New Urbanism

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pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

My broader statistical analysis reinforces this basic pattern. The New Urban Crisis Index is positively and significantly correlated with the size and density of metros, their concentrations of high-tech industry, their shares of creative-class workers and college graduates, and their levels of economic output, income, and wages. The New Urban Crisis also closely follows America’s political divide, being positively and significantly associated with the share of votes for Clinton in 2016 and negatively associated with the share of Trump votes. Once again, we see that the New Urban Crisis is a fundamental feature of larger, denser, richer, more liberal, more educated, more high-tech, and more creative-class metro areas.2 Figure 10.1: The New Urban Crisis Index Source: Martin Prosperity Institute, based on data from the US Census and the US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

All three—Trump, Ford, and Brexit—reflect the deepening fault lines of class and location that define and divide us today. These political cleavages ultimately stem from the far deeper economic and geographic structures of the New Urban Crisis. They are the product of our new age of winner-take-all urbanism, in which the talented and the advantaged cluster and colonize a small, select group of superstar cities, leaving everybody and everywhere else behind. Much more than a crisis of cities, the New Urban Crisis is the central crisis of our time. This book is my attempt to grapple with the New Urban Crisis and the deep contradictions of our cities and our society writ large. In writing it, I have three primary objectives: to spell out the key dimensions of this crisis; to identify the fundamental forces that are shaping it; and to outline what we need to do to bring about a new and more inclusive urbanism that encourages innovation and wealth creation while generating good jobs, rising living standards, and a better way of life for all.

By limiting density and clustering, NIMBYs hold back the urban innovation that powers growth. That’s why I prefer to call them the New Urban Luddites instead of NIMBYs, which sounds more benign. The original Luddites, named after their semi-mythical leader, Ned Ludd, took hammers to the weaving machines that were taking away their livelihoods during England’s Industrial Revolution.23 Over the course of the next century, ironically, those factories would lift living standards to higher levels than the Luddites could have ever imagined. The original Luddites, at least, were poor. The New Urban Luddites aren’t exploited workers, but some of the biggest winners of winner-take-all urbanism. This New Urban Luddism is codified in the enormous and complex thicket of zoning laws and other land use regulations that restrict the supply of housing in many cities.

pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

Others say they aren’t solving the problems posed by the suburbs because they build on large plots often in the middle of nowhere, which has led to the nickname “New Suburbanism” (one blogger described New Urbanism as a “pretty veil over common suburbia”). New Urbanism communities can be expensive to build and their homes expensive to buy. Getting over conventional zoning codes is often problematic and requires lots of patience, and often compromise: FHA loan rules still limit the percentage of commercial real estate in vertical apartment units, making it hard for New Urbanism developers to secure financing for the mixed-use buildings they say are a critical ingredient in their neighborhoods. Nevertheless, New Urbanism principles have been followed and copied over the years. In 1996, Disney opened Celebration, Florida, its five-thousand-acre master-planned community near Orlando, largely on New Urbanism principles, though it did not bill it a New Urbanist community.

During the conference’s main stage sessions, Le Corbusier, the French pioneer of modernist architecture who envisioned a high-rise city, is invoked as many times as the movement’s enemy as Jane Jacobs is as their hero. The main principles of New Urbanism have not changed much since its founding twenty years ago. New Urbanism is not a rating or rule book like, say, LEED, the third-party green building accreditation that requires structures adhere to a set of specific standards to earn its label; rather, it’s a set of basic principles and guidelines—a sort of neighborhood DNA code—for developers, planners, designers, and policy makers who wish to design neighborhoods based on traditional town planning methods. Most New Urbanism developments have certain identifying characteristics: narrower or more “modest-sized” streets, an easily identifiable town center, a Main Street lined with buildings that mix commercial and residential spaces, and a mixture of housing types throughout the rest of the neighborhood—single-family detached houses, attached town houses, and apartments—all commingled together.

Most New Urbanism developments have certain identifying characteristics: narrower or more “modest-sized” streets, an easily identifiable town center, a Main Street lined with buildings that mix commercial and residential spaces, and a mixture of housing types throughout the rest of the neighborhood—single-family detached houses, attached town houses, and apartments—all commingled together. New Urbanism is not architecture; New Urbanists are almost agnostic to what the houses’ exteriors look like, or even to the architectural style of the neighborhood. In the same way Clarence Perry, whose neighborhood unit helped transform suburban design, had nothing to do with the design of homes in those neighborhoods, New Urbanism theories relate primarily to a community’s bones, or the design and layout of the neighborhood itself. As it was with Seaside, the goal of New Urbanism is to create neighborhoods whose design serves a social as well as a physical purpose. The mix of housing stock, for instance, ensures that a wide range of economic classes lives in the same neighborhood (which also makes homes easier to sell, since the housing stock appeals to a broader range of the market), while the pleasing, diverse streetscapes are designed to be both safe for foot traffic and also appealing enough to bring people out of their homes and into the public space.

pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

One obvious neotraditional product is the Mazda Miata, a car that looks, sounds, and handles like a British roadster but maintains the rate-of-repair record of a Honda Civic. The typical neotraditional house, which populates many New Urban neighborhoods, has an airy, freeflowing interior enclosed within a colonial shell. Neotraditionalism is an apt term to describe the New Urbanism, because the New Urbanism’s intention is to advocate what works best: what pattern of development is the most environmentally sensitive, socially responsible, and economically sustainable. As is often the case, what seems to work best is a historic model—the traditional neighborhood—adapted as necessary to serve the needs of modern man. The commonsense nature of the New Urbanism bodes well for its future. The fact that it was not invented, but selected and adapted from existing models, dramatically distinguishes it from the concepts of total replacement that preceded it.

The fact that it was not invented, but selected and adapted from existing models, dramatically distinguishes it from the concepts of total replacement that preceded it. It took many years and many failures for planners and architects to reach this point, but so many new inventions have fared so badly that designers have been forced to put some faith in human experience. Further experience will no doubt modify the precepts and techniques of the New Urbanism, but that is as it should be. THE CHARTER OF THE NEW URBANISM INTRODUCTION The Congress for the New Urbanism views divestment in central cities, the spread of placeless sprawl, increasing separation by race and income, environmental deterioration, loss of agricultural lands and wilderness, and the erosion of society’s built heritage as one interrelated community-building challenge. We stand for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.

Architectural Design (October—November 1981) (full double issue). Stilgoe, John R. Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820-1939. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. Steuteville, Robert. The New Urbanism and Traditional Neighborhood Development: Comprehensive Report and Best Practices Guide. Ithaca, N.Y: New Urban Press, 1999. Surface Transportation Policy Project. “Campaign Connection.” Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress IX.2 (May 1999): 8. ————. Tea-21 User’s Guide: Making the Most of the New Transportation Bill. Report, 1998. Swift, Peter. “Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency.” Report by Swift Associates, 1997. Tu, Charles, and Mark Eppli. Valuing the New Urbanism: The Case of Kentlands. Report by the George Washington University Department of Finance, 1997. Unwin, Raymond. Town Planning in Practice.

pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

Homogenized, banal “icon architecture“ (also known as “cookie cutter” or “franchise” architecture), which immediately conveys a corporate image to the passerby—McDonald’s golden arches, Kentucky Fried Chicken’s red-and-white stripes—diminishes a city’s unique identity and creates what Jim Kunstler calls the “geography of nowhere.”37 A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING We should be on guard not to allow projects touted as New Urbanist that deliver New Urbanism‘s principles only in a skin-deep way, such as those that perpetuate car dependence, or that fail to provide a mix of housing affordability, even if the houses have front porches or other forms of window dressing. NEW URBANISM AND THE POOR I am always astounded when people attack New Urbanism as elitist and not in the best interests of poor people. It seems as obvious to me that an auto-dominated community is as detrimental to poor people as it seems obvious that community designrecommended by New Urbanism reduces the need for car travel and is beneficial. New Urbanism seems to be the best chance to reduce car dependency through urban design, which is an important reason why I am so enthusiastic about it.

The most effective, desirable strategy is to establish context-sensitive community regulations that transition from walkable to auto-oriented to rural and wildlife preserve (a concept New Urbanists call a “transect“ system). For the walkable portion of the community, the leading design paradigm today is the New Urbanism. New Urbanism is a set of development practices that creates more people-oriented communities—attractive, efficient, sociable, and pedestrian friendly—at the same time that it significantly reduces car dependence. According to Duany, a leader in this design strategy: “Since its founding in 1992, New Urbanism has been the antithesis of sprawl, because it designs communities that are balanced in function; creates inclusive housing; supports home-based business; spa-tially defines the public realm; facilitates pedestrian accessibility; minimizes use of the car; supports transit; and builds on infill [in-town] as well as greenfield [newly developed] sites.”1ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL: THE TRANSECT SYSTEM You can choose any color you want, Henry Ford notably told early car buyers, as long as it is black.

I would resign myself, along with everyone else, to increasingly unlivable communities, more time trapped in my car on the road, more frustration and isolation, more inescapable congestion, until the economic and social and emotional costs of being car dependent became unbearable for a critical mass of people. Twenty more years? Fifty? But there is hope. An important subcategory of smart growth is the “New Urbanism,” a strategy of community and neighborhood design that uses timeless, traditional development principles at the same time it incorporates contemporary technology and values; the pedestrian, not the car, is the design imperative (see chapters 9 and 10). As Marvin Harris pointed out in Cultural Materialism (1979), it is not ideas that determine our behavior and values, but the environmental and economic conditions we must cope with each day.

pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

Its best-known, iconic projects, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; and Stapleton, Colorado,7 are second-home or bedroom communities (neighborhood-serving) that may or may not become regional-serving someday. “TND” as a term tends to be interchangeable with “New Urbanism” and focuses on neighborhoodserving places. New Urbanism and TNDs have played pivotal roles in the rebirth of neighborhood-serving places in suburban greenfields. Use of this type of development has demonstrated that walkable neighborhood demand can be built from scratch. Andres Duany, one of the founders of the Congress of the New Urbanism and a leading thinker and architect, has justified New Urbanism suburban development by saying that most future development will go to the suburban greenfield sites, so they might as well be walkable. THE FIVE KINDS OF REGIONAL- SERVING WALKABLE URBAN PLACES Based upon my recent experience throughout the country, there appear to be five kinds of regional-serving walkable urban places in U.S. metropolitan areas as of the mid-2000s.

Many readers familiar with recent trends in the built environment will notice that I have not used some terms common over the past fifteen years, such as “transit-oriented development,” “New Urbanism,” and “traditional neighborhood development” (TND). The description “transit-oriented development” can and does apply to most regional-serving, walkable urban places. (It is possible, but not ideal, to be nontransit-served and still create 118 | THE OPTION OF URBANISM walkable urbanism, as some of the examples below demonstrate). Transitoriented development can occur in any density that supports transit. In general, New Urbanism has played out on the ground as neighborhood-serving walkable urbanism. Its best-known, iconic projects, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; and Stapleton, Colorado,7 are second-home or bedroom communities (neighborhood-serving) that may or may not become regional-serving someday.

City planning— United States. 6. Sustainable development—United States. I. Title. HT384.U5L45 2008 307.760973—dc22 2007026186 Printed on recycled, acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Search terms: urban, suburban, sprawl, auto-dependent, real estate product development types, transportation, Futurama, affordable housing, inclusionary zoning, impact fees, New Urbanism, transit-oriented development, American Dream, S&L crisis, walkable urbanism, drivable sub-urbanism, global warming, carbon load, obesity, asthma, favored quarter, metropolitan, regionalism, urbanization, population growth, REIT For Helen, Lisa, and Tom Also for Bob, Gadi, Joe, Pat, and Robert C ONTENTS Preface | ix INTRODUCTION 1 FUTU RAMA | AND THE 1 2 0 TH- C E N T U RY AMERICAN DREAM | 12 2 TH E R I S E 3 T H E S TA N D A R D R E A L E S TAT E OF D R I VA B L E S U B - U R B I A | P R O D U C T TY P E S : W H Y E V E R Y P L A C E LO O K S L I K E EV E RY PL AC E EL S E 4 CONSEQUENCES OF D R I VA B L E SUB - URBAN GROW TH 5 63 TH E M A R K E T R E D I S C OV E R S WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 6 | | 86 D E F I N I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M : WH Y M O R E IS BETTER | 113 vii | 45 31 viii | CONTENTS 7 UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 8 ACH I EVI NG LEVELING THE THE | OF 13 8 NEX T AMERICAN DREAM : P L AY I N G F I E L D AND I M P L E M E N T I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M N OT ES INDEX | | 177 2 01 | 15 0 P REFACE When I was a young child my mother took me to Center City, Philadelphia from our inner-suburban home to visit my father in his office and to go shopping.

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The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

Although he had some sympathy for the ideal of the “garden city,” he maintained that most suburbs grant their denizens only “an encapsulated life,” in which each resident is a prisoner of his car, his home, and his isolation—so much so that “even the advantages of the primary neighborhood group disappear.”138 More recently, John Norquist, a former Milwaukee mayor and leading New Urbanist, contended, as is often asserted, that people have “grown tired of the cul-de-sacs, isolation and sterility of edge cities.”139 In much the same way, New Urbanist guru Andrés Duany insists that largely suburbanized cities such as Phoenix are places “where civic life has almost ceased to exist,” although this assertion is not backed up with any data.140 The suburb, according to the Congress for the New Urbanism, “spells the end of authentic civic life.”141 The more hyperbolic social critic James Howard Kunstler goes even further. “The state-of-the-art mega-suburbs of recent decades,” he suggests, “have produced horrendous levels of alienation, anomie, anxiety, and depression.”142 New Urbanist theorists and “smart growth” advocates claim that by using more traditional architecture and increased densities, we can once again enjoy the kind of “meaningful community” that existed in the past but is supposedly unachievable in conventional suburbs.143 Yet these claims that social comity can be created by architecture are somewhat exaggerated, to be charitable. New Urbanist Léon Krier, for example, claims that New Urbanism can bring together “diverse ages, races and incomes,” citing Seaside and Celebration, Florida, as his examples.

“The potential impact of falling fertility rates on the economy and culture,” Deseret News National, CONFESSORE, Nicholas. (2006, August 6). “Cities Grow Up, and Some See Sprawl,” New York Times, CONN, Steven. (2004, August 17). “Let’s make suburbs into cities: New urbanism, car culture and the future of community,” Salon, CONSTANTINEAU, Bruce. (2014, March 17). “‘Huge demand’ for tiny rental units in Vancouver,” Vancouver Sun. COONTZ, Stephanie. (1992). The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap, New York: Basic Books.

“The Demographic Future,” Foreign Affairs, ——— (2015, February 21). “The Global Flight From the Family,” Wall Street Journal, EDSALL, Thomas B. (2013, October 22). “Bill de Blasio and the New Urban Populism,” New York Times, EFRATI, Amir. (2006, June 2). “The Suburbs Under Siege,” Wall Street Journal, EHRLICH, Paul. (1968). The Population Bomb, New York: Ballantine Books. EISCHEN, Kyle. (2000, March 19). “India’s high-tech marvel makes abstract real,” San Jose Mercury. ELDRIDGE, H. Wentworth. (1975).

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Josh Dorner, “NBC Confirms That ‘Clean Coal’ Is an Oxymoron.” 4. Bill Marsh, “Kilowatts vs. Gallons.” 5. Firmin DeBrabander, “What If Green Products Make Us Pollute More?” 6. Ibid. 7. Michael Mehaffy, “The Urban Dimensions of Climate Change.” 8. David Owen, Green Metropolis, 48, 104. 9. A Convenient Remedy, Congress for the New Urbanism video. 10. Witold Rybczynski, Makeshift Metropolis, 189. 11. The study was prepared by Jonathan Rose Associates, March 2011. 12. New Urban Network, “Study: Transit Outperforms Green Buildings.” 13. Kaid Benfield, “EPA Region 7: We Were Just Kidding About That Sustainability Stuff.” 14. Ibid. 15. Dom Nozzi, 16. Owen, 19, 23. 17. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 7–12. 18. Edward Glaeser, “If You Love Nature, Move to the City.” 19.

“Remove It and They Will Disappear: Why Building New Roads Isn’t Always the Answer.” Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress VII: 2 (March 1998): 5, 7. Kuang, Cliff. “Infographic of the Day: How Bikes Can Solve Our Biggest Problems.” Co.Design, 2011. Langdon, Philip. “Parking: A Poison Posing as a Cure.” New Urban News, April/May 2005. _____. “Young People Learning They Don’t Need to Own a Car.” New Urban News, December 2009. Lehrer, Jonah. “A Physicist Solves the City.” The New York Times Magazine, December 17, 2010. Leinberger, Christopher B. “Federal Restructuring of Fannie and Freddie Ignores Underlying Cause of Crisis.” Urban Land, February 1, 2011. _____. “Here Comes the Neighborhood.” The Atlantic Monthly, June 2010. _____. “Now Coveted: A Walkable, Convenient Place.”

Associated Press, May 9, 2010. RADIO, TELEVISION, FILM, AND SLIDESHOWS A Convenient Remedy. Congress for the New Urbanism video. Aubrey, Allison. “Switching Gears: More Commuters Bike to Work.” NPR Morning Edition, November 29, 2010. Barnett, David C. “A Comeback for Downtown Cleveland.” NPR Morning Edition, June 11, 2011. Equilibrium Capital. “Streetcars’ Economic Impact in the United States.” PowerPoint presentation, May 26, 2010. Gabriel, Ron. “3-Way Street by ronconcocacola.” Vimeo. WebMD. “10 Worst Cities for Asthma.” Slideshow. LECTURES AND CONFERENCES Brooks, David. Lecture. Aspen Institute, March 18, 2011. Frank, Lawrence. Lecture to the 18th Congress for the New Urbanism, Atlanta, Georgia, May 20, 2010. Gladwell, Malcolm. Remarks. Downtown Partnership of Baltimore Annual Meeting, November 17, 2010.

pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village,, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

I would like “origins” to speak for the politics of the underprivileged, to offer an objective standard of authenticity that defends their right to the city. I am all too aware, though, that I belong to the city’s “new beginnings.” I define my identity in terms of the same subjective kind of authenticity that Jane Jacobs admires, while seeing that it displaces the poor by constructing the habitus, latte by latte, of the new urban middle class. This self-awareness doesn’t deny that tastes reinforce social distinctions. I like traditional, small food shops with moderate prices, but I don’t shop at dollar stores or bodegas. Yet the means of consumption on which the new urban middle class depends are destroying the city of the working class. Our pursuit of authenticity—our accumulation of this kind of cultural capital—fuels rising real estate values; our rhetoric of authenticity implicitly endorses the new, post-Jacobs rhetoric of upscale growth.

They also require capital: high salaries in finance, media, and culture industries; bank loans, some provided by overseas institutions; and occasionally, as in Harlem, loans from publicly funded programs and charitable donations from the same investment banks that fell so swiftly in the recent global financial crisis. During the past thirty years, though, media images of cities and neighborhoods have forged an increasingly important connection between capital, state, and the new urban middle class, between the interests of investors, officials, and consumers. The sociologist Leslie Sklair calls culture the “glue” that connects state power and financial capital; it’s clear that media images and consumer tastes anchor today’s technology of power in our individual yearnings, persuading us that consuming the authentic city has everything to do with aesthetics and nothing to do with power.11 The new urban middle class has led the way to a form of consumption that is both motivational and aspirational and feeds into the political and economic motors of urban change. The motivational desire for a looser lifestyle of the late 1960s and 1970s, which we can picture as thrift-shop chic, joined dialectically with the aspirational desire for “authentic” goods of the 1980s and 1990s, such as brownstone townhouses and lofts, to produce a widespread model of how to consume the city’s authenticity.

