Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh

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pages: 302 words: 83,116

SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, selection bias, South China Sea, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, William Langewiesche, women in the workforce, young professional

Becker, “Old-Age Longevity and Mortality-Contingent Claims,” Journal of Political Economy 106, no. 3 (1998). Be religious: see Ellen L. Idler and Stanislav V. Kasl, “Religion, Disability, Depression, and the Timing of Death,” American Journal of Sociology 97, no. 4 (January 1992). Be patriotic: see David McCullough, John Adams (Simon & Schuster, 2001). Beat the estate tax: Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, “Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths?” Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy (Berkeley Electronic Press, 2006). THE TRUTHS ABOUT CHEMOTHERAPY: This section was drawn in part from interviews with practicing oncologists and oncology researchers including Thomas J.


pages: 345 words: 92,063

Power, for All: How It Really Works and Why It's Everyone's Business by Julie Battilana, Tiziana Casciaro

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Asperger Syndrome, blood diamonds, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, different worldview, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, fundamental attribution error, future of work, gig economy, hiring and firing, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mega-rich, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

NASA’s On It,” Space.com, May 2, 2019, https://www.space.com/asteroid-threat-simulation-nasa-deflection-idea.html. 13 Keenan Mayo and Peter Newcomb, “The Birth of the World Wide Web: An Oral History of the Internet,” Vanity Fair, July 2008, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2008/07/internet200807. 14 Naím, The End of Power; Heimans and Timms, New Power. 15 Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Innovation + Equality: How to Create a Future that is More Star Trek Than Terminator (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2019): 7. 16 Jean Luc Chabert, A History of Algorithms: From the Pebble to the Microchip (Berlin: Springer, 1999): 7. 17 “Coding,” Explained, Vox Media (Netflix, 2019). 18 Pedro Domingos, The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World (New York: Basic Books, 2015), 1. 19 “Coding,” Vox Media; Ajay Agrawal, Joshua Gans, and Avi Goldfarb, Prediction Machines: The Simple Economics of Artificial Intelligence (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 2018). 20 Sara Reardon, “Rise of Robot Radiologists,” Nature (London) 576, no. 7787 (2019): S54–58. 21 For an analysis of the opportunities and challenges in this domain, see Miriam Mutebi et al., “Innovative Use of MHealth and Clinical Technology for Oncology Clinical Trials in Africa,” JCO Global Oncology, no. 6 (2020): 948–53. 22 Susan Wharton Gates, Vanessa Gail Perry, and Peter M.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

The comparison of urban patterns in Moscow with those of other cities draws from Alain Bertaud and Renaud Bertrand, “Cities Without Land Markets, Location and Land Use in the Socialist City,” the World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper 477, June 1995, in Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 41, No. 1, January 1997, pp. 137-151. 11-12 When Prices Misfire: The anecdote about incentives and births in Australia comes from Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, “Born on the First of July: An (Un)natural Experiment in Birth Timing,” Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 93, 2009. Data on the window tax come from the Wolverhampton Archives (http://www.wolverhamptonarchives.dial.pipex.com/windowtax.htm, accessed 08/13/2010). The analysis of the effects of the 55-mph speed limit draws from Paul Grimes, “Practical Traveler: The 55-m.p.h.