” The Wall Street Journal, 29 June 2020, www.wsj.com/articles/capitalism-after-the-coronavirus-11593470102. 13. Benioff, Marc. “Marc Benioff: We Need a New Capitalism.” The New York Times, 14 Oct. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/10/14/opinion/benioff-salesforce-capitalism.html. 14. Douthat, Ross. “The Rise of Woke Capital.” The New York Times, 28 Feb. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/02/28/opinion/corporate-america-activism.html. 15.

Cliff’s Perspectives, AQR Capital Management, 18 May 2017, www.aqr.com/Insights/Perspectives/Virtue-is-its-Own-Reward-Or-One-Mans-Ceiling-is-Another-Mans-Floor. 3. Schwab, Klaus, and Peter Vanham. Stakeholder Capitalism: A Global Economy That Works for Progress, People and Planet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021. 4. Gore, Al, and David Blood. “Capitalism after the Coronavirus.” The Wall Street Journal, 29 June 2020, www.wsj.com/articles/capitalism-after-the-coronavirus-11593470102. 5. Fink, Larry. “A Fundamental Reshaping of Finance.” BlackRock, 14 Jan. 2020, www.blackrock.com/ch/individual/en/larry-fink-ceo-letter#:~:text=Our%20investment%20conviction%20is%20that,for%20client%20portfolios%20going%20forward. 6.


pages: 444 words: 124,631

Buy Now, Pay Later: The Extraordinary Story of Afterpay by Jonathan Shapiro, James Eyers

"side hustle", Airbnb, bank run, barriers to entry, blockchain, British Empire, clockwatching, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, diversification, Dogecoin, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, financial deregulation, greed is good, index fund, Jones Act, Kickstarter, late fees, light touch regulation, Mount Scopus, Network effects, new economy, passive investing, payday loans, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, regulatory arbitrage, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, short selling, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vanguard fund

Allen & Unwin 83 Alexander Street Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia Phone: (61 2) 8425 0100 Email: info@allenandunwin.com Web: www.allenandunwin.com ISBN 978 1 76087 946 4 eISBN 978 1 76106 236 0 Index by Puddingburn Internal design by Midland Typesetters Set by Midland Typesetters, Australia Cover design: Philip Campbell Design Cover photographs: Shutterstock (headphones, bag); iStock (shoes) CONTENTS Prologue 1 Rags to Riches 2 Asset Strippers 3 Lay-by 4 Touch Point 5 Little King 6 Going Public 7 The Unsuspected Secret 8 Mickey Mouse and Marijuana 9 Broker Wars 10 Short on Time 11 House of Cards 12 Taking Credit 13 The Cub Club 14 Going Viral 15 Standing Down 16 Trending 17 Once in a Lifetime Epilogue Acknowledgements Notes Bibliography Index PROLOGUE ‘TREPIDATION’ IS THE word we both had scrawled and underlined in our notepads after a half-hour Zoom call with Anthony Eisen and Nick Molnar, the founders of Afterpay. The call was held on Tuesday, 19 January 2021, when most of Australia was enjoying a summer holiday after a traumatic 2020, which had seen the world ravaged by the coronavirus pandemic. Nick dialled in from ‘Nicko’s iPhone’. He was unshaven and crouched under a staircase in his holiday house in Byron Bay. The scheduled time of 1 pm coincided with the nap time of his second child, who was only a few months old. Anthony logged on from his desk at Afterpay’s Melbourne office, in a Collins Street tower with views of the city in the background.

Morrison and his family had left the country for a holiday in Hawaii, while at home exhausted volunteer firefighters continued battling the raging blazes. When confronted about his absence, he snapped that he didn’t ‘hold the hose, mate’. Lowe had also holidayed in the United States with his family, in California—and in his prepared remarks to the National Press Club, he mentioned the risks posed by the bushfire and a new coronavirus that had locked down the city of Wuhan, in China. The bushfires were a tragedy, he said, but there would be no enduring hit to the economy. As for the virus designated by the World Health Organization as COVID-19, the experience of the SARS virus in 2002 was instructive: activity would be depressed but would snap back sharply once the health authorities brought the virus under control.

In the back of the room, Ben McGarry, of hedge fund Totus Capital, listened intently. He’d been openly betting that Tesla shares would fall; as they ripped higher, even his family were ribbing him. But he, like other hedge fund managers, had been paying close attention to the virus. The market was too complacent, he believed. If Lowe was alert but not alarmed by the coronavirus in early February, by the end of the month he had a greater sense that he, along with the entire public service, was about to face his greatest test. Lowe and treasurer Josh Frydenberg had flown to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for a G20 meeting held over two days from 22 February. There, International Monetary Fund officials informed them that the virus had spread to Iran, South Korea and Italy, and the following day those countries had gone into lockdown.


pages: 210 words: 62,278

No One Succeeds Alone by Robert Reffkin

Albert Einstein, coronavirus, COVID-19, financial independence, global pandemic, hiring and firing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, market design, pattern recognition, Steve Jobs, young professional

Always look for the positive even when it’s hard to see The lessons I learned leading during the coronavirus pandemic When the coronavirus pandemic first hit, I was going to work every day in Compass’s eleven-story office building in Manhattan, riding elevators, meeting with hundreds of people a week, flying to Seattle twice a month to meet with the leaders of our West Coast technology hub, and visiting other Compass offices in other cities. Then, in a matter of days, everything changed. First came the official declaration that the coronavirus was a pandemic. Then the stock market crashed, evaporating trillions of dollars in wealth and savings.

Index A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z B A Better Chance, 17, 43, 63 A abundance mindset, 170 accountability, 38–39, 181–83 adaptability, 9–10, 169–71, 186, 194–96 Adashek, Jeannie, 93 Allon, Ori belonging and community, 195–96 first meeting, 164–66 as mentor, 82, 181 origin of Compass, 104 pivot at Compass, 206–12 recruitment, 176–78 America Needs You, 49, 158–59 See also New York Needs You authentic self, 9, 58, 73–76, 189–92 See also strengths, maximizing balance, work-life, 127–29 be solutions driven (principle of entrepreneurship), 27–30, 40–43, 54–66, 88–90, 109–11, 150–62 being Black and adaptability, 9–10 disowned by grandparents, 24–25 expectations, 122–23 in New York City, 121 professional belonging, 194 in relationship with college girlfriend, 201–2 in school, 13–15, 21, 62, 215–18 See also discrimination; immigrants; privilege and advantage belonging creating your own community, 194–96 defined, 8–9 discrimination and, 215–18 vs. impostor syndrome, 130–31, 189–92 purpose and, 49–50 socioeconomic background, 67–69 Belonging Walls, 196 Benioff, Marc, ix–x Benís (wife) on acceptance of flaws, 73–76 childhood, inequality of, 66–69 as coach, 100 college opportunity, 88–90 coming to New York, 64–66 home and rediscovering herself, 69–73 as inspiration, 160 as life partner, 137–40 society’s unwritten rules, 85–86 work-life balance, 128–29 Berkeley house, 58–61 bias, 166–68 Black executives and mentors, 94–98 bounce back with passion (principle of entrepreneurship), 20, 69–73, 109–11, 197–212 Byard, Eliza, 123 C celebration, of successes, 134–35, 158 change, at Compass, 206–12 Chenault, Ken, 94, 138, 170 coaches, 98–101 Cohn, Gary, 130–31 collaborate without ego (principle of entrepreneurship), 11–13, 46–47, 73–76, 88–90, 98–101, 109–11, 172–83 Columbia University accelerated graduation, 40–43 admission and anticipation, 134–35 application to, 27–29 college application essay, 32–36 communication of change, 209–12 handwritten notes, 93, 166 with mentors, 86–88, 91–93 with new employees, 132–34 observation of facial expressions, 140–42 speaking out for what is right, 118–19, 215–18 Compass change, challenge of, 209–12 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 culture, 125–27, 151–53, 181–83 early pivot, 206–9 hiring and firing, 173–79 on innovation, 144–45, 147–49 origin of, 97–98, 103–5 welcoming new employees, 132–34 Compass Academy, 171 Compass Concierge, 149 compensation, asking for a raise, 161–62 constructive feedback, 82–85 Contraband (school newspaper), 216–18 Cornell, Henry, 97, 99, 187, 191 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 Customer Feedback Forum, 145–47 customers (real estate agents) feedback from, 145–47, 207–9 focus on, 23–24, 144–45, 166–68 D decision-making tools for forgiveness, 24–27 hiring and firing tests, 179–81 on life partner, 137–40 networking, 86–88 perspective, long-term, 117–19 for success, 20 DiBiasio, Dolf, 43–44 discrimination adapting oneself to society, 9–10 belonging and community, 194–96, 215–18 dreams and, 121–23 father and, 11–12 in schools, 13–15 skeptics, 29–30 socioeconomic, 67–68 stereotypes and bias, 166–68 unwritten rules, of society, 85–86 See also immigrants DJ business, 23–24, 34–35 Dodge & Cox internship, 63 dream big (principle of entrepreneurship), 2, 17–20, 27–30, 36–39, 54–63, 73–76, 109–11, 113–23 dreams attachment to vs. change, 209–12 of author, 49, 119–21 combining goals, 101–3, 129 energy and, 21 measuring, 125–27 motivation to achieve, 159–61 resilience and, 198–201 for this book, 3–4 E Eduard Lee (father) in college essay, 32–33 ego and fatherhood, 11–13 family life, 7 gratitude, 186 as motivational factor, 160–61 education Benís and, 69, 88–90 discrimination vs. support for, 13–15 Elida and, 65, 68 opportunities for, 16–18 strengths and, 188–89 of whole person, 36–39 ego, 11–13, 110, 138, 144, 145, 173 Elida (mother-in-law), 64–69, 78, 89, 129 empathy, 25 energy for accomplishing dreams, 18–19 dreams and success, 21–22 from negativity, 27–30 from people, 155–59 as test, 180 See also motivation; taking action entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship customers and, 23–24 defined, 63 overview and principles of, 109–11 rules, flexibility of, 40–43 work-life balance, 127–29 exit strategy, 129–32 expectations, 14, 38, 98, 123 F failure as feedback, 147–49 losing when right, 99–100 mothers and, 53 Reffkin on, 2–3 vs. strengths, 185 See also resilience family, importance of, 76–78, 117–19, 160 fear, 146–47, 148, 170 feedback constructive, importance of, 82–85, 99 from customers, 145–47, 206–9 diversity and variety in, 147–49 facial expressions, 140–42 learn from reality, principle of, 136–37 learning from pain, 12–13, 201–6 on life partner, 137–40 listening and humility, 142–45 from mentees in nonprofit, 158–59 recruitment and, 177–79 success and, 20 firing employees, 173–75, 179–81 Floyd, George, 118, 122 forgiveness, 24–27 Foster, Dick, 96, 138–39, 192 G Global Horizons, 62 Goldman Sachs, 44, 97–99, 103, 130–32, 187, 191 grandfather, 24–25, 54–56 gratitude, 77–78, 92–93, 168–69, 186–88 grudges, 24–27 guilt, 73–75 H Haas School of Business, 63 Henry Crown Fellows, 102 hiring tests, 179–81 home, importance of, 69–73 humility, 142–45 hustle, importance of, 48–50 I immigrants, 7, 55, 85–86, 109, 118, 195 impostor syndrome, 130, 189–92 innovation, 143 inspiration, 101–3 invention, 143–44 J Jobs, Steve, 30, 178 Jordan, Vernon, 93, 94–98 Julpan (company), 165 K “Kids in the Conference Room, The” (article), 44 L Lazard, 49, 93, 95, 96, 97, 130, 205 leadership characteristics of, x, 170 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 employee communication, 132–34 Jordan, Vernon, lessons from, 94–98 listening, 98–101, 142–45 learn from reality (principle of entrepreneurship), 20, 23–24, 81–85, 90–94, 98–103, 109–11, 136–49 Lee, Eduard Rodney.

Index A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z B A Better Chance, 17, 43, 63 A abundance mindset, 170 accountability, 38–39, 181–83 adaptability, 9–10, 169–71, 186, 194–96 Adashek, Jeannie, 93 Allon, Ori belonging and community, 195–96 first meeting, 164–66 as mentor, 82, 181 origin of Compass, 104 pivot at Compass, 206–12 recruitment, 176–78 America Needs You, 49, 158–59 See also New York Needs You authentic self, 9, 58, 73–76, 189–92 See also strengths, maximizing balance, work-life, 127–29 be solutions driven (principle of entrepreneurship), 27–30, 40–43, 54–66, 88–90, 109–11, 150–62 being Black and adaptability, 9–10 disowned by grandparents, 24–25 expectations, 122–23 in New York City, 121 professional belonging, 194 in relationship with college girlfriend, 201–2 in school, 13–15, 21, 62, 215–18 See also discrimination; immigrants; privilege and advantage belonging creating your own community, 194–96 defined, 8–9 discrimination and, 215–18 vs. impostor syndrome, 130–31, 189–92 purpose and, 49–50 socioeconomic background, 67–69 Belonging Walls, 196 Benioff, Marc, ix–x Benís (wife) on acceptance of flaws, 73–76 childhood, inequality of, 66–69 as coach, 100 college opportunity, 88–90 coming to New York, 64–66 home and rediscovering herself, 69–73 as inspiration, 160 as life partner, 137–40 society’s unwritten rules, 85–86 work-life balance, 128–29 Berkeley house, 58–61 bias, 166–68 Black executives and mentors, 94–98 bounce back with passion (principle of entrepreneurship), 20, 69–73, 109–11, 197–212 Byard, Eliza, 123 C celebration, of successes, 134–35, 158 change, at Compass, 206–12 Chenault, Ken, 94, 138, 170 coaches, 98–101 Cohn, Gary, 130–31 collaborate without ego (principle of entrepreneurship), 11–13, 46–47, 73–76, 88–90, 98–101, 109–11, 172–83 Columbia University accelerated graduation, 40–43 admission and anticipation, 134–35 application to, 27–29 college application essay, 32–36 communication of change, 209–12 handwritten notes, 93, 166 with mentors, 86–88, 91–93 with new employees, 132–34 observation of facial expressions, 140–42 speaking out for what is right, 118–19, 215–18 Compass change, challenge of, 209–12 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 culture, 125–27, 151–53, 181–83 early pivot, 206–9 hiring and firing, 173–79 on innovation, 144–45, 147–49 origin of, 97–98, 103–5 welcoming new employees, 132–34 Compass Academy, 171 Compass Concierge, 149 compensation, asking for a raise, 161–62 constructive feedback, 82–85 Contraband (school newspaper), 216–18 Cornell, Henry, 97, 99, 187, 191 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 Customer Feedback Forum, 145–47 customers (real estate agents) feedback from, 145–47, 207–9 focus on, 23–24, 144–45, 166–68 D decision-making tools for forgiveness, 24–27 hiring and firing tests, 179–81 on life partner, 137–40 networking, 86–88 perspective, long-term, 117–19 for success, 20 DiBiasio, Dolf, 43–44 discrimination adapting oneself to society, 9–10 belonging and community, 194–96, 215–18 dreams and, 121–23 father and, 11–12 in schools, 13–15 skeptics, 29–30 socioeconomic, 67–68 stereotypes and bias, 166–68 unwritten rules, of society, 85–86 See also immigrants DJ business, 23–24, 34–35 Dodge & Cox internship, 63 dream big (principle of entrepreneurship), 2, 17–20, 27–30, 36–39, 54–63, 73–76, 109–11, 113–23 dreams attachment to vs. change, 209–12 of author, 49, 119–21 combining goals, 101–3, 129 energy and, 21 measuring, 125–27 motivation to achieve, 159–61 resilience and, 198–201 for this book, 3–4 E Eduard Lee (father) in college essay, 32–33 ego and fatherhood, 11–13 family life, 7 gratitude, 186 as motivational factor, 160–61 education Benís and, 69, 88–90 discrimination vs. support for, 13–15 Elida and, 65, 68 opportunities for, 16–18 strengths and, 188–89 of whole person, 36–39 ego, 11–13, 110, 138, 144, 145, 173 Elida (mother-in-law), 64–69, 78, 89, 129 empathy, 25 energy for accomplishing dreams, 18–19 dreams and success, 21–22 from negativity, 27–30 from people, 155–59 as test, 180 See also motivation; taking action entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship customers and, 23–24 defined, 63 overview and principles of, 109–11 rules, flexibility of, 40–43 work-life balance, 127–29 exit strategy, 129–32 expectations, 14, 38, 98, 123 F failure as feedback, 147–49 losing when right, 99–100 mothers and, 53 Reffkin on, 2–3 vs. strengths, 185 See also resilience family, importance of, 76–78, 117–19, 160 fear, 146–47, 148, 170 feedback constructive, importance of, 82–85, 99 from customers, 145–47, 206–9 diversity and variety in, 147–49 facial expressions, 140–42 learn from reality, principle of, 136–37 learning from pain, 12–13, 201–6 on life partner, 137–40 listening and humility, 142–45 from mentees in nonprofit, 158–59 recruitment and, 177–79 success and, 20 firing employees, 173–75, 179–81 Floyd, George, 118, 122 forgiveness, 24–27 Foster, Dick, 96, 138–39, 192 G Global Horizons, 62 Goldman Sachs, 44, 97–99, 103, 130–32, 187, 191 grandfather, 24–25, 54–56 gratitude, 77–78, 92–93, 168–69, 186–88 grudges, 24–27 guilt, 73–75 H Haas School of Business, 63 Henry Crown Fellows, 102 hiring tests, 179–81 home, importance of, 69–73 humility, 142–45 hustle, importance of, 48–50 I immigrants, 7, 55, 85–86, 109, 118, 195 impostor syndrome, 130, 189–92 innovation, 143 inspiration, 101–3 invention, 143–44 J Jobs, Steve, 30, 178 Jordan, Vernon, 93, 94–98 Julpan (company), 165 K “Kids in the Conference Room, The” (article), 44 L Lazard, 49, 93, 95, 96, 97, 130, 205 leadership characteristics of, x, 170 coronavirus pandemic, 169–71 employee communication, 132–34 Jordan, Vernon, lessons from, 94–98 listening, 98–101, 142–45 learn from reality (principle of entrepreneurship), 20, 23–24, 81–85, 90–94, 98–103, 109–11, 136–49 Lee, Eduard Rodney. See Eduard (father) listening, 98–101, 142–45 M marathons, 101–3, 159–61 marriage, 137–40 maximize your strengths (principle of entrepreneurship), 30–32, 61–63, 73–76, 109–11, 184–96 McGuire, Ray, 97, 187 McKinsey & Company, 43–47, 130, 189–90, 192 mentors building relationships with, 90–94 college opportunities, 88–90 constructive feedback from, 36, 82–85 following in their footsteps, 101–3 networks, creating, 86–88 overview of, 81–82 principles of, 91–92 push towards achievement from, 98–101 risk and, 103–5 unwritten rules, 85–86 mindfulness, 134–35 Moore, Wes, 123 Mornell, Linda, 83–85 mothers, as entrepreneurs family and, 76–78 independence and, 54–58 overview of, 53–54 perseverance, 58–66 rediscovering oneself, 69–73 self-acceptance, 73–76 self-care, 192 motivation to achieve dreams, 19, 44–45 accomplishments, historical, 154–55 finding and using, 159–61 forgiveness and, 26 inspiration and, 101–3 from people, 155–59 recruitment and, 177–79 move fast (principle of entrepreneurship), 40–43, 48–50, 64–66, 109–11, 124–35 movies, as inspiration, 114–17 multitasking, 129 N National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship, 23–24, 63 National Outdoor Leadership School, 62, 83–85, 193 Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship, 23–24 networking access to and privilege, 85–86 creating your own, 86–88 energy and, 155–59 integration of work and social life, 127–29 as opportunity, 43–45, 164–66 “rich-kid’s network” idea, 86–88 See also collaboration; communication; mentors New York Needs You, 2, 49, 104, 155–59 See also America Needs You nonprofits charity and, 101–4, 116 as opportunities, 16–18, 62–63, 81–84, 110 starting one, 49, 96–97, 155, 200 See also nonprofits by name O obsess about opportunity (principle of entrepreneurship), 16–18, 23–24, 27–30, 39–40, 43–45, 86–88, 90–94, 109–11, 163–71 Ogunlesi, Adebayo “Bayo,” 82, 103–5 opportunity access to, 85–86 bias, blinding to, 166–68 educational, 61–63 interactions as, 10, 43–45, 164–66 mentors, 94–98 openness to, 16–18, 150–51 pursuing dreams despite odds, 27–30 risk, 97–98 solutions-oriented approach, 151–53 working for, 39–40 Oprah (Winfrey), 43 Ori.


pages: 505 words: 138,917

Open: The Story of Human Progress by Johan Norberg

additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, humanitarian revolution, illegal immigration, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, Network effects, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, place-making, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Uber for X, ultimatum game, universal basic income, World Values Survey, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Historically, rulers have used such great plagues to extend control over their populations, pull up the drawbridges and attack scapegoats, like Jews, foreigners or witches. As a new coronavirus pandemic haunts the world, it is not difficult to imagine how it could be a decisive turning point, away from openness. Companies are forced to re-evaluate international supply chains, natives become suspicious of outsiders and global travel, and governments grant themselves new powers. At the time of writing, no government has yet ‘postponed’ an election because of the coronavirus, but such things have happened before in history. Panic changes politics in a nationalist direction, such as with bans on the export of drugs and medical equipment.

This gave rise to science, which is built on the exchange, criticism, comparison and accumulation of knowledge, and to technology, which is the application of science to solve practical problems. We observe the benefits cooperation and mobility have given us when it’s suddenly shut down. The World Bank has calculated that the greatest economic damage from epidemics like swine flu, SARS or the new coronavirus do not come from mortality, morbidity, treatment and associated loss of production, but from increased fear of associating with others. Up to 90 per cent of the damage comes from aversion behaviour, which shuts down places of production, transportation, harbours and airports.2 We humans innovate and we imitate, rinse and repeat, until we create something special.

We rarely think of it this way, but globalization is actually our best chance to fight pandemics in the first place, since wealth, communication technology and open science have made our response to new diseases faster than ever, as science writer Ron Bailey has noted.8 Hospitals, researchers, health authorities and drug companies everywhere can now supply each other with instant information and coordinate efforts to analyse and combat the problem. After having tried to conceal the outbreak for weeks, China announced that it had found a new coronavirus on 2 January 2020. Using technologies developed on the other side of the globe, Chinese scientists could read the complete genome of the virus and publish it on a new global hub for medical research, on 10 January. Just six days later, German researchers had used this information to develop and release a diagnostic test to detect new infections.


pages: 399 words: 118,576

Ageless: The New Science of Getting Older Without Getting Old by Andrew Steele

Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, bioinformatics, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, clockwatching, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, discovery of penicillin, double helix, epigenetics, Hans Rosling, life extension, lone genius, megastructure, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, Peter Thiel, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, stealth mode startup, stem cell, zero-sum game

Pandemics are a humbling reminder of the power of nature compared to our own. The coronavirus crisis has laid bare what many of us had largely forgotten: the terrible toll infectious disease can take without treatments or vaccines. Nonetheless, your risk of death from COVID-19 is still substantially less than the risk from infections in the past – taken over the whole of human history, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms have probably struck down more of us than anything else. Even in the worst case, the consequences of coronavirus are unlikely to exceed those of the 1918 flu pandemic: during that outbreak, 50 to 100 million died over a couple of years at the hands of flu viruses – up to 5 per cent of the global population at the time – dwarfing the 20 million killed in the preceding four years of mechanised annihilation in the First World War.

Nonetheless, improving diets and making exercise easier to integrate into daily lives both need to be priorities if we want to make sure lifespans continue to increase. Other factors, from air pollution (whose risks are only beginning to be understood, but seem to affect ageing to some extent – not just in the respiratory system, but by promoting cardiovascular diseases and perhaps even dementia) to antibiotic resistance and emerging diseases like coronavirus (which could see a partial return to the bad old days of deaths from infection) are also worth trying to get ahead of. There are also inequalities which mean, while headline life expectancies increase or at worst stay constant in whole countries, some socioeconomic groups or regions have experienced declines in lifespan in the last decade or so.

By alleviating mortality in childhood and young adults, many of us now live long enough to experience the immune decline of ageing, and more than 90 per cent of deaths from infectious disease are in people over the age of 60. The substantial extra risk to older people from infectious disease has been laid bare by the coronavirus pandemic, whose toll in terms of hospitalisation and death is much higher among the elderly. While dying from flu or COVID-19 isn’t ageing per se, the massively increased risk with age means that ageing bears ultimate responsibility for most of these deaths. What’s worse is that a key tool of modern medicine – vaccination – is less effective in the elderly because vaccines rely on the failing immune system for their effectiveness.


pages: 438 words: 84,256

The Great Demographic Reversal: Ageing Societies, Waning Inequality, and an Inflation Revival by Charles Goodhart, Manoj Pradhan

asset-backed security, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, deglobalization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial repression, fixed income, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, job automation, Kickstarter, long term incentive plan, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, rent control, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, special economic zone, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

However, underneath those cyclical slowdowns, inflation and interest rates will structurally resurface to remove the obstacle of indebtedness from their path. When exactly these battles will be fought, and won and lost, is impossible to say, but we will need all the luck we can get to navigate our way forward. Postscript: Future Imperfect After Coronavirus Our book was mainly written in 2019, and the typescript delivered to our publisher, before anyone was aware of the impending coronavirus pandemic. The overall impact of the pandemic will be to accelerate the trends we have outlined in this book. China will become more inward-looking and less deflationary globally, and inflation itself will rise much earlier and faster than we had anticipated.