Global investment firms have bought thousands of low-cost apartment houses and prepare to raise the rent or sell them as condos, driving out older and poorer tenants. The fertile urban terroir of cultural creation is being destroyed by the conspicuous displays of wealth and power typical of private developers and public officials who build for the rich and hope benefits will trickle down to the poor, by the promotions of the media who translate neighborhood identity into a brand, and by the tastes of new urban middle classes who are initially attracted to this identity but ultimately destroy it. These forces of redevelopment have smoothed the uneven layers of grit and glamour, swept away traces of contentious history, cast doubt on the idea that poor people have a right to live and work here too—all that had made the city authentic. The rebuilding of public spaces since the 1980s shows signs of the same homogenizing forces of redevelopment.

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

This pragmatic focus on street-level performance led the Boston Globe Magazine to dub him in 1994, “the urban mechanic.”44 Unlike cities where the mayor’s tech stars were busy launching apps contests, publishing open data, or running analytics, in Boston the mayor focused them on building tools for citizen engagement. “Technology is not part of our mission,” explained Chris Osgood, a veteran civil servant who previously worked for New York City’s Department of Parks and Recreation and who, as Jacob’s cochair, made up the other half of the Office of New Urban Mechanics. “It is to connect people and government better.” Consider Boston’s approach to the snow problem, as compared to Chicago or New York. Just as those cities were opening up their snowplow maps in January 2012, New Urban Mechanics launched “Adopt-A-Hydrant,” a Web app that allowed neighborhood volunteers to claim local fireplugs as their own winter wards. On top of responding to over five thousand fires each year, the Boston Fire Department is responsible for shoveling out over thirteen thousand hydrants after every major snowstorm.

You’re talking about weeks versus months.”49 Above all, “Urban Mechanics is an experimental laboratory,” he told me.50 All of these factors—the focus on citizens, the substantial human resources, the severe constraints on project scope, the political reality that Menino doesn’t have to grab headlines with every tech initiative—united to chart a markedly different path for Boston, an almost guerrilla approach to smart-city building. Like the minutemen of the Massachusetts rebellion, the New Urban Mechanics team picked its targets carefully, and struck fast with a tiny force. It’s a point not lost on the team. Jacob saw early on that the contestants in city apps contests were “basically developing solutions for themselves. Which makes sense, right? Because that’s how you scratch your itch.” Boston chose not to follow that path. As Osgood saw it, Menino’s focus on accountability to his constituents dictated a more engaged approach to apps. “Because of our mayor, we take very seriously the responsibility that government has to understand the problems that residents have, and to try and solve those particular problems.” Ensuring that the apps New Urban Mechanics built were both useful to Boston residents and “piloting something interesting and creative” perhaps results in fewer apps, he says, but apps that will be “sustained and evolved and resonate more.”51 Unlike other cities, where technology is seen as the catalyst of change, Menino made technology subservient.

As Jacob explained to me later, in August 2012 he had taken on a new role advising his peers in several other American cities on how to replicate the success of the Office of New Urban Mechanics. Philadelphia, the first to come knocking “actually called and asked ‘Can we just franchise what you guys do?’ ” Jacob proudly said.53 He was also working to help spread to other cities some of the projects kick-started in Boston. One such tool, Community PlanIt, was an online game designed by Eric Gordon, a visual and media arts professor at Emerson College, to enhance the value of community meetings. When we spoke, Community PlanIt had been successfully rolled out in two of Boston’s suburbs as well as Detroit. Although it was poised to go viral, can New Urban Mechanics survive a change of leadership at home in Boston? Menino will finally leave office after the 2013 mayoral election, having served a record five terms.

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How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

there is evidence that the white LGBT community: Carolyn Senn, “Gentrification, Social Capital, and the Emergence of a Lesbian Neighborhood: A Case Study of Park Slope, Brooklyn,” master’s thesis, Fordham University, 2013. “the reach of global capital”: Neil Smith, The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City (New York: Routledge, 1996), 100. a New York Times investigation found that 50 percent: Julie Satow, “Pied-à-Neighborhood,” New York Times, October 24, 2014. They came to New York to be artists, activists, authors: For more on consumption explanations of gentrification, including a discussion of sociologist Daniel Bell and economist Richard Florida, see Lees, Slater, and Wyly, Gentrification, ch. 3; for more on production explanations, see ch. 2. “As part of the experience of postwar suburbanization”: Smith, New Urban Frontier, xxiii–xiv. “taming of the wild, wild West”: Neil Smith, “Home on the Range, Urban-Style,” New York Times, August 12, 1985.

“Here you’ll find a group of like-minded settlers”: Katarina Hybenova, “How Is Life at Bushwick’s Most Controversial New Building, Colony 1209?” Bushwick Daily, June 26, 2014. “Having produced a scarcity of capital”: Smith, New Urban Frontier, 23. By funding the construction of roads outside cities: John Hansan, “WPA: The Works Progress Administration,” Social Welfare History Project, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2013, Between 1977 and 1984, there were 130 such conversions: Lees, Slater, and Wyly, Gentrification, 29. “gentrification is a back-to-the-city movement”: Smith, New Urban Frontier, 70. “Though the majority of residents may never contemplate”: Quoted in Jason Hackworth, The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007), 15.

technology, talent, and tolerance: For a good summary of Florida’s “technology, talent, and tolerance” approach to economic development, see Hazel Borys, “Richard Florida on Technology, Talent, and Tolerance,” Place Makers, November 18, 2013. The original edition sold 300,000 copies: Andres Viglucci, “Miami Now Winter Home to ‘Creative-Class’ Thinker Richard Florida,” Miami Herald, August 19, 2012. The Congress for New Urbanism held its 2016 conference: 24th Annual Congress for the New Urbanism, June 8–11, 2016, Detroit, Michigan, “One problematic consequence [of the rise of the creative class]”: Florida, Rise of the Creative Class, 193, 227. “We need to be clear that ultimately, we can’t stop the decline”: Richard Florida, “How the Crash Will Reshape America,” The Atlantic, March 2009. “Bring on more gentrification”: Steve Neavling, “‘Bring on More Gentrification’ Declares Detroit’s Economic Development Czar,” Motor City Muckraker, May 16, 2013.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

Shanghai, whose growth was frozen for decades by Maoist policies of deliberate underurbanization, could have as many as 27 million residents in its huge estuarial metro-region. Mumbai (Bombay), meanwhile, is projected to attain a population of 33 million, although no one knows whether such gigantic concentrations of poverty are biologically or ecologically sustainable.10 The exploding cities of the developing world are also weaving extraordinary new urban networks, corridors, and hierarchies. In the Americas, geographers already talk about a leviathan known as the Rio/Sao Paulo Extended Metropolitan Region (RSPER) which includes the medium-sized cities on the 500-kilometer-long transport axis between Brazil's two largest metropolises, as well as the important industrial area dominated by Campinas; with a current population of 37 million, this embryonic megalopolis is already larger than TokyoYokohama.11 Likewise, the giant amoeba of Mexico City, already having consumed Toluca, is extending pseudopods that will eventually incorporate much of central Mexico, including the cities of Cuernavaca, Puebla, Cuautla, Pachuca, and Queretaro, into a single megalopolis with a mid-twenty-first-century population of approximately 50 million — about 40 percent of the national total.12 Even more surprising is the vast West African conurbation rapidly coalescing along the Gulf of Guinea with Lagos (23 million people by 9 UN-HABITAT Urban Indicators Database (2002). 10 Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, p. 63. 11 Hamilton Tolosa, "The Rio/Sao Paulo Extended Metropolitan Region: A Quest for Global Integration," The Annals of "Regonal Science 31:2 (September 2003), pp. 480, 485. 12 Gustavo Garza, "Global Economy, Metropolitan Dynamics and Urban Policies in Mexico," Cities 16:3 (1999), p. 154. 2015 according to one estimate) as its fulcrum.

continuous urban corridor stretching from Japan/North Korea to West Java."17 As it takes shape over the next century, this great dragon-lice sprawl of cities will constitute the physical and demographic culmination of millennia of urban evolution. The ascendency of coastal East Asia, in turn, will surely promote a Tokyo—Shanghai "world city" dipole to equality with the New York—London axis in the control of global flows of capital and information. The price of this new urban order, however, will be increasing inequality within and between cities of different sizes and econo ic specializations. Chinese experts, indeed, are currently debating whether the ancient income-and-development chasm between city and count yside is now being replaced by an equally fundamental gap between small, particularly inland cities and the giant coastal metropolises.18 However, the smaller cities are precisely where most of Asia will soon live.

Before the Second World War, most poor urban Latin Americans lived in inner-city rental housing, but in the late 1940s import-substitution industrialization spurred a dramatic wave of squatter invasion on the outskirts of Mexico City and other Latin American cities. In response to the burgeoning of shantytowns, authorities in several countries, ardently supported by the urban middle classes, launched massive crackdowns on informal settlement. Since many of the new urban immigrants were indigenistas or descendants of slaves, there was often a racial dimension to this "war on squatting." The postwar dictator of Venezuela, Marcos Perez Jimenez, was a particularly notorious enemy of informal housing. According to three UCLA authors: "[His] government's solution to the fem'wwas the bulldozer. On a given morning, policemen and trucks would arrive at the barrio-, an official would direct the loading of the residents' belongings onto the truck; policemen would deal with any objections; when the belongings and the residents had been removed to the new apartments, 12 Dorothy Solinger, Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State and the Logc of the Market, Berkeley 1999, pp. 2, 41. 13 Table 1, Fabre, "La Chine," p. 196.

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

Many public officials and planning professionals were first introduced to the principles of New Urbanism through the vehicle of lectures and slide shows documenting the ugliness of suburban sprawl and the intelligence of urban design as practiced in many places in the preautomobile era. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter Calthorpe, and a handful of coconspirators carried these slides to countless audiences all over the country in the early and mid-1990s. As a model of their intentions, they offered Seaside, the residential community in north Florida that was designed by Duany and Plater-Zyberk in the 1980s, complete with sidewalks, front porches, a town square, and a whole array of other reminders of the old-fashioned, pedestrian-friendly American small town. The first half of the 1990s brought the New Urbanism a reputation and a following far beyond what its founders could have predicted.

This does not make newly wealthy inner-city neighborhoods unattractive, but it is a limitation they must face and a problem that no city has fully solved. Finally, we have learned from both the Financial District and Bushwick (as we did from Sheffield) that the relative importance of travel time compared to other commodities is increasing as the years go by. To repeat the succinct aphorism of the Bushwick real estate broker, “These days, convenience trumps aesthetics.” This is likely to become even more important as a new urban generation emerges. It is an idea we will continue to pursue in the remaining chapters of the book. CHAPTER FOUR THE NEW SUBURBIA IT MAY SEEM FAR-FETCHED to compare the Hispanic construction workers of modern suburban Atlanta to the peasants from southern France who built Baron Haussmann’s Parisian boulevards. But it reinforces an important point about the ways in which the American suburbs of the present mirror the European suburbs of 150 years ago: They are, in large part, the gateways to which newcomers come from far away to perform the entry-level work the society wishes to have performed.

They will need to have transit stations integrated into the very fabric of the developments. Whether this is possible, I don’t know. The suburban retrofits are, despite the number of examples that multiply every year, in only the earliest stages. But if urbanized suburbia is going to be the answer for this generation, or even a large part of it, density—somewhere—is the only real choice. DENSITY HAS BEEN, in many ways, the principal theme of New Urbanism, the movement that is now two decades old and has had a profound if not quite revolutionary impact on the shape of cities all over the Western world. In 1990, the New Urbanists were a small, close-knit coterie of architects and planners with a simple and heretical message: The automobile, and four decades of building homes, streets, and suburbs for the automobile’s convenience, had drained American places of the community and intimacy that human beings naturally desire.

pages: 425 words: 117,334

City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast

big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

Although the summers can be brutally hot and humid, nothing makes you appreciate a swimming pool or ice-cold Coca-Cola more, and then there are the warm, magical summer nights. Atlanta winters are mild; springtime explodes with daffodils, azaleas, and dogwoods; and the autumn is long and mellow. Atlanta offers diversity in all senses of the word. It is a troubled, dynamic, appealing, contradictory city, and the BeltLine project has the potential to envelope it with a livable new urbanism where people can walk and bike, enjoy parks, and get around on streetcars (or bus rapid transit) and rapid transit. The BeltLine will link to new urban farms whose fresh food can contribute to better health, along with an active lifestyle. As an Atlanta native with a profound personal involvement with the city, I now live far away in northern Vermont. Yet I have continued to monitor the problems and progress of my birthplace through the years as I have returned to visit family and friends, as well as to research two other Atlanta-related books (For God, Country, and Coca-Cola and Inside the Outbreaks).

This city “has probably been the source of more bad transportation policy than any other in America,” wrote David Owen in Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability (2009). Unless Atlanta can reposition itself—no longer perceived as a congested, sprawling, auto-dependent area—it risks slowly dissolving into an amorphous urban shell, leaving isolated communities powerless to attract business, fix infrastructure, solve huge health problems, or resolve racial prejudice and income inequity. Atlanta is not alone in its attempts to adjust to new urban realities. In the era of the automobile, American cities evolved into places that inadvertently made lives more harried and less healthy. Inner cities decayed. People sat in cars rather than biking or walking. Junk food was cheaper and easier to find than fresh fruit and vegetables. The “edge cities” surrounding the urban core, accessible only by automobile, leeched life and business from traditional downtowns.

They share the trail and the city with people of all shades and ethnicities—African Americans, whites, Hispanics, Koreans, Bosnians, Somalis, gays, straights, pensioners, children. They ride past some of the wealthiest as well as some of the poorest city neighborhoods, though all property near the BeltLine has gone up in value, as more people move into the corridor. Despite many unanticipated setbacks, Atlanta is already realizing this vision straight out of the “new urbanism” playbook.* The NuGrape building, headquarters for the soda pop company from 1937 through 1971, has indeed been converted into high-ceilinged lofts, and residents really do sit out on the former loading dock on summer nights. The Historic Fourth Ward Park, with its nearby skateboard area, was finished in 2011, and the massive old Sears warehouse on Ponce de Leon Avenue is now the Ponce City Market, a combined retail, residential, and commercial space.

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Until recently, he believed they would be the engine rooms of the new economy, embracing the diversity necessary to attract talent. That has certainly happened. Gay pride parades seem to get larger every year. A thousand multicultural flowers are blooming. Yet in squeezing out income diversity, the new urban economies are also shutting off the scope for serendipity. The West’s global cities are like tropical islands surrounded by oceans of resentment. Florida’s latest book is called The New Urban Crisis. Rather than being shaped by those who live there full-time, the characters of our biggest cities are increasingly driven by the global super-rich as a place to park their money. Many of the creative classes are being edged out. Urban downtowns have turned into ‘deadened trophy districts’. New York’s once-bohemian SoHo is now better known for its high-end boutiques than its artists’ studios.

, New York Magazine, 25 February 2014, <>. 39 Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class – and What We Can Do About It (Basic Books, New York, 2017), p. 132. 40 Ibid. 41 Ibid., p. 191. 42 Ibid., p. 159. 43 Mark Muro and Sifan Liu, ‘Another Clinton-Trump divide: high-output America versus low-output America’, Brookings, 29 November 2016, <>. 44 I draw this insightful point from Richard C. Longworth’s cogent ‘On Global Cities’, Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 21 May 2005, <>. 45 Findings are throughout Richard Florida’s The New Urban Crisis. 46 Melkorka Licea, ‘“Poor door” tenants of luxury tower reveal the financial apartheid within’, New York Post, 17 January 2016, <>. 47 Milanovic, Global Inequality. 48 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 41. 49 Ibid, p. 38. 50 Cowen, The Complacent Class, p. 7. 51 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 216. 52 Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (Basic Books, New York, 2015 (ebook)). 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Lawrence Mishel, ‘Entry-level workers’ wages fell in lost decade’, Economic Policy Institute report, 7 March 2012, <>. 56 Baldwin, The Great Convergence. 57 William J.

Longworth’s cogent ‘On Global Cities’, Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 21 May 2005, <>. 45 Findings are throughout Richard Florida’s The New Urban Crisis. 46 Melkorka Licea, ‘“Poor door” tenants of luxury tower reveal the financial apartheid within’, New York Post, 17 January 2016, <>. 47 Milanovic, Global Inequality. 48 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 41. 49 Ibid, p. 38. 50 Cowen, The Complacent Class, p. 7. 51 Florida, The New Urban Crisis, p. 216. 52 Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (Basic Books, New York, 2015 (ebook)). 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Lawrence Mishel, ‘Entry-level workers’ wages fell in lost decade’, Economic Policy Institute report, 7 March 2012, <>. 56 Baldwin, The Great Convergence. 57 William J. Bernstein, The Birth of Plenty: How the Prosperity of the Modern World was Created (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004). 58 Occupational Outlook Handbook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, <>. 59 Robert J.

City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse,, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

The beautiful cemetery of Père-Lachaise also quickly became a popular tourist attraction. One of three new municipal cemeteries created outside Paris in 1803, Père-Lachaise lay to the east of the city, at Mont-Louis, and was built on the estate of François d’Aix de La Chaise, who had been King Louis XIV’s confessor. The French described it as an ‘anglo-chinois’ garden cemetery, for, like many of the new urban parks that would soon grace European and American cities, it was inspired by the naturalism of both Chinese imperial parks and English landscape gardens. Its tree-lined walks and picturesque views impressed everyone, including an American visitor in the 1830s who observed that ‘it is impossible to visit this vast sanctuary of the dead, where the rose and the cypress encircle each tomb, and the arborvitae and eglantine shade the marble obelisk, without feeling a solemn yet sweet and soothing emotion steal over the senses’.67 In time, the hill in Père-Lachaise became a famous vantage point from which to view the city.

Within twenty years, other American cities had built rural or garden cemeteries, including Portland, Maine, and St Louis, Missouri. Some sixty thousand people a year went to New York City’s Green-Wood Cemetery (1838) and enjoyed a scenic tour among its monuments and the views across Upper New York Bay.71 Guidebooks directed people to the most scenic routes and inspiring vistas. Cemeteries had become part of a new ‘national culture’, one created by ‘the new urban citizens of America’.72 Among their winding, leafy paths, people forgot the habitual cares and troubles of the city and their thoughts turned to more profound matters, such as the meaning of life and human mortality. In the twentieth century, the memorial park became the preferred burial ground for an increasingly suburban nation. The first of these was Forest Lawn, Glendale, California (1913), designed by Hubert Eaton.

In Paris, for example, it has been estimated that 10 per cent of the city’s residents are ‘urban nomads’, part-time city dwellers who come for the cultural events that only a big city can support – opera, theatre, art exhibitions as well as international sporting events and conferences.28 Cities have changed significantly over the last century and downtown is not the place it used to be. People no longer commute en masse to the downtown, and neither do they do their shopping exclusively there. Thanks to new transport and communication technologies, cities have become amorphous structures, with new urban centres emerging on the peripheries amidst the ubiquitous suburban sprawl. ‘In its present incarnation,’ writes Deyan Sudjic, ‘the old centre is just another piece on the board, a counter that has perhaps the same weight as the airport, or the medical centre, or the museum complex. They all swim in a soup of shopping malls, hypermarkets and warehouses, drive-in restaurants and anonymous industrial sheds, beltways and motorway boxes.’29 This is the age of the Edge City and ‘the hundred-mile city’, where the old distinctions between urban and suburban are being demolished and the central city is being eclipsed by the new, expanding ‘exopolis’.30 But downtown has not disappeared as some predicted.

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Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski

additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional

The carefully crafted project of the winning team is representative of a current approach to urban design that has been termed neo-traditional but whose adherents prefer to call it New Urbanism. New Urbanism represents a turning away from the principles that have characterized American urban design since the 1950s and a rediscovery of the virtues of traditional, gridded streets scaled to the pedestrian and of cities that integrate a diversity of urban uses—commercial and industrial as well as residential—rather than being zoned according to single functions. So far, the accomplishments of architects and planners like Peter Calthorpe, Daniel Solomon, and Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk have been predominantly suburban and aimed at an upper-middle-class clientele, but the commercial successes of New Urbanism are evidence of its broad appeal to consumers and developers alike. It seems appropriate that such a mainstream, pragmatic approach should be applied to the remedial design of public housing.

Likewise small-to-midsize regional centers that share several characteristics other than their size. They score high in that ephemeral but crucial category, “quality of life.” They are near recreational amenities like lakes and mountains. They have strong local economies and have lower unemployment, poverty, and crime rates than the national average. But Raleigh-Durham, Rochester, and Provo-Orem are not merely examples of successful small cities. They are also examples of a new urban trend: the rise of what might be called the college city. The college town is an American institution. Throughout the nineteenth century, it was common practice to locate private colleges in small towns like Amherst in Massachusetts, Middlebury in Vermont, and Claremont in California. The idea was that bucolic surroundings would provide the appropriate atmosphere for the pursuit of learning and (not incidentally) remove students from the distractions and temptations of the big city.

It is estimated that in New York City, for example, tourism supports more than 280,000 jobs, which is only slightly fewer than the important finance, insurance, and real estate sectors. In London, about 200,000 are employed in the tourism sector. It is true that these service jobs are not as highly paid as those in the financial sector, but the low level of skill they demand makes them useful entry-level positions for immigrants and other new urban arrivals. Unlike traditional industry, the hospitality industry doesn’t make anything. But if it doesn’t export goods, it does import people—lots of them. And just as the smokestack industries of the past belched soot into the atmosphere and altered their urban surroundings, present-day hospitality industries also change the city—and not always for the better. The story of the neighborhood restaurant that was ruined by tourists is universal.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

It was six years ago to the week, he noted absently, as if remembering an old friend’s birthday, that construction on Tellinghuisen’s house had begun. We got to talking about what made this place tick and, by extension, how one would go about building it anew someplace else. It was something he’d thought about before briefing visting members of Parliament on how they might go about rehabbing Heathrow. “ ‘New Urbanism’ is a funny term, because it’s really the old urbanism,” he said. “Peter [Calthorpe] would tell you you can have New Urbanism anywhere.” And so would Gleason’s boss, Jon Ratner. The youngest member of the Ratner clan is arguably its most radical. Having started work at Stapleton in his twenties, he’d since risen to the post of director of sustainability, in charge of the firm’s triple bottom line: “people, planet, and profit.” “We’re hoping to use the ingenuity of the private sector and the fiscal resources of the public one to build a new vision for what a city can be,” he told me.

After the city agreed to rezone the land, the firm promised to build the downtown Mesa never had, an exercise in “twenty-first-century desert urbanism”—New Urbanism with stucco flourishes. The plan depends on Gateway living up to its name and winning flights from the region’s hub, Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Impressed by their ambitions, The Economist dubbed their aerotropolis the “city of the future” and name-checked John Kasarda as its architect. We want to live near airports, even if we don’t care to admit it—even to ourselves. Stapleton, Reunion, and the Mesas offer compelling evidence. We flock to them because that’s where the jobs are, next door or at the end of a flight. So how do we build a better aerotropolis than the ones we have now? One of the best tools in our kit is something called “transit oriented development,” an idea coined by Peter Calthorpe the same year he helped found the Congress for the New Urbanism. The name says it all: neighborhoods and cities built along the splines of public transit.

., 185 New Silk Road, 24, 315–17; Africa as terminus for, 319; Chinese cities built along, 360; Dubai as terminus on, 297; as example of Jevons Paradox, 329; SAM traders on, 319–21 New Songdo City, 3–6, 10, 23, 353–58, 411; as aerotropolis template, 5, 354, 357; airport links to, 355;carbon footprint of, 357; design of, 355;as green city, 4, 356–57; master plan for, 354–57; popularity of, 357; as ’smart’ city, 357; as Western style city, 355 New Suburbanism, as illustrated by Reunion, 140–44 New Urbanism, Detroit as testcase for, 195–96 New York, N.Y.: carbon footprint of residents in, 356; cities in style of, 20–21 NextGen traffic control system, 352 Nigeria, 321 Nilekani, Nandan, 281–82, 283 NIMBY groups, 29 noise pollution: in areas around airports, 28–29, 86, 187–88; designs to reduce, 350; lawsuits regarding, 29 Nong Ngu Hao, 245 North Carolina, University of, 7, 8 Northrup, Jack, 27 Northrup Grumman, 27, 40 “nowhere,” invention of, 96–98 Obama, Barack, 18; on China’s infrastructure spending, 388; on health care reforms, 268; on new economic foundations, 37; new urban vision of, 194–95 Observer, The, 343 O’Donnell, Robert, 137 Ofa, Ilaiasi, 92, 129 O’Hare Modernization Program (OMP), 49–52; opposition to, 51 oil: consumed by transport, 341–42; urbanization dependent on, 12, 21; from whaling, 327 oil consumption, global rate of, 342 oil prices, 331, 334, 340–41 oil shocks, 341–42 Okay Airways, 403, 404–406, 407–408 Okazaki, Akira, 226 O’Leary, Michael, 335 Olympics, Beijing, 386, 406 Omnivore’s Dilemma, The (Pollan), 232 One Laptop Per Child, 370 Open Skies agreement, 43–44, 282, 402–403, 433 opium wars, 385 Orange County, Calif., 35–37; opposition to airport expansion in, 36–37 outsourcing: boom in India, 276; in floral industry, 211; GE as leader in, 202–203; in global food chains, 236–38 Owen, David, 356–57 Pacific Rim, economic development in, 244 Packard, David, 365 Pakistan, Chinese construction of cities and airports in, 360, 400 Palmdale, Calif., 31 Panyarachun, Anand, 246 Park, Robert E., 424 Patel, Praful, 282–84; Inidian aviation overhauled by, 429 Patterson, L.

Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city,, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75. Patricia Pessar and Pamela Graham, “Dominicans: Transnational Identities and Local Politics,” in New Immigrants in New York, ed. Nancy Foster (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 264. Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 76. Ibid. While isolated examples of Black councillors elected in Los Angeles can be traced back to 1915, a consistent pattern of Blacks elected councillors started after 1965. John H. Laslett, “Historical Perspectives: Immigration and the Rise of a Distinctive Urban Region, 1900–1970,” in Ethnic Los Angeles, ed. Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996), 68. Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75.

John Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration: A View from the Gateway Cities,” in Bringing Outsiders In, ed. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009), 74–93. Good, “Patterns in Canada’s Immigrant-Receiving Cities,” 267–8. A narrow view of political incorporation refers only to how an immigrant or minority group finds a place in a political structure. For a comprehensive account see Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf. “Modeling Immigrant Political Incorporation,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 16. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf, “Understanding Immigrant Political Incorporation through Comparison,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 303–4. This paragraph draws on John Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75–7.

Even recent theories of urban structure use these variables as the basis of their models. The technological, economic, and social changes of the late twentieth century have made the urban structure malleable. Cities have spread out, suburbs have grown into veritable cities, shopping malls have realigned the commercial order, and the electronic revolution has drastically diminished the resistance of distance. These changes have realigned the urban structure and given rise to new urban theories. The Los Angeles school of urbanism projects Los Angeles as the model of a post-modern city, lacking a strong centre. It views the city to be cellular in structure, divided into autonomous places by function, culture, and location. It envisages the growth impulse to work from the outside to the central core, reversing the conventional view. The city is fragmented into functional-sociocultural districts, such as edge cities, ethnoburbs, theme parks, gated communities, corporate citadels, and command and control centres.4 Such a city has many cores and is held together by political institutions and infrastructure.

pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

The notion of urbanism provides a useful perspective for critical study of such hierarchies. Third, the New Urbanism school of design is among the most important movements afoot in our current debate on the future of American city life.72 This movement harks back to design patterns from what I am calling the urbanist era (in truth, that is, the old urbanism), and does so for reasons having everything to do with the desire to recapture urbanism’s power to order and govern social space humanely and well. New Urbanist designs encourage public interaction, engagement, and grounded living through features such as open porches, which look very like features found in abundance in houses from about 1910. But design alone is apt not to suffice in isolation from other features. The extent to which the New Urbanism’s design strategy can be integrated with cultural, economic, and governmental requirements for success in real city neighborhoods remains largely for the future to decide.

This dramatic assertion of City Hall’s authority met with summary rejection in court, and the strike precipitated the loss of the city’s major remaining industrial base. I carry a few major strands of economic and social and political change right up to the present in order to show what is meant by urbanism’s ending. The third and last resonance of the term “urbanism” attaches to the vibrant recent movement that announced itself as the New Urbanism. Centering especially on the Miami design studio of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, this movement seeks to recapture the look, feel, and function of a more humane era. New Urbanist design encourages front porches, carefully rendered sidewalks, and scores of other details that evoke what this movement means by “urxviii P R E F A C E banism.” The movement presents the intriguing hope that some of the strengths I find in the old urbanism may live again.

It was, however, a strong signal, as the city’s population share fell from about 80 percent to just over 60 percent. More ominously, the city’s share of the regional grand list dropped from almost 85 percent to just over 61 percent. The suburban architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is quite often handsome, and the best of it has strong appeal to this day (figures 7.4 and 7.5). At least superficially, it often seems to define the housing ideal of the New Urbanism.32 The numbing sameness of later tract development is often avoided, and the appeal to essentially urban sensibilities is very strong. GROCERY RETAILING, 1913–50 The retail grocery of Frank Rice’s day was remarkable for three reasons: its being grounded in a specific urban neighborhood market, its role as an element of social organization in even the smallest neighborhoods, and its economic survival in so localized and competitive a setting.

Hollow City by Rebecca Solnit, Susan Schwartzenberg

blue-collar work, Brownian motion, dematerialisation, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, low skilled workers, new economy, New Urbanism,, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, wage slave

For more on the LHotel struggle, see James Sobredo, "From Manila Bay to Daly City: Filipinos San Francisco," End March my brother David Solnit, a co-organizer of the tours, on the Reshaping San FranCD-ROM produced by Chris Carlsson and mentioned in Lucy Lippard's On the Beaten Track. cisco in Francisco, 13. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City 32. Brian Godfrey, Neighborhoods in Transition: The Making of San Francisco's Ethnic and Nonconformist Communities (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988;, 177-78 18. Randy 19. Godfrey 20. San Francisco Bay Guardian, "Neighborhood issue 21 . Shilts, quoted in Godfrey, ibid., 121. ibid., 121. Profile: The Mission/Lofts and "The Economic Cleansing of San Francisco," October Neil Smith,Tfte New Urban Frontier, 32-33 7, 1998, 20. Lattes" in the special HOLLOW 176 CITY A Real Estate History 1. "The project would include cials said." . . 6,090 housing units.

This modernisms of the Being an politicians, rise to Montmartre and Greenwich was one way of being a participant in the debate about meaning and value, and the closer to the center of things one more one can participate. This is part of is the what makes an urbanity worth celebrating, this braiding together of disparate lives, but the new gentri- Eviction Defense Network poster, Mission District, 1999, fication threatens to yank out some of the strands ing urbanism itself Perhaps the function like suburbs as those them over. In the new urbanism will altogether, diminish- result in old cities that who were suburbia's blandly privileged take postwar years, the white middle class fled cities, which created the crises of abandonment, scarce city revenue, and depression that defined urban trouble through the 1970s, but the poor and the bohe- mian who stuck those to cities often made something lively there anyway; now who once fled have come back and created an unanticipated crisis of wealth for those raised on the urban crisis of poverty.

Car-based suburbia has version of Utopia since the Second the gentrification of cities, been all central disci- take up ques- a particularly nowheresville World War, but the spread of chains, the ability of administrators to control increas- SAN FRANCISCO, CAPITAL OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY and public ingly subtle details of public space urban places small towns, but country This is is location. ist t is happening a story about love in San Francisco and is remote to the afford those hotel cities and money. Or The new economy is as economy can what new New Urbanism in which a day, village it suddenly lands being cities love, we took city lost. across the money and economy as a tourthe campesinos in; rooms and drinks, and San Franciscans can't afford for granted vanish becomes more and more evident. People speak constantly, obsessively, of is about different fi"om the old San Franciscans' love for their mourn what Much has been function like suburbs.

pages: 395 words: 115,753

The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford

anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional

In his opinion, Oregonians were having “to find new ways of doing things: of making a living without destroying land, building real towns and city neighborhoods instead of tract housing pods and commercial strip smarm, [and] eliminating unnecessary car trips and commutes.”33 The Portland experience was also welcome news to an emerging planning movement known as the New Urbanism. Led by architects Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, New Urbanism was the planning arm of the antisprawl crusade, dedicated to creating traditional-style neighborhoods with smaller lots, narrower streets, front porches, and corner groceries. Density and walkability were to replace the sprawl and automobile dependence of the edgeless city. Basically, New Urbanists sought to recreate the neighborhoods of the pre-1945 era before Levittown, Southdale Center, McDonalds, and the interstate highway system had corrupted American life. In their manifesto on New Urbanism, Duany and Plater-Zyberk urged their followers to remember the refrain: “No more housing subdivisions! No more shopping centers!

Contributing to the festival atmosphere were mimes, balloon sellers, strolling musicians, and jugglers, the very type of off-beat characters generally not found in the more staid environment of the suburban mall. The chief developer of festival marketplaces was James Rouse, the creator of the new town of Columbia, Maryland. “There’s a yearning for life at the heart of the city—a yearning for active places with personality and human scale,” Rouse contended.41 And through his festival marketplaces, he sought to give Americans a new urban heart and infuse the core with an upbeat personality. FIGURE 5.1 Ghirardelli Square enlivened the nighttime scene in central San Francisco. (San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library) The most notable of the festival marketplaces, and the one every city wanted to replicate, was Boston’s Faneuil Hall Marketplace. Although the marketplace was named for adjacent Faneuil Hall, a historic site of eighteenth-century Revolutionary agitation, its centerpiece was Quincy Market, a handsome Greek Revival structure completed in 1826 (figure 5.2).

City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), p. 175. 57. William McCord, John Howard, Bernard Friedberg, and Edwin Harwood, Life Styles in the Black Ghetto (New York: Norton, 1969), p. 60. For accounts of the Watts riots, see also Gerald Horne, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995), and David O. Sears and John B. McConahay, The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973). 58. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam, 1968), p. 39. 59. Hippler, Hunter’s Point, p. 206. 60. Report of Commission on Civil Disorders, p. 40. 61. Ibid., pp. 69, 164. 62. Sidney Fine, Violence in the Model City: The Cavanagh Administration, Race Relations, and the Detroit Riot of 1967 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989), p. 160. 63.

pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

Census Bureau, urban core residents on average live barely two and a half years in the same place, whereas the average for suburbanites is about seven years.54 Given the mass exodus of middle-income residents—especially those with children—from elite cities like New York, they no longer resemble the welcoming urban havens so lovingly portrayed by Jane Jacobs.55 Her hope that middle-class urbanites could recover their place in the city core seems unrealistic. Decades ago, the National Urban Coalition noted that urban revitalization programs generally produced some overall economic benefit for cities, but at the cost of “the deprivation, frustration and anger of those who are becoming the new urban serfs.”56 Today, big cities continue to draw the wealthy and the well-educated, with impoverished residents pushed to the margins, and little in between.57 The result is “rising inequality, deepening economic segregation, and increasingly unaffordable housing,” which Richard Florida describes as a “new urban crisis.”58 Some of those living in the cities outside the “glamour zone” feel trapped—victims of an urban system that doesn’t provide opportunity for them. A backlash against gentrification has appeared in many cities, such as Ontario, Berlin, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Atlanta, and New Orleans.59 Tactics for repelling gentrifiers have included vandalism and even arson.60 Jawanza Malone, executive director of Chicago’s Kenwood-Oakland Community Organization, says that city leaders purposely neglect some neighborhoods while giving priority to the high-end economy and real estate speculation.

utm_source=Mic+Check&utm_campaign=2b200dd408-Thursday_July_167_15_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_51f2320b33-2b200dd408-285306781. 53 Katy Murphy, “The California Dream is tough to afford if you’re under 40,” Mercury News, February 21, 2018,; Joel Kotkin and Wendell Cox, “Fading Promise: Millennial Prospects in the Golden State,” Center for Demographics and Policy, May 5, 2017, 54 Center for Opportunity Urbanism, Beyond Gentrification. 55 John Aidan Byrne, “The Exodus of New York City’s endangered middle class,” New York Post, December 22, 2018,; Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1962), 282. 56 National Urban Coalition, Displacement: City Neighborhoods in Transition, Washington, D.C., 1978. 57 Kristian Behrens and Frederic Robert-Nicoud, “Urbanization Makes the World More Unequal,” VoxEU, July 24, 2014, 58 Richard Florida, “Mapping the New Urban Crisis,” City Lab, April 13, 2017,; Patrick Sharkey, “Rich Neighborhood, Poor Neighborhood: How Segregation Threatens Social Mobility,” Brookings, December 5, 2013, 59 Helen Raleigh, “Gentrification Provokes a Cofee Clash in Denver’s Five Points,” Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2017,; Cameron McWhirter, “Atlanta’s Growing Pains Are Getting Worse,” Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2018,; Richard Campanella, “Gentrification and Its Discontents: Notes From New Orleans,” New Geography, February 28, 2013,; “Google abandons Berlin base after two years of resistance,” Guardian, October 24, 2018,; Chantal Braganza, “Why opponents of gentrification have taken to the streets of Hamilton,” TVO, April 5, 2018,; David Streitfeld, “Protesters Block Google Buses in San Francisco, Citing ‘Techsploitation,’” New York Times, May 31, 2018,

Fifteen cities together hold roughly 11 percent of the planet’s total wealth.17 These “superstar cities” are becoming more bifurcated, with oligarchs and the upper clerisy living in the gentrified urban core, surrounded by propertyless and often impoverished masses on the periphery.18 The elite urban cores constitute only a small percentage of the metropolitan area both in the United States and in Europe. In France, over 60 percent of the population live in the increasingly neglected periphery—the suburbs, provincial cities and small towns, and rural areas.19 The new urban paradigm is what Michael Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York, famously labeled a “luxury city,” built around the preferences of his ultra-rich compadres.20 But within the dominant cities are clear divisions by class, education, and sometimes race. The wealthy live in safe, gentrified areas, while the poor and minority populations are mostly consigned to neglected peripheral neighborhoods. In a distinctly neo-feudal vision of the urban future, the city core naturally attracts the best and brightest, while those living in the suburban periphery or the smaller cities and towns are doomed to struggle.21 Urban Bifurcation Rather than a base for upward mobility, the great cities have largely become magnets for those who are already well-to-do.