A combination of Trump-type policies, populism, barriers to migration and now the coronavirus pandemic has now defanged that threat to workers. The balance of bargaining power is now swinging back to workers, away from employers; current, more socialist, political trends are reinforcing that. Following the recovery, whenever that happens, wage trends will change. The likelihood is that wage demands will then match, or even perhaps exceed, current inflation, despite the inevitable pleas for moderation in the context of a ‘temporary blip’ in inflation. The coronavirus pandemic, and the supply shock that it has induced, will mark the dividing line between the deflationary forces of the last 30/40 years, and the resurgent inflation of the next two decades.

Our main thesis is that such demographic and globalisation factors were largely responsible for the deflationary pressures of the last three decades, but that such forces are now reversing, so that the world’s main economies will, once again, face inflationary pressures over the next three, or so, decades. The question, which we have been most frequently asked, is ‘Just when will the point of inflexion from deflation to inflation occur?’ When we were writing this book in 2019, we had to answer that we did not know to within five years, or so. That was, of course, before the coronavirus pandemic hit in early 2020; the occurrence of such a pandemic being a ‘known unknown’. The overall impact of the pandemic will be to accelerate the trends we have outlined in this book. China will become more inward-looking and less deflationary globally, and inflation itself will rise much earlier and faster than we had anticipated.


pages: 290 words: 85,847

A Brief History of Motion: From the Wheel, to the Car, to What Comes Next by Tom Standage

active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, City Beautiful movement, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, coronavirus, COVID-19, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Ford paid five dollars a day, garden city movement, Ida Tarbell, Induced demand, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbiased observer, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

Helsinki has established a 745-mile network of bike paths, which are even cleared of snow in winter; Oslo raised parking charges and tolls to enter the city, established car-free zones around schools, and shifted some city-center deliveries from vans to electric cargo bikes. Together with high levels of investment in public transport, all this has reduced the volume and speed of traffic on city streets, with a resulting fall in deaths and injuries. In 2020 cities around the world, from Paris to Milan to Kampala, took advantage of coronavirus lockdowns to move in the same direction, creating new bike lanes and broadening sidewalks to reclaim street space from cars. Some cities have since made those changes permanent. Collectively, these moves signal an end to the assumption that streets belong chiefly to cars, by tilting the balance back toward other users.

But then population growth rates in America’s suburbs started outpacing those in cities again. “The ‘back to the city’ trend seen at the beginning of the decade has reversed,” noted William Frey of the Brookings Institution in 2019. In retrospect the global financial crisis of 2007–9 may simply have delayed some young Americans’ entry into the housing market. The coronavirus pandemic has also increased the appeal of suburbs relative to city centers. One of the chief drawbacks of suburbs—the need to commute—goes away if you can work from home, which about half of American workers can. And staying at home is more pleasant if you have more space. A shift toward working remotely, some if not all of the time, is likely to be an enduring legacy of the pandemic.

THE RISE AND FALL OF CAR CULTURE By spawning drive-ins, fast-food joints, and malls, cars reshaped the physical and cultural landscape of America, and then of many other countries, too. But all of these twentieth-century car-centered institutions are now in decline. Admittedly, the few remaining drive-in cinemas saw a revival of interest during coronavirus lockdowns, and in a neat reversal of history, 160 Walmart parking lots were turned into temporary drive-ins in summer 2020. Drive-ins and parking lots around the world have also hosted socially distanced church services, concerts, theatrical performances, and, in Germany, even a drive-in nightclub.


pages: 210 words: 65,833

This Is Not Normal: The Collapse of Liberal Britain by William Davies

Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, centre right, Chelsea Manning, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, credit crunch, deindustrialization, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, family office, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, gig economy, global pandemic, global village, illegal immigration, Internet of things, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, loadsamoney, London Interbank Offered Rate, mass immigration, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, Northern Rock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, prediction markets, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, universal basic income, web of trust, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

The Windrush scandal of 2018, which saw black British citizens being terrorised by government bureaucracy and threatened with deportation (an effect of the ‘Hostile Environment’ immigration policy introduced in 2014), revealed a disregard for judicial norms that few had imagined the British state was capable of, at least within its own borders. Within two months of Britain’s departure from the European Union, the political establishment had been engulfed in the unprecedented chaos and horrors of the coronavirus pandemic. Johnson was forced to rein in his jocular nationalism, in an effort to look statesmanlike, serious and deferential to experts. But even then, the government couldn’t resist resorting to deceptive communications tactics, as the prime minister struggled to adopt the necessary gravitas. While the crisis emerged with little warning, ultimately to do far more economic damage to Britain than Brexit, it arrived at a time when trust in the media and politicians was already at a dangerously low ebb.

While the crisis emerged with little warning, ultimately to do far more economic damage to Britain than Brexit, it arrived at a time when trust in the media and politicians was already at a dangerously low ebb. The National Health Service was one of the last remaining unconditional commitments that the state made to society, on which all political parties agreed. While the symbolic reverence for the NHS was ratcheted up further thanks to coronavirus, the assumption that the state could and would protect lives – so fundamental to liberal philosophy – was unable to hold. The health crisis also did unprecedented damage to the economic institution that is more important to liberalism than any other: the labour market. For centuries, labour markets have been integral to how liberal economies meet human needs and establish social peace.

This triggered the surreal spectacle of conservative politicians and newspapers debating the merits of unconditional cash transfers. In the context of rentier capitalism and what Jodi Dean terms ‘neo-feudalism’, the credibility of the labour market was already in decline, as the middle classes turned increasingly to assets in search of security and income.3 The coronavirus ensured that, however the crisis of liberalism was to be resolved, it would not be built upon the familiar bedrock of the wage relation. This litany of crises and scandals spoke of a nation and a state that no longer trusted in the liberal ideals of procedural fairness and independent judgement, and was scarcely pretending to.


pages: 363 words: 109,077

The Raging 2020s: Companies, Countries, People - and the Fight for Our Future by Alec Ross

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, clean water, collective bargaining, computer vision, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Covid-19, COVID-19, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, drone strike, dumpster diving, employer provided health coverage, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, income inequality, independent contractor, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mortgage tax deduction, natural language processing, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steven Levy, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, working poor

After the French court’s decision: Carraud and Rosemain, “Google to Pay $1 Billion in France to Settle Fiscal Fraud Probe,” https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-tech-google-tax/google-agrees-to-550-million-fine-in-france-to-settle-fiscal-fraud-probe-idUSKCN1VX1SM. 5: FOREIGN POLICY: DOES EVERY COMPANY NEED ITS OWN STATE DEPARTMENT, PENTAGON, AND CIA? The Syrian government developed Android apps: Shannon Vavra, “Syrian Government Surveillance Campaign Turns to Spreading Malware in Coronavirus Apps,” Cyberscoop, April 16, 2020, https://www.cyberscoop.com/coronavirus-syria-surveillance-apps-lookout/. In the United States, General Motors: A. J. Baime, “U.S. Auto Industry Came to the Rescue during WWII,” Car and Driver, March 31, 2020, https://www.caranddriver.com/news/a31994388/us-auto-industry-medical-war-production-history/; David Vergun, “During WWII, Industries Transitioned from Peacetime to Wartime Production,” US Department of Defense, March 27, 2020, https://www.defense.gov/Explore/Features/story/Article/2128446/during-wwii-industries-transitioned-from-peacetime-to-wartime-production/.

locations=CN. China now boasts: “GDP (current US$),” World Bank, accessed July 23, 2020, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?most_recent_value_desc=true. This view is reinforced by the government: Li Yuan, “With Selective Coronavirus Coverage, China Builds a Culture of Hate,” New York Times, April 22, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/22/business/china-coronavirus-propaganda.html. Most of the four hundred million members: Melissa Cyrill, “China’s Mid- dle Class in 5 Simple Questions,” China Briefing, February 13, 2019, https://www.china-briefing.com/news/chinas-middle-class-5-questions-answered/; Roser and Ortiz-Ospina, “Global Extreme Poverty: How Much Does the Reduction of Falling Poverty in China Matter for the Red- uction of Global Poverty?

Goodman, “The Nordic Way to Economic Recovery,” New York Times, April 2, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/business/nordic-way-economic-rescue-virus.html. the program cost an estimated $42 billion: Ulrik Boesen, “Denmark Unplugs the Economy,” Tax Foundation, March 26, 2020, https://taxfoundation.org/denmark-coronavirus-relief-plan/; Matt Apuzzo and Monika Pronczuk, “Covid-19’s Economic Pain Is Universal. But Relief? Depends on Where You Live,” New York Times, April 5, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/world/europe/coronavirus-economic-relief-wages.html. “What we’re trying to do”: Derek Thompson, “‘Do More—Fast. Don’t Wait,’” Atlantic, March 24, 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/03/denmark-has-a-message-for-america-do-more-fast/608629/.


pages: 486 words: 150,849

Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bear Stearns, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Herbert Marcuse, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise

Those next eleven days in March were a remarkable time to watch America’s evil genius squadrons scramble the jets. On that same Monday, March 16, when the shutdown really started, the conservative Hoover Institution published a piece called “Coronavirus Perspective” recommending against any restrictions on the economy because the pandemic just wasn’t going to be a major public health problem. “In the United States, the current 67 deaths should reach about 500” in all, the Stanford think tank article projected, and in a quick follow-up article called “Coronavirus Overreaction,” the same writer completely showed his ideological cards. “Progressives think they can run everyone’s lives through central planning,” he warned, so don’t let them do it to fight the spread of this no-big-deal disease.

In early spring, when COVID-19 had killed only dozens of Americans, Stuart Stevens, a strategist for four of the five previous GOP presidential nominees but now a fierce apostate, wrote that “those of us in the Republican Party built this moment,” because “the failures of the government’s response to the coronavirus crisis can be traced directly to some of the toxic fantasies now dear to the Republican Party….Government is bad. Establishment experts are overrated or just plain wrong. Science is suspect.” He could have also listed Believe in our perfect mythical yesteryear, All hail big business, Short-term profits are everything, Inequality’s not so bad, Universal healthcare is tyranny, Liberty equals selfishness, Co-opt liberals, and Entitled to our own facts as operating principles of the Republican Party and the right.

From the start in 2020, the reckless right, with the president in the lead, encouraged Americans to disbelieve virologists, epidemiologists, and other scientific experts, because trusting them would be bad for business and stock prices. Entitled to our own facts. That systematic spread of coronavirus misinformation by Trump and the right through the first pandemic winter couldn’t have happened without the creation in the late 1980s (Rush Limbaugh) and ’90s (Fox News) of big-time right-wing mass media. Their continuous erasure of distinctions between fact and opinion has always served the propaganda purposes of the political party most devoted to serving the interests of big business and investors, and during the COVID-19 crises—Reopen now—they attempted to serve those interests directly.


pages: 393 words: 102,801

Welcome to Britain: Fixing Our Broken Immigration System by Colin Yeo;

barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, British Empire, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, G4S, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, lump of labour, self-driving car, Skype, Socratic dialogue

Because of the net migration target discussed in Chapter 2, and by means of the hostile environment policies discussed in Chapter 3, we have seen the introduction of a raft of policies actively encouraging race discrimination in day-to-day life. Meanwhile, other aspects of immigration policy discussed in this book have deliberately dampened the life outcomes for migrants who settle here, in a vain attempt to deter them from coming in the first place. The twin shocks of Brexit and the coronavirus pandemic that was taking hold as this book went to press give us an opportunity to change direction and embrace a more equal, fair and respectful approach to those migrants who make this country their home. NOTES 1 See Winder, Bloody Foreigners, pp. 279–81 and ‘Nicholas Winton, Rescuer of 669 Children from Holocaust, Dies at 106’, New York Times, 1 July 2015. 2 See for example Randell Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) and Goodfellow, Hostile Environment. 3 See Will Somerville, Immigration under New Labour (Bristol: Policy Press, 2007), p. 14 and Winder, Bloody Foreigners, pp. 330–31. 4 ‘Papers released under 30-year rule reveal full force of Thatcher’s fury’, The Guardian, 30 December 2009. 5 Winder, Bloody Foreigners. 6 Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain, pp. 57, 59. 7 Ibid. 8 Gary Freeman, writing in Cornelius, Tsuda, Martin and Hollifield (eds), Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994). 9 See for example ‘Dutch woman with two British children told to leave UK after 24 years’, The Guardian, 28 December 2016.

The decision was reversed some six weeks later after a media outcry, but she died a year afterwards.49 There are also reports of very ill patients wrongly being turned away by hospitals and pregnant women being afraid to seek antenatal care for fear of the immigration consequences, with obvious risks to their own health and the health of their babies.50 As has been starkly illustrated by the coronavirus crisis, other illnesses are contagious and have wider public health implications. It is critically important that vaccination rates are very high amongst the public, for example, and that transmissible conditions such as HIV, tuberculosis or new diseases like Covid-19 are identified and treated.

In 2017, the Law Commission, the official body tasked with legal reform, was asked by then Home Secretary Amber Rudd ‘to review our immigration laws with a view to simplifying them’.15 The report was produced in January 2020 and partially accepted by the Home Office a couple of months later just as the coronavirus crisis was beginning. Arguably rather optimistically, the Home Office said it intended to completely rewrite and reissue the whole of the Immigration Rules by January 2021.16 Simplifying and rewriting the Immigration Rules would be very welcome indeed, but still this would not address the stream of primary and secondary legislation that spews forth from the government so frequently.


pages: 627 words: 89,295

The Politics Industry: How Political Innovation Can Break Partisan Gridlock and Save Our Democracy by Katherine M. Gehl, Michael E. Porter

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, future of work, guest worker program, hiring and firing, Ida Tarbell, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, Menlo Park, new economy, obamacare, pension reform, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, zero-sum game

Michael and I are all in. Are you? —Katherine Gehl Notes Authors’ Note 1. “158 Million Americans Told to Stay Home, but Trump Pledges to Keep It Short,” The Coronavirus Outbreak, New York Times, March 23, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/world/coronavirus-news.html. 2. Josh Mitchell and Josh Zumbrun, “Coronavirus-Triggered Downturn Could Cost FiveMillion U.S. Jobs,” Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2020, https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronavirus-triggered-downturn-could-cost-5-million-u-s-jobs-11584783001. Preface 1. Appreciation to Greg Orman for the idea of learned helplessness. Introduction 1.

We’re excited about the possibilities. This book arrives not a moment too soon. Please engage—we owe it to our extraordinary country to do so. Authors’ Note Pandemic 2020 As publishing deadlines pass for The Politics Industry, the world is racing to beat back a nationless, faceless, dangerous adversary: the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, one in four Americans have been ordered to “shelter in place.”1 Metropolitan hospitals are becoming overwhelmed, medical supplies are running short, and getting infected appears to be easier than getting tested. Many predict a trailing economic depression, with impacts that could be more painful for our country than those of the virus itself.2 It is surreal.

The threat of the next binary election continues to outweigh at times the pressing concerns of the day when it comes to proactive lawmaking in Congress. Finally, as with the Cold War, 9/11, and the Great Recession, there will be American children who remember where they were when the news of the coronavirus pandemic first broke and what happened to their families during the nation’s response to it. The pandemic and its aftermath will define generations. But it could also redefine our politics. When a new normal comes, there will be a moment; a window for big, sweeping change. For the good of all Americans, and to honor those we will have lost and the sacrifices made by so many, we pray that enough of us will put country over party and invest in the political innovation that can revivify our politics with healthy competition—and make sure we don’t get caught unprepared again.


pages: 362 words: 87,462

Laziness Does Not Exist by Devon Price

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, call centre, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, demand response, Donald Trump, financial independence, Firefox, gig economy, Google Chrome, helicopter parent, impulse control, Jean Tirole, job automation, job satisfaction, Lyft, meta-analysis, Minecraft, New Journalism, pattern recognition, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, uber lyft, working poor

Kate Gibson, “American Airlines Accused of Punishing Workers Who Use Sick Time,” CBS News, July 25, 2019, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/american-airlines-accused-of-punishing-workers-who-use-sick-time/. 27. Diana Boesch, Sarah Jane Glynn, and Shilpa Phadke, “Lack of Paid Leave Risks Public Health during the Coronavirus Outbreak,” Center for American Progress, March 12, 2020, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/news/2020/03/12/481609/lack-paid-leave-risks-public-health-coronavirus-outbreak/. 28. “Paid Sick Days Improve Public Health,” National Partnership for Women & Families, February 2020, https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/paid-sick-days/paid-sick-days-improve-our-public-health.pdf. 29.

Retired people often become depressed and see their lives as devoid of purpose.8 Like unemployed people, retired folks often report feeling directionless and lonesome. Their isolation and lack of daily structure can make them sick, putting them at an elevated risk of heart disease.9 Many of us spend our entire adult lives dreading this period of life, or we put it off by continuing to work past the point that’s healthy for us.10 When the coronavirus hit Chicago and all the bars shut down, Michael was immediately overtaken by panic and dread. He had worked nearly every day of his adult life, and with the bars closed, he had no idea what to do with himself or how he would go about making money. So, he set out to open a speakeasy in an empty storefront in the city.

And we’re not paranoid for having that fear—in 2019, American Airlines was sued by New York City’s Department of Consumer and Work Protection for having punished and threatened workers who used their sick days.26 When companies fail to provide employees with adequate sick-leave policies and managers bully their workers into working while ill, the public health consequences are massive. Many sick employees spread the coronavirus to their coworkers and fellow commuters because they weren’t able to take time off from work in the early days of the pandemic.27 On a more mundane level, sick food-service employees often have no choice but to come in to work and spread their illness to fellow workers and patrons; 81 percent of food-industry workers have no employer-provided sick days.28 When people do get the chance to leave their workplaces, they still struggle with the temptation to continue working remotely.


pages: 319 words: 75,257

Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy by David Frum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, decarbonisation, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, illegal immigration, immigration reform, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, microaggression, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, QAnon, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Bannon

“The attempt to deflect and blame the media and Democrats from Trish Regan, Sean Hannity, Laura Ingraham, Lou Dobbs, Jesse Watters, and Greg Gutfeld instead of addressing the coronavirus is really irresponsible and hazardous to our viewers,” an unnamed producer at Fox News told CNN’s Brian Stelter. The producer could have added Jeanine Pirro, the Fox & Friends crew, and so many others, hosts and guests, as well as the radio personality Rush Limbaugh, who argued on air that health professionals were exaggerating the risks of coronavirus in order to stop Trump’s primary-season rallies. These pro-Trump talkers were serving Trump as he demanded to be served, and as they had so devotedly served him before.

When the crisis could be denied no further, his first thought was to game the stock market a little longer. His second thought was to bail out casinos and hotels—including his own. Since his bankruptcies at the end of the 1980s, Trump has contrived schemes and scams to keep his creditors at bay for the next twenty-four hours. That is how he has managed the coronavirus crisis. Each day he devised some new fantasy in the hope of lulling his supporters and boosting financial indexes. Through ten squandered weeks, Trump’s digital friends on television, radio, and social media parroted back to him the lies he tweeted at them. There was never any plan. There was only a frantic surge of empty words to continue the flimflam one day longer.

Trump insisted there was nothing to worry about, the virus was only the common flu, that the number of cases would soon drop to zero, that he had imposed airtight containment, that there was nothing to worry about. His allies seconded his message. His supporters believed it. Trump responds to challenge by directing rage at some designated enemy. Hence his attempt to rebrand coronavirus as “the Chinese virus,” so that there would be some target of hatred more satisfying than a microorganism. Tens of millions of Americans responded instinctually to Trump’s incitement against the media, against the cities, against China. Even if plague and recession topple Trump from the presidency, that core Trump base will remain, alienated and resentful.


pages: 1,172 words: 114,305

New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI by Frank Pasquale

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, deskilling, digital twin, disinformation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, finite state, Flash crash, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, high net worth, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, meta-analysis, Modern Monetary Theory, Money creation, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, obamacare, paradox of thrift, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, QR code, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart cities, smart contracts, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telepresence, telerobotics, The Future of Employment, Therac-25, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing test, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, wage slave, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero day

United States budget allocations for defense have tended to outpace the spending of the next seven countries combined. The massive military buildup will likely strike future historians as a profoundly misguided investment of national resources.70 There is a grim irony in the world’s leading military “superpower” being devastated by coronavirus in 2020, even after investing tens of billions of dollars in biosecurity, while so many other nations reduced cases and deaths far more deftly. As Dominique Moïsi, a political scientist at the Institut Montaigne, explained, “America prepared for the wrong kind of war. It prepared for a new 9 / 11, but instead a virus came.”71 Consumed by worries over phantom threats, American leaders invested trillions of dollars in arms while stinting on preventive measures that could have saved more lives than the country lost in the Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars combined.

Would Dragonfly inform on their authors? In an era of information warfare, tight monitoring and control of online life is a top priority for many states.85 This authoritarian control can also cause major problems for the rest of the world—as in the case of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19), a coronavirus that originated in China and that may have been contained more quickly, had Chinese officials not censored the physicians trying to warn about the spread of this dangerous new disease. The Google activists’ refusal to work on military tech may seem belated, or unpatriotic. However, the ethics of participation are contextual.

The business case for service robots is obvious—they do not need to be paid, to sleep, or to be motivated to stay on task. So long as there are tourists looking for a bargain or business travel departments looking to cut down expenses, hoteliers will want robot cleaners, receptionists, doormen, and concierges. All those jobs may become as obsolete as elevator operators. The coronavirus pandemic has created even more pressures to reduce human interactions in service industries. Lockdowns of indefinite duration made the case for robotics better than any business guru. When warehouse operators, meat packers, and farmworkers fear catching a deadly virus at work, robotization of their roles may appear outright humanitarian (if paired with some plausible promise of basic income provision and future jobs).


pages: 345 words: 92,063

Power, for All: How It Really Works and Why It's Everyone's Business by Julie Battilana, Tiziana Casciaro

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Asperger Syndrome, blood diamonds, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, different worldview, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, fundamental attribution error, future of work, gig economy, hiring and firing, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mega-rich, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

Yıldırım, “The Economic Case for Global Vaccinations: An Epidemiological Model with International Production Networks,” w28395, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2021. 46 John Vidal and Ensia, “Destroyed Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge,” Scientific American, March 18, 2020, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/destroyed-habitat-creates-the-perfect-conditions-for-coronavirus-to-emerge/. 47 Karin Brulliard, “The Next Pandemic Is Already Coming, Unless Humans Change How We Interact with Wildlife, Scientists Say,” Washington Post, April 3, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2020/04/03/coronavirus-wildlife-environment/. 48 Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2009). 49 While this image has long been a staple in popular consciousness, the evidence for it is less clear, and contradictions between different sources and interpretations abound.

Frances Frei and Anne Morriss also explore the importance of leading by fostering trust, love, and belonging in work environments for people to thrive in Unleashed: The Unapologetic Leader’s Guide to Empowering Everyone Around You (Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2020). 41 Scott Veale, “Word for Word/Last Words; Voices From Above: ‘I Love You, Mommy, Goodbye,’ ” New York Times, September 16, 2001, https://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/16/weekinreview/word-for-word-last-words-voices-from-above-i-love-you-mommy-goodbye.html; CNN, “Paris Terror: Survivor: Kept Saying I Love You,” July 21, 2016, video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5hp6SWXSKg. 42 Daniel Burke, “Coronavirus Preys on What Terrifies Us: Dying Alone,” CNN, March 29, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/29/world/funerals-dying-alone-coronavirus/index.html. 43 Dominic Abrams and Michael A. Hogg, “Comments on the Motivational Status of Self-Esteem in Social Identity and Intergroup Discrimination,” European Journal of Social Psychology 18, no. 4 (1988): 317–34. 44 Andreas Schleicher, PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2019). 45 Kate Wintrol, “Is Mens Sana in Corpore Sano a Concept Relevant to Honors Students?”


pages: 869 words: 239,167

The Story of Work: A New History of Humankind by Jan Lucassen

3D printing, 8-hour work day, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-work, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, computer age, coronavirus, COVID-19, demographic transition, deskilling, discovery of the americas, domestication of the camel, European colonialism, factory automation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour mobility, land tenure, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, minimum wage unemployment, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, pension reform, phenotype, post-work, precariat, price stability, reshoring, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, stakhanovite, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, two and twenty, universal basic income, women in the workforce, working poor

Our life would be defined by consumption, not by production. In this utopia, crucially, only losers work for someone else; the new, true individuals are the self-employed and the entrepreneurs, and everyone craves a ‘portfolio’ career. And, while the banking crises of 2008 and, more recently, the global coronavirus pandemic have tempered enthusiasm somewhat, this utopia is still alive and kicking, if only because of the lack of a serious challenger. The entrepreneur is a hero, the ordinary worker a slave. Such a misconception is widespread because it does not reside only among champions of the ‘free’ market; it is just as much a source for left-wing utopian thinking, which, of course, does not trumpet independent entrepreneurship but rather glorifies wage labour for the community and, with it, the notion of well-earned free time.