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Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In 1993 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and a group of like-minded architects and planners came together to wage war against the rules and practices that had produced sprawl. They called their movement the Congress for the New Urbanism—the name a cheeky reference and reaction to the CIAM—Congrès Internationaux d’architecture moderne—the fraternity formed by Le Corbusier and other European modernists in 1928. The New Urbanists were determined to undo the modernists’ work. They wrote a manifesto calling for compact, mixed-use, mixed-income neighborhoods of walkable street networks, with transit and attractive public spaces, all framed by buildings that responded to the local culture and climate. The Congress for the New Urbanism has now grown into a powerful movement with thousands of members. Their ideas, which incorporate much of what Jane Jacobs and Christopher Alexander and Jan Gehl first proposed decades ago, have become accepted thinking among new generations of city planners.

This is the system that some have come to call sprawl. I will call it the dispersed city, for the characteristic that defines almost every aspect of it. While the world’s architectural critics and so-called thought leaders tend to focus their attention on iconic structures and rare designs, the journey to the happy city must begin out here, in the landscape of the infinitely repeated form, on the plains of dispersal. For every new urban plaza, starchitect-designed tower, or sleek new light-rail network, there are a hundred thousand cul-de-sacs out in the dispersed city. This is the environment that, more than any other, defines how Americans and millions of people in wealthy cities across the globe move, live, work, play, and perceive the world, and how millions more will live if cities return to the trajectory they were on before the crash.

The region came to exhibit a classic case of what transportation analysts call induced traffic, a phenomenon in which new highway lanes invariably clog up with hundreds of thousands of cars driven by new drivers on their way to new neighborhoods fed by new road capacity, a tendency that creates entirely new traffic jams faster than the time it takes to finish paying off a new car.* The average time it takes for new urban highway capacity to fill up with new demand? Five to six years. Now, although it has bloated to twelve lanes in many sections, Atlanta’s Perimeter still grinds to a standstill during peak hours.* The driver who once prayed for congestion-easing highway lanes and got them is still stuck in traffic. Through the windshield view of presentism, he may have forgotten the futility of his old wish for more road space, and now he might well demand that engineers build a few more lanes to solve the problem.

Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud

autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser,, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

But given the historical famines that plagued South and East Asia as recently as the twentieth century,20 it is quite understandable that a possible decrease in agricultural land raises concern. The Chinese government, alarmed by the fast pace of urban expansion, has set urban land development quotas that severely restrict the conversion of agricultural land into urban land. The National Plan on New Urbanization (2014–2020), published by the Government of China to guide urbanization until 2020, prescribes a minimum density of 100 people per hectare for every new urban settlement in order to preserve agricultural land. In addition, the use of costly conversion quotas is required for any urban expansion requiring the loss of cultivated land. Many observers of rapid urbanization in Asia are alarmed by the fact that cities’ land coverage expands at a faster pace than the urban population.

The main objective of this book is to improve operational urban planning, as practiced in municipal planning departments, by applying urban economists’ knowledge (and models) to the design and planning of regulations and infrastructure. Urban economists understand the functioning of markets, while planners are often baffled by them. Unfortunately, the very valuable knowledge that has accumulated in urban economics literature has not had much impact on operational urban planning. My aim is not to develop a new urban theory but to introduce already existing urban economics knowledge into urban planning practices. Urban Planning versus Urban Economics Urban planning is a craft learned through practice. Planners must make rapid decisions that have an immediate impact on the ground. The width of streets, the minimum size of land parcels, and the heights of buildings are usually based on planners’ decisions.

The monocentric model is a simple, primitive city model that inevitably evolves over time into a more complex form, more closely resembling the composite model. Once jobs have dispersed into a pattern similar to the dispersed model or composite model, it is unlikely that they will eventually concentrate again in a dense, central CBD. This path dependency16 rule, common to all evolving shapes, is a reality that should seriously limit the freedom of planners to dream up new urban forms. Planners should take into account the path dependency of city shapes when designing new transport systems, as we will see in chapter 5 on mobility. None of the three models discussed above are immutable. Future urban labor markets, for instance, might not require as many face-to-face interactions among employees, customers, and suppliers as they have in the past. New models of trip patterns might emerge in the future that reflect the new requirements of an evolving labor market.

pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

Neoliberal urban governance is the result of bundling these related security and development agendas into a coherent governance ideology and related set of practices in which so-called free markets provide guiding principles and reference points for ordering urban life. The situation in Cape Town mirrors that in other prominent cities in South Africa and beyond. In these cities, distinct interests have converged to produce a somewhat new urban reality in which pursuit of “world city” status establishes the basic constraints and possibilities for urban development.7 Cities in many countries have been cut loose from receding social welfare states—where one existed at all—and have been left to make their own way, so to speak, in the global economy as part of a neoliberal growth strategy pioneered in North America in the 1970s, marked by a sharpening of intercity competition for resources.

For those youth who do come into conflict with the law, either because they have committed a crime or because they are falsely arrested, the criminal justice system only exposes them to another round of trauma before they are released. The context in which so many children are brought into contact with the criminal justice system, or simply confronted with the force of urban security structures, is no longer racial apartheid, but a form of security governance that is rooted in a new urban politics, in which the transgressive presence of black youth remains central. In the next section we look at how neoliberal governance through urban revitalization of the city’s core contributes to this criminalization of black youth. Securing the Core: Street Children and Moral Panic in the Central Business District The city government of Cape Town has openly endorsed a market-driven approach to economic growth since at least the mid-1990s, over the objections of many urban residents and community organizations, and this commitment exercises a profound influence on urban governance.

We can therefore expect to see continual increases in public and private resources being channeled into forms of social control to fill the gaps left by ill-conceived renewal strategies and contain the poor within the peripheries of developed urban cores. By evoking the emotional issue of crime, a very real problem for Cape Town, an urban renewal agenda that serves a very narrow slice of the city’s population can introduce this new urban segregation under the guise of development. The response to street children in the CBD constitutes a moral panic that rearticulates race and class tensions in terms of threats to order and mobilizes resources (emotional, organizational, and financial) to confront these threats. That public and private security forces become central to the city’s response is far from surprising given that even under the best of circumstances, insufficient time has passed to overcome patterns that are more than a century old.

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

He could do this in part because of new building technologies (iron and glass construction, gas lighting and the like) and new forms of organisation (the omnibus companies and the department stores). But he also needed new financial institutions and debt instruments (the Crédit Mobilier and Immobilier). He helped resolve the capital surplus disposal problem in effect by setting up a Keynesian-style system of debt-financed infrastructural urban improvements. All of this entailed the co-evolution of a new urban way of life and a new kind of urban persona. Paris became ‘the city of light’, the great centre of consumption, tourism and pleasure. The cafés, the department stores (also brilliantly described in another Zola novel, The Ladies’ Paradise (1883)), the fashion industry, the grand expositions, the opera and the spectacle of court life all played their part in creating new profit opportunities through consumerism.

Shopping malls, multiplexes and box stores proliferate (the production of each has become big business), as do fast food and artisanal market places, boutique cultures, coffee shops, and the like. And it is not only in the advanced capitalist countries where this style of urbanisation can be found – you will find it in Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo and Mumbai as well as in almost every Asian city you can think of. Even the incoherent, bland and monotonous suburban tract development that continues to dominate in many parts of the world now gets its antidote through a ‘new urbanism’ movement that touts the sale of community (supposedly intimate and secure as well as often gated) and a supposedly ‘sustainable’ boutique lifestyle as a developer product to fulfil urban dreams. The impacts on political subjectivity have been huge. This is a world in which the neoliberal ethic of intense possessive individualism and financial opportunism has become the template for human personality socialisation.

The darker side of surplus absorption through urban transformation entails, however, repeated bouts of urban restructuring through ‘creative destruction’. This highlights the significance of crises as moments of urban restructuring. It has a class dimension since it is usually the poor, the underprivileged and those marginalised from political power that suffer primarily from this process. Violence is often required to make the new urban geography out of the wreckage of the old. Haussmann tore through the old Parisian slums, using powers of expropriation for supposedly public benefit, doing so in the name of civic improvement, environmental restoration and urban renovation. He deliberately engineered the removal of much of the working class and other unruly elements, along with insalubrious industries, from Paris’s city centre, where they constituted a threat to public order, public health and, of course, political power.

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Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

New York: Berg, 2003, 26. 76 Jean Servielle, ‘Cities and War’, Doctrine 3, 2004, 43–44. 77 Keith Dickson, ‘The War on Terror: Cities as the Strategic High Ground’, unpublished paper, 2002. 78 Defense Intelligence Reference Document (DIRC), The Urban Century: Developing World Urban Trends and Possible Factors Affecting Military Operations, MCIA-1586–003-9, Quantico, VA: United States Marine Corps, 1997, 11. 79 Kelly Houlgate, ‘Urban Warfare Transforms the Corps’, The Naval Institute: Proceedings, November 2004, available at 80 See Nathan Canestaro, ‘Homeland Defense: Another Nail in the Coffin for Posse Comitatus’, Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 12, 2003, 99–144. 81 See Phil Boyle, ‘Olympian Security Systems: Guarding the Games or Guarding Consumerism?’, Journal for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology 3: 2, 2005, 12–17. 82 Deborah Cowen, ‘National Soldiers and the War on Cities’, Theory and Event 10: 2, 2007, 1. 83 See, for example, Siobhan Gorman, ‘Satellite-Surveillance Program to Begin Despite Privacy Concerns’, Wall Street Journal, 1 October 2008. 84 Max Manwaring, Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency, Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2005 available at mil. 85 David Murakami Wood and Jonathan Coaffee, ‘Security Is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk, International Relations 20:4, 2006, 503. 86 Eyal Weizman, ‘Lethal theory’, LOG Magazine, April 2005, 53. 87 Jeremy Packer, ‘Becoming Bombs: Mobilizing Mobility in the War of Terror’, Cultural Studies 20: 4–5, 2006, 378. 88 The US Posse Comitas act, for example, which explicitly forbade the domestic deployment of US troops within the US mainland.

Maybe they cling to religion there.’54 Such a discourse camouflages the way in which the Republican Party has long been dominated by a cabal of billionaires, CEOs, and corporate and military lobbyists who have successfully shaped policy to subsidize their class interests while dramatically undermining services and subsidies for America’s working and lower-middle classes. VOICES OF THE CITY (JOURNAL) A flick through the pages of the United States’ leading ‘new urban right’ magazine the City Journal, published by the Manhattan Institute, intellectual architects of both George W. Bush’s neoconservatism and Giuliani’s right-wing ‘counter-revolution’ in 1990s New York, is telling.55 Celebrations of positive economic, cultural, political or social aspects of metropolitan mixing are absent here. Instead, there are streams of anti-urban invective highlighting the purported failures, threats, pathologies and vulnerabilities of the nation’s central metropolitan areas.

Eyal Weizman, for instance, has shown how certain Israeli generals have appropriated the radical, post-structuralist writings of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze to fashion new military doctrine for taking and controlling the labyrinthine spaces of Palestinian refugee camps.102 Here, writes Weizman, ‘contemporary urban warfare plays itself out within a constructed, real or imaginary architecture, and through the destruction, construction, reorganization, and subversion of space’.103 By breaking through the linked walls of entire towns and thus creating paths, the Israeli military seeks to ‘create operational “space as if it had no borders”, neutralizing the advantages accorded by urban terrain to opponents of occupation’.104 Many of the new urban-warfare techniques used by state militaries – which Goonewardena and Kipfer label ‘colonization without occupation – are imitations of techniques of urban resistance used against state militaries in earlier centuries. ‘This non-linear, poly-nucleated and anti-hierarchical strategy of combat in urban areas’, they point out, ‘in fact plagiarises the tactics of the defenders of the Paris Commune, Stalingrad and the Kasbahs of Algiers, Jenin and Nablus’.105 Techniques of urban militarism and urbicidal violence serve to discipline or displace dissent and resistance.

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Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution by David Harvey

Bretton Woods, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, David Graeber, deindustrialization, financial innovation, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, precariat, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, special economic zone, the built environment, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, urban planning, We are the 99%, William Langewiesche, Works Progress Administration

To do this, he needed new financial institutions and debt instruments constructed on Saint-Simonian lines (the Credit Mobilier and Immobiliere). What he did in effect was to help resolve the capital surplus disposal problem by setting up a Keynesian system of debt-financed infrastructural urban improvements. The system worked very well for some fifteen years, and it entailed not only a transformation of urban infrastructures but the construction of a whole new urban way of life and the construction of a new kind of urban persona. Paris became "the city of light;' the great center of con­ sumption, tourism and pleasure-the cafes, the department stores, the fashion industry, the grand expositions all changed the urban way of life in ways that could absorb vast surpluses through crass consumerism (which offended traditionalists and excluded workers alike). But then, in 1868, the overextended and increasingly speculative financial system and credit structures on which this was based crashed.

Th e postmodernist p enchant for encouraging the formation of market niches, both in urban lifestyle choices and in consumer habits, and c ultural forms, surrounds the contemporary urban experience with an aura of freedom of choice in the market, provided you have the money and can protect yourself from the privatization of wealth redistribution through burgeoning criminal activity a nd preda­ tory fraudulent practices (wh ich have everywhere escalated) . Shopping malls, multiplexes, and box stores proliferate (the production of each has become big business), as do fast-fo o d and artisanal market places, boutique cultures and, as Sharon Zukin slyly notes, "pacification by cap­ puccino." Even the incoherent, bland, and monotonous suburban tract development that continues to dominate in many areas, now gets its anti­ dote in a "new urbanism" movement that touts the sale of community and a boutique lifestyle as a developer product to fulfill urban dreams. This is a world in which the neoliberal ethic of intense p ossessive indi­ vidualism can become the template for human personality so cialization. Th e impact is increasing individualistic isolation, anxiety, and neurosis in the midst of one of the gre atest so cial achievements (at least judging by its enormous scale and all-embracing character) ever constructed in human history for the realization of our hearts' desire.

Surplus absorption through urban transformation has, however, an even darker aspect. It has entailed rep e ated bouts of urban restructuring through "creative destruction." Th is nearly always has a class dimension, since it is usually the poor, the underprivileged, and those m arginalized from political power that suffer first and foremost from this pro cess. Violence is required to achieve the new urban world on the wreckage of the old. H aussmann tore thro ugh the old Parisian impoverished quar­ ters, using powe rs of expropriation for supposedly public benefit, and did so in the name of civic improvement, environmental restoration , and urban renovation. He deliberately engineered the removal of much of the working class and other unruly elements, along with insalubrio us indus­ tries, from Paris's city center, where they constituted a threat to public order, public h ealth and, of co urse, political p ower.

pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

Birkdale was meant to serve as an antidote to the dislocation of the regular suburbs, and an application of a theory known as New Urbanism to the real world. The approach was first pioneered by the urbanist Jane Jacobs, a vocal critic of the land-use policies of the 1950s. Jacobs believed that the common practice of separating residences from businesses dislocated people from the real, vibrant spaces of more naturally developed towns and destroyed any opportunity for community. She often held up Manhattan’s Greenwich Village as an example of a thriving urban community. Its confusing streets exemplified the delightfully messy mixed use she so admired. Keeping stores and workshops adjacent to schools and homes allows for random interactions between people and keeps the sidewalks busy and safe late into the night. It’s hard to plan a town from scratch according to the principles of New Urbanism. Greenwich Village happened over a couple of centuries.

You can’t just open part of a town when that town is supposed to seem like a preexisting “destination,” whose charm and attraction is based on its vibrancy and cohesiveness. The whole place needed to be activated at the same moment—every store leased, and as many apartments as possible rented in advance. Only then could the ribbon be cut, and Birkdale set into motion. Dunning is the first to admit that he bent the rules of New Urban-ism to fit the realities of his development situation. “Strict New Urbanism is dogmatically sustainable and ecologically friendly development. But there are market forces, developer mind-sets, retail mind-sets, and economic realities that don’t always merge easily with what we’d really like to happen,” he says. While Dunning first conceived Birkdale as a real residential community with a few small shops, its financiers required a level of funding that only big anchor stores could provide.

Towns like Birkdale—and there are a few dozen now in full swing—refocus people on how they’re living instead of just where they’re getting, and create destinations off the highway where the most jaded automotive suburbanites can get a taste of what it’s like to walk around outside with other people. Isn’t reconnecting to a fake town better than not connecting at all? Although the New Urbanism aesthete will deride the people of Birkdale for responding to the cues embedded in its absolutely planned and artificial re-creation of small-town life, where does such orthodoxy get us? Is Birkdale just a cynical application of watered-down New Urbanism to make the Gap look and feel more like a local business? Or does it help transform the otherwise alienating landscape of the suburbs into a healthier, more potentially social setting? Perhaps it is the latter. But these master-planned faux villages would stand no chance at all of endearing themselves to people who weren’t already, and by design, disconnected and alienated from the places where they live.

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Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

Everyone in the forty-nine houseboats on the dock passed each other on foot daily, trundling to and from the parking lot on shore. Everyone knew each other’s faces and voices and cats. It was a community, Calthorpe decided, because it was walkable. Building on that insight, Calthorpe became one of the founders of New Urbanism, along with Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and others. In 1985 he introduced the concept of walkability in “Cities Redefined,” an article in the Whole Earth Review. Since then, New Urbanism has become the dominant force in city planning, promoting high density, mixed use, walkability, mass transit, eclectic design, and regionalism. It drew one of its major ideas from a squatter community. There are a lot more ideas where that one came from. For instance, shopping areas could be more like the lanes in squatter cities, with a dense interplay of retail and services—one-chair barbershops and three-seat bars interspersed with the clothes racks and fruit tables.

It’s a place where your caste doesn’t matter, where a woman can dine alone at a restaurant without harassment, and where you can marry the person of your choice. For the young person in an Indian village, the call of Mumbai isn’t just about money. It’s also about freedom. By 2004 I knew something important was up with the rampant urbanization of the developing world, but I couldn’t find much in the way of ground truth about it until the publication of Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World, by journalist Robert Neuwirth. His research strategy was to learn the relevant language and then live for months as a slum resident—in Rocinha (one of seven hundred favelas in Rio de Janeiro), in Kibera (a squatter city of 1 million outside Nairobi), in the Sanjay Gandhi Nagar neighborhood of Mumbai, and in Sultanbeyli, a now fully developed squatter city of 300,000 with a seven-story city hall, outside Istanbul.

Chances are you’ve come across Sausalito waterfront creativity in the writings of Annie Lamott, Alan Watts, Paul Hawken, or Green architect Sim Van Der Ryn; in the cartoons of Shel Silverstein or Phil Frank; in Otis Redding’s “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay”; in the Antenna Theater- produced Audio Tours that guide you around the world’s museums and historic sites; in the biological paintings of Isabella Kirkland; and in any town or city reshaped by what is called New Urbanism. That last item is my example. • In 1983, architect Peter Calthorpe gave up on San Francisco, where he had tried and failed to organize neighborhood communities, and moved to a houseboat on the end of South Forty Dock, where I live. He found he was in a place that had the densest housing in California, where no one locked their doors—where most of the doors didn’t even have locks. Without trying, it was an intense, proud community.

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When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

., New York, in 1996. The Library of Congress has cataloged the Knopf edition as follows: Wilson, William J., [date] When work disappears : the world of the new urban poor / William Julius Wilson.—first ed. p. cm. 1. Urban poor—United States. 2. Afro-Americans—Employment. 3. Inner cities—United States. 1. Title HV4045.W553 1996 362.′0973′091732—dc20 96–11803 eISBN: 978-0-307-79469-7 Random House Web address: v3.1 To Beverly CONTENTS Cover About the Author Other Books by This Author Title Page Copyright Dedication ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION PART I THE NEW URBAN POVERTY CHAPTER 1 From Institutional to Jobless Ghettos CHAPTER 2 Societal Changes and Vulnerable Neighborhoods CHAPTER 3 Ghetto-Related Behavior and the Structure of Opportunity CHAPTER 4 The Fading Inner-City Family CHAPTER 5 The Meaning and Significance of Race: Employers and Inner-City Workers PART 2 THE SOCIAL POLICY CHALLENGE CHAPTER 6 The American Belief System Concerning Poverty and Welfare CHAPTER 7 Racial Antagonisms and Race-Based Social Policy CHAPTER 8 A Broader Vision: Social Policy Options in Cross-National Perspective APPENDIXES A.

The third study is a 1989–90 survey of a representative sample of black mothers and up to two of their adolescent children (ages 11 to 16) in working- and middle-class neighborhoods and high-poverty neighborhoods. The respondents from the households in the high-poverty neighborhoods included 383 mothers and 614 youths. Those from the households in the working- and middle-class neighborhoods were represented by 163 mothers and 273 youths. I have integrated the data from these three studies with census-type information and relevant findings from the research of other scholars. PART I THE NEW URBAN POVERTY CHAPTER 1 From Institutional to Jobless Ghettos An elderly woman who has lived in one inner-city neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago for more than forty years reflected: I’ve been here since March 21, 1953. When I moved in, the neighborhood was intact. It was intact with homes, beautiful homes, mini mansions, with stores, laundromats, with cleaners, with Chinese [cleaners].

Of course, they had no way of anticipating the rapid social and economic deterioration of communities like Bronzeville that would begin in the next decade. The most fundamental difference between today’s inner-city neighborhoods and those studied by Drake and Cayton is the much higher levels of joblessness. Indeed, there is a new poverty in our nation’s metropolises that has consequences for a range of issues relating to the quality of life in urban areas, including race relations. By “the new urban poverty,” I mean poor, segregated neighborhoods in which a substantial majority of individual adults are either unemployed or have dropped out of the labor force altogether. For example, in 1990 only one in three adults ages 16 and over in the twelve Chicago community areas with ghetto poverty rates held a job in a typical week of the year. Each of these community areas, located on the South and West Sides of the city, is overwhelmingly black.

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The Nation City: Why Mayors Are Now Running the World by Rahm Emanuel

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, blockchain, carbon footprint, clean water, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Filter Bubble, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Lyft, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor

This facility is an anchor, like XS Tennis in Washington Park and Ellis Park in Bronzeville. The University of Chicago has built some student housing there, and we’ve built some mixed-income housing across the street. The population is up. Crime is down. Public and private investments have worked in concert and boosted each other. This is how you form the solid building blocks that create a neighborhood and a community. These three neighborhoods are examples of the “new urban policy,” as opposed to the standalone housing of yesterday. Let me take a moment to talk a little more about these neighborhoods. In our cities, they are as vital as the business centers, and should be treated as such. I knew that, during my tenure, I had to figure out a way to make the neighborhoods grow and prosper along with the great growth of our business centers. What I hit upon was something I called the Neighborhood Opportunity Fund, which generated revenues from downtown investments that would be kicked back to neighborhoods not served by banks, so they could invest in coffee shops, retail stores, and other cultural and commercial enterprises.

This public information has dramatically changed how developers now work, and helps the city achieve its equitable goals of inclusion. Trust me, no developer wants to go in front of the Planning Commission with zero minority participation in their projects. Every mayor in one way or another has faced the criticism of a tale of two cities. I don’t buy that dichotomy. Cities today are a tale of two investments: For years one part received investment; one part was disinvested in. The neighborhood opportunity fund, the new urban policy, a food desert strategy, and modernized mass transit are all part of a one city one future agenda. No great city has a hollowed-out core. On the other hand, no great city has decaying neighborhoods. Turning one part of a city against another assures the whole city loses. What Washington Park, Woodlawn, and Bronzeville all have in common is that coordinated investments in housing, transportation, schools, libraries, and recreational facilities have spurred investments in new grocery stores, coffee shops, restaurants, and community art centers—a sustainable economic model that moves beyond urban policy as merely housing policy.

It’s about the rise in the last few decades of urban waterfront parks on repurposed land, which Greenberg has described as “the melting of the industrial glacier.” Our urban waterways, and all the industry and commerce and transportation they supported, were the original drivers in the creation of our world’s great cities. We have now returned to those waterways, reimagining and reinventing them. They have formed a bridge from the industrial age to our present age and once again given our cities life and vitality. Our new urban waterfronts are the cornerstones of the revival and resurgence of the city. They help make our cities better places to live, work, and play. Mikkelsen transformed Copenhagen with the overhaul of the city’s former industrial waterfront. Hidalgo has given the Seine back to Parisians. Oslo has a 5.5-mile Harbour Promenade, which links the city to its fjord and is responsible for two brand-new neighborhoods as well as scores of new restaurants and shops.

Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

CONTENTS FOREWORD BY JOHN CHAMBERS MAP KEY SMART CITY PROJECTS, 2006-2017 CHAPTER 1 THE OPPORTUNITY AND NECESSITY OF THE SMART CITY CHAPTER 2 THE FLUID DEFINITION OF A SMART CITY— AND WHAT IT DOES CHAPTER 3 GENESIS: SAUDI ARABIA, 2005–2008 CHAPTER 4 SECOND CHANCE: SONGDO, KOREA, AND THE CITY LAB OF TOMORROW CHAPTER 5 ENTER THE DRAGON: CHINA’S CITIES OF THE FUTURE, TODAY CHAPTER 6 TRANSFORMING INDIA INTO A DIGITAL NATION, THE DEMOCRATIC WAY CHAPTER 7 THE INTERNET OF EVERYTHING TRANSFORMS BROWNFIELDS AND BEYOND CHAPTER 8 EGYPT, 2015: THE SMART CITY AS A PROMISING PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER 9 THEORIES ON SMART CITIES: SUSTAINABILITY IN A CROWDED WORLD CHAPTER 10 BEYOND SONGDO AND THE FUTURE OF THE CITY CONCLUSION INDEX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOREWORD FOR THE HUMAN RACE TO SUCCEED, our cities must succeed. The “urbanization” of our planet is well documented, as people are increasingly drawn from rural areas to cities seeking better opportunities and quality of life. By 2050, about two-thirds of the world’s population will live in or near urban centers.1 If we don’t get our cities right, we’re in big trouble. But there’s good news. Urban centers are incredible test beds for the Internet of Everything, the increasing connections between all of us, and digitization. Some of our most promising innovation is being fueled by cities working to create a better future for their citizens. We’re early in the journey, but there is a lot of progress being made. With the Internet of Everything, I believe the cities of the world have all the tools they need to become self-sustaining, more efficient, healthier, and safer for all their citizens.

It does not deliver services efficiently, nor does it utilize modern technology in ways that can both reduce operating costs and improve living standards. And yet, unchecked consumption is still a key principle for growth: more people, requiring more space, more goods, more services. The deck is stacked against cities that cannot adapt to the new global reality. Thanks to technological innovation, however, a new urban dynamism is in progress. Modern master plans for cities that recycle more, monitor usage better, and provide cleaner, more efficient living standards are on the drawing board—and some have been implemented. Brand-new cities, attuned to current needs, are taking shape, utilizing digital technology that revolutionizes how cities operate and provide for their citizens. Sensors, data, and machine intelligence are changing our perceptions of what a city does and how much energy it needs, giving rise to state-of-the-art urban centers known as “smart cities.”

Political and business leaders must contend with the pressure of attracting both investment and talent to new cities and often must fight to secure the funds necessary to implement the technological infrastructure. Business modeling must incorporate methods to adjust forecasts that may well prove too optimistic. This means the smart and connected city concept, however much it may signify the future, must be championed and defended. The architects must weigh a diverse and extensive set of variables when creating a new blueprint. Investors, residents, and administrators of these new urban landscapes will need to be convinced of the technology’s necessity through many business quarters to come. THE SMART AND CONNECTED CITY JOURNEY The first chapters of this book are chronological. They re-create the great promise and excitement generated when Saudi Arabia took its first bold steps toward building new economic cities out of the desert in 2006–2008. The Internet of Everything was in its conceptual infancy, and the idea of building cities from scratch was perhaps unduly brash.

Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)

big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Reilly, The Law of Retail Gravitation (New York: Knickerbocker, 1931); Michael D. Beyard and W. Paul O’Mara, Shopping Center Development Handbook, 3rd ed. (Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1999); Seth Harry, Seth Harry & Associates, interview, Mar. 29, 2005. 17. Harry interview; Congress for the New Urbanism, Council Report VI on Retail, published by The Town Paper and the Knight Program in Community Building, Feb. 2004; New Urban Post VIII: A Compilation of Online Discussions about the New Urbanism, published by the Knight Program in Community Building, Feb. 2004. 18. Harry interview; Council Report VI on Retail; New Urban Post VIII. 19. Harry interview; Richard Knitter, interview, Mar. 31, 2005; Robert Strauss, “Wal-Mart Zeros In on a South Jersey Township,” New York Times, Mar. 20, 2005. 20. “About one in three of the trips Americans take each day is related to shopping”: This ratio is derived by excluding return trips home, which are counted as separate trips in the data compiled by the U.S.

Only the top one or two grocery chains in each market will survive. . . . Expect major mall owners to step up their courting of discounters and big boxes. They need fallbacks if anchors go under. That could set oƒ a turbulent round of retailer musical chairs.”37 Colossal in both their physical and psychological impact, dead malls have attracted the most attention. A 2001 study by the Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers conservatively estimated that 140 malls are either dead or nearly so, and an additional 250 are vulnerable to collapse. This represents one in five malls. The researchers found that another 570 malls have annual sales of between $200 and $250 per square foot, enough to remain viable, at least for now, but far below the revenue of bigbox retailers like Wal-Mart and Home Depot, which generate about $400 per square foot.

The CLIC trade show—the acronym stands for Connecting and Linking Independents with Commercial Developments—also featured workshops for merchants on such topics as business planning, lease negotiations, and marketing.41 Neil Takemoto is working to catalyze similar confluences of investors, developers, city o‰cials, and local entrepreneurs in other cities. The director of CoolTown Studios and cofounder of the National Town Builders Association, a trade group of new urbanism developers, Takemoto points with frustration to the many heavily subsidized downtown redevelopment projects, such as Louisville’s Fourth Street Live and Kansas City’s Power & Light District, that are filled with chains. He believes the returns, both to cities and developers, would be greater if these projects featured unique, local businesses, because they would increase the value of nearby housing and attract “creative economy” enterprises.

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Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional

Report on international conference on CCTV, Sheffield University, where Professor Clive Norris presented research findings. 12. Koster, Olinka, ‘I Dropped a Morsel of My Daughter’s Sausage Roll and the Litter Police Fined Me £75’, Daily Mail, 25/4/08 13. Smith, Neil, ‘Which New Urbanism? New York City and the Revanchist 1990s’, in R. Beauregard & S. Body-Gendrot, eds, The Urban Moment: Cosmopolitan Essays on the Late-20th-Century City, Sage, 1999 14. Lambert, Bruce. ‘Ex-Outreach Workers Say They Assaulted Homeless’ 15. Smith, ‘Which New Urbanism?’ 16. Mitchell, Don & Staeheli, Lynn A., ‘Clean and Safe? Property Redevelopment, Public Space, and Homelessness in Downtown San Diego’, in Neil Smith & Setha Low, eds, The Politics of Public Space, Routledge, 17. Benjamin, Alison, ‘Cleaned Out’, Guardian, 24/9/08 18.

Knopf, 1977, republished Penguin Books, 2002 Shearing, Clifford & Johnston, Les, Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice, Routledge, 2003 Sinclair, Iain, London Orbital, Granta, 2002 Smith, Neil & Low, Setha, eds, The Politics of Public Space, Routledge, 2005 Smith, Neil, ‘Which New Urbanism? New York City and the Revanchist 1990s’, in R. Beauregard & S. Body-Gendrot, eds, The Urban Moment: Cosmopolitan Essays on the Late-20th Century City, Sage, 1999 Smith, Neil, The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, Routledge, 1996 Sorkin, Michael, ed., Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space, Hill & Wang, 1992 Steel, Carolyn, Hungry City, Chatto & Windus, 2008 Titmuss, Richard, Problems of Social Policy, HMSO, 1950 Wain, Neil, with Burney, Elizabeth, The ASBO: Wrong Turning, Dead End, Howard League for Penal Reform, 2007 Wilkinson, Richard, The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier, Routledge, 2005 Zukin, Sharon, The Cultures of Cities, Blackwell Publishing, 1995 REPORTS Ball, Kirstie & Wood, David Murakami, eds, ‘A Report on the Surveillance Society: For the Information Commissioner’, Surveillance Studies Network, 2006 Crawford, Adam & Lister, Stuart, The Use and Impact of Dispersal Orders: Sticking Plasters and Wake-Up Calls, University of Leeds, published for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Policy Press, 2007 Department for Communities and Local Government, Housing Market Renewal, National Audit Office, 2007 Department for Transport, Manual for Streets, 2007 Design Guide for Residential Areas, Essex County Council, 1973 Duffy, Bobby, Wake, Rhonda, Burrows, Tamara & Bremner, Pamela, Closing the Gaps: Crime and Public Perceptions, Ipsos MORI, 2007 Eades, Chris, Grimshaw, Roger, Silvestri, Arianna & Solomon, Enver, ‘Knife Crime’: A Review of Evidence and Policy, Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, second edition, 2008 Hills, John, Ends and Means: The Future Roles of Social Housing in England, Economic and Social Research Council, Research Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, CASE report 34, 2007 Holland, Caroline, Clark, Andrew, Katz, Jeanne & Peace, Sheila, Social Interactions in Urban Public Places, Open University, published for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Policy Press, 2007 Hough, Mike, Millie, Andrew, Jacobson, Jessica & McDonald, Eraina, Anti-Social Behaviour Strategies: Finding a Balance, Policy Press, 2005 Labour Party, A Quiet Life: Tough Action on Criminal Neighbours, 1995 LDDC Monograph, ‘Attracting Investment, Creating Value’, Establishing a Property Market, 1998 Minton, Anna & Jones, Sarah, Generation Squalor: Shelter’s National Investigation into the Housing Crisis, Shelter, 2005 Minton, Anna, Building Balanced Communities: The US and UK Compared, Royal Insitution of Chartered Surveyors, 2002 Minton, Anna, Mind the Gap: Tackling Social Polarization through Balanced Communities, Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, 2004 Minton, Anna, Northern Soul, Demos & Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, 2003 Minton, Anna, What Kind of World are We Building?

For a summary of American critics see also Daniel Brook, ‘The Cracks in Broken Windows’, Boston Globe, 19/2/06 38. Harcourt, Bernard E., ‘The Broken Windows Myth’, New York Times, 11/9/01 39. ‘Allegations against Police Rise’, BBC News Online, 25/9/08 40. Harcourt & Ludwig, ‘Broken Windows’ 41. Collins & Cattermole, Anti-Social Behaviour 42. Duffy, et al., Closing the Gaps 43. Harcourt, Illusion of Order 44. Smith, Neil, ‘Which New Urbanism? New York City and the Revanchist 1990s’, in R. Beauregard & S. Body-Gendrot, eds, The Urban Moment: Cosmopolitan Essays on the Late-20th Century City, Sage, 1999 45. Etzioni, A., ‘Common Values’, New Statesman and Society, 12/5/95. Cited in Sarah Hale, ‘Communitarian Influence? Amitai Etzioni and the Making of New Labour’, unpublished paper, 2005 46. Muncie, John, Youth & Crime, second edition, Sage, 2004 47.

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One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Miriam van Bree, a member of the Dutch Cyclists Union (Fietsersbond), underscores this point in an interview from 2005: “Everyone thinks the netherlands is a cycling paradise, but if we didn’t put bikes on the agenda they’d be forgotten. it’s natural to cycle, but it’s not natural to make policy.”53 The provo sought to reverse this trend in the midst of its progression by politicizing both the automobile and the entire ideological framework it felt they symbolized. Former situationist architect and amsterdam native Constant nieuwenhuys (known simply as Constant) greatly influenced the provo’s proto- situationist critique of urbanism; Henri lefebvre even referred to him as one of the primary instigators of the youth movement.54 in his essay “new Urbanism,” published in Provo (no. 9), Constant argues that the use of urban space as a conduit for automobiles destroys the possibilities for authentic, non-consumer spaces: Traffic’s wholesale invasion of social space has led, almost imperceptibly, to violation of the most fundamental human rights. The traffic code has degraded the individual who proceeds by the only natural means of locomotion to the rank of “pedestrian,” and has curtailed his freedom of movement to such an extent that it now amounts to less than that of a vehicle.

This is an implicit acknowledgement that high-speed traffic is king of the road.55 Constant’s position is significant not only because he challenged the automobile as a usurper of social/material space but also because he revived and recontextualized the situationist critique in the struggle for sustainable transportation. The potentially practical applications of Schimmelpenninck’s bicycle plan and Constant’s “new Urbanism” paradigm were nonetheless ruthlessly attacked by the situationists, who saw the provo as an ineffectual youth uprising lacking a revolutionary program: “There is a modern revolution, and one of its bases could be the provos—but only without their leaders and ideology. if they want to change the world, they must get rid of these who are content to paint it white.”56 Despite the situationists’ scathing criticism— which they conveniently reserved for everyone except themselves—the provo effectively politicized the bicycle as a symbol of resistance against car culture, situating the White Bicycle plan within a radical critique of capitalism, public space, and environmental pollution. at a pragmatic level, the provo simultaneously pioneered the first public-use bicycle program in amsterdam, a model since replicated in European cities like Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (italy), Helsinki (Finland), and rennes (France). in the United States, activists and bike enthusiasts similarly embraced the provo philosophy by constructing yellow bikes, pink bikes, checkered bikes, and green bikes out of salvaged materials, leaving them on the streets for anyone to use.57 While these programs have been largely unsuccessful due to bike theft and vandalism, their appearance in cities like portland, Minneapolis–St. paul (Minnesota), Boulder (Colorado), Olympia (Washington), austin (Texas), and princeton (new Jersey) inspired a new generation of cyclists and simultaneously introduced americans to the very idea of public bike-sharing programs that have the potential to become a vibrant part of the urban transportation schema in the United States.58 Ecotactiques and Anti-automobile Shows The provo demonstrated how bicycles could be symbolically and pragmatically incorporated into public protests as well as a sustained critique of car culture. in doing so, it pointed to the bicycle as a utopian mode of transportation, one ideally suited for a more egalitarian and ecologically sustainable society.

roelof Wittink, “planning for Cycling Supports road Safety,” in Sustainable Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Urban Environments, ed. rodney Tolley (Cambridge, UK: Woodhead, 2003), 175. Dara Colwell, “riding to the rescue,” Village Voice, august 29, 2005. Kristin ross and Henri lefebvre, “lefebvre on the Situationists: an interview,” October 79 (1997): 71. Constant nieuwenhuys, “nieuw Urbanisme,” translated as “new Urbanism,” in BAMN, 2–6 (originally published in Provokatie, no. 9 [1966]). Situationist international with students at the University of Strasbourg, “On the poverty of Student life,” in Situationist International Anthology, ed. Ken Knabb (Berkeley, Ca: Bureau of public Secrets, 1981), 328 (originally published in paris in 1966). Emphasis is my own. in the same essay, the Si lambasts the provo’s conceptualization of the provotariat as a “politico-artistic salad knocked up from the leftovers of a feast they had never known.”