Nevertheless, during the last two centuries, we may discern a great wave in the North Atlantic and its offshoots, and in the last half-century also increasingly beyond – from regulation and corporation (households, estates, guilds and so on) in the ancien régime, to deregulation and decorporation in the first half of the nineteenth century, to reregulation and recorporation in the century thereafter and, finally, to another period of deregulation and decorporation since the end of the twentieth century.109 Prepared by the banking crisis of 2008, the pendulum may now be swinging in the opposite direction, influenced by the coronavirus pandemic, although it is unclear for how long. Incidentally, the development of decorporation warrants an observation with respect to households, where we do not find any recorporation from the late nineteenth century. As a nuclear work unit, the household eventually and definitively lost power.

The stagnation of remuneration and job security in especially the rich countries in recent decades (summarized in concepts such as flexibilization and precarization) can also be counted as types of reactions.2 Or, in that context, the recent massive Keynesian state aid to companies and working people following the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic – something that prior to this seemed absolutely unthinkable. Secondly – and previous examples already point in this direction – the nature and vehemence of these reactions are not easy to predict; at least, not as easy as, say, a strike resulting from a massive cut in wages. Take, for example, the contradiction between the emergence of the workers’ movement, which peaked one hundred years ago, and the current lack of successful collective actions to improve working conditions.


pages: 572 words: 124,222

San Fransicko: Why Progressives Ruin Cities by Michael Shellenberger

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, delayed gratification, desegregation, Donald Trump, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, microaggression, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, remote working, rent control, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Savings and loan crisis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South of Market, San Francisco, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, walkable city

Homicides rose 35 percent in Los Angeles, 31 percent in Oakland, 74 percent in Seattle, 63 percent in Portland, 60 percent in Chicago, and 47 percent in New York City.67 The coronavirus pandemic may have played a role. “Gangs are built around structure and lack thereof,” noted a Fresno, California, police officer. “With schools being closed and a lot of different businesses being closed, the people that normally would have been involved in positive structures in their lives aren’t there.”68 But there had been a similar spike in homicides in 2015 when there was no coronavirus pandemic. Back then, as in 2020, a disproportionate number of victims and suspects were black men under thirty from poor, inner-city neighborhoods.

Nearly one-quarter of the homeless in King County, in which Seattle is the biggest city, said they became homeless outside of Washington State.28 Mayor Breed said she opposed Proposition C because she feared that spending yet more on homelessness services, without any requirement that people get off the street, would backfire. “We are a magnet for people who are looking for help,” she said. “There are a lot of other cities that are not doing their part, and I find that larger cities end up with more than our fair share.”29 After San Francisco started offering free hotel rooms to the homeless during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, first responders reported that people had come from across the state. “People are coming from all over the place—Sacramento, Lake County, Bakersfield,” said the city’s fire chief. “We have also heard that people are getting released from jail in other counties and being told to go to San Francisco where you will get a tent and then you will get housing.”30 When a television reporter asked Bay Area mayors why there was so much homelessness in Bay Area cities but not in affluent communities east of the Bay Area, the Berkeley mayor answered, “I assume [it’s] the fact that our cities have such robust social services and shelter, as well as just the environment, the climate, a city that is inviting and welcoming to people.”31 A Los Angeles homelessness service provider emphasizes the extent to which the homeless shop around from city to city seeking the best housing and benefits and avoiding the law.

In 1972, the Supreme Court strongly restricted the enforcement of vagrancy laws, which in some states had targeted African Americans.39 In 1993, a federal court ruling prevented New York City from banning panhandling because, it ruled, begging is a form of protected free speech.40 In 2006, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals blocked Los Angeles from enforcing a 1968 law that outlawed sleeping on sidewalks.41 And in 2020, the Supreme Court upheld a 2018 ruling by a lower court against the city of Boise, Idaho, which found that cities cannot impose or enforce camping bans unless “shelter” were “practically available.”42 During the pandemic, the federal government gave cities funding to pay for hotel rooms for many homeless to stay in, free of charge, for most of the pandemic, and when it received the coronavirus vaccine, San Francisco and most other cities vaccinated its homeless population early in the process.43 The city spends a share of its budget that is 50 percent larger than the share spent by New York City and six times more than the share spent by Chicago on homelessness. San Francisco increased its spending on homelessness from $157 million to $567 million between 2011 and 2022.44 While it’s true that people on the street suffer higher rates of eviction, trauma, and abuse than people who don’t live on the street, it’s also true that the vast majority of people who lose their housing, get traumatized, live with over-policing, and come from generations of poverty aren’t living on the street, or addicted to heroin, fentanyl, and meth.


pages: 651 words: 186,130

This Is How They Tell Me the World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race by Nicole Perlroth

4chan, active measures, activist lawyer, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Boeing 737 MAX, Brian Krebs, cloud computing, commoditize, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, defense in depth, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, index card, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, open borders, pirate software, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ransomware, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Seymour Hersh, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

And now, the pandemic had virtualized our lives at speeds we never imagined, exposing us to cyberattacks like never before. It was no surprise when hackers seized on the coronavirus to take aim at our hospitals, our vaccine labs, and the federal agencies leading the Covid-19 response. It is not clear how successful Russia’s retaliatory strikes on American hospitals will be. Ten days out from the election, more hospitals were reporting cyberattacks. And with coronavirus cases spiking to record levels, and a shortage of healthy hospital workers, I fear it is only a matter of time before cyberattacks cost us lives. As of this writing, foreign states and cybercriminals are hitting American networks from so many sides that, from my quarantined perch, it has become nearly impossible to keep track.

When a mobile app Democrats used to report results from their Iowa primary caucus imploded in public view in February, I watched as Russian trolls retweeted and stoked Americans who falsely believed the app was a ploy by Hillary Clinton’s inner circle to wrest the election from Bernie Sanders. When the coronavirus pandemic took hold, I watched those same Russian accounts retweet Americans who surmised Covid-19 was an American-made bioweapon or an insidious plot by Bill Gates to profit off the eventual vaccine. And as the world stood still waiting for that vaccine, Russian trolls worked overtime to legitimize the vaccination debate, just as they had during the worst of Ukraine’s measles outbreak one year earlier.

With more than 90 percent of their infrastructure down, TrickBot’s Russian operators lashed out, shifted to new tools, and retaliated on American hospitals. They traded lists of some four hundred American hospitals they planned to target with ransomware, and slowly started hitting them one by one. This, with less than a week before the election, when hospitals were seeing a record spike in coronavirus cases. “We expect panic,” one Russian hacker told his comrades in a private message exchange captured by a threat researcher. The FBI, CISA, and the Department of Health and Human Services set up an emergency call with hospital administrators and security researchers to debrief them on the urgent “credible threat.”


pages: 372 words: 101,678

Lessons from the Titans: What Companies in the New Economy Can Learn from the Great Industrial Giants to Drive Sustainable Success by Scott Davis, Carter Copeland, Rob Wertheimer

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, airport security, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, clean water, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, factory automation, global pandemic, hydraulic fracturing, Internet of things, iterative process, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, megacity, Network effects, new economy, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, random walk, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, skunkworks, software is eating the world, strikebreaker, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, WeWork, winner-take-all economy

., whose training on how to be a humble but curious analyst, doting father, and thoughtful human being helped shape him into the person that he is today. Rob is grateful for the support of his family throughout the project. Weekend editing sessions provided an opportunity to show the kids that the process of writing, rewriting, and doing it all again is not just something taught in school. INTRODUCTION Even before the coronavirus pandemic exposed flaws in government planning and tested the limits of modern medicine, the world had already become frighteningly out of balance. Tweets had taken over from substantive conversation and “news” had become unapologetically biased. High debt levels and rising leverage risk was something only old people talked about.

The most common explanation by the pundits is disruption, which is exceedingly hard to predict and most likely a convenient excuse. The reality is more complex and humbling. Companies usually fail because of the incompetence and arrogance of a complacent management team, not because they struggled to predict the future. Predicting the future may itself just be an exercise in futility. The coronavirus pandemic is a clear example of the random walk we take each day. And this is not a new phenomenon. When we were growing up in the 1980s, futurists predicted the widespread adoption of electric cars by the late 1990s. In fact, GM launched a concept electric car with the EV1 all the way back in 1996.

The truth is that their secrets are hardly secrets at all—continuous improvement, rigorous benchmarking, disciplined investment, principled leadership, solid business systems—but these practices have been long forgotten, ignored, or dismissed by the businesspeople hypnotized by the Google-Amazon-Apple dream. These industrial companies are the inspiration for our work. There’s a reason we talk about the Dow Jones Industrials—these companies dominated the stock market for much of history. Industrial companies have carried out or suffered more disruptions than any other. This year’s coronavirus pandemic is just the latest one. These companies make industrials the perfect sector to study, with data on great successes and even greater failures that go back for north of a century. These companies had celebrated successes like diesel locomotives, jet engines, grain harvesters, factory robots, and x-ray machines.


pages: 367 words: 97,136

Beyond Diversification: What Every Investor Needs to Know About Asset Allocation by Sebastien Page

Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, backtesting, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, business cycle, buy and hold, Cal Newport, capital asset pricing model, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, future of work, G4S, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, iterative process, loss aversion, market friction, mental accounting, merger arbitrage, oil shock, passive investing, prediction markets, publication bias, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, sovereign wealth fund, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, stocks for the long run, systematic trading, tail risk, transaction costs, value at risk, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

As the events related to the coronavirus pandemic of 2020 continue to unfold, pundits like to compare this crisis with the 2008 financial crisis. Yet there are important differences. The 2008 crisis involved a speculative bubble in real estate. Systemic risk was high, in great part because banks owned structured products linked to this bubble. A shaky edifice composed of layers upon layers of complex, interconnected structured products and derivatives stood on the shoulders of risky subprime borrowers. In 2020, financial institutions are not in the thick of the storm. However, the novel coronavirus will cause an economic shock of unprecedented size—an economic heart attack.

See Jack Treynor (1961), Bill Sharpe (1964), John Lintner (1965), and Jan Mossin (1966). 2. “Professor William Sharpe Shares Nobel Prize for Economics,” gsb.stanford .edu. 3. As I finalize this book at the end of March 2020, equity markets have suffered one of their worst and fastest sell-offs in history due to the coronavirus pandemic, combined with a major oil shock. The Federal Reserve has aggressively lowered rates, and the three-month US Treasury bill is at zero. These are unusual circumstances. In this context, expected returns across asset classes should be about 1–2% lower due to lower rates, compared with those of 2018.

Sector weights for industrials and materials have gone down over this period as well.5 Therefore, not only will the next crisis be different (as crises always are), but the sensitivity of US stocks to that new crisis will be different as well. They should be more resilient to an economic downturn that affects mostly cyclicals. Recent market performance during the coronavirus pandemic proves this point. Large technology companies have protected the S&P 500 from the much larger drawdown it would have experienced if it still had a 31% weight in financials and energy. These changes in sector weights also make time series analyses of valuation ratios on the S&P 500 less reliable.


pages: 199 words: 48,162

Capital Allocators: How the World’s Elite Money Managers Lead and Invest by Ted Seides

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, business cycle, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, diversification, Everything should be made as simple as possible, family office, fixed income, high net worth, hindsight bias, impact investing, implied volatility, impulse control, index fund, Lean Startup, loss aversion, passive investing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Sharpe ratio, sovereign wealth fund, tail risk, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, zero-sum game

Bernstein said, “risk means you don’t know what will happen.” Financial setbacks over my career, which started a few years after the crash in 1987, included the dot.com bubble in 2000, the Global Financial Crisis in 2008, the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, and many smaller sell-offs along the way. Each of these were shocks to the system. Doctors referred to SARS-CoV-2 as a “novel” coronavirus. The sudden stop to economies around the world was indeed novel – it had never happened before. Each tail event reminds CIOs of the problems of assumptions that underpin models. The dot.com bubble followed an assumption that the new technology of the internet would forever change how business was conducted and valued, a premise priced into the markets about a decade early.

Psychologically, between the stress or inability to think in the longer term and this idea that we tend to place more weight on the negative than positive, the result may not be ideal from an investor’s perspective. The Covid-19 pandemic that started in Q1 of 2020 provided a case study in how CIOs handle uncertainty. The novel coronavirus brought unprecedented challenges in the health and economic welfare of the world.48 CIOs faced work-from-home restrictions for an indefinite period, stock market volatility, and a sudden stop in the global economy. CIOs quickly developed a playbook to lead and manage in the face of uncertainty.


pages: 470 words: 137,882

Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents by Isabel Wilkerson

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, desegregation, Donald Trump, global pandemic, Gunnar Myrdal, mass incarceration, microaggression, Milgram experiment, obamacare, out of africa, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, strikebreaker, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

By the time the presidential impeachment trial ended on February 5, 2020, it had been 329 days since the last press briefing at the White House, held on March 11, 2019. Then the worst pandemic: Dan Diamond, “Trump’s Mismanagement Helped Fuel Coronavirus Crisis,” Politico, March 7, 2020, https://www.politico.com/​amp/​news/​2020/​03/​07/​trump-coronavirus-management-style-123465; Michael D. Shear et al., “The Lost Month: How a Failure to Test Blinded the U.S. to Covid-19,” New York Times, March 28, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/​2020/​03/​28/​us/​testing-coronavirus-pandemic.html; David Frum, “This Is Trump’s Fault: The President Is Failing, and Americans Are Paying for His Failures,” Atlantic, April 7, 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/​ideas/​archive/​2020/​04/​americans-are-paying-the-price-for-trumps-failures/​609532/.

“As Usual”: Annie Lowrey, “As Usual, Americans Must Go it Alone,” Atlantic, March 19, 2020, https:// www.theatlantic.com/​ideas/​archive/​2020/​03/​america-woefully-underinsured/​608035/. “To a watching world”: Simon Tisdall, “US’s Global Reputation Hits Rock-Bottom Over Trump’s Coronavirus Response,” Guardian, April 12, 2020, https://theguardian.com/​us-news/​2020/​apr/​12/​us-global-reputation-rock-bottom-donald-trump-coronavirus. “This is a civilization”: Gary Michael Tartakov, in discussion with the author, International Conference on Caste and Race, at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, May 5, 2018. Epilogue: A World Without Caste “The worst disease is”: Jerome and Taylor, Einstein on Race, pp. 144–45.

The earth’s most powerful nation watched as faraway workers in hazmat gear tested for what no one could see, and deluded itself into believing that American exceptionalism would somehow grant it immunity from the sorrows of other countries. Yet the virus arrived on these shores, and it planted itself in the gaps of disparity, the torn kinships and fraying infrastructure in the country’s caste system, just as it exploited the weakened immune system in the human body. Soon, America had the largest coronavirus outbreak in the world. Governors pleaded for basic supplies and test kits, were reduced to bidding against one another for ventilators. “As Usual,” read a headline in The Atlantic, “Americans Must Go It Alone.” The virus exposed both the vulnerability of all humans and the layers of hierarchy.


Sustainable Minimalism: Embrace Zero Waste, Build Sustainability Habits That Last, and Become a Minimalist Without Sacrificing the Planet (Green Housecleaning, Zero Waste Living) by Stephanie Marie Seferian

8-hour work day, Airbnb, big-box store, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mason jar, mass immigration, ride hailing / ride sharing

By March of 2020, it swiftly and silently crippled most nations, both developed and developing. As economies around the world sputtered to a halt, many Americans found themselves facing uncertain futures. Shoppers panicked, abandoning decorum as they cleared supermarket shelves, hoarded supplies, and left little for others. The terror ushered in by the novel coronavirus pandemic stemmed in large part from the realization that most Americans rely heavily on corporations to provide survival essentials. If grocery stores, gas stations, and other modern conveniences shutter, you’re left relying solely on your own ingenuity to survive. It may be sobering to ruminate over how long you can reasonably keep your family fed and warm after the last of your food, water, and oil runs out.

Qasim and Walter Chiang, Sanitary Landfill Leachate: Generation, Control and Treatment (Florida: CRC Press, 1994) 245. 24 Michael Balter, “The Origins of Tidiness,” Science Magazine, December 18, 2009, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/12/origins-tidiness. 25 Alice Boyes, “6 Benefits of an Uncluttered Space,” Psychology Today, February12, 2018, https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/in-practice/201802/6-benefits-uncluttered-space. 26 Sarah Berger, “Here’s How Much Time Homeowners Spend on Housework Compared to Renters,” CNBC, September 21, 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/09/21/apartment-list-time-owners-spend-on-housework-compared-to-renters.html. 27 Mark Bittman, “A No-Frills Kitchen Still Cooks,” The New York Times, May 9, 2007, https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/09/dining/09mini.html. 28 J. Kenji López-Alt, “The Food Expiration Dates You Should Actually Follow,”The New York Times, April 15, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/article/expiration-dates-coronavirus.html. 29 Jason Marsh, “How to Help Kids Learn to Love Giving,” Greater GoodMagazine, December 14, 2016, https://www.greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_to_help_kids_learn_to_love_giving. 30 Nathaniel Meyersohn, “How the Rise of Supermarkets Left out BlackAmerica,” CNN Business, June 16, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/16/business/grocery-stores-access-race-inequality/index.html. 31 “Are Hybrid Cars Worth It?”

National Geographic, June 2018, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2018/06/plastic-planet-waste-pollution-trash-crisis/. 135 Lee Drutman, “How Corporate Lobbyists Conquered American Democracy,” The Atlantic, April 20, 2015, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/04/how-corporate-lobbyists-conquered-american-democracy/390822/. 136 Richard Denison, “TSCA Reform Legislation: Enhancing EPA TestingAuthority,” Environmental Defense Fund Health Blog, April 15, 2015, http://blogs.edf.org/health/2015/04/15/tsca-reform-legislation-enhancing-epa-testing-authority/. 137 Isabella Isaacs-Thomas, “Why Your Cosmetics Don’t Have to be Tested forSafety,” PBS, December 16, 2019, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/why-your-cosmetics-dont-have-to-be-tested-for-safety. 138 “Introduction to Indoor Air Quality,” United States Environmental ProtectionAgency, accessed 2020, https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/introduction-indoor-air-quality. 139 Tara Parker-Pope, “Have I Been Cleaning All Wrong?” The New York Times,May 6, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/06/well/live/coronavirus-cleaning-cleaners-disinfectants-home.html. 140 Lela Nargi and Danielle Braff, “What Kills Bacteria—And What Doesn’t,”Reader’s Digest, September 12, 2020, https://www.rd.com/article/what-kills-bacteria/. 141 Diamond Bridges, “Why You Should Never Use Oven Cleaner and What YouShould Use Instead,” MSN, March 23, 2020, http://www.msn.com/05/en-us/BB11ByAp?


pages: 221 words: 59,755

Under a White Sky: The Nature of the Future by Elizabeth Kolbert

Albert Einstein, big-box store, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Davies, double helix, Hernando de Soto, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Maui Hawaii, moral hazard, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Whole Earth Catalog

“Such a moral stance”: Lackner and Jospe, “Climate Change Is a Waste Management Problem.” global CO2 emissions were down: Chris Mooney, Brady Dennis, and John Muyskens, “Global Emissions Plunged an Unprecedented 17 Percent during the Coronavirus Pandemic,” The Washington Post (May 19, 2020), washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2020/05/19/greenhouse-emissions-coronavirus/?arc404=true. How long, exactly, is a complicated question: Individual carbon molecules are constantly cycling between atmosphere and oceans and between both of these and the world’s vegetation. However, CO2 levels in the atmosphere are governed by much slower processes.

Yes, people have fundamentally altered the atmosphere. And, yes, this is likely to lead to all sorts of dreadful consequences. But people are ingenious. They come up with crazy, big ideas, and sometimes these actually work. * * * — During the first few months of 2020, a vast, unsupervised experiment took place. As the coronavirus raged, billions of people were ordered to stay home. At the peak of the lockdown, in April, global CO2 emissions were down an estimated seventeen percent compared with the comparable period the previous year. This drop—the largest recorded ever—was immediately followed by a new high. In May 2020, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere set a record of 417.1 parts per million.


pages: 430 words: 135,418

Power Play: Tesla, Elon Musk, and the Bet of the Century by Tim Higgins

air freight, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, call centre, Colonization of Mars, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, global pandemic, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, low earth orbit, Lyft, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, paypal mafia, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft

EPILOGUE The government seemed: Chunying Zhang and Ying Tian, “How China Bent Over Backward to Help Tesla,” Bloomberg Businessweek (March 18, 2020), https://www.bloomberg.com/​news/​articles/​2020-03-17/​how-china-bent-over-backward-to-help-tesla-when-the-virus-hit?sref=PRBlrg7S. Accustomed to moving: Tim Higgins, “Tesla Cuts Salaries, Furloughs Workers Under Coronavirus Shutdown,” Wall Street Journal (April 8, 2020), https://www.wsj.com/​articles/​tesla-cuts-salaries-furloughs-workers-under-coronavirus-shutdown-11586364779. Tesla also began: Tim Higgins and Esther Fung, “Tesla Seeks Rent Savings Amid Coronavirus Crunch,” Wall Street Journal (April 13, 2020), https://www.wsj.com/​articles/​tesla-seeks-rent-savings-amid-coronavirus-crunch-11586823630. “Over the past week”: Jeremy C. Owens, Claudia Assis, and Max A. Cherney, “Elon Musk vs.

I like creating products, but I don’t like being CEO, so I tried to have someone else run the company while I developed the car. Unfortunately, that did not work.” *4 In 2018, Tesla sold an estimated 117,000 Model 3 cars compared to 111,000 of the Lexus RX, to make it the top-selling luxury vehicle for the year, according to Edmunds. EPILOGUE “The coronavirus panic is dumb,” Elon Musk tweeted on March 6. It was the same day Apple began encouraging employees to stay home, one of many tech giants taking efforts to slow the spread of the novel virus. The global pandemic of early 2020 was threatening to ruin Tesla’s moment. Just weeks earlier, Musk had been onstage in Shanghai celebrating the start of Model 3 production in China, defying skeptics who thought he couldn’t pull off such a feat in less than a year.


pages: 352 words: 98,424

Cathedrals of Steam: How London’s Great Stations Were Built – and How They Transformed the City by Christian Wolmar

British Empire, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, creative destruction, James Watt: steam engine, mass immigration, megacity, railway mania

Hardback ISBN: 978-1-78649-920-2 E-book ISBN: 978-1-78649-921-9 Paperback ISBN: 978-1-78649-922-6 Map artwork by Jeff Edwards Endpaper image: Detail from The Railway Station by William Powell Frith, 1862. (Photo 12/Alamy Stock Photo) Printed in Great Britain Atlantic Books An imprint of Atlantic Books Ltd Ormond House 26–27 Boswell Street London WC1N 3JZ www.atlantic-books.co.uk Dedicated to my wife, Deborah Maby, with whom I was in lockdown during the coronavirus pandemic for nearly the whole period of writing this book, and who put up with me dodging the housework. Also to Sir John Betjeman, whose writing I sadly cannot match, but whose enthusiasm I can. CONTENTS List of Illustrations Maps Acknowledgements Introduction 1. Starting slowly 2.

Instead, by and large – with the odd exception – London’s terminuses have been greatly enhanced, even much unloved London Bridge, by refurbishments and additions, most notably the new side entrance to King’s Cross. This has been a happy book to write, a positive story for these hard times and one that John Betjeman, who features strongly in the last chapter, would greatly appreciate. The prospects for the future have only been darkened by the coronavirus pandemic sweeping through the country as I write. The effect on the railways has been devastating, with the government and the railway companies urging people not to use the railways, which until then had enjoyed more than two decades of almost uninterrupted growth, reaching record passenger numbers.

APPENDIX I Timeline for the opening of London’s terminus stations: London Bridge 1836 Euston 1837 Fenchurch Street 1840 Waterloo 1848 King’s Cross 1852 Paddington 1854 Victoria 1860 Charing Cross 1864 Cannon Street 1866 St Pancras 1868 Liverpool Street 1874 Marylebone 1899 APPENDIX II Passenger numbers in the year to 31 March 2019 at the London terminuses (before the coronavirus pandemic): (millions) Waterloo 94 Victoria 75 Liverpool Street 69 London Bridge 61 Euston 46 Paddington 38 St Pancras 36 King’s Cross 35 Charing Cross 30 Cannon Street 21 Fenchurch Street 19 Marylebone 16 Source: Office of Road and Rail SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY THIS IS A highly selective bibliography focusing on the London terminus stations rather than on the capital’s railway system generally, on which there is a vast bibliography.


pages: 372 words: 100,947

An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination by Sheera Frenkel, Cecilia Kang

affirmative action, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, QAnon, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Sam Altman, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, surveillance capitalism, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Within hours, the company went public with its plan to remove harmful misinformation, connect people to authoritative information on the virus, and give unlimited ad credits to the WHO and the CDC to run public service ads about the novel coronavirus. Facebook was the first company in Silicon Valley to issue a response. Zuckerberg was also one of the first American CEOs to shut down offices and authorize employees to work from home. He sent a memo to employees detailing how the coronavirus would affect every aspect of Facebook’s business. The company would likely lose revenue from advertisements as the pandemic crippled businesses across the economy. Facebook’s infrastructure, including its data centers, would be tested to the breaking point as billions of people were online at the same time.

In early April, the number of people who saw Facebook as “good for the world” began to show marked improvement for the first time since the Cambridge Analytica scandal. But at a White House briefing on April 23, Trump put the company to the test when he suggested that disinfectants and ultraviolet light were possible treatments for the novel coronavirus. His remarks, which were quickly debunked by doctors and health professionals, went viral. Within hours of Trump’s comments, more than five thousand posts on the topic sprang up on Facebook and Instagram, viewed by tens of millions of people. Facebook removed a few, but the source of the false and dangerous information, President Trump’s Facebook account, remained untouched.

Every January, for more than a decade: Mary Meisenzahl and Julie Bort, “From Wearing a Tie Every Day to Killing His Own Meat, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg Has Used New Year’s Resolution to Improve Himself Each Year,” Business Insider, January 9, 2020. 16. “protecting our community”: Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook post, January 4, 2018. Chapter 14: Good for the World 1. COVID-19 virus was spreading: “WHO/Coronavirus International Emergency,” January 30, 2020 video can be viewed on UNifeed website. 2. seemed to criticize Twitter’s approach: Yael Halon, “Zuckerberg Knocks Twitter for Fact-Checking Trump,” Fox News online, May 27, 2020. 3. Three days later thirty-three former early employees: https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/6936057/Facebook-Letter.pdf. 4.


pages: 225 words: 70,590

Curbing Traffic: The Human Case for Fewer Cars in Our Lives by Chris Bruntlett, Melissa Bruntlett

autonomous vehicles, car-free, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, en.wikipedia.org, global pandemic, Jane Jacobs, Lyft, New Urbanism, post-work, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, the built environment, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey

People claimed the road space back, and started walking in the middle of the road without fear.” She also recalls speaking to some of her neighbors for the very first time, who—when they learned she worked in transportation—admitted that they liked their street without all of the traffic. Dr. Wang insists that this is another key ingredient in meaningful change: “Coronavirus is an opportunity to transform not only the city, but also the mindset of the people.” But she’s quick to clarify that it doesn’t need to be revolutionary: “The point of ‘resilience thinking’ is not to overhaul the entire system, but to introduce multiple stable regimes. Not to transform into something else, but to become more transformable, and find somewhere in between as a ‘new normal.’”

“In ecology, resilience is not just about the capability of the system to get back to what is considered as normal after disruption, but also about the capability to be able to transform when it becomes impossible to return to normal,” Wang explains, reiterating that it will take a change in both policy and mindset. “If our system cannot get back to normal after a disturbance such as the coronavirus crisis, then this is our opportunity to transform ourselves and the city together,” she insists. One such opportunity consists of enabling increased walking and cycling among children, which has no negative effect but which has proven difficult due to our long-term “normal” equilibrium induced by a car-dependent transport network.

These options for hyperlocal, sustainable delivery meant these entrepreneurs—many of whom were our neighbors—could compete with the Amazons and Uber Eats of the world, and a situation that might have forced them to close their shutters allowed them to thrive. The question that now remains is whether the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing climate crisis will be enough for car-dependent regions to pivot and create a “new normal.” But their reaction to the coronavirus lockdown, and the unique conditions experienced by people across the planet, has allowed for some optimism. In the book Resilient Cities: Overcoming Fossil Fuel Dependence, Peter Newman and colleagues write, “Resilience is built on hope, which gives us confidence and strength. Hope is not blind of the possibility of everything getting worse, but it is a choice we can make when faced with challenges.


pages: 112 words: 34,520

Bill Bailey's Remarkable Guide to Happiness: THE FEELGOOD BOOK OF THE YEAR by Bill Bailey

coronavirus, COVID-19, happiness index / gross national happiness, Stephen Hawking

To my family and friends, and all those who have shared in these adventures CONTENTS Foreword 1 Crazy Golf 2 A Clear-out 3 Wild Swimming 4 Little Things 5 Music 6 Caring for Plants 7 Restraint 8 Singing 9 Sport 10 Art 11 Personal Reflection 12 Swearing 13 The Unexpected 14 Playing the Gamelan 15 Laughing 16 Equations 17 Paddleboarding 18 Reading 19 Trees 20 Confronting Your Fears (Part 1) 21 Dogs 22 Confronting Your Fears (Part 2) 23 Birdsong 24 Dancing 25 Pleasure 26 Jogging 27 Cycling 28 Being Someone to Rely On 29 Walking 30 Letter Writing 31 Generosity 32 Belonging 33 Being in Nature 34 Speaking Another Language 35 Simplicity 36 Love About Bill Bailey Thank you FOREWORD This book was written during the coronavirus pandemic, largely while we were in lockdown. During this unexpected quiet time at home, I finally got around to archiving my comedy shows, and I was struck, firstly by how much longer my hair was back in the day, and secondly by how much happiness has been a subject that I have explored in my sketches and gigs over many years, to the point that it appears as a constant thread running through it all.

It wows us with its unfathomable strangeness, but also sometimes catches us off guard with how closely it mirrors our own experience, how it speaks directly to us in our everyday lives. Magical while being disarmingly real, like watching your breath disappear on a cold day, or feeling the sun’s warmth on your face. PERSONAL REFLECTION 11 It’s a hot spring day in late April and it feels almost like summer. We are in lockdown due to the coronavirus. The air is drowsy and still with no hint of breeze, and as the heat begins to rise our hens seek out the shady patch of our garden in a hollow under the birch tree. They jostle and bicker and eventually shimmy their backsides into the cool earth to make themselves comfortable, then, suitably ensconced, they doze comically, their red-combed heads drooping, then jerking upright, only to droop once again.


pages: 291 words: 80,068

Framers: Human Advantage in an Age of Technology and Turmoil by Kenneth Cukier, Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Francis de Véricourt

Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, autonomous vehicles, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, fiat currency, framing effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, game design, George Gilder, global pandemic, global village, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Mercator projection, meta-analysis, microaggression, nudge unit, packet switching, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, transaction costs

Now, fast-forward to 2020. When the novel coronavirus blipped onto public health authorities’ radar early that year, it wasn’t clear what sort of disease the world was dealing with. Seven coronaviruses were then known to affect humans, with a wide range of infection rates and lethality. Some cause the common cold. Others, like SARS (in Asia in 2002 to 2004) and MERS (in the Middle East in 2012), proved to have harsher symptoms, longer incubation periods, and case fatality rates of 10 percent and 35 percent, respectively. Yet the world had endured coronavirus outbreaks before, and they were squelched, just as Ebola had been.

New Zealand’s brilliant Covid response: Interview by Kenneth Cukier with Michael Baker, health adviser to the government, June 2020. Britain’s pathetic Covid response: “Britain Has the Wrong Government for the Covid Crisis,” Economist, June 18, 2020, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2020/06/18/britain-has-the-wrong-government-for-the-covid-crisis. Britain’s Covid performance in June: “Coronavirus: UK Daily Deaths Drop to Pre-lockdown Level,” BBC News, June 8, 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-52968160. UK data on deaths and cases: “COVID-19 Pandemic Data in the United Kingdom,” Wikipedia, accessed October 30, 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:COVID-19_pandemic_data/United_Kingdom_medical_cases_chart.


pages: 251 words: 80,831

Super Founders: What Data Reveals About Billion-Dollar Startups by Ali Tamaseb

"side hustle", 23andMe, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, business intelligence, buy and hold, Chris Wanstrath, clean water, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, game design, gig economy, high net worth, hiring and firing, index fund, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, QR code, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, robotic process automation, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the payments system, Tony Hsieh, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, web application, WeWork, Y Combinator

This is because Eric knew exactly what shortcomings he needed to fix—he was working at a company he would soon be competing against. He was laser focused on the product, and he made it his mission to satisfy his customers. In 2018, Zoom became the industry leader in both market share and customer satisfaction, with ratings more than two times the industry average. The coronavirus-related pandemic of 2020, which led to many companies and schools adopting work- and teach-from-home policies, significantly boosted Zoom’s business, doubling its revenues in one quarter and quadrupling its valuation in the public markets. In 2011, Cisco and Polycom owned the majority of the enterprise videoconferencing market.

The total amount of venture capital investment was reduced from over $40 billion in 2008 to less than $30 billion a year later, affecting startups raising money in 2009 and 2010. More starkly, those startups had to take investments at lower valuations. Pre-money valuations dropped from an average of $40 million for a series C round in 2007 to about $25 million in 2009. Similarly, the coronavirus-related lockdown in 2020 temporarily reduced investment activity by about 25 percent, but it quickly bounced back to normal and then increased even higher afterward. Overall, booms and busts in the economy, including in the stock market, have an impact both on the amounts invested by VC firms and on valuations, with later-stage startups getting hit harder.

Michael Arrington, “Benchmark Capital Advises Startups to Conserve Capital, Look for Opportunities,” TechCrunch, October 9, 2008, https://techcrunch.com/2008/10/09/benchmark-capital-advises-startups-to-conserve-capital/. 3. Don Butler, “Pre-Money Valuation” (chart), Forbes, March 17, 2020, www.forbes.com/sites/donbutler/2020/03/17/this-downturn-will-be-different-what-we-expect-in-a-recession-marred-by-coronavirus/#201610ad2cd7. 4. Todd McKinnon, “Why I’m Not Crazy,” Scribd, accessed July 30, 2020, www.scribd.com/document/440970657/Why-I-m-Not-Crazy-Todd-McKinnon-Okta-002#from_embed. CHAPTER 15: CAPITAL EFFICIENCY 1. Forbes, “How Katrina Lake Defied the Investment World to Build a $3 Billion Business,” video, August 9, 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?


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The Science of Hate: How Prejudice Becomes Hate and What We Can Do to Stop It by Matthew Williams

3D printing, 4chan, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic bias, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, deindustrialization, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, illegal immigration, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, microaggression, Milgram experiment, selection bias, Snapchat, statistical model, theory of mind, twin studies, white flight

Parkin, ‘“A Threat to Health Is Being Weaponised”: Inside the Fight against Online Hate Crime’, Guardian, 2 May 2020; K. Paul, ‘Facebook Reports Spike in Takedowns of Hate Speech’, Reuters, 12 May 2020. 5. EU vs Disinfo, ‘EEAS Special Report Update: Short Assessment of Narratives and Disinformation around the Covid-19/Coronavirus Pandemic’, 24 April 2020, euvsdisinfo.eu/eeas-special-report-update-2-22-april; C. Miller, ‘White Supremacists See Coronavirus as an Opportunity’, Southern Poverty Law Center, 26 March 2020. * ‘Average’ white middle-class boys, or more generally people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Democratic (WEIRD) societies, make up the bulk of subjects in scientific studies on human behaviour.

., ‘The Trump Effect: An Experimental Investigation of the Emboldening Effect of Racially Inflammatory Elite Communication’, British Journal of Political Science, 2020, 1–22. 27. H. Cheung, Z. Feng and B. Deng, ‘Coronavirus: What Attacks on Asians Reveal About American Identity’, BBC News, 27 May 2020; C. P. Hong, ‘The Slur I Never Expected to Hear in 2020’, New York Times, 16 April 2020. 28. C. Choi, ‘In Six Weeks, STOP AAPI HATE Receives over 1700 Incident Reports of Verbal Harassment, Shunning and Physical Assaults’, STOP AAPI HATE Reporting Center, 13 May 2020. 29. Home Affairs Committee, ‘Oral Evidence: Home Office Preparedness for Covid-19 (Coronavirus), Hc 232’, London: House of Commons, 2020. 30. Human Rights Watch, ‘Covid-19 Fueling Anti-Asian Racism and Xenophobia Worldwide’, 12 May 2020, www.hrw.org/news/2020/05/12/covid-19-fueling-anti-asian-racism-and-xenophobia-worldwide. 31.


pages: 533 words: 125,495

Rationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters by Steven Pinker

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, backpropagation, basic income, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, coronavirus, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, disinformation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, Erdős number, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, feminist movement, framing effect, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, high batting average, index card, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta-analysis, microaggression, Monty Hall problem, Nash equilibrium, New Journalism, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Peter Singer: altruism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, QAnon, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, scientific worldview, selection bias, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Tragedy of the Commons, twin studies, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Walter Mischel, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/economic-growth. Roser, M., Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Ritchie, H. 2013. Life expectancy. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy. Roser, M., Ritchie, H., Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Hasell, J. 2020. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus. Rosling, H. 2019. Factfulness: Ten reasons we’re wrong about the world—and why things are better than you think. New York: Flatiron. Roth, G. A., Abate, D., Abate, K. H., Abay, S. M., Abbafati, C., et al. 2018. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Once again, the violation of the axioms of rationality spills over from private choices into public policy. In an eerie premonition, forty years before Covid-19 Tversky and Kahneman asked people to “imagine that the U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease.”31 I will update their example. The coronavirus, if left untreated, is expected to kill 600,000 people. Four vaccines have been developed, and only one can be distributed on a large scale. If Miraculon is chosen, 200,000 people will be saved. If Wonderine is chosen, there’s a ⅓ chance that 600,000 people will be saved and a ⅔ chance that no one will be saved.

Acta Psychologica, 43, 239–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(79)90028-3. Walker, C., Petulla, S., Fowler, K., Mier, A., Lou, M., et al. 2019. 10 years. 180 school shootings. 356 victims. CNN, July 24. https://www.cnn.com/interactive/2019/07/us/ten-years-of-school-shootings-trnd/. Wan, W., & Shammas, B. 2020. Why Americans are numb to the staggering coronavirus death toll. Washington Post, Dec. 21. https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/12/21/covid-why-we-ignore-deaths/. Warburton, N. 2007. Thinking from A to Z (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. Wason, P. C. 1966. Reasoning. In B. M. Foss, ed., New horizons in psychology. London: Penguin. Weber, M. 1922/2019.


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The Cult of We: WeWork, Adam Neumann, and the Great Startup Delusion by Eliot Brown, Maureen Farrell

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, future of work, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, Google Earth, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hockey-stick growth, housing crisis, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Network effects, new economy, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-oil, railway mania, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Jobs, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, WeWork, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The onset of the pandemic sent the ride-hailing market into a tailspin, reversing an early 2020 rally in Uber’s shares. Son, again on his back foot, took to PowerPoint. In May 2020, during a call with investors, he featured a slide of horses stampeding into what he called “the valley of the coronavirus” with some unicorns flying out. Some companies would die, he said. Others would fly out stronger. Amid the storm, he had to admit the obvious: the dream was dead. SoftBank announced it was shelving its fund-raising plans for Vision Fund 2. It would use only its own money for the fund, until it could show the world some good results.

The marching orders were to keep slimming down and turn profitable. There would be no more Summer Camp, no sprawling events team, no surf pools or divisions that advised Fortune 500 companies on culture. WeWork was in the subleasing business. Claure predicted that WeWork would be generating more cash than it consumed by 2021. Then came the coronavirus. When the virus spread around the globe in March, many of WeWork’s defining features suddenly became vulnerabilities. WeWork’s offices were all about social interaction—they were about high density and about going into the office rather than staying at home. And on the business side, they were flexible, easily canceled often with just days’ or weeks’ notice.

Even though Nikola wasn’t yet manufacturing trucks, Milton inspired investors by painting a picture of how its design would remake the whole enormous trucking sector. Public market investors, including novices using the app Robinhood—some first-time stock pickers bored and looking for entertainment during the coronavirus shutdown—rushed into the frenzy. Nikola’s valuation eclipsed that of Ford, topping $30 billion. There were eerie parallels to WeWork and Neumann. Milton sold $94 million of stock as the company prepared to go public. Under his watch, Nikola bought a Jet Ski company. He purchased a private plane.


pages: 326 words: 91,532

The Pay Off: How Changing the Way We Pay Changes Everything by Gottfried Leibbrandt, Natasha de Teran

Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, financial exclusion, global pandemic, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Irish bank strikes, Julian Assange, large denomination, light touch regulation, M-Pesa, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Northern Rock, off grid, offshore financial centre, payday loans, post-industrial society, QR code, RAND corporation, ransomware, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, you are the product

Salaries in Albania, drastic gap between the minimum and maximum pay (https://balkaneu.com/salaries-albania-drastic-gap-minimum-maximum-pay/) Data on cash usage in various countries from McKinsey: ‘Attacking the cost of cash’ (2018). www.mckinsey.com/industries/financial-services/our-insights/attacking-the-cost-of-cash For more on access to cash in Bristol, see: ‘Mapping the availability of cash – a case study of Bristol’s financial infrastructure’, University of Bristol, http://www.bris.ac.uk/geography/research/pfrc/themes/finexc/availability-of-cash/ Figures on cost of cash taken from: ‘Access to Cash Review’, final report (2019). www.accesstocash.org.uk/media/1087/final-report-final-web.pdf For the quotes on printing money, see: www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/upshot/coronavirus-fed-extraordinary-response.html; https://twitter.com/AsILayHodling/status/1241008225924845568; www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-ecb-qe/ecb-primes-money-printing-gun-to-combat-coronavirus-idUSKBN21D0J4 For the story on Sweden’s cash decline and resistance, see www.spink.com/media/view?id=338; Kontant Upproret, ‘The cash uprising – the voice of cash in society’ (www.kontantupproret.se) Björn Eriksson was quoted in D.


pages: 388 words: 99,023

The Emperor's New Road: How China's New Silk Road Is Remaking the World by Jonathan Hillman

British Empire, cable laying ship, capital controls, colonial rule, coronavirus, COVID-19, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, drone strike, energy security, facts on the ground, intermodal, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, M-Pesa, Malacca Straits, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special economic zone, supply-chain management, trade route, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, union organizing, Washington Consensus

The question is whether the BRI will add to China’s power or detract from it. That hinges on China having the discipline to choose the right projects and walk away from the wrong ones. In the BRI’s first six years, its mission has not merely creeped but cascaded. Mistakes were surfacing even before the coronavirus pandemic paralyzed the global economy in 2020, exacerbating the BRI’s preexisting conditions and revealing how the very connections it aims to strengthen carry both promise and peril. As the following chapters show, the BRI is an imperial project in the rewards that China could reap as well as in the risks it faces.

If the BRI was magically paused and no more projects were announced, its current footprint would still take years to unfold. Ultimately, China’s economy will determine how long the BRI continues and in what form. China’s foreign reserves have dropped substantially since the BRI was launched, and it faces rising costs and shrinking revenues at home. Even before the coronavirus pandemic, there were indications of a pullback on BRI-related projects, suggesting that project announcements could be slimmed down in the coming years. That is bad news for China’s massive state-owned firms, but scarcity may also make oversight easier and encourage Beijing to increase the quality of its projects.

Early mistakes along the BRI occurred in a relatively forgiving global economy, and as Warren Buffet is fond of saying, “you only find out who is swimming naked when the tide goes out.”33 The risks are probably greater than Chinese officials appreciate. Most infrastructure booms have gone bust. The coronavirus pandemic is laying bare the BRI’s flaws, even as it creates new needs that China could exploit. Developing and emerging economies that borrowed heavily are being pushed beyond the brink. The same instinct for secrecy that hides the terms of China’s deals along the BRI concealed the outbreak. Most troubling for Xi’s vision, China shared the virus with the world through the very connections the BRI aims to strengthen.


pages: 332 words: 100,245

Mine!: How the Hidden Rules of Ownership Control Our Lives by Michael A. Heller, James Salzman

23andMe, Airbnb, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, endowment effect, estate planning, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Garrett Hardin, gig economy, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, land tenure, Mason jar, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, planetary scale, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The future is already here, Tim Cook: Apple, Tragedy of the Commons, you are the product, Zipcar

The conflicts are growing more acute: as beach-spreaders are pushing the boundaries of possession, rising sea levels are shrinking New Jersey beaches. Local residents pay for lifeguards and beach upkeep and get mad when beach-spreaders keep them away from the water. Regional variations in beach possession symbols matter even more in the COVID-19 era. That’s why White House coronavirus adviser Deborah Birx urged beachgoers to defend circles of sand around their umbrellas: “Remember that is your space, and that is the space you need to protect.” She was arguing for uniform beach spacing nationwide. Bad ownership design can have deadly consequences in New Jersey, Florida, and elsewhere.

., The Production of Reality: Essays and Readings on Social Interaction, 6th ed. (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2016), 451–52; and on television prank shows, see “Butterfly Crime Scene,” Impractical Jokers, TruTV, season 1, episode 2, December 15, 2011. On toilet paper filching, see Jordan Reynolds, “Coronavirus Panic-buyers ‘Stealing from Trolleys’ at Black Country Cash and Carry,” Express and Star (Wolverhampton, UK), March 11, 2020. The real rule is “Finders give it back”: There are many stories like this one: Mariel Padilla, “Teenager, an Aspiring Detective, Returns $135,000 He Found,” New York Times, May 9, 2020.

The Anticommons in Biomedical Research,” Science 280 (May 1998): 698–701. gene-editing technologies: Jorge L. Contreras, “The Anticommons at Twenty: Concerns for Research Continue,” Science 361 (July 2018): 335–37. Innovations using these tools could save your life: Giorgia Guglielmi, “First CRISPR Test for the Coronavirus Approved in the United States,” Nature, May 8, 2020. Indeed, the Supreme Court decided: eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., 547 U.S. 388 (2006). “I was a single mom”: Chavie Lieber, “Fashion Brands Steal Design Ideas All the Time. And It’s Completely Legal,” Vox, April 27, 2018. “Splurge vs.


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100 Years of Identity Crisis: Culture War Over Socialisation by Frank Furedi

1960s counterculture, 23andMe, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, epigenetics, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, New Urbanism, nudge unit, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen

It seeks to justify itself on the basis of expertise and process rather than political vision. It self-consciously eschews politics and attempts to de-politicise controversial issues by outsourcing their management and decision making to expert institutions, courts and international bodies such as the International Monetary Fund. Except in unusual circumstances, such as during the coronavirus pandemic, when politicians explicitly gave way to scientists, technocratic governance rarely exists in a pure form. And with good reason: on its own, technocratic governance cannot motivate or inspire people. This is why a technocracy relies for its credibility on policies and ideals that are external to itself.

Their leaders advocate ‘technoscientific means to achieve happiness, a total control of emotions, and an improvement of human character’.755 Moral neuroenhancement, unlike previous forms of moral engineering, ‘operates by altering brain states or processes directly’, through the application of drugs or the use of brain modulation techniques.756 Although occasionally there are outcries against the influence and power of experts, technocratic and therapeutic governance itself is rarely a focus of political dispute. During the coronavirus pandemic the different sides of the argument over the efficacy of lockdown and quarantine measures sought to legitimate their argument by justifying it on the ground of their mental health impact. All sides of the debate appeared to have internalised the fundamentals of the therapeutic ethos but drew different political conclusions from it.

Technocrats are constantly asking the question ‘which nudging techniques can we use to further increase awareness?’764 They believe that through psychological manipulation they can create public awareness that ensures that ‘very large numbers of people form powerful groupings, like a “swarm”, to produce massive social outcomes’.765 The extensive use of nudging and behavioural economics during the coronavirus pandemic illustrates how the engineering of people’s ‘decision making’ rapidly displaced open politically informed guidance and leadership. The ethos and practice of raising awareness is based on the unstated and often unacknowledged assumption that behavioural change is important for both the individual and for society.


pages: 208 words: 57,602

Futureproof: 9 Rules for Humans in the Age of Automation by Kevin Roose

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, automated trading system, basic income, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, choice architecture, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Freestyle chess, future of work, gig economy, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, hustle culture, income inequality, industrial robot, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Productivity paradox, QAnon, recommendation engine, remote working, risk tolerance, robotic process automation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

McKinsey, the giant consulting firm, dubbed it “the great acceleration.” Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella claimed that the company had experienced “two years’ worth of digital transformation in two months.” In March 2020, a survey by the accounting firm EY found that 41 percent of corporate executives were investing more in automation to prepare for a post-coronavirus world. David Autor, an MIT economist and leading automation expert, called the pandemic an “automation-forcing event,” and predicted that it would usher in technological trends that would persist long after the virus was gone. The pandemic has shown us some of the benefits of automation more clearly than any Davos panel could have.