The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf

agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

The other sacred precinct was dedicated to Inanna, the Mesopotamian prototype of Aphrodite and Venus, that terrifying goddess of love who never forgave Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. These temples were not just eye-catching; they were also at the centre of the economy.7 One alabaster vase, a metre in height, is decorated with a series of reliefs that seem to show animals and grain and perhaps beer being brought in tribute to the god. Rare traces of statuary survive too, showing that the Sumerians had begun to create monumental art. We know a little of what this new urban world looked like from the images carved into cylinder seals (see Figure 5). Carved in hard stones like carnelian, they are beautiful objects and survive in their hundreds. The seals were cylindrical so that they could be rolled across a clay surface to authenticate or authorize a document. The number of seals show the importance that writing—another new invention of the Uruk period—had in organizing society.

Inventions, Collapses, Reinventions The main reason to distrust a simple model of urban diffusion is that it explains too little. Three problems in particular spring to mind. First, many early urban traditions collapsed after just a few hundred years: How could this happen if urbanism was so obviously an advance? Second, many of the neighbours of the world’s first urban civilizations resisted their allure very successfully: urbanism was obviously not that contagious. Third, even when new urban cultures did emerge on the fringe of older ones (like Nubia beside Egypt, or the Maya close by Mexico), they often seem very unfaithful copies. I suggest that it does not make much sense to draw a sharp distinction between primary and secondary urban civilizations. We have been inventing urbanism over and over again for thousands of years, and almost every invention is in some sense a new original, and most are also unfaithful copies.

Meanwhile, cities appeared in the Sahel, south of the Sahara.19 One key area of urban growth in the last and first millennia was the Niger Valley, where a sequence of events not unlike those that had led to urbanism in the Nile Valley gave rise to Jenne-jeno, Timbuktu, and other centres.20 Another cluster of cities formed around the shores of the Indian Ocean as that area became connected by trade in the first centuries c.e. Great Zimbabwe was built between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries c.e., Angkor in Cambodia between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. The expansion of Europe over the last five centuries spread some urban models—all those plazas and cathedrals in the Americas, all those Victorian town halls in India, South Africa, and Australia—but local forms were never extinguished. New urban experiments and new variations on urban themes continue today. What does this complicated history of urbanism tell us about ourselves? That as a species we have an aptitude or even an inclination to build big urban nests? That in the special conditions of the current interglacial, the Holocene, when almost all of us live in societies sustained by farming, that aptitude has been expressed many times?

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Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser,, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Enabled by successions of mayors and governors and fueled by billions of federal dollars in Works Progress Administration and Interstate Highway funds, Moses amassed as many as twelve directorships and leadership positions over vital public works agencies, from the New York City Parkway Authority to the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority to the state parks. The federal government created massive public works programs to build new urban roads and housing to replace the “slum” infrastructure of the nineteenth century. Moses was first in line to provide these “urban renewal” projects. The almost incomprehensible list of projects that he moved from planning to implementation from 1918 to his departure from government in 1968 included seventeen parkways and fourteen expressways that ringed and connected the city, and aesthetic and engineering marvels like the Verrazano-Narrows, Bronx-Whitestone, and Triborough bridges.

Jacobs understood that the neighborhoods and the streets of a city contain the seeds for renewal, and it is local residents who will ultimately lead the way. But after decades of lifelessness and danger, it’s obvious that cities will not succeed in transforming themselves through market forces, consensus, or by waiting for infrastructure to crumble before taking action. Retrofitting our cities for the new urban age and achieving Jane Jacobs’s vision today will require Moses-like vision and action for building the next generation of city roads, ones that will accommodate pedestrians, bikes, and buses safely and not just single-occupancy vehicles with their diminishing returns for our streets. Cities must adopt a more inclusive and humane approach to reshaping the urban realm and rebuilding it quickly to human scale, driven by a robust community process, but committed to delivering projects and not paralyzing them.

., Indianapolis, San Francisco, and Portland, Oregon—more than fifty cities in total in nearly half of all fifty states. New York City’s forty miles of protected paths installed by 2014 led to dramatic decreases in traffic injuries by all street users, not just bike riders. In the absence of guidance, some cities have found new inspiration in Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach, produced in 2010 by the Congress for the New Urbanism and the Institute of Transportation Engineers. The guide was a huge step forward simply by including real-world examples of street design principles that cities have implemented and by representing people in the guide’s designs and their perspective of the street. And as more cities have experimented with innovative and bold street treatments, the heads of their transportation agencies have for the first time created their own playbook, incorporating designs that are now being perfected in cities across the continent.

Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Bender (eds), Urban Assemblages: How Actor-Network Theory Changes Urban Studies. New York: Routledge, pp. 27–52. Townsend, A. (2008) ‘Foreword’, in M. Foth (ed.), Handbook of Research on Urban Informatics: The Practice and Promise of the Real-Time City. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, pp. xxiii–xxvii. Townsend, A. (2015a) ‘Cities of data: Examining the new urban science’, Public Culture 27(2): 201–212. Townsend, A. (2015b) Making Sense of the New Urban Science. Rudin Center and Data & Society Research Institute, New York, available from: uploads/2015/04/Making-Sense-of-the-New-Science-of-Cities-FINAL-2015.7.7.pdf [accessed 24 November 2016]. Waal, M. de (2014) The City as Interface. Rotterdam: Nai010 Publishers. 3 Data about cities Redefining big, recasting small Michael Batty Introduction Prior to the industrial revolution, record-keeping was an intensive but modest affair with manual technologies constraining the growth of data.

Networking, knowledge and regional policies Edited by Nicola Bellini, Mike Danson and Henrik Halkier 58 Community-based Entrepreneurship and Rural Development Creating favourable conditions for small businesses in Central Europe Matthias Fink, Stephan Loidl and Richard Lang 57 Creative Industries and Innovation in Europe Concepts, measures and comparative case studies Edited by Luciana Lazzeretti 56 Innovation Governance in an Open Economy Shaping regional nodes in a globalized world Edited by Annika Rickne, Staffan Laestadius and Henry Etzkowitz 55 Complex Adaptive Innovation Systems Relatedness and transversality in the evolving region Philip Cooke 54 Creating Knowledge Locations in Cities Innovation and integration challenges Willem van Winden, Luis de Carvalho, Erwin van Tujil, Jeroen van Haaren and Leo van den Berg 53 Regional Development in Northern Europe Peripherality, marginality and border issues Edited by Mike Danson and Peter De Souza 52 Promoting Silicon Valleys in Latin America Luciano Ciravegna 51 Industrial Policy Beyond the Crisis Regional, national and international perspectives Edited by David Bailey, Helena Lenihan and Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod 50 Just Growth Inclusion and prosperity in America’s metropolitan regions Chris Benner and Manuel Pastor 49 Cultural Political Economy of Small Cities Edited by Anne Lorentzen and Bas van Heur 48 The Recession and Beyond Local and regional responses to the downturn Edited by David Bailey and Caroline Chapain 47 Beyond Territory Edited by Harald Bathelt, Maryann Feldman and Dieter F. Kogler 46 Leadership and Place Edited by Chris Collinge, John Gibney and Chris Mabey 45 Migration in the 21st Century Rights, outcomes, and policy Kim Korinek and Thomas Maloney 44 The Futures of the City Region Edited by Michael Neuman and Angela Hull 43 The Impacts of Automotive Plant Closures A tale of two cities Edited by Andrew Beer and Holli Evans 42 Manufacturing in the New Urban Economy Willem van Winden, Leo van den Berg, Luis de Carvalho and Erwin van Tuijl 41 Globalizing Regional Development in East Asia Production networks, clusters, and entrepreneurship Edited by Henry Wai-chung Yeung 40 China and Europe The implications of the rise of China as a global economic power for Europe Edited by Klaus Kunzmann, Willy A Schmid and Martina Koll-Schretzenmayr 39 Business Networks in Clusters and Industrial Districts The governance of the global value chain Edited by Fiorenza Belussi and Alessia Sammarra 38 Whither Regional Studies?

Kitchin Urban big data, city operating systems, urban informatics and urban science analytics provide the basis for a new logic of urban control and governance – data-driven urbanism – that enables real-time monitoring and steering of urban systems and the creation of what has widely been termed smart cities. The notion of a smart city can be traced back to experiments with urban cybernetics in the 1970s (Flood 2011; Townsend 2013), the development of new forms of city managerialism and urban entrepreneurship, including smart growth and new urbanism, in the 1980s and 1990s (Hollands 2008; Wolfram 2012; Söderström et al. 2014; Vanolo 2014), and the fusing of ICT and urban infrastructure and development of initial forms of networked urbanism from the late 1980s onwards (Graham and Marvin 2001; Kitchin and Dodge 2011). As presently understood, a smart city is one that strategically uses networked infrastructure and associated big data and data analytics to produce a: •• •• •• •• •• •• smart economy by fostering entrepreneurship, innovation, productivity, competitiveness, and producing new forms of economic development such as the app economy, sharing economy and open data economy; smart government by enabling new forms of e-government, new modes of operational governance, improved models and simulations to guide future development, evidence-informed decision-making, better service delivery, and making government more transparent, participatory and accountable; smart mobility by creating intelligent transport systems, efficient interoperable multi-modal public transport, smart parking and sharing services related to taxis and bikes; smart environments by promoting sustainability and resilience and the development of green energy; smart living by improving quality of life, increasing safety and security and reducing risk; smart people by creating a more informed citizenry and fostering creativity, inclusivity, empowerment and participation (Giffinger et al. 2007; Cohen 2012).

The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

A similar movement is happening in metropolitan areas across the United States, where creativity and innovation—two of the nation’s greatest resources—are most concentrated. The timing is no coincidence. As has happened many times throughout American history, many of the greatest innovations have come at times of great challenge, and this moment, on the heels of a string of economic troubles, is no exception. The financial crisis and the Great Recession proved that we could no longer apply old solutions to new urban problems, nor could cities exclusively rely on the action of the federal government. Rather, local governments and civil society as well as business leaders and urban planners have come together to chart their own course to spark job creation and catalyze long-term economic growth. 00-2151-2 fm.indd 8 5/21/13 10:10 AM FOREWORD ix In The Metropolitan Revolution, Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley describe, in good detail, many examples of how this economic, social, and political transformation is playing out across the United States.

More specifically, as these populations in Latin America, Asia, and elsewhere become more urbanized, their demand for U.S.-made goods rises. By 2025, McKinsey & Company estimates, 1 billion more people will have entered the global “consuming class,” meaning that they will have enough income to be consumers of global goods. The bulk of these consumers will live in cities outside of the United States and Europe. McKinsey estimates that of these 1 billion new urban consumers, 600 million will live in 440 cities in emerging markets, markets that will be responsible for half of global GDP growth between 2010 and 2025.45 That growth will contribute to an already large market for goods that exists outside the United States; according to the U.S. International Trade Administration, 70 percent of the world’s purchasing power is located outside the United States.46 Places that innovate will be able to take advantage of rising global demand for new kinds of products and services.

Transit corridors are the physical tissue that knits disparate parts of a city together. They have the potential, with smart land use and catalytic policies, to be multidimensional in purpose, expanding transportation choices and mobility, to be sure, but also galvanizing new destinations along their routes, including new residential areas, retail clusters, and economic districts. Across the United States, fledgling innovation districts are beginning to take hold in this new urban geography of innovation. In Houston, a new light-rail system connects the strong central business district (with its phalanx of energy company headquarters) with the Museum District, the Houston Medical Campus, and the University of Houston. In Cleveland, the new Euclid Corridor Bus Rapid Transit system connects the traditional downtown with University Circle (with Case Western, Cleveland Clinic, and key cultural institutions).

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Cities: The First 6,000 Years by Monica L. Smith

clean water, diversified portfolio, failed state, financial innovation, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, South China Sea, telemarketer, the built environment, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

When you go to a new city, there’s a rapid learning curve, but it’s a curve that you quickly master, and it doesn’t take long for you to begin to fit in. How many times have you been in a new city, and on the first day someone asks you for directions? Within a short time, you have already become more expert than someone else in a way that you could never be in a small town or a dispersed village where people can be hard to find and perhaps a bit reluctant to give information to a stranger. In being able to carry on in your new urban surroundings, you’re just the same as the leader of a long-ago merchant caravan entering Byzantine Constantinople or the shepherd bringing a flock into market in ancient Babylon. Like them, when you enter the city, you first seek out something familiar: the marketplace, a crossroads, an eatery. While you are there, you are able to look around you, to get a sense of your surroundings, to see what others are doing and how they are dressed, to ascertain where they are coming from and where you are going next.

And once they made their sense of place permanent, the people who lived at Brak in some respects locked themselves into new social and economic patterns, becoming much busier than they had ever been in the countryside. Their activities included not only new forms of entrepreneurship and new strategies of living close to strangers in neighborhoods but also staggering new projects of religious architecture right in the city. Among the most startling of the new urban religious edifices was the Eye Temple, which Mallowan started excavating in 1937. It’s named the Eye Temple because of all the . . . eyes. Digging deep in the temple’s long-buried rubble, Mallowan uncovered thousands of little carved figurines staring up at him from the dirt, with oversized, eerie eyes on an otherwise abstract geometric body. Some of the figurines were of a single being, while others were in pairs or groups.

The idea of having to take responsibility for the built environment, rather than just carrying on in the same idiosyncratic way as villagers, or trusting that a place of habitation would just clean itself once the crowds were gone, was probably an unexpected surprise for those initial urban dwellers. After all, they were already busy doing more work in cities than they ever had in the countryside as they engaged in new entrepreneurial activities of manufacturing, navigated new urban spaces of intensive architecture, and made contacts in dispersed spaces of work, residence, and leisure. From Rome and Xi’an to Tikal and Cuzco, ancient people actively shaped their growing urban environments through the building of structures and the creation of public spaces like plazas and ports. But some of their most significant acts of urban construction were done in the form of infrastructure—a term that literally means “below the structures.”

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Big Capital: Who Is London For? by Anna Minton

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, land value tax, market design, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, quantitative easing, rent control, Right to Buy, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban renewal, working poor

It is based on widespread democratic participation and the reinvigoration of a culture of local politics that includes rather than excludes local people and communities.fn1 In the US, Right to the City is also the name of an influential campaign movement which emerged in 2007 as a response to gentrification, aiming to halt the displacement from communities of people on lower incomes. Now a global movement, the concept was included for the first time in the UN’s New Urban Agenda, agreed in Quito, Ecuador, in 2016, which enshrined the ‘right to the city’ vision in the legislation, political declarations and charters of national and local governments. As such it represented a very significant victory for civil society groups battling against gentrification, repossessions, the privatization of public space and the criminalization of homelessness.fn2 Today, the right to the city is an intellectual idea, campaign slogan, political ideal and legislative mechanism which can help to answer the question posed by this book: who is the city for?

While this is welcome, given the scale of the crisis it feels more like rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic than providing real alternatives, a reality perhaps reflected by the comments from the mayor’s housing adviser, James Murray, that ‘this is a marathon, not a sprint’.5 Only a paradigm shift in British housing policy will be able to address the housing crisis and the failure to provide homes Londoners can afford, which is such an important part of Right to the City’s agenda. The planning system is not equipped to deal with the severity of the situation, with Section 106 failing to build anything like the number of affordable homes needed since it was introduced more than twenty-five years ago. The inclusion of the right to the city as part of the UN’s New Urban Agenda is important to the UK as the housing crisis is now so serious that new legislative solutions and levers are needed. We must re-examine the operation of property and land markets and their interaction with taxation and the planning system and the marketization of the benefits system. Devolution of powers at local authority and city and regional level should also have a far greater role to play than they do at present.

Watt and Minton, ‘London’s housing crisis and its activisms’ 35. Perraudin, Frances, ‘Government criticised for holding housing bill debate lasting until 2 am’, Guardian, 6 January 2016 36. Topple, Steve, ‘The Housing and Planning Bill reveals how little Tory MPs think of the public’, Independent, 13 January 2016 3. DEMOLITIONS 1. Lees, Loretta, ‘The urban injustices of New Labour’s “new urban renewal”: the case of the Aylesbury Estate in London’, Antipode, 2013 2. ‘Faulty Towers: Understanding the Impact of Overseas Corruption on the London Property Market’, Transparency International UK, March 2017 3. ‘Knock It Down or Do It Up? The Challenge of Estate Regeneration’, London Assembly Housing Committee, February 2015. The report showed that between 2005 and 2015 around fifty estates with over 30,000 homes were subject to estate regeneration schemes which almost doubled the number of homes and increased the number of private homes tenfold but simultaneously entailed a net loss of 8,000 social rented homes. 4.

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Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city

Recognizing that mixed-use development was key in attracting people to move into higher-density areas, the developer invested strategically in ground-floor spaces for non-residential uses. Buildings with active frontages were deliberately placed along a busy route with heavy motorized traffic. The developer coached new businesses in the development, cultivating professionalism and helping with interior decoration and marketing. The new urban blocks of Nya Hovås display classic layering, with business premises on the ground floor, facing the busy main street, and apartments on the floors above. Special apartments on the top floor make for a distinctive and varied roofscape, which adds character to the new neighborhood and makes a local landmark for passing traffic. A Layered Building Accommodating Multiple Functions: Spektrumhuset, Nya Hovås, Gothenburg, Sweden The Spektrum Building, the centerpiece of the Nya Hovås urban neighborhood, covers a full block and has active frontages on all four sides.

Although some of the inspiration may have come from Barcelona, throughout the inner suburbs of Melbourne a new architecture is appearing, an urban vernacular, totally unique and belonging to its place. This kind of development model is relevant for many other parts of the world, demonstrating that high density is possible without high rise, and that increased density can offer better quality of life for more people. Melbourne’s new urban vernacular architecture The “Linear Barcelona” Model Existing situation with low-density streets served by quality public transport. In the short to medium terms, streets can be upgraded with trees, bike lanes, and furniture, and the first new buildings can be constructed alongside the old. New uses can be found for the existing buildings. In the medium to long terms, the building stock can be replaced, densified, and diversified at a pace where local businesses and residents can be part of the journey.

These two spaces complement each other, and their inherent differences create options for residents who can choose where they want to spend time and when. 02.-04. A significant behavior is residents leaving their doors open and their personal effects spilling out onto the street, demonstrating a culture of spending more time outdoors, as well as a level of trust we would associate with an old, rural village and not a relatively new, urban development. A Green Neighborhood At Bo01, the plan included a so-called green-space factor, which address the benefits of elements supporting biodiversity. In the same way as every plot had a different building architect, each also had a different landscape architect, ensuring a variety of solutions. The developers and their designers used a point-based system for each site, which allowed for a diverse range of solutions to interpret the green needs of the areas around their buildings.

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Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Like the earlier European experience of industrialisation, dispossessed rural workers have migrated to urban areas to find jobs. And in Europe, too, this process sometimes led to slum-dwelling and destitution for the new urban proletariat.98 But this is where the similarities end, as in Europe the transition involved creating sufficient numbers of jobs, the emergence of a strong industrial working class, and the eventual provision of housing for migrants.99 Under conditions of postcolonial development, this narrative has been broken. Rather than a scarcity of labour, recent industrialisation has occurred in the context of a large and global labour force.100 The result has been little development of anything resembling a traditional working class, continually weak job prospects and a lack of adequate housing.101 New urban migrants have been left in a permanent state of transition between peasantry and proletarianisation, and sometimes in seasonal circulation between rural existence and urban poverty.102 Slums and other improvised housing therefore represent a dual expulsion from the land and from the formal economy.103 This surplus humanity, having been deprived of its traditional means of subsistence yet left without employment, has been forced to create its own non-capitalist subsistence economies.