By 2017, three in four American adults believed Gallup and Northeastern University, “Optimism and Anxiety: Views on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Higher Education’s Response,” 2017. Tyson Foods, the meat producer Jacob Bunge and Jesse Newman, “Tyson Turns to Robot Butchers, Spurred by Coronavirus Outbreaks,” Wall Street Journal, July 10, 2020. FedEx started using package-sorting robots Christopher Mims, “As E-Commerce Booms, Robots Pick Up Human Slack,” Wall Street Journal, August 8, 2020. Shopping centers, apartment complexes, and grocery stores Michael Corkery and David Gelles, “Robots Welcome to Take Over, as Pandemic Accelerates Automation,” New York Times, April 10, 2020.


pages: 226 words: 58,341

The New Snobbery by David Skelton

assortative mating, banking crisis, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, centre right, collective bargaining, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Etonian, financial deregulation, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, housing crisis, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, microaggression, new economy, Northern Rock, open borders, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, shareholder value, wealth creators, women in the workforce

Notes 1 Jeremy Bohonos, ‘Critical race theory and working-class white men’, Gender, Work and Organization (2020), vol. 28, no. 1. 2 Mason, ‘Corbynism is over’. 3 David Brooks, ‘The problem with wokeness’, Seattle Times, 8 June 2018. 4 Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay, Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender and Identity – And Why This Harms Everybody (North Carolina: Pitchstone Publishing, 2020), p. 12. 5 Rory Tingle, ‘Outrage as controversial taxpayer-funded black studies professor who says Britain is “built on racism” claims Churchill was “a white supremacist” in debate’, Daily Mail, 12 February 2020. 6 Dan Falvey, ‘Oxford lecturer doesn’t want UK to find coronavirus vaccine due to political correctness’, Daily Express, 24 April 2021. 7 Edward Said, ‘A window on the world’, The Guardian, 2 August 2003. 8 Trevor Phillips, ‘When you erase a nation’s past, you threaten its future’, The Times, 18 September 2020. 9 Craig Simpson, ‘Churchill college panel claims wartime PM was a white supremacist leading an empire “worse than the Nazis”’, Daily Telegraph, 11 February 2021. 10 ‘Keele manifesto for decolonizing the curriculum’, Pluto Journals (2018), vol. 5, nos 1–2, pp. 97–9. 11 See the ‘Decolonise Education’ section of the NUS website. 12 Gurminder K.

Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Oxford: Routledge, 2006). 12 Michael Young, ‘Down with meritocracy’, The Guardian, 29 June 2001. 13 Quoted in Wheen, ‘Satirical fiction is becoming Blair’s reality’. 14 Patrick Deneen, ‘A Tyranny Without Tyrants’, American Affairs, 20 February 2021. 15 Sandel, The Tyranny of Merit. 16 David Goodhart, ‘Middle May: the premier is one of the first to recognise Britain’s emerging political fault line’, The Spectator, 20 May 2017. 17 Quoted in ‘Classic podium: the Tories’ historic mission’, The Independent, 2 October 1998. 18 Quoted in Jonty Bloom, ‘The European Coal and Steel Community turns sixty’, BBC News, 10 August 2012. 19 Aditya Chakrabortty, ‘Why doesn’t Britain make things any more?’, The Guardian, 16 November 2011. 20 JJ Charlesworth, tweet, 5.40 p.m., 14 October 2020, https://twitter.com/jjcharlesworth_/status/1316418588207648774 21 ‘Covid-19: low-skilled men have highest death rate of working age adults’, BMJ (2020), no. 369; ‘Coronavirus related deaths by occupation, England and Wales: deaths registered between 9 March and 28 December 2020’, ONS, 25 January 2021. 22 ‘You can’t buck the market’, The Independent, 5 April 1998. 23 ‘Tony Blair’s conference speech 2005’, The Guardian, 27 September 2005. 24 ‘Gordon Brown’s Mansion House speech’, The Guardian, 22 June 2006; ‘Gordon Brown – 2007 Mansion House speech’, Political Speech Archive. 25 The Observer, 18 October 2008. 26 ‘Pope Francis: Politics cannot be “slave” to economy, finance’, The Hill, 24 September 2015. 27 Quoted in David Goodhart, ‘How to make low-skilled jobs seem more attractive’, BBC News, 17 February 2013. 28 Jonathan Cribb, ‘How are younger generations faring compared to their parents and grandparents’, Institute for Fiscal Studies, 17 October 2019


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Life's Edge: The Search for What It Means to Be Alive by Carl Zimmer

3D printing, Albert Einstein, biofilm, call centre, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, discovery of DNA, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, gravity well, knapsack problem, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Lyft, microbiome, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, stem cell, uber lyft

., Shirin Ghods, and Bernd H. A. Rehm. 2017. “Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lifestyle: A Paradigm for Adaptation, Survival, and Persistence.” Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 7. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2017.00039. Mortensen, Jens. 2020. “Six Months of Coronavirus: Here’s Some of What We’ve Learned.” New York Times, June 18. https://www.nytimes.com/article/coronavirus-facts-history.html (accessed July 25, 2020). Moseley, Henry N. 1892. Notes by a Naturalist: An Account of Observations Made During the Voyage of H.M.S., “Challenger” Round the World in the Years 1872–1876. New York: Putnam. Moss, Helen E., Lorraine K.

., 93 Cape Verde Islands, 152–53 Caplan, Arthur, 56 Carpenter, William, 159 Cartesian worldview, 129–30 Cassini probe, 260–61 Castoe, Todd, 75 catalysts, 284–86 Cavendish Laboratory, ix–x, xiii, xv–xviii, 192–93, 195 Cech, Thomas, 232 Chakrabarti, Ajoy, 233–34 Challenger Deep, 261 Chambliss, Clyde, 31–32 Chan, Benjamin, 122 Chang, Sherwood, 227 Children’s Hospital Oakland, 57 chimeras, 29 chimpanzees, 20, 37, 40 chlorophyll, 103–4 Choi, Charles, 258 chromosomes, 23, 27–30, 105–6, 113, 184–85, 187, 190, 193 Cleland, Carol, 275–81 Clinton, Bill, 257 cluster analysis, 275 coccoliths, 156, 160 Cold War, 178 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 146–47 coma dépassé, 51–52 computer modeling, 283–84 conjoined twins, 137 Connecticut College Arboretum, 102–4, 106 consciousness, 14–15, 54 Conte, Silvio, 255 Cooper, Leon N., 287 Cooper, Vaughn, 116 coronavirus, 203–9, 226 Cotard’s syndrome, 16–17 Creative Evolution (Bergson), 172 Crick, Francis, 191–95, 195–99, 224 Cronin, Lee, 267, 268–69, 287–92 cryptobiosis, 47–48 crystal structures, 190–91, 193, 195, 262, 263 Curie, Marie, x–xi, xii Curie, Pierre, x–xi cystic fibrosis, 112, 123 cytosine, 71 Czapek, Friedrich, 179 Damer, Bruce, 238 Dartmouth Medical School, 61 Darwin, Charles, xv, xviii, 37, 114, 156–57, 159, 217–18, 245 Darwin, Erasmus, 146–47, 148, 157, 218 Dayman, Joseph, 156 Deamer, David on alkaline vent theory, 247–48 astrobiology/exobiology research, 258 autocatalytic set research, 286 DNA-reading technology, 229–31, 240–42 lipid and liposome research, 226, 227–29, 231–36, 242–45 research background, 225–26 RNA-based drugs, 248–49 volcanic hot springs research, 216–17, 236–39, 243–44, 247 death cell death, 26 and coma dépassé, 51–52 cultural approaches to, 36–37 early scientific study of, 42–48, 49–55 fear of premature burial, 48–49 and human evolution, 40–41 and lost pregnancies, 30–31 medical definitions of, 51–55, 55–62 and organ transplants, 51–54 and primate thanatology, 36–40 decision-making, 81–82, 88–89 definitions of life and the abortion debate, 21–27 and astrobiology/exobiology, 265 Bohr on, 182–83 and brain death, 42, 53–55 and Burke, ix and complex chemistry, 219–20 complexity of, 282–83 current challenges, 269–72 NASA definition, 199–200, 209–10, 256–57, 270, 273, 278 philosophical approaches to, 272–75, 275–82 and Schrödinger’s Trinity College lectures, 189, 191 and Szent-Györgyi, 179–80 and viruses, 207–10 Delbrück, Max, 182, 184, 186–90, 199 Descartes, René, 129, 145 Descent of Man, The (Darwin), 37 diabetes insipidus, 59 dietary balance, 86 digestion, 72–77, 87–88 DNA and assembly theory, 292 and astrobiology/exobiology research, 262, 278 and bacteriophages, 123 and cell function, 26–28 and cryptobiosis, 47–48 and definitions of life, 27, 272, 274–75 discovery of, 191–95, 195–96 and disease resistance, 101 DNA-reading technology, 229–31, 240–42, 269 and electric charge within cells, 181 and embryonic development, 31–32 and eukaryotes, 113 and hibernation, 94, 101 and metabolic function, 71–72, 75–76 and molecular vitalism, 198 and origins of life theories, 227–34, 239–44, 249, 282–83 and prebiotic chemistry, 224 and Pseudomonas research, 120 and red blood cells, 211–12 and reproduction, 105 and Schrödinger’s aperiodic crystals, 191 and slime molds, 88 and viruses, 208–9, 215 Double Helix, The (Watson), 195 Down syndrome, 30 DropFactory, 290–92 drug resistance, 208, 211 Duclaux, Émile, 170 Dujardin, Félix, 158 Dussutour, Audrey, 86 earcockle disease, 44–45 East India Company, 35 Ebola, 242 Eccles, John, 198 echolocation, 94–95 Edsall, John, 181 EEGs, 13, 54 eggs, 45–46 Einarsdóttir, Ólöf, 231 Einstein, Albert, 287 élan vital, 172.


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A Hunter-Gatherer's Guide to the 21st Century: Evolution and the Challenges of Modern Life by Heather Heying, Bret Weinstein

biofilm, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, conceptual framework, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, delayed gratification, discovery of DNA, double helix, epigenetics, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, helicopter parent, hygiene hypothesis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind

Why, for instance, if masks are pointless, are they exactly the equipment used by health professionals when trying to avoid infection from respiratory ailments? When the directives were later reversed, people who had followed them based on authority alone lost faith in those same authorities. It was then difficult to regain the public’s trust sufficiently to encourage a careful, nuanced approach to reducing the spread and impact of this novel coronavirus. Simple prescriptions make snappier sound bites, and they are easier to remember for those looking for set-and-forget solutions, but when they fail you, you are left with nowhere to stand, no ability to problem solve for yourself. Rather than blindly “trusting the science” or following the lead of authorities, learn to do at least some of the logic for yourself, and seek authorities who are willing to both show you how they arrived at their conclusions and admit when they have made mistakes.

Afterword In January of 2020 we went to the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the Ecuadoran Amazon to finish our first draft of this book. When we emerged from our isolation—as our phones came alive for the first time in two weeks—we were confronted with a barrage of news, mostly trivial, of which we had been blissfully unaware. But in that onslaught there was one ominous report—a case of a “novel coronavirus” in Ecuador. The pathogen came from horseshoe bats, had jumped to people and then spread rapidly, first in Wuhan, China, and then beyond. As the two of us tried to make sense of these first hints of pandemic, it quickly became clear that there might be more to the story. Wuhan, we soon learned, housed a BSL-4 laboratory—it was, in fact, one of our planet’s two main centers of research on bat-borne coronaviruses.

Where once an epidemic might have been held back by barriers that limit human travel, humans now regularly transmit communicable diseases from their continents of origin to every corner of the globe. Much as people thought little about washing their hands prior to the germ theory of disease, we give no thought to the scale of misery caused by a given person transporting a new and nameless cold virus to some continent that was free of it the day before. “Novel Coronavirus” took advantage of that nonchalance before the pathogen even had a proper name. The COVID-19 pandemic is itself a symptom of another disease entirely. In the pages of this book, we call that disease “hyper-novelty.” It is caused by a rate of technological change so rapid that transitions in our environment outstrip our capacity to adapt.


pages: 432 words: 106,612

Trillions: How a Band of Wall Street Renegades Invented the Index Fund and Changed Finance Forever by Robin Wigglesworth

Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, Bear Stearns, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, cloud computing, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Covid-19, COVID-19, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, Henri Poincaré, index fund, industrial robot, invention of the wheel, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Louis Bachelier, money market fund, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Performance of Mutual Funds in the Period, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund

The financial crisis of 2008 was a particularly hard blow to efficient-markets proponents, even though Fama himself had shown that markets are prone to improbable “fat tail” meltdowns, and later did seminal work on factors that have in the long run made investors above-market returns (research we will return to later). Fama notes that markets are rarely perfectly efficient, and acerbically argues that the theory “is only controversial among people that don’t want to believe in it.” His view is that events like the dotcom bubble, the financial crisis of 2008, or the wild post-coronavirus market rally of 2020–21 might show that prices may not always be “right,” but it is in practice impossible to know when they aren’t before the fact. Yet the best argument for the enduring value of the efficient-markets hypothesis comes from the eminent twentieth-century British statistician George Box, who is said to have quipped that “all models are wrong, but some are useful.”

Regardless, it is abundantly clear that for the foreseeable future, the gushing inflows into traditional index funds and ETFs are going to continue—even though the impact on markets, the investment management business, and the finance industry as a whole is also becoming more apparent. Chapter 16 THE NEW CAPTAINS OF CAPITAL TESLA’S STOCK WENT ON A wild ride in 2020, powered by the devotion of the electric car company’s army of ordinary investors, who were suddenly stuck at home and day-trading their stimulus checks to pass time while the coronavirus pandemic raged. But in November, the rally received another huge jolt that would help make Elon Musk’s company one of the most valuable in the world. Despite its dramatic stock market gains over the past decade, S&P Dow Jones Indices—one of the biggest providers of financial benchmarks—had long refrained from adding Tesla to its flagship index, the S&P 500, for one simple reason: To be included, a company has to be consistently profitable, a requirement that Tesla had struggled to meet.

I have also learned an enormous amount from working with or admiring from afar financial journalists like John Authers, Gillian Tett, James Mackintosh, Philip Coggan, and Jason Zweig, as well as industry experts such as Deborah Fuhr, Ben Johnson, Eric Balchunas, and David Nadig. They are all titans upon whose shoulders I nervously perch. But someone closer to home deserves the biggest acknowledgment. In the middle of the coronavirus-induced lockdown, my daughter wrote a riddle and proudly presented it to me. Scrawled on the page, it said, “What works and works and is never finished?” To my horror I realized that the answer was me. I’m one of the lucky people who truly loves their job. Unfortunately, that can come at a cost to those around me.


pages: 667 words: 186,968

The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History by John M. Barry

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, conceptual framework, coronavirus, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, index card, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, means of production, statistical model, the medium is the message, the scientific method, traveling salesman, women in the workforce

Still, even with the best modern care, even with for example dramatically more efficient and effective administration of oxygen than in 1918, the mortality rate for ARDS patients in different studies ranges from 40 to 60 percent. Without intensive care—and hospitals have few beds in intensive-care units—the mortality rate would approach 100 percent. (In 2003 a new coronavirus that causes SARS, “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome,” appeared in China and quickly spread around the world. Coronaviruses cause an estimated 15 to 30 percent of all colds and, like the influenza virus, infect epithelial cells. When the coronavirus that causes SARS does kill, it often kills through ARDS, although since the virus replicates much more slowly than influenza, death from ARDS can come several weeks after the first symptoms.)

It invades cells that have energy and then, like some alien puppet master, it subverts them, takes them over, forces them to make thousands, and in some cases hundreds of thousands, of new viruses. The power to do this lies in their genes. In most life forms, genes are stretched out along the length of a filament-like molecule of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid. But many viruses—including influenza, HIV, and the coronavirus that causes SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)—encode their genes in RNA, ribonucleic acid, an even simpler but less stable molecule. Genes resemble software; just as a sequence of bits in a computer code tells the computer what to do—whether to run a word processing program, a computer game, or an Internet search, genes tell the cell what to do.

It is this adaptability that explains why these quasi species, these mutant swarms, can move rapidly back and forth between different environments and also develop extraordinarily rapid drug resistance. As one investigator has observed, the rapid mutation “confers a certain randomness to the disease processes that accompany RNA [viral] infections.” Influenza is an RNA virus. So is HIV and the coronavirus. And of all RNA viruses, influenza and HIV are among those that mutate the fastest. The influenza virus mutates so fast that 99 percent of the 100,000 to 1 million new viruses that burst out of a cell in the reproduction process are too defective to infect another cell and reproduce again. But that still leaves between 1,000 and 10,000 viruses that can infect another cell.


pages: 224 words: 74,019

Women and Other Monsters: Building a New Mythology by Jess Zimmerman

coronavirus, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Joan Didion

They’re not invested in children, or even in mothers—the same people generally oppose paid maternity leave, subsidized child care, universal health care, social support programs benefiting mothers with kids, and sometimes public schools. They’re not invested in reducing abortion—the same people oppose comprehensive sex education and accessible contraception. They’re not even invested in reducing deliberate death. Anyone who still believes the “pro-life” spin after months of watching the GOP downplay coronavirus, kneecap efforts to supply hospitals or limit spread, and call for the sacrifice of tens of thousands on the altar of the economy is using a twisted definition of “life.” What they are invested in is birth: the conversion of a woman into a mother, after which she and her baby can be left to struggle.

When I said I was a worried person, this is what I meant—that I go through our cabinets wondering how long we’ll be able to survive on dry noodles; that I fret about how accessible our windows are from the street, not because of crime but because of a post-apocalypse Purge. (All of this was in some way put to the test during the long nightmare of coronavirus, though food shortages and roving bandits weren’t as much of a problem as I’d imagined. It turns out I was right in most respects. No amount of dry noodles is enough to feel safe, but it’s better to be together.) That anxiety is not only compounded by the addition of a child; it’s increased exponentially, because not only do I have yet another life to worry about, a life I will by all accounts be even more disastrously concerned about than I am about my husband or dog, but I am virtually guaranteed that even if the end doesn’t come in my lifetime, it will in theirs.


pages: 600 words: 72,502

When More Is Not Better: Overcoming America's Obsession With Economic Efficiency by Roger L. Martin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, butterfly effect, call centre, cloud computing, complexity theory, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Frederick Winslow Taylor, High speed trading, income inequality, industrial cluster, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, open economy, Pluto: dwarf planet, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Tax Reform Act of 1986, The future is already here, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two-sided market, uber lyft, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

An Agenda for Political Leaders 8. An Agenda for Educators 9. An Agenda for Citizens 10. Closing Thoughts Notes Index Acknowledgments About the Author Foreword Roger Martin turned in the final draft of this book on January 19, 2020, right around the time that most of us were first hearing about the novel coronavirus and first finding ways to believe that it posed no great threat to our lives or plans. Two months later, most Western nations were in lockdown and almost everything about the future was suddenly unknown. As I write these words, confined to my apartment in New York City, the national death toll from COVID-19 is approaching 20,000, and tens of millions of our fellow citizens are facing financial ruin.

Yet one of the most promising reactions to this global catastrophe has been the growing realization that it offers us a once-in-a-lifetime chance to change things—big things that seemed immutable just a few months ago. Things like the nature of American capitalism and democracy. Martin’s book does not mention the coronavirus, yet it is the most essential book I know of for building a better postpandemic America, with important lessons for all Western democracies. Martin shows us how the mental model we’ve been using to think about our economy is wrong, disastrously wrong. The economy is not a machine that experts can fine-tune for maximum efficiency.


pages: 264 words: 74,785

Midnight in Vehicle City: General Motors, Flint, and the Strike That Created the Middle Class by Edward McClelland

collective bargaining, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Jeff Bezos, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

The notion of self-regulation, or the removal of traditional standards of behavior (which were seen as tools of racial prejudice, sexism, elitism, and/or protection of privilege) in favor of market-based standards of behavior became popular in the social, then the political, and finally, the economic realms. Can the middle class rise again? During the coronavirus crisis of 2020, workers at an Amazon delivery center in Chicago organized a movement that led to the company’s granting paid time off to all employees, both full and part time. Amazon workers also walked off the job to demand that the company shut down the facility after an employee tested positive for covid-19.

See also Wagner Act Combs, Prince, 25 Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA): affiliation with, repercussions, 14, 27; and early labor organizing, 21–22; “What to Do in Case of a Sit Down” (Weinstone), 52 company unions, 15–17, 35, 159 Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), formation of, 18. See also labor organizing, unions; Lewis, John L.; United Auto Workers of America (UAWA/UAW) Connelly, Leo, 29–30 Connolly, William, 76, 87 Coolidge, Calvin, 100 Cooper, Don, 186 coronavirus crisis, impact on workers in 2020, 192 Crapo, Henry Howland, 1 Cronk, Ed, 139–40, 142, 145, 147 Dalrymple, Sherman H., 35 Debs, Eugene, 13 Devitt, Joe, 36, 51 Dewey, James Frank, 99, 172 Dodge Main, Hamtramck, Michigan, 179 Dremon, Leo, 146 Durant, William Crapo, 1–3, 129–30 eight-hour work-day standard, 21, 109, 115 Emory, Mr., 146 Estrada, Cynthia, 189 families of strikers: dependence on GM, 29; importance of strike to, 54, 65, 59, 92–93, 95, 120; relief funds, assistance given to, 66, 94, 123–24; response to strike, 42, 64–66, 91, 106, 109; strike widows, 52.


pages: 303 words: 74,206

GDP: The World’s Most Powerful Formula and Why It Must Now Change by Ehsan Masood

"Robert Solow", anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, energy security, European colonialism, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Mahbub ul Haq, mass immigration, means of production, Mohammed Bouazizi, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, Washington Consensus, wealth creators

Strong Seven: “As Vulgar as GDP” Eight: Exporting Shangri-La Nine: $33 Trillion Man Ten: Stern Lessons Eleven: “Nothing Is More Destructive of Democracy” Epilogue: Unfinished Revolution A Note on Symbols Acknowledgments Bibliography Index About the Author Copyright PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION The world of 2021 seems barely recognizable from 2016 when the first edition of this book (under its original title The Great Invention), was published in the United States. As I write this (at the start of 2021), the coronavirus pandemic has taken close to 2 million lives and infected nearly 100 million people, and continues to decimate economies. Most of the world, with the exception of East Asia, is in some form of lockdown. Hundreds of millions, especially the lowest-paid workers in service industries, have become jobless.

IMF World Economic Outlook, October 2020: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/09/30/world-economic-outlook-october-2020#Full%20Report%20and%20Executive%20Summary (accessed 21 December 2020). 2. Working paper from Martin de Ridder of the University of Cambridge: http://covid.econ.cam.ac.uk/de-ridder-government-expenditures-during-coronavirus-pandemic (accessed 17 December 2020. 3. G. Ceballos, P. R. Ehrlich, P.H. Raven, “Vertebrates on the brink as indicators of biological annihilation and the sixth mass extinction,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 2020, 117 (24) 13596–13602; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922686117 (accessed 4 January 2021). 4.


pages: 244 words: 73,700

Cultish: The Language of Fanaticism by Amanda Montell

"side hustle", barriers to entry, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, financial independence, hive mind, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loss aversion, Lyft, passive income, Ponzi scheme, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, QAnon, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, sunk-cost fallacy, the scientific method, uber lyft, women in the workforce, Y2K

Tupperware: Cristen Conger, “How Tupperware Works,” HowStuffWorks, July 25, 2011, https://people.howstuffworks.com/tupperware2.htm. The Federal Trade Commission sent warnings: Lisette Voytko, “FTC Warns 16 Multi-Level Marketing Companies About Coronavirus .” Forbes, June 9, 2020, https://www.forbes.com/sites/lisettevoytko/2020/06/09/ftc-warns-16-multi-level-marketing-companies-about-coronavirus-fraud/?sh=12d56c827b9d. to throw plastic confetti: Lawrence Specker, “It Wasn’t Easy, But Mobile Now Has a 21st Century Confetti Policy,” Mobile Real-Time News, August 7, 2018, https://www.al.com/news/mobile/2018/08/it_wasnt_easy_but_mobile_now_h.html.


Apocalypse Never: Why Environmental Alarmism Hurts Us All by Michael Shellenberger

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, Corn Laws, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy transition, failed state, Garrett Hardin, Gary Taubes, global value chain, Google Earth, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, land tenure, Live Aid, LNG terminal, long peace, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, meta-analysis, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, renewable energy transition, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Nick Perry, “Death toll from New Zealand volcano rises to 21 as victim dies from injuries nearly two months later,” Independent, January 29, 2020, https://www.independent.co.uk. 111. “ ‘Stealth Transmission’ Fuels Fast Spread of Coronavirus Outbreak,” Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, February 26, 2020, https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/stealth-transmission-fuels-fast-spread-coronavirus-outbreak. 112. Kerry Emanuel (climate scientist, MIT) in discussion with the author, November 15, 2019. 113. International Energy Agency, “Global CO2 Emissions in 2019,” February 11, 2020. European Commission, “Progress Made in Cutting Emissions,” accessed March 2, 2020.

See also Virunga National Park author’s visit, 6–9, 16–19, 281–82 bushmeat, 141–42 economic development in, 16–19, 70–72 habitat conservation, 68–69, 73–74 hydroelectric power, 70–71, 83–84, 245–46, 276 need for fossil fuels, 81–83 palm oil, 112, 276 wood fuel use, 6–9, 68–70 Conservation Refugees (Dowie), 74 Consumer boycotts, 28–29, 87–88 Consumer Watchdog, 215 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 62 Conway, Erik, 250–51, 252 Cook, James, 36 Cooper, Bradley, 222 Cornell University, 43–44, 74 Corn ethanol, 61, 193 Coronavirus, 25 Corporate Crime Reporter, 208–9 Costa Rica, 28–29, 45, 52 Council on Foreign Relations, 157 Crockford, Susan, 253 Cronkite, Walter, 108 Crop-raiding, 17–18, 74–75, 78, 79 Cuban Missile Crisis, 172 Cumberbatch, Benedict, ix Curie, Marie, 241 Curie, Paul, 241 Current TV, 214 Cybernetics, 262–63 Da Silva, Benedita, 29 Da Silva, Luiz Inácio “Lula,” 29, 42 Da Vinci, Leonardo, 123 Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, 166 Day After, The (film), 270 Death symbolism, 267–69, 278–79 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 150 Deerfield Wind Project, 198 Deforestation, 32–33, 86 of Amazon rainforest, 28–32, 34, 35, 38–42, 303n fire and food, 36–38 DeGeneres, Ellen, 223 Delhi, India, 64, 237 Democratic Republic of the Congo.


Science Fictions: How Fraud, Bias, Negligence, and Hype Undermine the Search for Truth by Stuart Ritchie

Albert Einstein, anesthesia awareness, Bayesian statistics, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Growth in a Time of Debt, Kenneth Rogoff, l'esprit de l'escalier, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, mouse model, New Journalism, p-value, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, publish or perish, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, twin studies, University of East Anglia

Since a preprint can be posted online without any oversight, we should certainly be extra sceptical about them, while scientists should have the intellectual humility not to publicise their work before it’s been at least looked over by their peers.86 As the scientific ecosystem changes, journalists will become more aware that there are different ‘stages’ of scientific publication and that they should be particularly cautious of papers that are still at the earlier ones. Soon after the start of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020, preprints appeared on a major biological preprint server that sparked widespread discussion about the origins and effects of the virus. Some of the papers were of obviously low quality, rushed out to capitalise on the media frenzy about the pandemic. Others included phrasing that, whether inadvertently or otherwise, seemed to stoke conspiracy theories about the virus having been designed deliberately as a biological weapon.

Although preprints can act as a vector for erroneous information, it’s unlikely we could design a system that eradicated all mistakes. We need to weigh the downsides of preprints against the upsides that they bring of increased openness, transparency and rapidity. Indeed, for virologists and epidemiologists responding to the coronavirus crisis, the preprinting revolution has brought forth a wave of new data that substantially accelerates science, producing a research culture that’s utterly different from those during previous disease outbreaks. Not having to wait for formal peer review, being able to comment instantly on drafts of new findings, and sharing important null results that wouldn’t normally survive the publication-bias process has – despite the rare misleading claims given us a scientific literature that’s months, or maybe years, ahead of where it would be otherwise.

ABC News abortion Abu Ghraib prison abuse (2003) accidental discoveries Acta Crystallographica Section E acupuncture Afghan hounds Agence France-Presse AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Alchemist, The (Bega) Alexander, Benita Alexander, Scott algorithms allergies Alzheimer, Aloysius Alzheimer’s Disease Amazon American Journal of Potato Research Amgen amygdala amyloid cascade hypothesis anaesthesia awareness Fujii affair (2012) outcome switching Anaesthesia & Analgesia animal studies antidepressants antipsychotics archaeology Arnold, Frances arsenic artificial tracheas asthma austerity Australia Austria autism aviation Babbage, Charles Bacon, Francis bacteria Bargh, John Bayer Bayes, Thomas Bayesian statistics BDNF gene Before You Know It (Bargh) Bega, Cornelis Begley, Sharon Belgium Bell Labs Bem, Daryl benzodiazepines bias blinding and conflict of interest De Vries’ study (2018) funding and groupthink and meaning well bias Morton’s skull studies p-hacking politics and publication bias randomisation and sexism and Bik, Elisabeth Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Biomaterials biology amyloid cascade hypothesis Bik’s fake images study (2016) Boldt affair (2010) cell lines China, misconduct in Hwang affair (2005–6) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) meta-scientific research microbiome studies Morton’s skull studies Obokata affair (2014) outcome switching preprints publication bias replication crisis Reuben affair (2009) spin and statistical power and Summerlin affair (1974) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) biomedical papers bird flu bispectral index monitor black holes Black Lives Matter blinding blotting BMJ, The Boldt, Joachim books Borges, Jorge Luis Boulez, Pierre Boyle, Robert brain imaging Brass Eye vii British Medical Journal Brock, Jon bronchoscopy Broockman, David Brown, Nick Bush, George Walker business studies BuzzFeed News California Walnut Commission California wildfires (2017) Canada cancer cell lines collaborative projects faecal transplants food and publication bias and replication crisis and sleep and spin and candidate genes carbon-based transistors Cardiff University cardiovascular disease Carlisle, John Carlsmith, James Carney, Dana cash-for-publication schemes cataracts Cell cell lines Cell Transplantation Center for Open Science CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) chi-squared tests childbirth China cash-for-publication schemes cell line mix-ups in Great Famine (1959–1961) misconduct cases in randomisation fraud in chrysalis effect Churchill, Winston churnalism Cifu, Adam citations clickbait climate change cloning Clostridium difficile cochlear implants Cochrane Collaboration coercive citation coffee cognitive dissonance cognitive psychology cognitive tests coin flipping Colbert Report, The Cold War collaborative projects colonic irrigation communality COMPare Trials COMT gene confidence interval conflict of interest Conservative Party conspicuous consumption Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project (CCAP) ‘Coping with Chaos’ (Stapel) Cornell University coronavirus (COVID-19) Corps of Engineers correlation versus causation corticosteroids Cotton, Charles Caleb creationism Crowe, Russell Csiszar, Alex Cuddy, Amy CV (curriculum vitae) cyber-bullying cystic fibrosis Daily Mail Daily Telegraph Darwin Memorial, The’ (Huxley) Darwin, Charles Das, Dipak datasets fraudulent Observational publication bias Davies, Phil Dawkins, Richard De Niro, Robert De Vries, Ymkje Anna debt-to-GDP ratio Deer, Brian democratic peace theory Denmark Department of Agriculture, US depression desk rejections Deutsche Bank disabilities discontinuous mind disinterestedness DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) domestication syndrome doveryai, no proveryai Duarte, José Duke University duloxetine Dutch Golden Age Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research Dweck, Carol economics austerity preprints statistical power and effect size Einstein, Albert Elmo Elsevier engineering epigenetics euthanasia evolutionary biology exaggeration exercise Experiment, The exploratory analyses extrasensory perception faecal transplants false-positive errors Fanelli, Daniele Festinger, Leon file-drawer problem financial crisis (2007–8) Fine, Cordelia Fisher, Ronald 5 sigma evidence 5-HT2a gene 5-HTTLPR gene fixed mindset Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Frequency Questionnaires food psychology Formosus, Pope foxes France Francis, Pope Franco, Annie fraud images investigation of motives for numbers Open Science and peer review randomisation Freedom of Information Acts French, Chris Fryer, Roland Fujii, Yoshitaka funding bias and fraud and hype and long-term funding perverse incentive and replication crisis and statistical power and taxpayer money funnel plots Future of Science, The (Nielsen) gay marriage Gelman, Andrew genetically modified crops genetics autocorrect errors candidate genes collaborative projects gene therapy genome-wide association studies (GWASs) hype in salami-slicing in Geneva, Switzerland geoscience Germany Getty Center GFAJ-1 Giner-Sorolla, Roger Glasgow Effect Goldacre, Ben Goldsmiths, University of London Golgi Apparatus good bacteria Good Morning America good scientific citizenship Goodhart’s Law Goodstein, David Google Scholar Górecki, Henryk Gould, Stephen Jay Gran Sasso, Italy grants, see funding Granularity-Related Inconsistency of Means (GRIM) grapes Great Recession (2007–9) Great Red Spot of Jupiter Green, Donald Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross, Charles ground-breaking results groupthink ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’ (Reinhart and Rogoff) growth mindset Guzey, Alexey gynaecology h-index H5N1 Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson Hankins, Matthew HARKing Harris, Sidney Harvard University headache pills heart attacks heart disease Heathers, James height Heilongjiang University Heino, Matti Henry IV (Shakespeare) Higgs Boson Hirsch, Jorge HIV (human immunodeficiency viruses) homosexuality Hong Kong Hooke, Robert Hossenfelder, Sabine Houston, Texas Hume, David Huxley, Thomas Henry Hwang, Woo-Suk hydroxyethyl starch hype arsenic life affair (2010) books correlation versus causation cross-species leap language and microbiome studies news stories nutrition and press releases spin unwarranted advice hypotheses Ig Nobel Prize images, fraudulent impact factor India insomnia International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology Ioannidis, John IQ tests Iraq War (2003–11) Italy Japan John, Elton Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology Journal of Environmental Quality Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine Journal of Personality and Social Psychology journals conflict of interest disclosure fraud and hype and impact factor language in mega-journals negligence and Open Science and peer review, see peer review predatory journals preprints publication bias rent-seeking replication studies retraction salami slicing subscription fees Jupiter Kahneman, Daniel Kalla, Joshua Karolinska Institute Krasnodar, Russia Krugman, Paul Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words (Cotton) LaCour, Michael Lancet Fine’s ‘feminist science’ article (2018) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) language Large Hadron Collider Le Texier, Thibault Lewis, Jason Lexington Herald-Leader Leyser, Ottoline Lilienfeld, Scott Loken, Eric Lost in Math (Hossenfelder) low-fat diet low-powered studies Lumley, Thomas Lysenko, Trofim Macbeth (Shakespeare) Macbeth effect Macchiarini, Paolo MacDonald, Norman machine learning Macleod, Malcolm Macroeconomics major depressive disorder Malaysia Mao Zedong MARCH1 Marcus, Adam marine biology Markowetz, Florian Matthew Effect Maxims and Moral Reflections (MacDonald) McCartney, Gerry McCloskey, Deirdre McElreath, Richard meaning well bias Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) measurement errors Medawar, Peter medical research amyloid cascade hypothesis Boldt affair (2010) cell lines China, misconduct in collaborative projects Fujii affair (2012) Hwang affair (2005–6) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) meta-scientific research Obokata affair (2014) outcome switching pharmaceutical companies preprints pre-registration publication bias replication crisis Reuben affair (2009) spin and statistical power and Summerlin affair (1974) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) medical reversal Medical Science Monitor Mediterranean Diet Merton, Robert Mertonian Norms communality disinterestedness organised scepticism universalism meta-science Boldt affair (2010) chrysalis effect De Vries’ study (2018) Fanelli’s study (2010) Ioannidis’ article (2005) Macleod’s studies mindset studies (2018) saturated fats studies spin and stereotype threat studies mice microbiome Microsoft Excel Milgram, Stanley Mill, John Stuart Mindset (Dweck) mindset concept Mismeasure of Man, The (Gould) Modi, Narendra money priming Mono Lake, California Moon, Hyung-In Morton, Samuel Motyl, Matt multiverse analysis nanotechnology National Academy of Sciences National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Institutes of Health National Science Foundation Nature cash-for-publication and cell line editorial (1981) impact factor language in Obokata affair (2014) Open Access and open letter on statistical significance (2019) replication research Schön affair (2002) Stapel affair (2011) Nature Neuroscience Nature Reviews Cancer NBC negligence cell line mix-ups numerical errors statistical power typos Netflix Netherlands replication studies in Stapel’s racism studies statcheck research neuroscience amyloid cascade hypothesis collaborative projects Macleod’s animal research studies replication crisis sexism and statistical significance and Walker’s sleep studies neutrinos New England Journal of Medicine New York Times New Zealand news media Newton, Isaac Nielsen, Michael Nimoy, Leonard No Country for Old Men Nobel Prize northern blots Nosek, Brian Novella, Steven novelty Novum Organum (Bacon) Nuijten, Michèle nullius in verba, numerical errors nutrition Obama, Barack obesity Obokata, Haruko observational datasets obstetrics ocean acidification oesophagus ‘Of Essay-Writing’ (Hume) Office for Research Integrity, US Oldenburg, Henry Open Access Open Science OPERA experiment (2011) Oransky, Ivan Orben, Amy Organic Syntheses organised scepticism Osborne, George outcome-switching overfitting Oxford University p-value/hacking alternatives to Fine and low-powered studies and microbiome studies and nutritional studies and Open Science and outcome-switching perverse incentive and pre-registration and screen time studies and spin and statcheck and papers abstracts citations growth rates h-index introductions method sections results sections salami slicing self-plagiarism university ranks and Parkinson’s disease particle-accelerator experiments peanut allergies peer review coercive citation fraudulent groupthink and LaCour affair (2014–15) Preprints productivity incentives and randomisation and toxoplasma gondii scandal (1961) volunteer Wakefield affair (1998–2010) penicillin Peoria, Illinois Perspectives in Psychological Science perverse incentive cash for publications competition CVs and evolutionary analogy funding impact factor predatory journals salami slicing self-plagiarism Pett, Joel pharmaceutical companies PhDs Philosophical Transactions phlogiston phosphorus Photoshop Physical Review physics placebos plagiarism Plan S Planck, Max plane crashes PLOS ONE pluripotency Poehlman, Eric politics polygenes polyunsaturated fatty acids Popper, Karl populism pornography positive feedback loops positive versus null results, see publication bias post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) power posing Prasad, Vinay pre-registration preclinical studies predatory journals preprints Presence (Cuddy) press releases Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) priming Princeton University Private Eye probiotics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences prosthetic limbs Przybylski, Andrew psychic precognition Psychological Medicine psychology Bargh’s priming study (1996) Bem’s precognition studies books Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies collaborative projects data sharing study (2006) Dweck’s mindset concept Festinger and Carlsmith’s cognitive dissonance studies Kahneman’s priming studies LaCour’s gay marriage experiment politics and preprints publication bias in Shanks’ priming studies Stanford Prison Experiment Stapel’s racism studies statistical power and Wansink’s food studies publication bias publish or perish Pubpeer Pythagoras’s theorem Qatar quantum entanglement racism Bargh’s priming studies Morton’s skull studies Stapel’s environmental studies randomisation Randy Schekman Reagan, Ronald recommendation algorithms red grapes Redfield, Rosemary Reflections on the Decline of Science in England (Babbage) Reinhart, Carmen Rennie, Drummond rent-seeking replication; replication crisis Bargh’s priming study Bem’s precognition studies biology and Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies chemistry and economics and engineering and geoscience and journals and Kahneman’s priming studies marine biology and medical research and neuroscience and physics and Schön’s carbon-based transistor Stanford Prison Experiment Stapel’s racism studies Wolfe-Simon’s arsenic life study reproducibility Republican Party research grants research parasites resveratrol retraction Arnold Boldt Fujii LaCour Macchiarini Moon Obokata Reuben Schön Stapel Wakefield Wansink Retraction Watch Reuben, Scott Reuters RIKEN Rogoff, Kenneth romantic priming Royal Society Rundgren, Todd Russia doveryai, no proveryai foxes, domestication of Macchiarini affair (2015–16) plagiarism in salami slicing same-sex marriage sample size sampling errors Sanna, Lawrence Sasai, Yoshiki saturated fats Saturn Saudi Arabia schizophrenia Schoenfeld, Jonathan Schön, Jan Hendrik School Psychology International Schopenhauer, Arthur Science acceptance rate Arnold affair (2020) arsenic life affair (2010) cash-for-publication and Hwang affair (2005) impact factor LaCour affair (2014–15) language in Macbeth effect study (2006) Open Access and pre-registration investigation (2020) replication research Schön affair (2002) Stapel affair (2011) toxoplasma gondii scandal (1961) Science Europe Science Media Centre scientific journals, see journals scientific papers, see papers Scientific World Journal, The Scotland Scottish Socialist Party screen time self-citation self-correction self-plagiarism self-sustaining systems Seoul National University SEPT2 Sesame Street sexism sexual selection Shakespeare, William Shanks, David Shansky, Rebecca Simmons, Joseph Simonsohn, Uri Simpsons, The skin grafts Slate Star Codex Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute Smaldino, Paul Smeesters, Dirk Smith, Richard Snuppy social media South Korea Southern blot Southern, Edwin Soviet Union space science special relativity specification-curve analysis speed-accuracy trade-off Spies, Jeffrey spin Springer Srivastava, Sanjay Stalin, Joseph Stanford University Dweck’s mindset concept file-drawer project (2014) Prison Experiment (1971) Schön affair (2002) STAP (Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency) Stapel, Diederik statcheck statistical flukes statistical power statistical significance statistical tests Status Quo stem cells Stephen VI, Pope stereotype threat Sternberg, Robert strokes subscription fees Summerlin, William Sweden Swift, Jonathan Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Sydney Morning Herald Symphony of Sorrowful Songs (Górecki) t-tests Taiwan taps-aff.co.uk tax policies team science TED (Technology, Entertainment, and Design) Texas sharpshooter analogy Thatcher, Margaret theory of special relativity Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kahneman) Thomson Reuters Tilburg University Titan totalitarianism toxoplasma gondii trachea translational research transparency Tribeca Film Festival triplepay system Trump, Donald trust in science ‘trust, but verify’ Tumor Biology Turkey Tuulik, Julia Twitter typos UK Reproducibility Network Ulysses pact United Kingdom austerity cash-for-publication schemes image duplication in multiverse analysis study (2019) National Institute for Health Research pre-registration in Royal Society submarines trust in science university ranks in Wakefield affair (1998–2010) United States Arnold affair (2020) arsenic life affair (2010) austerity Bargh’s priming study (1996) Bem’s precognition studies California wildfires (2017) Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion climate science in creationism in Das affair (2012) De Vries’ drug study (2018) Department of Agriculture Dweck’s mindset concept Fryer’s police brutality study (2016) image duplication in Kahneman’s priming studies LaCour affair (2014–15) Morton’s skull studies Office for Research Integrity Poehlman affair (2006) pre-registration in public domain laws Reuben affair (2009) Stanford Prison Experiment Summerlin affair (1974) tenure Walker’s sleep studies Wansink affair (2016) universalism universities cash-for-publication schemes fraud and subscription fees and team science University College London University of British Columbia University of California Berkeley Los Angeles University of Connecticut University of East Anglia University of Edinburgh University of Hertfordshire University of London University of Pennsylvania unsaturated fats unwarranted advice vaccines Vamplew, Peter Vanity Fair Vatican Vaxxed Viagra vibration-of-effects analysis virology Wakefield, Andrew Walker, Matthew Wansink, Brian Washington Post weasel wording Weisberg, Michael Wellcome Trust western blots Westfall, Jake ‘Why Most Published Research Findings Are False’ (Ioannidis) Why We Sleep (Walker) Wiley Wiseman, Richard Wolfe-Simon, Felisa World as Will and Presentation, The (Schopenhauer) World Health Organisation (WHO) Yale University Yarkoni, Tal Yes Men Yezhov, Nikolai Z-tests Ziliak, Stephen Zimbardo, Philip Zola, Émile About the Author Stuart Ritchie is a lecturer in the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre at King’s College London.


The Ages of Globalization by Jeffrey D. Sachs

Admiral Zheng, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, Commentariolus, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, European colonialism, global supply chain, greed is good, income per capita, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, packet switching, Pax Mongolica, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

I delight in having visited these places as well, and have enjoyed their rich cultures and great natural beauty. I have learned from such visits and my work that human kindness, our aspirations for our children, and our enjoyments of life are common to all humanity, no matter how diverse our backgrounds and our material conditions. The new coronavirus reminds us yet again that the benefits of global trade and travel have always been accompanied by the global spread of disease and other ills. In this book, I will discuss how Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, viewed the voyages of discovery of Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama. He wrote that the discoveries of the sea routes from Europe to the Americas and to Asia were the most important events of human history, because they linked all parts of the world in a web of transport and commerce, with vast potential benefits.

This “Columbian Exchange” united the world in trade while dividing the world in new kinds of inequalities of wealth and power. The excess mortality of Native Americans caused by Old World diseases was devastating. The native populations were “naïve” to the Old World pathogens, and hence unprotected immunologically. In the same way, the world population today is immunologically naïve, and hence vulnerable, to the new coronavirus sweeping the planet. It is highly likely, thank goodness, that the illnesses and deaths caused by COVID-19 will be far less severe than the epidemics that ravaged Native American societies in the sixteenth century. Nonetheless, the current pandemic will influence global politics and society as other diseases have in the past.


pages: 297 words: 84,447

The Star Builders: Nuclear Fusion and the Race to Power the Planet by Arthur Turrell

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, autonomous vehicles, Boris Johnson, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, energy security, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, New Journalism, nuclear winter, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Project Plowshare, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tunguska event

Sibylle steadily ascended the ranks, becoming head of theory (a position for which seriously strong mathematical ability is required), then a director, and finally, in 2011, the scientific director. “I saw how important good management is and how much it takes to secure a sufficient budget,” she tells me digitally as we cope with a coronavirus-induced lockdown. “By being the director I have many opportunities to influence our big projects and I can change those things I only complained about earlier.” Although she describes herself as a very impatient person, Sibylle is understated; the consummate professional scientist giving both sides of the argument and being honest about any limitations.

The liquid lithium will absorb the neutrons, making precious tritium that can be used as fuel. Heat energy carried by the neutrons that gets into the lithium will be exchanged into another medium like water. Ultimately, the water will be turned to steam to drive a turbine. The whole process will repeat somewhere between every five or every forty seconds. Before coronavirus struck, First Light Fusion had a plan to perform a net-energy-gain experiment by 2024, and they say they’re about to reach the temperatures where fusion reactions first become detectable. But what both Gianluca and Nick are keen to stress is that they’re not in the net-energy-gain business: they’re in the power business.4 “It’s the world’s largest problem,” Nick tells me, referring to achieving fusion.


pages: 304 words: 90,084

Net Zero: How We Stop Causing Climate Change by Dieter Helm

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fixed income, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, market design, means of production, North Sea oil, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, remote working, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Thomas Malthus

The predictions of the peak-oilers have turned out to be nonsense, the price of oil (and gas) has fallen back and, whatever their advocates claim, renewables are not yet subsidy-free once all the costs have been taken into account. What I had not anticipated was that no serious progress would yet have been made on the fundamental problem, and that the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere would still just keep on going ever upwards, without so much as a blip, and, if anything, slightly accelerate. Only the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic has made a difference, and this is likely to be temporary. When set against the enormity of the consequences of climate change, the only rational response is anger. If this failure to achieve anything much in the last 30 years had been the consequence of not trying, it would be bad but at least understandable.

acid rain 25, 194 Africa xiv, xv, 2, 25, 30, 38, 44, 45, 47, 48, 51, 137, 229 agriculture 2, 6, 12, 13, 14, 23, 35–6, 43, 44–5, 70, 76, 86, 87–8, 95, 100, 102, 109, 116, 146–7, 149, 159, 163–80, 181, 183, 192, 197, 198, 206, 220 baseline, the 164–8 biodiversity loss and 2, 5, 100, 164, 165, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174, 180 biofuels and 197–8 carbon emissions and 2, 12, 13, 35–6, 76–7, 146–7, 163–80 carbon price and 167–70, 171, 172, 173, 180 China and 28–9, 35, 45, 180 economics of 76, 165, 166–7, 171, 174 electricity and 13, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180 fertiliser use see fertiliser lobby 14, 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 197 methane emissions 23, 84, 177, 178, 179 net gain and 172–4 net value of UK 76, 166 new technologies/indoor farming 87–8, 174–9, 180, 213 peat bogs and 2, 179 pesticide use see pesticides petrochemicals and 166 polluter-pays principle and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 pollution 36, 86, 163, 165–6, 168–70, 172, 173, 177–8, 230 public goods, agricultural 170–4, 180 sequestering carbon and 12, 95, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173–4, 177, 179, 180 soils and 2, 146, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179 subsidies 14, 76, 102, 109, 116, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 228 25 Year Plan and 179–80 Agriculture Bill (2018), UK 170 air conditioning 135–6, 224, 233 air quality xiii, 13, 25, 46, 52, 61, 70, 135, 153, 177, 180, 201, 216, 230, 232 air transport 3–4, 6, 11, 13, 22, 50, 53, 73, 87, 88, 92, 107, 125, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 149, 156–7, 186, 195, 201, 203–5 aluminium 7, 117 Amazon rainforest 2, 34, 35, 95, 145, 149–50, 151, 155, 229, 230 ammonia 35, 137, 191 anaerobic digesters 35, 165, 230 animal welfare 167, 177 antibiotics 93, 165, 174 Arctic 26, 46, 114, 178 artificial intelligence (AI) 32, 175, 220, 231 autonomous vehicles 13, 129, 132, 175, 189–90, 231 Balkans 137–8 Bank of England 121 batteries 6, 31, 131, 135, 141, 183, 184, 185–90, 191, 199, 204, 213, 214, 219, 220, 221, 225, 231 beef 5, 95, 116, 117, 167, 230 Berlin, Isaiah 104 big 5 polluter products 117–18, 120 bin Salman, Mohammad 27 biocrops 36 biodiversity xiv, 2, 5, 12, 13, 28, 35, 51, 76, 94, 100, 148, 149, 152, 153, 158, 159, 164, 165, 168, 169–70, 171, 172, 174, 180, 227, 233 bioenergy 31, 34–5, 36 biofuels 21, 35, 49, 50, 67, 70, 95, 135, 183, 184, 197–8, 210, 230 biomass 32, 34, 49, 50, 67, 69, 109, 146, 147, 151, 210, 217 bonds, government 220 BP 27, 149, 187, 199 Deepwater Horizon disaster, Gulf of Mexico (2010) 147 Brazil 2, 35, 38, 44–5, 47, 95, 145, 149–50, 155, 198 Brexit 42, 47, 56, 117, 165 British Gas 102, 139 British Steel x, 194 broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 199, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 Brundtland Commission 45 BT 127–8, 141 Openreach 214 Burn Out (Helm) ix, xiv Bush, George W. 36, 48, 53, 103 business rates 76, 165 Canada 52, 191, 193 capitalist model 26, 42, 99, 227 carbon border tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 194–6, 204 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 Carbon Crunch, The (Helm) ix, xiv, 221 carbon diary 4–5, 8, 10, 11, 64–6, 83, 86, 116, 143, 144, 155, 156, 167, 180, 181, 185, 203, 205 carbon emissions: agriculture and see agriculture by country (2015) 30 during ice ages and warm periods for the past 800,000 years 21 economy and 81–159 electricity and see electricity global annual mean concentration of CO2 (ppm) 19 global average long-term concentration of CO2 (ppm) 20 measuring 43–6 since 1990 1–14, 17–37 transport and see individual method of transport 2020, position in 36–7 UN treaties and 38–57 unilateralism and 58–80 see also unilateralism carbon offsetting xiii–xiv, 4, 5, 12, 34, 45, 72, 74, 79, 94–6, 97, 105, 143–59, 192, 201, 203, 207, 214, 222, 223, 234 for companies 148–50 for countries 151–5 for individuals 155–7 markets 71–2, 110–13, 117, 144, 157–9, 208 travel and 156, 201–3 see also sequestration carbon permits 71–2, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 carbon price/tax xii, xiii, xv, 8, 11, 12, 13, 26, 60, 61, 71, 72, 77, 79, 80, 84, 85–6, 102–3, 105, 106–24, 134, 143, 146, 147, 150, 151–4, 157, 159, 192, 197, 198, 199, 203, 227–30, 232, 234 agriculture and 167, 168, 169–70, 171, 173, 180 domain of the tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 121, 124, 192, 194–6, 197, 204, 227 electric pollution and 216–18 ethics of 107–10 floor price 115, 117, 208 for imports 11, 13 prices or quantities/EU ETS versus carbon taxes 110–13 setting 113–15 transport and 192–9 what to do with the money 121–4 where to levy the tax 119–20 who fixes the price 120–1 carbon sinks 2, 5, 166, 169, 203 carboniferous age 34 cars 1, 3, 4, 7, 20, 22, 36, 44, 70, 73, 114, 129, 181, 182, 183, 184–5, 190, 191, 193, 196, 197, 198, 199 see also electric vehicles cartels 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 56 cattle farming 35, 36, 95, 150, 166, 167, 173, 177, 198 Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) 102, 139, 218 cement 6, 7, 26, 29, 34, 87, 117, 171 charging networks, electric vehicle 91, 129–30, 141–2, 184, 185–90, 199, 200, 202, 219 Chernobyl 78 China xi, xv, 1–2, 5, 8, 18, 42, 46, 47, 48, 64, 66, 74, 101, 180, 229 Belt and Road Initiative 28, 45 coal use 1–2, 8, 23–4, 24, 28, 31, 38, 117, 154, 206, 208 Communist Party 2, 27, 42, 46 demand for fossil fuels/carbon emissions 1–2, 8, 18, 20, 22, 23–4, 24, 25, 27–31, 36, 38, 51, 73, 117, 154, 206, 208 export market x–xi, 5, 9, 64, 66, 117, 155, 194 fertiliser use 35 GDP xv, 27, 29 nationalism and 42 petrochemical demand 22 renewables companies 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 Tiananmen Square 42 unilateralism and 58, 59 UN treaties and 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59 US trade war 56, 118 Churchill, Winston 183 citizen assemblies 99–101 climate change: carbon emissions and see carbon emissions 1.5° target 38, 57 2° target 1, 10, 22–3, 28, 30, 38, 39, 45, 47, 54, 55, 57, 108, 122, 155, 206 see also individual area of climate change Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 Clinton, Bill 40, 48 Club of Rome 98 coal 1–2, 5, 8, 13, 20, 23–5, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52, 53, 60–1, 67, 72, 77, 78–9, 101, 109, 112, 116, 117, 119, 134, 136, 145, 147, 148, 151, 154, 155, 182, 183, 194, 196, 206–9, 210, 212, 214, 216, 217, 218, 229, 230 coastal marshes 146, 159 colonialism 45 Committee on Climate Change (CCC), UK x–xi, 7, 74–5, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 ‘Net Zero: The UK’s Contribution to Stopping Global Warming’ report x–xi conference/video calls 6, 129, 156, 202, 205 Conference of the Parties (COP) xii, 10, 48, 50, 53–4, 55, 59, 205 congestion charges 198 Copenhagen Accord 48, 53–4, 59 Coronavirus see Covid-19 cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 71, 108, 110, 114, 138 cost of living 116 Covid-19 x, xi–xii, 1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27, 30, 37, 44, 46, 50, 57, 65, 69, 80, 89, 93, 129, 135, 148, 171, 201, 202, 204, 232 CRISPR 176 crop yields 172, 177 dams 2, 36, 52–3, 179 DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 100 deforestation 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 146, 149–50, 155, 172–3, 179, 197–8, 229 Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 170 deindustrialisation x, 29, 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4, 218 Deng Xiaoping 27 Denmark 69–70, 136–7 desalination 135–6, 179 diesel 4, 20–1, 70, 76, 86, 109, 119, 121, 129, 132, 164, 165, 166, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 186, 191, 192, 196–7, 208, 217, 230 ‘dieselgate’ scandal 196–7 digitalisation 1, 8, 11, 13, 33, 92, 117, 136, 174, 175, 180, 206, 211, 215, 221, 228–9, 231 DONG 69 Drax 147, 151, 154, 218 economy, net zero 10–12, 81–159 delivering a 96–103 intergenerational equity and 96–7 markets and 103–5 net environmental gain see net environmental gain political ideologies and 98–101 polluter-pays principle see polluter-pays principle public goods, provision of see public goods, provision of technological change and 98 EDF 139, 218 Ehrlich, Paul 98 electricity 1–2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 23, 31, 32, 49, 53, 61, 65, 66, 68, 70, 73, 77, 78, 79, 91, 92, 101, 102, 109, 117, 125, 127, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 149, 158, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180, 182, 183, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 235 coal, getting out of 206–7 electric pollution and the carbon price 216–18 electric vehicles 4, 6, 13, 20, 23, 49, 61, 91, 92, 94, 121, 125, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 141, 183–92, 193, 194, 197, 200, 201, 202, 206, 219, 228 equivalent firm power auctions and system operators 210–16 future of 206–25 gas, how to get out of 207–9 infrastructure, electric 185–90, 218–20 low-carbon options post-coal and gas 209–10 net gain and our consumption 222–5 R&D and next-generation renewables 220–2 renewable see renewables Energy Market Reform (EMR) 219 equivalent firm power (EFP) 212–16, 217, 220 ethanol 35, 71, 95, 197 eucalyptus trees xiv, 152 European Commission 60, 71, 72, 112 European Union (EU) xiv, 2, 7, 8, 9, 37, 42, 44, 46, 47, 117, 137, 165, 166, 197; baseline of 1990 and 51–2 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 76, 165 competition regime and customs union 56 deindustrialisation and 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4 directives for 2030 66 Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) 71–2, 73, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 importing carbon emissions 59 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71 Kyoto and 9, 51, 59, 66–7 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 net zero target for 2050 66, 115, 143, 155, 167, 180 Paris and 54 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 2020 targets signed into law 66 2020–20–20 targets 67, 69, 74 unilateralism and 59, 66–71, 80 Eurostar 133 externalities 104, 170, 180, 196 Extinction Rebellion 6 farmers 14, 26, 35, 36, 43, 71, 76, 86, 95, 102, 109, 110, 146–7, 164, 165, 166, 169, 170, 174, 175, 196, 197, 198 fertiliser 4, 6, 7, 26, 29, 35, 61, 73, 86, 87, 116, 117, 119, 163, 165, 169, 174, 175, 178, 179, 191, 194, 197 fibre/broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 financial crisis (2007/8) 1, 19, 69 first-mover advantage 75 First Utility 199 flooding 13, 77, 149, 152, 153, 159, 170, 233 food miles 167 food security 170–1 food waste 178, 180, 231 Forestry Commission xiv Formula One 186, 196 fossil fuels, golden age of 20–5 see also individual fossil fuel France 46, 47, 52, 56, 73, 78, 101, 113, 130, 136, 138 free-rider problem 39–40, 43, 62–4, 106, 119 fuel duty 121, 195–6 fuel efficiency 197 fuel prices 26, 112–13, 209 fuel use declaration 195 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011) 52, 78 Fukuyama, Francis: The End of History and the Last Man 40–1 gardens 6, 43, 143, 156 gas, natural ix, 2, 5, 8, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 36, 50, 52, 68, 69, 79, 102, 109, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147–8, 149, 183, 190, 193, 194, 207–9, 210, 211, 214, 216–17 G8 47 gene editing 172, 176, 231 general election (2019) 121 genetics 98, 172, 174–6, 231 geoengineering 177 geothermal power 137, 178 Germany 9, 30, 47, 52, 59, 60, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77–80, 83, 91, 101, 112, 136, 137, 138, 144, 206, 208, 209 Energiewende (planned transition to a low-carbon, nuclear-free economy) 59, 69, 77–80, 112, 144, 208 Gilets Jaunes 101, 113 GMOs (genetically modified organisms) 176, 177 Great Northern Forest, Britain 151 Green and Prosperous Land (Helm) xiii, xiv, 165, 169, 234 greenbelt 173 greenhouse effect 17 green new deal 90, 102, 234 green parties/green votes 69, 77, 78 green QE (quantitative easing) 102–3 green walls 153, 231 greenwash 156 gross domestic product (GDP) xii, xv, 1, 25, 27, 29, 41, 57, 59, 73, 76, 83, 93, 98, 103, 133, 165, 207, 227, 229, 233 growth nodes 133 G7 47 G20 47 Haber-Bosch process 35, 163 Hamilton, Lewis 186 ‘hands-free’ fields 175 Harry, Prince 6 Heathrow 133, 134 hedgerow 76, 166, 167, 172 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 herbicide 163 home insulation 102 House of Lords 170 housing 101, 223–4 HS2 92, 125, 132–4, 138, 202 Hume, David 49 hydrogen 13, 49, 92, 125, 128, 135, 137, 183, 184, 190–2, 199, 200, 204, 206, 213, 228 hydro power 31, 35, 36, 50, 52–3, 70, 136, 137, 191 Iceland 137, 178 imports x–xi, xiii, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 62, 68, 70, 117–18, 155, 167, 178, 173, 180, 196, 227 income effect 72, 111 income tax 121, 122, 232 India xiv, xv, 25, 30, 31, 38, 43, 44, 47, 48, 51, 54, 55, 57, 154, 229 individuals, net zero for 155–7 Indonesia 2, 35 indoor farming 87–8, 177–8, 180, 213 indoor pollutants 223, 232 Industrial Revolution 1, 18, 19, 25, 47, 116, 145 INEOS Grangemouth petrochemical plant xi information and communications technology (ICT) 117, 202, 231 infrastructures, low-carbon xiii, xiv, 11–12, 14, 28, 60, 62, 65, 66, 90, 91–4, 96, 105, 109, 123, 125–42, 143, 147, 151, 154, 159, 171, 184, 186, 187, 190, 199–200, 214, 218–20, 228, 230, 231–2, 234–5 centrality of infrastructure networks 128–30 electric 125–41, 218–20 making it happen 141–2 net zero national infrastructure plan 130–6 private markets and 125–8, 141–2 regional and global infrastructure plan 136–7 state intervention and 126, 127–8, 141–2 system operators and implementing the plans 138–41 inheritance tax 76, 165 insects 164, 177, 231 insulation 102, 224 Integrated Assessment Models 114 intellectual property (IP) 75 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 17–18, 47, 55, 57, 108, 172 internal combustion engine 13, 22, 181–2, 183, 184, 200, 221, 228 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71, 138 International Energy Agency (IEA) 25, 207 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 51 internet banking 131, 213 internet-of-things 128, 175 Iran 27, 42, 113, 137 Iraq 56, 192 Ireland 43, 157 Italy 137, 182 Japan 27, 28, 30, 52, 73, 78, 101, 185 Jevons Paradox 224 Johnson, Boris 89–90 Kant, Immanuel 104 Keynes, John Maynard 89, 102, 103, 105 Kyoto Protocol (1997) xii, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17–18, 37, 38, 39, 40–1, 47–8, 49, 51, 52–3, 59, 66–7, 119 laissez-faire 104, 138, 188 land use 35, 61, 95, 172, 237 LED (light-emitting diode) lighting 87, 178, 179, 180, 213 liquefied natural gas (LNG) 136, 183 lithium-ion battery 185 lobbying 10, 14, 33, 69, 71, 109, 110, 111–12, 115, 121, 157, 169, 170, 187, 197, 209, 223, 227, 228 location-specific taxes 194 maize 35, 165, 197 Malaysia 2, 229 Malthus, Thomas 98 Mao, Chairman 27, 42 meat xi, 65, 164, 177, 180, 232 Mekong River 2, 28, 179, 229 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 Merkel, Angela 78 methane 4, 23, 84, 177, 178, 179, 216 microplastics 22 miracle solution 49–50, 55, 209 mobile phone 5, 125, 185 National Farmers’ Union (NFU) 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171 National Grid 139, 141, 189, 200, 211, 214, 219 nationalisations 101–2, 126–7 nationalism 41, 43, 55, 56, 138 nationally determined contributions (NDCs) 54–5 natural capital xiii, 14, 33–6, 51, 85, 86, 88, 90, 94, 97, 154, 158, 168, 171, 173–4, 236 Nature Fund 123, 169, 234 net environmental gain principle xiii, xiv, 10, 12, 62, 84, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 169, 172–4, 192, 201–3, 222–5 agriculture and 169, 172–4 carbon offsetting and see carbon offsetting electricity and 222–5 principle of 94–6, 143–4 sequestration and see sequestration transport and 192, 201–3 Netherlands 138 Network Rail 214 net zero agriculture and see agriculture defined x–xv, 3–14 economy 10–12, 81–159 see also economy, net zero electricity and see electricity transport and see individual method of transport 2025 or 2030 target 89 2050 target x, xi, 5, 59, 66, 74, 75, 115, 120, 135, 143, 155, 167, 169, 180, 184, 216, 217, 222, 226, 230, 231, 232 unilateralism and see unilateralism NHS 65 non-excludable 91, 93, 126, 170 non-rivalry 91, 93, 126, 170 North Korea 42 North Sea oil/gas 9, 40, 75, 97, 102, 137, 139, 147, 148, 193 Norway 130, 137, 191 nuclear power 5, 9, 12, 18, 23, 52, 60, 73, 77–9, 109, 125, 128, 129, 136, 140, 178, 194, 199, 206, 207, 208, 209–10, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 222, 228 Obama, Barack 48, 53, 54, 59 oceans 2, 14, 22, 33, 85, 86, 88, 148, 163, 231 offsetting see carbon offsetting offshore wind power 31, 69, 75–6, 208, 212, 219, 221 Ofgem 220 oil ix, 2, 20, 22–3, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 36, 39, 40, 50, 67, 69, 86, 97, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147, 148–9, 150–1, 152, 181–3, 184, 185, 187, 189, 190, 192–4, 196, 197, 199, 206, 209, 210, 216–17, 229 OPEC 39, 40, 193 Orbán, Viktor 41, 42 organic food 61, 87, 178 Ørsted 70 palm oil 2, 5, 6, 35, 36, 66, 71, 167, 173, 197–8, 230 pandemic see Covid-19 Paris Climate Change Agreement (2015) xii, 2, 10, 13, 18, 30, 37, 38, 39, 48, 49, 54–5, 56, 57, 58, 66, 80, 105, 106, 118, 119, 227 peat bogs xiv, 2, 13, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 109, 146, 169, 179 pesticides 4, 26, 61, 163, 165, 169, 174, 178, 231 petrochemicals xi, 7, 8, 20, 22–3, 29, 73, 80, 86, 117, 166, 182 petrol 4, 86, 119, 121, 129, 185, 186, 187, 191, 192, 199 photosynthesis 34, 197 plastics 1, 22, 28, 35, 43, 66, 86, 87, 119, 143, 166, 184, 231 polluter-pays principle xiii, xv, 84–90 agriculture and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 carbon price and see carbon price/tax generalised across all sources of pollution 86 identifying polluters that should pay 86 importance of 10–11, 13, 61, 62, 65 intergenerational balance and 96–7 net environmental gain and 94 sequestration and see sequestration, carbon sustainable economy and 96–7, 105, 106 transport and 192–5, 198–9 see also individual type of pollution population growth 93, 97, 177, 178, 179, 232 privatisation 127, 140, 218–19, 220 property developers 94 public goods, provision of xiii, 10, 11–12, 62, 75, 84, 90–4, 96, 104, 105, 109, 122, 123, 126, 128, 141, 147, 151, 153, 159, 164, 168, 173–4, 180, 192, 199–200, 202, 218, 229, 230 agricultural 170–4, 180 low-carbon infrastructures see infrastructures, low-carbon research and development (R&D) see research and development (R&D) Putin, Vladimir 27, 41, 42, 89 railways 11, 13, 13, 87, 91, 92, 94, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132–3, 138, 139, 156, 182, 183, 187, 202, 212, 214, 232 rainforest 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 149, 155, 173, 179–80, 197, 229 rationalism 40–1 Reagan, Ronald 103 red diesel 76, 109, 164, 165, 196 regulated asset base (RAB) 127, 141, 215, 220 remote working 128, 156, 201–2, 205 renewables ix, 6, 8, 9–10, 18, 19, 21, 26, 31–5, 36, 49, 50, 55, 61, 67, 72, 77, 79, 85, 86, 109, 110, 112, 123, 125, 128, 131, 135, 138, 140, 144, 149, 178, 188, 191, 194, 197, 199, 207, 209–10, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220–2, 224, 228 Chinese domination of market 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 cost-competitiveness of 9–10, 49, 51, 61, 68 failure of, 1990-now 19, 31–3, 36 modern global renewable energy consumption measured in TWh per year 32 miracle solution and 49–51 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 50, 68–9, 71, 79, 80 see also individual renewable energy source Renewables UK 110 research and development (R&D) xiv, 12, 13, 14, 62, 65, 66, 90, 93–4, 104, 109, 123, 165, 172, 192, 200, 218, 220–2, 223, 228, 234 reshoring businesses 8, 204 rivers 2, 22, 28, 86, 128, 152, 165, 169, 179, 214, 230 roads 11, 28, 45, 91, 92, 125, 129, 131–2, 140, 165, 182, 189, 194, 198, 202, 232 robotics 32, 175, 204, 206, 231 Rosneft 26 Royal Navy 183 Russia 26, 27, 30, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52, 55, 56, 192, 193 RWE 139, 218 Ryanair 156–7 rye grass 35 salmon 169, 177 Saudi Arabia 26, 33, 40, 42, 50, 137, 192, 193 Saudi Aramco 26, 50 seashells 34 sequestration, carbon xi, xiv, 12, 61, 66, 85, 90, 95, 143–59, 228, 229, 231, 232 agriculture and 12, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176–7, 179, 180 baseline definition and 146–7 biofuels and 35, 146, 217 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 companies, net zero for 148–51 countries, offsetting for 151–5 electricity and 222, 223 gas and 207 individuals, net zero for xi, xiv, 155–7 markets, offsetting 157–9 natural capital destruction and 2, 19, 33–6, 44, 45, 51 natural sequestration xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12, 14, 33–6, 37, 45, 52, 66, 85, 90, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 163, 168, 171, 173, 176–7, 179, 180, 203, 206, 207, 222, 223 net gain principle and 143–4, 146, 149–50 offsetting principle and 143–5 peat bogs and see peat bogs principle of xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12–13 soils and see soils transport and 185, 190, 203 tree planting and see trees, planting/sequestration and types of 145–8 wetlands/coastal marshes and 146, 159, 233 shale gas 8, 208 Shell 27, 149, 199 shipping 8, 13, 22, 28, 36, 49, 114, 125, 137, 181, 182–3, 191, 194–5, 203–5, 217 Siberia 2, 46 smart appliances 128, 129, 132 smart charging 11, 13, 128, 129, 130, 139, 214, 219 soils xiii, 2, 5, 7, 12, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 55, 76, 109, 146, 149, 152, 156, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179, 203, 228 solar panels/solar photovoltaics (PV) 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69, 71, 74, 79, 87, 91, 135, 136, 137, 178, 179, 188, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224–5 Sony 185 Soviet Union 18, 40, 52, 67–8, 89 soya 95 Spain 69, 130, 137 sport utility vehicles (SUVs) 106, 121, 192 spruce xiv, 152, 170 standard of living xv, 1, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14, 229, 233 staycations 201 steel x–xi, 6, 7, 8, 26, 28, 29, 53, 66, 73, 80, 87, 116, 117, 118, 119, 171, 184, 194–5 Stern, Nicholas: The Economics of Climate Change 41, 63 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 14, 32, 50, 51, 52, 53, 69, 71, 76, 79, 80, 89, 102, 109, 110, 113, 116, 123, 140, 154, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 193, 196, 198, 209, 215, 221, 222, 228, 230 sugar cane 35, 71, 95, 197, 198 sulphur pollution 22, 25, 28, 78, 191, 194, 197, 230 sustainable economic growth xv, 10, 12, 14, 61, 83, 92, 94, 97, 98, 105, 227, 233 Taiwan 42 taxation xii, 11, 62, 71, 72, 76, 80, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 97, 101, 102, 103, 106–24, 126, 127, 130, 133, 147, 150, 151–2, 153–4, 157, 159, 165, 169, 170, 192–6, 197, 198, 199, 203, 232, 234 technological change 98, 127, 141, 174–5, 221 Thatcher, Margaret 17 Thompson, Emma 6 3D printing 175, 204 Thunberg, Greta 6, 205 tidal shocks 159 top-down treaty frameworks 13, 38–57, 80, 110, 119 tourism/holidays 6, 22, 36, 88, 94, 107, 114, 128, 156, 201, 204–5 transport, reinventing 181–205 aviation 195, 201, 203–5 see also air transport batteries and charging networks 185–90 biofuels 196–8 electric alternative 183–5 hydrogen and fuel cells 190–2 innovation, R&D and new infrastructures 199–200 internal combustion engine 181–2 net gain and offsets (reducing travel versus buying out your pollution) 201–3 oil 183–4 polluter pays/carbon tax 192–6 shipping 203–5 urban regulation and planning 198–9 vehicle standards 196–8 see also individual type of transport Treasury, UK 120–2 trees, planting/sequestration and xi, xiii, xiv, 2, 7, 13, 14, 33, 34, 45, 76, 85, 94–6, 146, 148, 149–51, 152–3, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 168, 169, 172, 179, 203, 231 trophy project syndrome 133 Trump, Donald 2, 8, 41, 42, 48, 89, 99, 103, 121 25 Year Environment Plan xiii, 153, 170, 179–80 UK 47, 69 agriculture and 164, 166, 167, 173 carbon emissions (2015) 30 carbon price and 115, 120 Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 coal, phasing out of 24–5, 60–1, 77, 208 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) x–xi, 7, 74–6, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 deindustrialisation and 72–4 80 per cent carbon reduction target by 2050 74 electricity and 206, 208, 218, 219, 224 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 infrastructure 125, 132–3, 134, 137, 139–40 net zero passed into law (2019) 66 sequestration and 145, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156 transport and 195–6, 197, 198 unilateralism and 58–9, 60–1, 65, 66, 69, 72–7, 80 unilateralism xi, 8, 10, 11, 25, 58–80, 83, 105, 106, 119, 125, 143, 144, 155, 164, 167, 197, 203, 227 in Europe 66–80 incentive problem and 58–60 morality and 62–6 no regrets exemplars and/showcase examples of how decarbonisation can be achieved 60–2 place for 80 way forward and 80, 83 United Nations xi, xii, 6, 10, 17, 37, 38, 118 carbon cartel, ambition to create a 39–40, 43, 45, 46–7, 56 climate treaty processes xi, 6, 10, 13, 17–18, 36, 37, 38–57, 59, 80, 110, 118, 119, 204–5 see also individual treaty name Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 17–18, 36, 38, 59 miracle solution and 50–1 origins and philosophy of 41 Security Council 46, 47, 57 United States 8, 74, 139, 206 agriculture in 175, 176, 197 carbon emissions 8, 29, 30 China and 27–8, 42, 118 coal and 2, 24, 28, 29, 208 economic imperialism 45 energy independence 50 gas and 8, 20, 23, 24, 29, 50, 208 oil production 40, 50, 193 pollution since 1990 29 unilateralism and 58, 59, 74 UN climate treaty process and 38, 40–1, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 56 universal service obligations (USOs) 92, 126, 131, 202 utilitarianism 41, 63–4, 108, 110 VAT 117, 119–20, 121, 122, 232 Vesta 69 Volkswagen 196–7 water companies 76, 214, 230 water pollution/quality xiv, 12, 22, 61, 76, 152, 153, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 232 Wen Jiabao 53, 59 wetlands 159, 233 wildflower meadow 164, 184 wind power 5, 9, 12, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69–70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 91, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 178, 188, 191, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214–15, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222 wood pellets 67, 217, 230 Woodland Trust 156, 158 World Bank 51 World Trade Organization (WTO) 52, 56, 118 World War I 183 World War II (1939–45) 78, 90, 92, 101, 106, 171 Xi Jinping 27, 41, 42 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS So much is now discussed, written and published about climate change that it is impossible to keep track of all the ideas and conversations that have influenced my understanding of the subject.


pages: 1,082 words: 87,792

Python for Algorithmic Trading: From Idea to Cloud Deployment by Yves Hilpisch

algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, automated trading system, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brownian motion, cloud computing, coronavirus, cryptocurrency, Edward Thorp, fiat currency, Gordon Gekko, Guido van Rossum, implied volatility, information retrieval, margin call, market microstructure, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, paper trading, passive investing, popular electronics, prediction markets, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk free rate, risk/return, Rubik’s Cube, Sharpe ratio, short selling, sorting algorithm, systematic trading, transaction costs, value at risk

The company was supposed to launch these products at the March event along with the iPhone SE. But due to the ongoing pandemic coronavirus, the event got cancelled. It is expected that Apple will launch the AirPods Pro Lite and the 13-inch MacBook Pro just like the way it launched the iPhone SE. Meanwhile, Apple has scheduled its annual developer conference WWDC to take place in June. This year the company has decided to hold an online-only event due to the outbreak of coronavirus. Reports suggest that this year the company is planning to launch the all-new AirTags and a premium pair of over-ear Bluetooth headphones at the event.


pages: 297 words: 89,292

2034: A Novel of the Next World War by Elliot Ackerman, James Admiral Stavridis

coronavirus, COVID-19, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, digital map, loose coupling, mutually assured destruction, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, undersea cable

Before Chowdhury could reach any conclusions, Lin Bao was again on the line. “Have you considered our offer?” Chowdhury thought of his own larger questions. Ever since the mid-2020s, when Iran had signed onto the Chinese “Belt and Road” global development initiative to prevent financial collapse after the coronavirus pandemic, they had helped project Chinese economic and military interests; but what was the scope of this seemingly new Sino-Iranian alliance? And who else was a party to it? Chowdhury didn’t have the authority to trade an F-35 for what would seem to be a Chinese spy ship. The president herself would decide whether such a swap was in the offing.

Like a child who can tell whether he is in trouble from the inflection of a parent’s voice, Chowdhury could tell immediately that Wisecarver was upset with him for speaking out of turn in the meeting. Chowdhury began to equivocate, apologizing for his outburst and making assurances that it wouldn’t happen again. More than a decade before, Wisecarver’s young son had perished in the coronavirus pandemic, an event many attributed to Wisecarver’s hawkish political awakening and that made him adept at projecting fatherly guilt onto those subordinates he treated as surrogate children. “Sandy,” repeated Wisecarver, though his voice was different now, a bit softer and more conciliatory.


pages: 319 words: 89,192

Spooked: The Trump Dossier, Black Cube, and the Rise of Private Spies by Barry Meier

Airbnb, business intelligence, citizen journalism, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate raider, Covid-19, COVID-19, digital map, disinformation, Donald Trump, forensic accounting, global pandemic, index card, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, medical malpractice, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

The law had plenty of exceptions and loopholes—private spies didn’t have to notify their targets, for instance, when they were gathering material for use in litigation or employee disputes. Still, the new rules provided people unfairly targeted by operatives-for-hire with the opportunity to seek recompense. As the Alfa Bank–related lawsuit was starting in March 2020, another development was unfolding—a deadly novel form of coronavirus was spreading around the world. In response to the growing pandemic, parts of the United States and Europe had shut down but Britain was late to do so and the case against Orbis Business Intelligence proceeded. When he took the witness stand, Christopher Steele quickly found himself under attack.

“I agree that one of the points made is false.” Steele never got to complete his testimony in the case. Midway through his second day on the witness stand, he was notified that his wife had been taken to a hospital near their home in Farnham after showing symptoms of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. He was excused so he could join her and the case was completed without him. Several months later, the judge overseeing the case issued his ruling. He found that Orbis had not violated the Data Protection Act, the law under which the oligarchs had sued. But when it came to the most serious allegation in Steele’s report—the claim that Alfa Bank’s principals had bribed Putin—the judge held that Steele had failed to take reasonable steps to ascertain whether the charge was true.


pages: 326 words: 88,968

The Science and Technology of Growing Young: An Insider's Guide to the Breakthroughs That Will Dramatically Extend Our Lifespan . . . And What You Can Do Right Now by Sergey Young

23andMe, 3D printing, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, basic income, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, brain emulation, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, European colonialism, game design, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, impulse control, Internet of things, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mouse model, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, uber lyft, universal basic income, X Prize

Gene sequencing is already helping us achieve advances in disease diagnostics and personalized medicine, identify the genes associated with longer lifespans, and develop drugs more quickly, cheaply, and effectively. This usefulness was demonstrated most recently during the first weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak. On January 12, 2020, China publicly shared the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus, just twelve days after Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China, reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Some ten to fifteen years ago that would have been completely unthinkable. Perhaps the most consequential aspect of gene sequencing as concerns our Longevity Revolution, however, is that it makes all manner of gene engineering possible.

“Yes,” Alex replies, “we’re going to work on the six that we think are the most promising, and release the rest to the global community. We’re closing in on this thing.” The “six” that Alex refers to are six molecular compounds identified at the time as having the most promise to stop the novel coronavirus. Another ninety-four candidates were published on Insilico’s website for other researchers to work on. And it took just three weeks to find all of them. How Insilico did that is a big part of the reason I am so certain we will see multiple longevity drugs emerge within the Near Horizon of Longevity.


pages: 339 words: 103,546

Blood and Oil: Mohammed Bin Salman's Ruthless Quest for Global Power by Bradley Hope, Justin Scheck

augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, coronavirus, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, urban planning, WeWork, women in the workforce, young professional, zero day

Imran headed home, calling Malaysian prime minister Mahatir Mohamad to inform him he was canceling his participation. “He’s a spoiled brat,” Imran told an advisor afterward. “We can’t afford to stand up to him.” Epilogue Decisive Storm As leaders around the world were just coming to understand the magnitude and economic devastation that the novel coronavirus would bring in 2020, Mohammed bin Salman was distracted by a niggling family drama and frustrated by the low price of oil. To achieve his grandest economic dreams, he needed much more money—hundreds of billions of dollars, not the mere $25.6 billion he earned from the Aramco IPO. Standing in his office in a plain thobe speaking to advisors and ministers, he was frustrated with the pace of the 2030 transformation.

In the spring of 2020, the Jabri family would hire a Trump-connected lobbyist in a desperate effort to get the US government to pressure Mohammed to let the detained relatives leave Saudi Arabia. All Mohammed’s plans for the year fell to the wayside in early 2020 as bad news out of China rippled around the globe. The novel coronavirus required the world economy to halt for months, while billions of people sheltered in place to stop the exponential spread of the virus and the collapse of medical systems. Weeks after his oil war pushed prices under $20 a barrel, close to a two-decade low, he agreed to rapidly cut back production following conversations with Jared Kushner, who also spoke with Russian counterparts about ending the disagreement.


pages: 403 words: 105,550

The Key Man: The True Story of How the Global Elite Was Duped by a Capitalist Fairy Tale by Simon Clark, Will Louch

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Donald Trump, forensic accounting, high net worth, impact investing, income inequality, Jeffrey Epstein, Kickstarter, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, trade route, WikiLeaks, young professional

Mallya also lived in the U.K. and was fending off attempts to extradite him to India, where he faced charges of fraud. Arif’s lawyers returned to Westminster Magistrates’ Court in June 2020 for his extradition trial. Arif wasn’t required to attend the trial in person because of changes to the court system that were introduced to help contain the coronavirus pandemic. Instead, he was allowed to participate via a video link from his apartment. But the video connection in Court One wasn’t working, so Hugo called his client on a mobile phone. Arif’s face peered out of the screen. His cheeks and chin were covered in white stubble and his white hair flopped uncharacteristically forward onto his forehead from a center parting.

Naqvi on FaceTime,” Hugo said. Days earlier, Sev appeared in court and agreed to extradition. Prosecutors expected him to plead guilty. His lawyer declined to comment. Arif was still resisting extradition. Hugo said his client was suffering from poor health after spending time in hospital with suspected coronavirus. He argued that Arif shouldn’t be sent to New York for two reasons. First, Arif could be tried for his alleged crimes in London. Second, the prison conditions in New York’s jails, where Arif might end up in pretrial detention, were so appalling they would violate Arif’s human rights and increase the risk of him committing suicide.


pages: 383 words: 105,387

The Power of Geography: Ten Maps That Reveal the Future of Our World by Tim Marshall

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, European colonialism, failed state, glass ceiling, global pandemic, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, low earth orbit, Malacca Straits, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban planning, women in the workforce

Then came Covid-19, and respect for the government took another blow. President Rouhani’s administration consistently played down the threat of the virus and, when it spread, covered up the number of cases and botched public-health messages. The Revolutionary Guard didn’t help. Its chief claimed the Guard had invented a device that could detect coronavirus symptoms from 100 metres away. Amid nationwide hilarity, the Physics Society of Iran ridiculed the idea as a ‘science-fiction story’. The clerics played their part. The learned Ayatollah Hashem Bathaei-Golpaygani announced he’d tested positive but had cured himself using an Islamic remedy. He died two days later.

They pour reinforcements into a certain area for, say, twelve hours, then overwhelm a government army outpost, before disappearing again.’ One of the worst cases came in December 2019, when an attack on an army base in Niger killed seventy-one soldiers. In January 2020 another eighty-nine were killed, and then in late March, as the world’s attention fixated on the coronavirus pandemic, Boko Haram ambushed a military encampment of Chadian soldiers near Lake Chad. In a seven-hour battle they killed at least ninety-two heavily armed troops, making it the deadliest attack ever suffered by the Chadian military. Questions began to be asked about how the country can hold together.


pages: 405 words: 112,470

Together by Vivek H. Murthy, M.D.

Airbnb, call centre, cognitive bias, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, gig economy, income inequality, index card, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, medical residency, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, stem cell, twin studies, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft

In the first weeks of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic turned physical human contact into a potentially mortal threat. The novel coronavirus was on the loose, like an invisible stalker, and any of our fellow human beings could have been its carrier. Almost overnight, it seemed, getting close enough to breathe on another person became synonymous with danger. The public health imperative was clear: to save lives, we’d need to radically increase the space between us. As I write these words, we are still in the middle of this pandemic. With health workers at risk, hospital equipment in short supply, and death rates from the coronavirus spiking by the day, governments the world over have mandated “social distancing,” closed schools and most businesses, and ordered everyone but essential service workers to stay home.


pages: 362 words: 116,497

Palace Coup: The Billionaire Brawl Over the Bankrupt Caesars Gaming Empire by Sujeet Indap, Max Frumes

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Bear Stearns, Blythe Masters, business cycle, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, Donald Trump, family office, fear of failure, fixed income, Jeffrey Epstein, mortgage debt, NetJets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, super pumped, Travis Kalanick

Oaktree continued as a standalone unit, and Marks continued to write his periodic public letters on financial markets. Ken Liang retired from Oaktree in 2018 and moved to Seattle to become a tech investor. In 2020, Kaj Vazales was promoted to co-head of the Oaktree North American distressed debt group. As the impact of the coronavirus tore through the global economy in early 2020, Apollo would pounce, always priding itself as a canny buyer in times of tumult. It quickly struck rescue financing deals for the likes of Expedia and United Airlines. David Sambur, who in 2019 had been promoted to co-head of Apollo’s private equity group, was the key player in many of these deals.

There was a question, once again, about whether the big banks would fulfill their lending commitments to ensure the deal could be funded. Several state regulators also were taking a hard line on the competition effects of the merger. Still, even as casinos across America were largely shuttered by the coronavirus lockdowns, the nearly $10 billion in deal financing, as well as state regulatory approvals, finally came through, and the deal closed in July 2020. Canyon Capital, the LA-based hedge fund that had bet big on both gaming and the bankruptcy of Caesars, would net over $1 billion in profits by remaining patient in its Caesars trade.


pages: 149 words: 43,747

How I Invest My Money: Finance Experts Reveal How They Save, Spend, and Invest by Brian Portnoy, Joshua Brown

asset allocation, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, buy and hold, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, financial independence, fixed income, high net worth, housing crisis, index fund, mental accounting, passive investing, prediction markets, risk tolerance, Sharpe ratio, time value of money, underbanked, Vanguard fund

The current income provided by investing in dividend stocks simply provides me with a level of emotional comfort. Knowing that income will flow into my portfolios through thick and thin (as it has through the financial crisis of 2008/09, the US debt downgrade of 2011, the taper tantrum of 2013, the oil price plunge of 2015/16, the flash bear market of 2018, and now the coronavirus crisis) brings me comfort, conviction and confidence. As we all know, in times of trouble, cash becomes king. I do also invest heavily in myself and my business. I have had the same babysitter for my kids since the day my daughter was born in 2007—back then, I was just starting up at Gilman Hill and had to subsidize the expense with proceeds from my retirement account, but I knew that having the flexibility of that kind of childcare was the only way I could fully focus on my career and considered it a major investment in my family’s future.


pages: 563 words: 136,190

The Next Shift: The Fall of Industry and the Rise of Health Care in Rust Belt America by Gabriel Winant

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, future of work, ghettoisation, independent contractor, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, price stability, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, the built environment, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor

Ryan Deto, “UPMC Workers to Participate In One-Day Strike on Oct. 4,” Pittsburgh City Paper, September 24, 2018; US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Major Work Stoppages in 2018,” February 8, 2019. 14. “ ‘Fire through Dry Grass’: Andrew Cuomo Saw COVID-19’s Threat to Nursing Homes. Then He Risked Adding to It,” ProPublica, June 16, 2020; “Coronavirus Cases Rise Sharply in Prisons Even as They Plateau Nationwide,” NYT, June 16, 2020; “Black Americans Face Alarming Rates of Coronavirus Infection in Some States,” NYT, April 14, 2020; Centers for Disease Control COVID-19 Response Team, “Characteristics of Health Care Personnel with COVID-19—United States, February 12–April 9, 2020,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69, no. 15 (April 17, 2020), 477–481. 15.


pages: 415 words: 136,343

A World on the Wing: The Global Odyssey of Migratory Birds by Scott Weidensaul

assortative mating, coronavirus, COVID-19, Elon Musk, Google Earth, jitney, long peace, low earth orbit, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, off grid, phenotype, the scientific method

Not a rat or a sign of a rat was found, and conservationists were delightfully shocked by how quickly the island’s imperiled birds responded to the release from predatory pressure. After years of preparation, and some delays caused by its incredibly remote location, a similar eradication campaign was poised to begin on Gough Island in February 2020 when the coronavirus pandemic struck. The team of 12 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds conservationists had to be evacuated, and the eradication program was delayed by at least a year. Assuming its success, however, the same folks will then shift their attention to Marion Island, home of the bird-scalping mice.

See CABS condors, California, 230–32 conservation of Amur falcons, 316–17, 324–29, 337, 338–39 climate change and, 190 on cusp of catastrophe, 128–29 eBird and, 140–43 in Europe, 148 forest fragmentation and, 12 habitat protection and, 35–36 habitat restoration and, 134, 145, 149 important stopover sites and, 134–35 radar used for, 132, 134 song bird trapping on Cyprus and, 307 of spoon-billed sandpipers, 50–51, 57–58, 61 stopover sites and, 123–24 of urban land, 145 Yellow Sea coast and, 31, 33–34, 35, 50–51, 55, 60, 61–62 Conservation India, 324, 325 continental shelf, 247, 252, 254, 256 Cooper, Nathan, 158–60, 163–68, 170, 172, 173–74, 179–80, 181, 182–86 cordgrass, 53, 59, 62 Corey, Ed, 249, 268 Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 105, 109, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138–40, 145, 147, 150, 177, 195 coronavirus pandemic, 276 Corophium, 72 Costas, 291–92 cowbirds, brown-headed, 11–12, 101, 163 Cry1a, 86–87, 88 cryptochrome, 8–9, 86, 87 curlews, Eskimo, 112, 294 Cyprus, 285. See also songbird trapping in Cyprus desiring EU membership, 283, 298–99 political situation in, 278–79 Dalvi, Shashank, 324 Davies, Ian, 150, 152–56 deforestation, tropical, 11, 13, 100, 106, 123 Denali National Park, 1–7, 19–20, 121, 124, 341, 344, 346 blackpoll warblers in, 4, 5, 119, 344, 345–46 De Voe, Thomas F., 295–96, 297 diablotíns, 255–56 distance flown in a year, by seabirds, 10–11, 255, 256 Dockrill, Craig, 259 Dongling mudflats, 27, 33–34, 38, 39, 58–60, 62 Doppler radar, 21–22, 128, 131–35 Canadian sites filtering out birds, 152, 153–54 population loss in North American birds and, 147, 156 stopover sites and, 134–35, 142 urban lights and, 144–45 doves, turtle, 82–83 dragonflies birds feeding on, 322n radio transmitters on, 19, 95 Drew (Bingrun Zhu), 45 drought in California, 142 climate change and, 191 in the Sahel, 124, 175, 191, 194, 200 ducks hunting of, 148 mallards, 3, 79, 98 Ducks Unlimited, 148 Duncan, Charles, 263–64 dunlin, 26, 31, 35–36, 54, 202 dynamic soaring, 254–55, 255n of sooty shearwaters, 260 eagles bald, 189 golden, 7, 20, 229, 293 East Asian–Australasian Flyway (EAAF), 28–29, 29, 45, 47, 52, 54, 57 eBird, 138–43, 150, 152–53, 154 climate change and, 195, 196 climate modeling and, 173 edge predators, 11, 101, 107 egrets, great, 134 endangered species list, Kirtland’s warbler on, 163 energy.


pages: 209 words: 53,175

The Psychology of Money: Timeless Lessons on Wealth, Greed, and Happiness by Morgan Housel

"side hustle", airport security, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, computer age, coronavirus, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial independence, Hans Rosling, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Paul Graham, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, stocks for the long run, the scientific method, traffic fines, Vanguard fund, WeWork, working-age population

If you’re projecting your income, savings rate, and market returns over the next 20 years, think about all the big stuff that’s happened in the last 20 years that no one could have foreseen: September 11th, a housing boom and bust that caused nearly 10 million Americans to lose their homes, a financial crisis that caused almost nine million to lose their jobs, a record-breaking stock-market rally that ensued, and a coronavirus that shakes the world as I write this. A plan is only useful if it can survive reality. And a future filled with unknowns is everyone’s reality. A good plan doesn’t pretend this weren’t true; it embraces it and emphasizes room for error. The more you need specific elements of a plan to be true, the more fragile your financial life becomes.


pages: 173 words: 55,328

Last Best Hope: America in Crisis and Renewal by George Packer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norman Mailer, obamacare, postindustrial economy, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, QAnon, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steve Bannon, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, white flight, working poor, young professional

A series of disasters, most of them self-inflicted, including Trump and the ravages of the pandemic, have thrown the shining city off its hill and down into the swarming world. Exceptional and Universal America finally ended in the early months of 2020, when the United States assumed (and would never relinquish) first place on the Coronavirus Worldometer, and Russia and Taiwan and the United Nations sent us humanitarian aid, and the world looked on in horror and pity. It was the pity that did it. We really weren’t doing so much worse than some others, but we were doing no better. Our quality of life placed us somewhere between Belgium and the United Arab Emirates.


pages: 467 words: 149,632

If Then: How Simulmatics Corporation Invented the Future by Jill Lepore

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, anti-communist, Buckminster Fuller, computer age, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, game design, George Gilder, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, index card, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, job automation, land reform, linear programming, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, Peter Thiel, profit motive, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

And yet Simulmatics’ legacy endures in predictive analytics, what-if simulation, and behavioral data science: it lurks behind the screen of every device. Simulmatics, notwithstanding its own failure, helped invent the data-mad and near-totalitarian twenty-first century, in which the only knowledge that counts is prediction and, before and after the coming of the coronavirus, corporations extract wealth by way of the collection of data and the manipulation of attention and the profit of prophecy. In a final irony, Simulmatics, whose very past has been all but erased, helped invent a future obsessed with the future, and yet unable to improve it. Simulmatics’ own origins lie still further back in time, in the early-twentieth-century science of psychological warfare: the control of people’s minds by assault, interruption, and distraction.

Kennedy and, 120, 167    — Johnson and, 75–76, 167, 182, 258    — reaction to space race and arms race, 78    — sit-ins, 101, 106, 196, 199, 234, 275    — Stevenson and, 42–43, 63, 66 Clark, Kenneth and Mamie, 85 Clinton, Bill, 303, 304 Clinton, Hillary, 303, 304 Cold War    — as battle over the future, 35, 208–9    — beginning of, 15    — in Burdick’s fiction, 28    — effects of, 49–50, 135, 163 Coleman, James    — American Sociological Association presidency, 303    — Bureau of Applied Social Research and, 84–85    — commodification of attention, 145    — Equality of Educational Opportunity (Coleman Report), 259, 303    — friendship with McPhee, 84–85, 87, 89, 137    — insufficiency of data for models, 145    — letter of support for Popkin, 310    — marketing for Simulmatics, 137, 142, 152    — preparation for 1962 Times election coverage, 154–55, 164, 362n    — Project Camelot, 209    — resignation from Simulmatics, 271    — riot prediction project, 260–62    — simulation games designed by, 258–59, 377n    — Simulmatics stock offering and, 139    — Simulmatics’ Urban Studies Division, 258–59 Coleman, John, 85 Coleman, Lucille (Lu) Ritchey, 84–85, 89, 144, 270 Coleman, Thomas, 85 Collingwood, Charles, 24–25 Collins, Ella, 252 Columbia Pictures, 173–74, 175, 364n Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection, 287 Committee for the Re-election of the President, 308, 309 Communications Act of 1934, 23, 316 compilers, 69, 70 “Computer Politics” (Kristol), 367n computer revolution    — ARPANET, 284, 296, 310–11, 312, 313–15, 316, 318    — hackers, 312, 313, 326    — no safeguards on data collection and analysis, 315, 323    — personal computers, 310, 313, 318    — Pool, arguments against regulation, 315–17, 318    — Pool, writing about emerging technologies, 277–79, 299, 316–17, 318–19, 323    — Stewart Brand promotion of, 310, 311–12, 314, 317–18    — see also artificial intelligence computers, early    — development during and after World War II, 68–70    — mainframe computer in 1956, 8    — presidential election of 1952, 24–26, 69, 122, 150    — see also specific topics Cook, Mike, 303 coronavirus and social distancing, 5, 322 Corrupt Practices Act, 23 Counterfeit World (Galouye), 187–88 counterinsurgency    — McNamara’s theory, 208–9    — progress measurement by counting deaths, 212–13    — Simulmatics program, 49, 200, 209, 211, 213, 216, 258 Cronkite, Walter, 24–25, 267 Cuban Missile Crisis    — aftermath, 163, 169    — Andrei Gromyko, 157, 160    — beginning of, 156    — end of, 162–63    — ExComm (Executive Committee of the National Security Council), 157, 162    — John F.


pages: 282 words: 63,385

Attention Factory: The Story of TikTok and China's ByteDance by Matthew Brennan

Airbnb, AltaVista, augmented reality, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, paypal mafia, Pearl River Delta, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Travis Kalanick, WeWork, Y Combinator

ByteDance would be able to partially allocate advertising inventory to its own suite of products, accurately targeting and acquiring new users across the globe with speed and minimal cost without having to hand over money and data to the online advertising duopoly gatekeepers of Facebook and Google. As the coronavirus pandemic spread across the world in early 2020, people found themselves quarantined inside their homes for weeks, leading into months. While airlines, hotels, and restaurants went bankrupt, demand for online entertainment skyrocketed, causing downloads of TikTok to hit all-time highs. The app was the perfect fix for those desperate for distraction, locked inside suffering from the cruel combination of stress and boredom.


pages: 226 words: 65,516

Kings of Crypto: One Startup's Quest to Take Cryptocurrency Out of Silicon Valley and Onto Wall Street by Jeff John Roberts

"side hustle", 4chan, Airbnb, altcoin, Apple II, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bonfire of the Vanities, Burning Man, buttonwood tree, cloud computing, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, Dogecoin, Donald Trump, double helix, Elliott wave, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, Flash crash, forensic accounting, hacker house, hockey-stick growth, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, offshore financial centre, open borders, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart contracts, software is eating the world, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, transaction costs, WeWork, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

• • • In San Francisco, Coinbase’s founder waited out the pandemic in his penthouse in the city’s tallest building, where his neighbors included NBA star Kevin Durant and other members of the Golden State Warriors. Brian had grasped the implications of the Covid-19 crisis early, and Coinbase’s work-from-home blueprint had been shared widely among companies in the Valley and beyond. But he was hardly the first from the crypto world to warn about what was coming as coronavirus emerged—that designation belonged to Balaji Srinivasan, Coinbase’s former CTO who had almost burned the company to the ground in order to save it. Months before the virus hit the United States with full force, Balaji had been tweeting like a maniac about the disease spreading out of Wuhan, China.


pages: 199 words: 64,272