Baptist, Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York: Basic Books, 2014); Silvia Federici, ‘Wages Against Housework’, in Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle (Oakland, CA: PM Press, 2012). 32.In terms of global unemployment, women have faced the brunt of the crisis in recent years. ILO, World Employment and Social Outlook: The Changing Nature of Jobs (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2015), p. 18. 33.For example, black males in the United States were particularly affected by the automation and outsourcing of manufacturing. William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), pp. 29–31. 34.Michael McIntyre, ‘Race, Surplus Population, and the Marxist Theory of Imperialism’, Antipode 43:5 (2011), p. 1500–2. 35.These draw broadly upon the divisions Marx drew between the floating/reserve army, latent and stagnant, but are here offered as an updating of his historical example. 36.Gary Fields, Working Hard, Working Poor: A Global Journey (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 46. 37.This is what Kalyan Sanyal describes as ‘need economies’.

, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2014. 86.Loïc Wacquant, ‘The Rise of Advanced Marginality: Notes on Its Nature and Implications’, Acta Sociologica 39: 2 (1996), p. 125; Richard Florida, Zara Matheson, Patrick Adler and Taylor Brydges, The Divided City and the Shape of the New Metropolis, Martin Prosperity Institute, 2014, at 87.William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), p. 15. 88.Loïc Wacquant, ‘Class, Race and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America’, Socialism and Democracy 28: 3 (2014), p. 46. 89.Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 191. 90.Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (New York: New Press, 2012), p. 218. 91.The number of black males working in manufacturing was nearly cut in half between 1973 and 1987.

World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

And cities that grow too fast or whose growth is too ungoverned often can develop in inefficient and unsustainable ways. In many parts of the world, governance at the city level is showing it can innovate much more quickly than national governments, and these innovations are being shared and adapted by agile networks of global cities. But the message of this book is that global cities and nation states share a mutual interest in inventing solutions to the problems of our new urban century, and giving cities the tools to implement them at scale. Nation states therefore still have a pivotal role to play. There are a number of areas – national defense, international trade and the social safety net – where national governments must continue to set the rules and provide a stable environment. They also remain the most important source of long‐term and large‐scale investments in basic research, setting the platform for an innovative economy.

The new bill to be enacted by the states (Maharashtra included) is, however, contentious as it makes middle class tenants vulnerable to price increases, while the strengths of safeguards for poorer families are unclear (Nair, 2015; Phadke, 2015a, 2015b; Bonislawski, 2016; Lewis, 2016; The Indian Express, 2016). The success of central government’s interventions in India’s urban areas will have global repercussions. India’s urban population growth will account for a fifth of the global total up to 2030. How its cities handle this growth will affect international human development indicators and shape perceptions of urbanisa­ tion’s benefits and potential. It is therefore crucial that India’s new urban agenda is coherently articulated by a wider national policy that features mechanisms for implementation by the states (Nair, 2015; Bonislawski, 2016). Ongoing challenges where Mumbai needs help from national government Mumbai’s most urgent or difficult challenges are not immediately solvable at the national level alone. The city requires a more empowered metropolitan gov­ ernance structure, where agency responsibilities are more clearly differentiated, long‐term plans made binding and an enhanced leadership model introduced.

If this approach is pursued, the State will need to act judiciously to avoid mistakes that famously Moscow 169 took place in the 1995 loan‐for‐shares scandal (Buckley, 2016; Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, 2016a, 2016b). The national system of cities: Moscow and Russia Russia reached a high threshold of urbanisation at the end of the Soviet era, at 73%, and this figure has stayed roughly the same for the following 25 years. Although new urban settlements have been established, a low birth rate has also prevented the share of urban residents from rising much further. The most visible development in the system of cities in the post‐Communist era is the way Moscow has come to play an even more dominant role in the Russian system, at a cost of considerable financial distortions and disparities in less‐developed regions. After 1991, the Kremlin gave regional leaders (for example, mayors in federal cities and governors of regions) powers to run their own regions as part of bilateral power‐sharing agreements.

The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.

affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Cleveland (viciously dubbed “the Mistake by the Lake” by urban detractors) put its hopes on waterfront attractions like nightclubs and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Even bleak Camden, New Jersey, has lured tourists to its postindustrial waterfront by building a state-of-the-art aquarium and children’s park. Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, and Washington, D.C.—among others—provided lavish subsidies for new urban stadiums and sports arenas. Even if, in nearly every case, their costs outweighed their benefits, stadium builders and many fans celebrated the intimacy, postmodern style, and symbolism of their new coliseums.15 Skeptics of showy downtown redevelopment schemes have promoted community-based economic development as an alternative. Beginning in the 1970s, as the federal government began its long, steady withdrawal from urban spending, small-scale community groups were left with the task of rebuilding their neighborhoods, scrambling for dwindling community economic development block grants, foundation dollars, and charitable contributions.

.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 57. For a comparison of levels of segregation in Detroit and other major American cities in 1940, 1950, and 1960, see Karl E. Taeuber and Alma F. Taeuber, Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965), 39–41. On economic restructuring and job loss, see John D. Kasarda, “Urban Change and Minority Opportunities,” in The New Urban Reality, ed. Paul E. Peterson (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1985), 43–47, esp. Tables 1 and 2. According to Kasarda, the most marked difference between Detroit’s labor market and that of other major cities was the decline in employment in Detroit’s service sector, mainly after 1967 (45). In 1970, 1980, and 1987–88, the percentage of blacks in metropolitan Detroit living below the poverty line has remained lower than in Chicago and Cleveland.

William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); Kasarda, “Urban Change and Minority Opportunities,” and “Urban Industrial Transition and the Underclass,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 501 (1989): 26–47, and other articles by Kasarda. For authors who emphasize race, see Massey and Denton, American Apartheid; Gary Orfield, “Ghettoization and Its Alternatives,” in Peterson, The New Urban Reality, 161–96, and “Separate Societies: Have the Kerner Warnings Come True?” in Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States, ed. Fred R. Harris and Roger Wilkins (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988); Susan Fainstein and Norman Fainstein, “The Underclass/Mismatch Hypothesis as an Explanation for Black Economic Deprivation,” Politics and Society 15 (1986–87): 403–51. 6. Thomas Byrne Edsall and Mary D.

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Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Their hyperfunctional connectivity over a plane vertically separated above or below the traditional street, she argues, works to ‘create an extreme form of stratification in a context better suited for mixture, the integration of people from all different races and classes.’21 Poor urban minorities, Terranova writes, have often been relegated to residualised and exteriorised street levels ‘where retail has tended to languish and reserving the walkway system for white-collar workers.’ Conversely, the world within the interior complexes is, at best, private/public space organised overwhelmingly around the imperatives of consumption. The move from outside to inside is a passage between worlds. ‘Step from the wind and cold on the street outside into the new urban realm’, invites architecture critic Trevor Boddy. ‘As the glass doors firmly close, the mental realm changes. We are inside, contained, separate, part of the system, a consumer, a pursuer, a cruiser.’22 There is certainly strong evidence that interior cities in North America often ‘accommod[ate] those activities (and people) that can be commercially exploited, expelling the rest.’23 In many cities, the raised up (or subterranean) system has become the dominant means for pedestrians to move around the downtown area.

It is also particularly thick beneath old industrial cities which have experienced many cycles of construction and destruction. The cycle here is as old as urbanisation itself, although the scale of the processes involved has multiplied massively in the last two centuries. Fire, disaster, war, replanning, obsolescence, ruination or simply the desire for improvement leads to the demolition or destruction of buildings or infrastructure, or simply to their absorption into a higher level of ground, aided by gravity. New urban soils are gradually created from ‘trash, construction debris, coal ash, dredged sediments, petrochemical contamination, green lawns, decomposing bodies, and rock ballast.’6 Such accretions, in turn, are flattened to create a new, raised, surface level, which then becomes the building surface and the new ‘ground’ level. Over centuries, large cities thus literally rise up on ground of their own making.

By this date, a body of material weighing 200 times as much as the Empire State Building – that’s 9 kg for very person on Earth – will be dumped on the fringes of coastal cities, largely in China, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa, to be dismantled and processed by hand, by armies of poor labourers, often in appalling conditions. Once the valuable metals and parts are removed the rest will sediment itself into new urban ground.19 The ‘Archaeosphere’ The science of geology has evolved to study the stratigraphic accumulation of rocks and materials through ‘natural’ processes. Archaeology, by contrast, developed to understand the evolution of human societies through their preserved material legacies in the ground. Is manufactured ground the preserve, then, of the geologist or the archaeologist? Well, both: the proliferation of artificial ground is drawing the two disciplines into unprecedented collaboration.

Once the American Dream: Inner-Ring Suburbs of the Metropolitan United States by Bernadette Hanlon

big-box store, correlation coefficient, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, feminist movement, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Chicago School, transit-oriented development, urban sprawl, white flight, working-age population, zero-sum game

A recent report by William Frey, Jill Wilson, Alan Berube, and Audrey Singer (2004) determines that it is difficult to compare census data based on the older definitions to census data based on the newer definitions. Therefore, to ensure a change-over-time analysis, it is necessary to pick between these older and newer definitions. I choose the older definitions. 4 For information on more recent census definitions, see U.S. Office of Budget and Management 2003. References Abbott, Carl. 1987. The new urban America: Growth and politics in Sunbelt cities. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ———. 1997. The Portland region: Where city and suburbs talk to each other and agree often. Housing Policy Debate 8 (1): 11–51. Adams, James Truslow. 1931. The Epic of America. Boston: Little Brown. Alves, Teresa. 2001. Some enchanted evening—Tuning in the amazing fifties, switching off the elusive decade.

Report No. 2 in The neighborhood change and urban America series. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Kline, Paul. 1994. An easy guide to factor analysis. London: Routledge. Klots, Sarah. 2005. Personal communication. May 15, Baltimore, Maryland. Knox, Paul. 2005. Vulgaria: The reenchantment of suburbia. Opolis 1 (2): 33–46. ———. 2008. Metroburbia USA. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Kotkin, Joel. 2001. Older suburbs: Crabgrass slums or new urban frontier? Policy Study 285. Los Angeles: Reason Public Policy Institute. Kramer, John. 1972. North American suburbs: Politics, diversity, and change. Berkeley: Glendessary Press. Krone, Emily. 2008. Poverty in the suburbs. [Chicago] Daily Herald, April 16. Available at Accessed April 24, 2008. Kruse, Kevin M., and Thomas J. Sugrue, eds. 2006. The new suburban history.

Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. 196 / References Singleton, Gregory H. 1973. The genesis of suburbia: A complex of historical trends. In The urbanization of the suburbs. Ed. Louis H. Masotti and Jeffrey K. Hadden, 29–50. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Smart Growth America. 2003. Introduction to smart growth. Washington, DC: Smart Growth America. Available at html. Accessed February 25, 2009. Smith, Neil. 1996. The new urban frontier: Gentrification and the revanchist city. London: Routledge. Smith, Neil, Patrick Caris, and Elvin Wyly. 2001. The “Camden syndrome” and the menace of suburban decline: Residential disinvestment and its discontents in Camden County, New Jersey. Urban Affairs Review 36 (4): 497–531. Squires, Gregory D. 2002. Urban sprawl: Causes, consequences, and policy responses. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

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Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump,, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

If we’re going to have broad American prosperity, if we are to experience the comfort and stability of being truly strong and successful, Americans must again embrace a chaotic but smart approach to evolving our cities. To harmonize competing interests in a successful human habitat, our response to these stresses needs to emerge from within, not be imposed from the outside. Notes 1 2 James Howard Kunstler, The Long Emergency (New York: Grove/Atlantic, 2005). 3 Steve Mouzon, The Original Green: Unlocking the Mystery of True Sustainability (New Urban Guild Foundation, 2010). 4 5 Alan Ehrenhalt, The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (New York: Vintage Books, 2012). 6 poverty/. 7 Nassim Nicholas Taleb, The Black Swan (New York: Random House, 2007). 8 Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Antifragile (New York: Random House, 2012). 9 7 Productive Places A few blocks from my home there is a restaurant with several historic photos hanging on the wall.

I was introduced on-air as the “Republican” of the conversation. Over time, particularly as my work with Strong Towns progressed and I found myself interacting with lots of people outside of my moral matrix, I eventually stopped clinging to culturally defined political labels and allowed my own beliefs to wander. In 2015, I was invited to speak on a panel titled “Bipartisan Placemaking: Reaching Conservatives” at the Congress for the New Urbanism in Dallas. I thought about my remarks and came up with this formulation that fits most closely with my view of the world: At the national level, I tend to be libertarian. Let’s do a few things and do them very competently. At the state level, I tend to be a Minnesota version of conservative Republican. Let’s devolve power, use markets and feedback where it drives good outcomes, and let’s do limited state interventions when we have a broad consensus that things would be better by doing so.

., 121–122 Chicken problem, 195 Cities, 37–62 abandonment of, 109–110 accounting for infrastructure by, 70–71 budgeting and growth in, 50–57 contracting of, 154 Detroit, Michigan, 60–62 development of Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 economic stability of modern, 104–106 engineer's view of, 11 experimental development pattern in, 126–127 filling gaps in, 160–163 and illusion of wealth, 57–60 incremental growth in founding of, 15–20 as infinite game, 38–41 and infrastructure, 44–50 maintenance required for infrastructure in, 115 modern development of, 12 revenues and expenses, 41–44 traditional vs. modern development of, 1–3 Cities and the Wealth of a Nation (Jacobs), 101–102 City Council of Santa Ana, ix, x City engineer, 177t City halls, 43–44 City planner, 177t Class: and neighborhoods, 21–22 and re-urbanization, 116 Clinton, Bill, 209 Clinton, Hillary, 63 Cognitive Architecture (Sussman and Hollander), 8 Cognitive discounting, 65 Collaboration, between government officials and citizens, 195–197 Commers, Jon, 45 Common infrastructure, 130 Community living, 199–218 differing opinions in, 206–212 and extended family, 200–201 as infinite game, 39–40 meaning in, 212–218 in neighborhoods, 202–203 in Pompeii, Italy, 6–7 walking in, 203–206 Complex, adaptive systems: human habitats as, 3–4 and incremental growth, 168 incremental growth of, 15–16, 18–19 rational decision making with, 120–123 Complex buildings, 20–23 Complicated buildings, 20–23 Complicated systems, 11–14 Confirmation bias, 69, 74, 183–186 Conflicts, dealing with, 206–212 Congress for the New Urbanism, 210 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 78–80 Constraints: and economic stability, 93–96 and gold standard, 90 growth as, 100 prudent, for investments, 164–168 removal of, in modern world, 59–60, 96 Construction costs, 136–137 Consumption, 215–216 Costa Rica, 126–127 The Crash Course (Martenson), 108 Critical systems, 182–183 Cross-generational civic collaboration, 187 D Dallas, Texas, 159 Darwin, Charles, 8 The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Jacobs), 8 Debt: and cash flow, 98 for federal government, 186 for government, 96–100 for local government, 113–114 for place-oriented government, 186–192 for projects with quality-of-life benefits, 187 for state government, 113–114 Debt to income ratio, 97 Decision making: rational, see Rational decision making subsidiarity in, 195–198 Default, on municipal debt, 191 Deneen, Patrick, 211 Density, as urban planning metric, 128–129 Depression economics, 86–89 Detroit, Michigan, 60–62 land values in, 24 renewal of urban, 117–119 Development projects: cash flow over life cycle of, 52–57, 53f, 55f, 56f decisions about failing, 115–120 Diamond, Jared, 58, 59, 84 Dig Deep, 211 Donjek, 45 Downtown, productivity of, 134–140, 139t, 143–144 Duany, Andres, 195 Duggan, Mike, 119 Duncanville, Texas, 160 E Economic development department, 178t Economics: and benefits of infrastructure spending, 72–73 in depressions, 86–89 Economic stability, 83–106 and auto-oriented development, 29–30 and constraints, 93–96 creating, 85–86 and depression economics, 86–89 and focus on growth, 100–102 following World War II, 89–91 and government debt, 96–100 growth vs. wealth, 102–104 of modern cities, 104–106 and post-war boom, 91–93 risk management strategies for, 83–85 Edges, 7–8 Edges of city: center vs., 28 city infrastructure necessary for, 115 productivity of, 134–138, 143–144 Efficiency, designing for, 174–176 Ehrenhalt, Alan, 116 Empire State Building (New York, New York), 129 Employment, in productive places, 133 England, 83 Expenses, and revenues, 41–44 Extended family, 200–201 F Failure, slow, 110–115 Failure to Act (ASCE report), 65–67 Family, extended, 200–201 Fannie Mae, 92 Farmers, risk management strategies of, 83–84 Federal Funds Rate, 97 Federal government: debt for, 186 impact of infrastructure on, 79 Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 89, 92 Federal Reserve, 99 Feedback, in local governments, 173–174 Ferguson, Missouri, 93, 114 FHA (Federal Housing Administration), 89 Financial status, local government's understanding of, 190–191 Finished states, neighborhoods built to, 21–23 “First ring” suburbs, 94 Form-based codes, 193–194 Fragile systems, 4 Franchises, productivity of, 133–134 Freddie Mac, 92 Future, predicting needs for, 19–20, 120–121 G Gaps, in cities, 160–163 Garcia, Anthony, 158 Gas tax, 75 Gawron, Stephen, 161 Gehl, Jan, 8 “General Theory of Walkability,” 206 Gentrification, of urban neighborhoods, 117 Goals, of individuals vs. communities, 40–41 Goland, Carol, 84 Gold reserves, 94 Gold standard, as basis for trade, 90 Government debt, 96–100 Government policies, prioritizing traffic, 29 Great Depression, 87–89, 191 The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (Ehrenhalt), 116 Great Society, 93 Growth: economic stability and focus on, 100–102 in municipalities, 50–57 as objective of local governments, 176 wealth vs., 102–104 H Haidt, Jonathan, 208, 209, 215 Hardship, response to, 172–174 Hasidic Judaism, 213–214, 217 Hemingway, Ernest, 4 Henwood, Doug, 79 Hierarchies, in local government, 174–176 Highland neighborhood (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 Highland Park (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 High land values, 27–30 High Point, North Carolina, 161 Highway bypass corridor, 134–138 Hollander, Justin B., 8, 9 Homeless shelters, xi Homes, changing, 20 Hoover, Herbert, 87 Horizontal expansion, in California, 197 Housing: in California, 197–198 post-war changes in, 92 preference for single-family, 144–145 Housing authority, 178t How to Live in a World We Don't Understand (Taleb), 59 Human habitats, 1–14 as complex, adaptive systems, 3–4 in North America, 1–3 spooky wisdom in, 5–10 as systems that are complicated, 11–14 Hunter-gatherer existence, 58 Hurricane Katrina, 102–103 Hurricane Rita, 102–103 I Illusion of Wealth: and constant maintenance, 152 human response to, 57–60 Illusion of Wealth phase of development, 143 Improvement to Land (I/L) Ratio, 25, 25f, 117 Improvement value, 23–25, 25f Incentives, to fix problems, 113 Income taxes, 72 Incremental changes, implementing, 122–123, 156–157 Incremental growth, 15–35 and complex, adaptive systems, 168 complex vs. complicated buildings in, 20–23 constraints on, 164 and founding of cities, 15–20 good and bad development in, 34–35 and high land values, 27–30 and neighborhood renewal, 23–27 private and public investment in, 30–34 in traditional habitat development, 2 Infill projects, 160 Infrastructure, 63–81 accounting for, 70–71 and American Society of Civil Engineers, 65–67 calculating returns on investment for, 67–69 Congressional Budget Office on, 78–80 development of, 30–34 as investment, 41–42 in modern development, 32 and municipalities, 44–50 perception of need for more, 63–65 ratio of private to public investment in, 129–130 real return on investment, 74–78 secondary effects of, 72–74 Infrastructure Cult: development of, 65–67 paper returns calculated by, 69 Insolvency, 187–192 Interstate highway system, 92 Investment(s), 147–170 barbell investment approach, 148–150 capital, 171–172 conventional vs. strong towns thinking about, 185–186, 186t in filling gaps in cities, 160–163 impact of regulations on, 194 infrastructure as, 41–42 little bets, 150–160 low-risk investments with steady returns, 150–155 prudent constraints for, 164–168 public and private, 30–34, 31f, 32f returns on, see Return on investment in Suburban Retrofit, 168–169 Italy, walking in, 203–204 J Jacobs, Jane, 8, 101–102 Japan, 76 Jimmy's Pizza, 161–162 Job creation, 49, 72–73 Johnson, Neil, 12, 13 Junger, Sebastian, 216–217 K Keynes, John Maynard, 88 Keynesian economic policies, 88 Krugman, Paul, 63, 78 Kunstler, James, 110–111 L Lafayette, Louisiana, 101, 141–144, 151 Landau, Moshe, 213–214, 217 Land value: in declining suburbs, 113 and interstate highway project, 92 and neighborhood renewal, 23–25, 25f in neighborhoods with different types of properties, 165–167, 165f, 166f and suburban development, 27–30 Learning, from previous local investments, 187 Legacy programs, 173 Lifestyle choices, 202, 205–206 “Lifestyle enclaves,” 208 Little bets, 16–18, 150–160 Local economy: as basis for national economy, 101–102 national vs., 103 Local government: changes in, to maintain economic stability, 105–106 debt taken on by, 113–114 funded by state government, 95 impact of infrastructure on, 79–80 profit run by, 37–38, 147 relationship of state and, 198 Long declines, 110–115 “Long emergency,” 110–111 Long Recession of the 1870s, 77 Los Angeles, California, xi Lovable places, 10 Low-risk investments, with steady returns, 150–155 Lydon, Mike, 158 M Maintenance: ability to keep up with, 109 cash-flow debt to cover, 188–192, 188f–190f of development projects, 52–57 of infrastructure, 46–49 need for constant, 151–154 in place-oriented government, 180–183 required for single-family homes, 112 Maintenance department, 179t Manhattan, New York, 24 Martenson, Chris, 108 Meaning, life of, 212–218 Middle class, 92, 93, 144–145 Milan, Italy, 164 Mills Fleet Farm, 134–137 Minicozzi, Joseph, 138–140, 161 “Minnesota Miracle,” 95 Mixed-use neighborhoods, 163, 169 Modern city development: as high-risk investments, 149 as lead by pubic investment, 34–35 productive places in, 131–134 Modern Monetary Theory, 99 Mortgages, during Great Depression, 88–89 Mouzon, Steve, 10, 113 Muskegon, Michigan, 161 N National Association of Home Builders, 136 National economy, local vs., 103 Natural disasters, 102–103 Neighborhoods: abandonment of, 109–110 built to finished states, 21–23 changing in post-war era, 92–93 community living in, 202–203 decline of, 113 gentrification of urban, 117 mixed-use, 163, 169 renewal of, and incremental growth, 23–27 responses to improvements in, 158 structured around religions, 214 in transition sections of Detroit, 118 Neighbors, being involved with, 202–203 New Deal economics, 87–88 New Orleans, Louisiana, 102, 182 Nixon, Richard, 94 Noncritical systems, 182 O Oak Cliff neighborhood (Dallas, Texas), 159 Obama, Barack, 63 Obesity, among Pacific Islanders, 58–59 Options Real Estate, 160 Orange County, California, xi–xii Order, chaos vs., 121–122 The Original Green (Mouzon), 10, 113 Oroville dam (California), 182 Oswego, New York, 152 Oswego Renaissance Association, 152 P Pacific Islanders, 58–59, 183–185 Paper returns on investment, 67–69 Paradox of Avarice, 104 Paradox of Thrift, 88, 104 Pareidolia, 8–9, 9f Parks department, 178t Party analogy, 34–35 A Pattern Language (Alexander), 8 Pension funds, 56–57, 70, 98 Pequot Lakes, Minnesota, 44–46 Perception, of need for more infrastructure, 63–65 Personal preferences, 144–145 Peru, 84 Place-oriented government, 171–198 and confirmation bias, 183–186 designed for efficiency, 174–176 focus on broad wealth creation by, 176–180 maintenance as priority for, 180–183 and regulations, 192–194 response to hardship by, 172–174 subsidiarity in, 195–198 understanding of debt by, 186–192 Political differences, 207 Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 Post-war boom: and economic stability, 91–93 modern city development established in, 12 Power, subsidiarity principle and, 196–198 Prayer of Saint Francis, 218 Prioritization, of maintenance, 180–183 Private development, 40 Private investment: private to public investment ratio, 129–130 public and, 30–34, 31f, 32f Private sector (businesses): response to economic hardship in, 172–173 small, see Small businesses Problem solving, 13–14 Productive places, 125–146 downtown vs. edge of town, 134–138 in past, 125–127 and personal preferences, 144–145 productivity calculations for, 128–130 return on investment, 141–144 traditional vs. modern development in, 131–134 value per acre, 138–141 Productivity, calculations of, 128–130 Project teams, 179–180 Property taxes, 49 Property value, 23–25, 25f Public health, and walking neighborhoods, 205 Public investment: private and, 30–34, 31f, 32f private to public investment ratio, 129–130 returns required for, 147 Public safety department, 179t Q Quality-of-life benefits, 187 Quantitative Easing, 99 R Railroad companies, 77 Rational decision making, 107–123 about failing development systems, 115–120 about long declines, 110–115 within complex, adaptive system, 120–123 and lack of single solution, 107–110 Real return on investment, 74–78 Redevelopment, financial productivity after, 131–134, 139–140, 139t Redundant systems, 182 ReForm Shreveport, 219, 220 Regulations: from place-oriented government, 192–194 and subsidiarity principle, 195–198 Repealing regulations, 192–193 Republican Party, 209 Request for proposal (RFP), 50 Residents, learning concerns of, 156–157 Resources: assumption of abundance of, 12–14 wasted, in modern development, 19 Retreats, strategic, 108–109 Return on investment, 141–144 calculating, for infrastructure, 67–69 for capital projects, 171–172 in cities, 44 and debt taken on by local governments, 187 low-risk investments with steady, 150–155 paper, 67–69 real, 74–78 social, 78–79 Revenues, and expenses, 41–44 RFP (request for proposal), 50 The Righteous Mind (Haidt), 208 Risk management strategies, 83–85 Roaring Twenties, 87 Roberts, Jason, 159 Roosevelt, Franklin, 87, 88 Rotary International, 203 S St.

Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen

activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

If Logue’s name is relatively unknown today, he was all over the mainstream press in his own day, dubbed “the Master Rebuilder” by The Washington Post in 1967, “our top city saver” by Look magazine in 1969, and “Mr. Urban Renewal” by The New York Times in 1970. Newsweek in 1972, with tongue in cheek, anointed him “one of the most impressive movers and shakers of subsidized construction since the time of King Tut.”7 Logue got his start in the field at the age of thirty-three, when New Haven’s just-elected reform Democratic mayor, Richard Lee, appointed him to lead the city’s major new urban renewal effort. Like many other midsize, old industrial cities, New Haven had been declining since the 1920s, a situation only worsened by the Great Depression. Although war production had given its increasingly obsolete nineteenth-century-era industries a temporary boost, when World War II ended, the postwar future looked bleak. Moreover, increasing numbers of middle-class residents were moving into new suburban communities mushrooming outside New Haven’s borders, with businesses and retail stores following suit.

Logue’s last major job, from 1978 to 1985, brought him to the destitute South Bronx in a more modest position as the president of the nonprofit South Bronx Development Organization, loosely affiliated with New York City’s municipal government. The shrunken scale of Logue’s South Bronx stage not only resulted from his personal fate in the aftermath of the UDC debacle but also reflected the dwindling role of government—particularly at the federal level—in urban development. In the South Bronx, Logue was forced to operate within a new urban policy regime, allying closely with small-scale community development corporations (CDCs) and squeezing what he could out of the private sector and an emerging new partner on the redevelopment scene, nonprofit organizations like the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), which liaised between private contributors and city builders on the ground. The private-market funding model would bring with it a host of new challenges, including abandoning the cutting-edge modernist housing made possible with public funding in favor of single-family, suburban-style homes preferred by lower-middle-class buyers and private-sector mortgage lenders.

He would soon learn, however, that having friends in high and low places and a comprehensive blueprint on paper was not sufficient to achieve his ambitions. Although Logue frequently spouted a commitment to “planning with people,” the kind of cooperative process that he imagined rarely occurred. Instead, the result was more often a combative negotiation between renewer and renewed. Rarely was any side fully satisfied, but the new urban environment created in Boston long bore the visual imprint of intense contestation followed by compromise. PUBLIC BUILDING TO SPUR PRIVATE SPENDING Talk of creating Government Center had been in the air for decades, and early conceptual plans had even been drawn up under Mayor Hynes. But when Logue began investigating Boston as a consultant in March 1960, commitments were not yet firm and the city’s preferred site of Scollay Square was still functioning as a dense, scruffy red-light district that spread over sixty prime downtown acres.

pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

Brave new frontiers indeed, blurring private and public; an example is The Smart Cities Council, a self-styled for-profit with paying partners to whom it promises “business success” through advocacy and action by acting as “an advisor and market accelerator for jobs and revenue.”13 The partnership of tech firms and cities on which the new urban “smart” is predicated is quite real but needs to be scrutinized as well as celebrated. Real change is taking place. Digital technology is minimally making cities more efficient, communicative, sustainable, and livable, qualifying them as smart. But it aspires to do more than just that. According to former San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom or Nigel Jacobs, cochair of the Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics in Boston, far from being just about efficiency, ITC (information and communication technology) can be “a gateway drug for civic engagement.”14 Elaine Weidman, the vice president for sustainable and corporate responsibility at Ericsson Broadband, agrees: “When combined with different types of social media, [technology] is creating radically new ways of engagement.

Romney was hoping to seduce country folk, but his was the cry of city dwellers over the millennia and is what draws country folk imprinted in the old ways to the liberating tabula rasa of the metropolis. In Boswell’s London Journal, the young scribe reported in 1763 on how in London he had “discovered that we may be in some degree whatever character we choose.”7 In the same era in Paris, in his Rameau’s Nephew, the philosophe Diderot depicted a character so plastic as to become a literary sensation. Yet Diderot was doing little more than parodying an anomic and scattered new urban man: Nothing is more unlike him than himself. Sometimes he is thin and haggard, like an invalid in the final stages of consumption. You could count his teeth through his cheeks. . . . The next month, he’s sleek and plump, as if he had been eating steadily at a banker’s table or had been shut up inside a Bernadine convent. Today, in dirty linen and torn trousers, dressed in rags, almost barefoot, he slinks along with his head down.

Nightingale, Segregation, p. 12. 54. Similar complaints have been made about odd/even license plate plans that bar autos from downtown on odd and even days. The wealthy simply have two cars, one with an odd plate, one with an even. 55. Judith N. Shklar, On Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion, London: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 100–101. 56. See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor, New York: Random House, 1997, and The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 57. Michael Cooper, “Few Cities Have Regained Jobs They Lost,” New York Times, Wednesday, January 18, 2012. 58. Report from the National Employment Law Project, New York Times, August 31, 2012, cited in an article by Catherine Rampell, “Majority of New Jobs Pay Low Wages, Study Finds,” August 30, 2012,

From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional

The overall population of Muslim countries increased dramatically in the second half of the twentieth century, forcing many people out of rural areas into crowded cities and towns; the proportion of Muslims living in urban areas rose exponentially between 1950 and 1990. Exposed to the new communications media, the conspicuous consumption of the elites and rampant inequality, many Muslims embraced Islam with a new fervour. Mosques and madrasas sprang up across the new urban landscape. Cheap books and magazines made Islamic piety more widely available and popular Muslim journalists and preachers (few of whom had received the traditional education of the ulema) began to offer a new do-it-yourself Islam to people uprooted from traditional social structures. The pluralization of Islamic authority, of which al-Afghani and Abduh and many other members of the lay Muslim intelligentsia had been the harbingers, was never so accelerated as it was in the last half of the twentieth century.

In countries like Turkey and Egypt, where top-down reforms were imposed by despots, modernization became synonymous with the removal of Islam from the centre of public life, the devalidation of Islamic education and law, and the marginalization of Islamic scholars. As al-Afghani had observed during his travels in the Muslim world, the imperatives of modernization and economic growth imposed by Western powers had radically disrupted the old cohesion of Islamic societies by producing new classes and redistributing power among them. New urban elites emerged from modern educational institutions and bureaucracies, and they tended to have little time for traditional sources of authority. Many of them enriched themselves at the expense of the rural poor. A reservoir of discontent built up, especially among the people most marginalized by this process, such as the clergy, small-town merchants, provincial officials and men from semi-rural backgrounds – the kind of people who hung around al-Afghani.

The words now have a prophetic resonance, confirming that the old vision of wealth and power dreamt of by Yan Fu as well as Liang Qichao is a reality. ‘We will have not only a powerful army but also a powerful air force and a powerful navy,’ Mao promised in 1949. ‘Ours will,’ he warned, ‘no longer be a nation subject to insult and humiliation.’ In less than six decades, history seems to have fulfilled Mao’s hopes. There still exists a great and restless Chinese mass in the countryside, cruelly shut out from the new urban prosperity to which their labour and taxes have contributed so much. Social unrest, environmental decay, corruption and other ills feed on China’s new affluence. Yet China, the biggest exporter and the largest holder of foreign-exchange reserves in the world, increasingly drives the global economy, boosting GDP rates across the world with its hunger for resources and markets. Western Europe and America have no option but to pay court to it; the small commodity-producing countries of Africa and Latin America form the new periphery to China’s metropole; its formerly hostile neighbours – Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia – now cower in its shadow, seeking favourable trade deals.

pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

On the other hand, the emphasis on interactivity between places breaks up spatial patterns of behavior into a fluid network of exchanges that underlies the emergence of a new kind of space, the space of flows. On both counts, I must tighten the analysis and raise it to a more theoretical level. The Transformation of Urban Form: the Informational City The Information Age is ushering in a new urban form, the informational city. Yet, as the industrial city was not a worldwide replica of Manchester, the emerging informational city will not copy Silicon Valley, let alone Los Angeles. On the other hand, as in the industrial era, in spite of the extraordinary diversity of cultural and physical contexts there are some fundamental common features in the transcultural development of the informational city.

America’s last suburban frontier The image of a homogeneous, endless suburban/ex-urban sprawl as the city of the future is belied even by its unwilling model, Los Angeles, whose contradictory complexity is revealed by Mike Davis’s marvelous City of Quartz.60 Yet it does evoke a powerful trend in the relentless waves of suburban development in the American metropolis, West and South as well as North and East, toward the end of the millennium. Joel Garreau has captured the similarities of this spatial model across America in his journalistic account of the rise of Edge City, as the core of the new urbanization process. He empirically defines Edge City by the combination of five criteria: Edge City is any place that: (a) Has five million square feet or more of leasable office space – the work place of the Information Age… (b) Has 600,000 square feet or more of leasable retail space… (c) Has more jobs than bedrooms (d) Is perceived by the population as one place… (e) Was nothing like ‘city’ as recently as thirty years ago.61 He reports the mushrooming of such places around Boston, New Jersey, Detroit, Atlanta, Phoenix, Texas, southern California, San Francisco Bay area, and Washington, DC.

They are both working areas and service centers around which mile after mile of increasingly dense, single-family dwelling residential units organize the “home centeredness” of private life. He remarks that these ex-urban constellations are: tied together not by locomotives and subways, but by freeways, jetways, and rooftop satellite dishes thirty feet across. Their characteristic monument is not a horse-mounted hero, but the atria reaching for the sun and shielding trees perpetually in leaf at the core of corporate headquarters, fitness centers, and shopping plazas. These new urban areas are marked not by the penthouses of the old urban rich or the tenements of the old urban poor. Instead, their landmark structure is the celebrated single-family detached dwelling, the suburban home with grass all around that made America the best housed civilization the world has ever known.62 Naturally, where Garreau sees the relentless frontier spirit of American culture, always creating new forms of life and space, James Howard Kunstler sees the regrettable domination of the “geography of nowhere,” 63 thus reigniting a decades-long debate between partisans and detractors of America’s sharp spatial departure from its European ancestry.

pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Royal Institute of British Architects. 214 “a monstrous carbuncle on the face”: Ibid. 214 “Why has everything got to be vertical”: Ibid. 214 “a giant glass stump”: Ibid. 214 but the prince won, sort of: “Victoriana vs. Mies in London,” New York Times, May 3, 1984, p. C18. 214 “an early Victorian market town”: Worsley, “A Model Village Grows Up Gracefully.” 214 forces behind the New Urbanist movement: Watson et al., Learning from Poundbury, 8. 214 New Urbanism “stand[s] for . . . our built legacy”: Charter of the New Urbanism, 214 more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America: Compare the Web site of Poundbury,, with its note that “It is intended to be a sustainable development” and that it is “designed to maintain the quality of the environment” and its photographs of green space, with the Web site of Celebration, Florida,, with its emphasis on its “strong sense of self ” and photographs of people at play. 215 In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars: U.S.

Prince Charles’s fight for traditional British architecture continues unabated, as does his fight for his “model community” of Poundbury. In his agricultural estates in Cornwall, the prince is building his vision of an ideal English town, which has been described as looking like “an early Victorian market town, as if architecture stopped in 1830.” His royal patronage has given a great boost to Leon Krier, Poundbury’s planner, who is also one of the intellectual forces behind the New Urbanist movement. The New Urbanism “stand[s] for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.” Poundbury is considerably more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; Breakaway, North Carolina; and the Disney Corporation’s town of Celebration, Florida.

Bradley Milwaukee Minneapolis Missouri Mitchell, George Phydias Mittal, Lakshmi Mobutu Sese Seko Mohammed, Sheikh Monkkonen, Eric Montreal Moses, Robert Moving to Opportunity Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus Mumbai building restrictions in crime in Dharavi neighborhood of disease in traffic congestion in transportation network in Mumford, Lewis murder Murthy, Narayana museums music Mysore Nagasaki Napoléon I, Emperor Napoléon III, Emperor Nashville National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Labor Relations Act (1935) Native Son (Wright) neighborhood preservation, see preservation Netherlands Nevins, Allan New Brighton New Deal New Orleans Hurricane Katrina in poor in New Urbanism New York City African Americans in age statistics in Bloomberg as mayor of building construction in Central Park commuting in crime in death rates in decline of entrepreneurs in environmental footprint of fair-housing law in Fifth Avenue Commission in finance in founding of garment and fashion industries in garment worker strike in Giuliani as mayor of globalization and Greenwich Village Harlem Children’s Zone in Harlem Renaissance in health in Hell’s Kitchen housing in immigrants in industries in Koch as mayor of Lindsay as mayor of Lower East Side marital statistics in Midtown Manhattan Penn Station in poor in population explosion in port of preservation in Promise Academy in public transportation in publishing industry in rebirth of restaurants in reverse commuting and rise of September 11 attack on social connections in sprawl in streets in subways in suicides in Tammany Hall in taxes in theater in transit and income zones in travel between Boston and Upper East Side wages in Washington Square water supply for zoning regulations in New York Panorama New York Philharmonic New York State energy consumption in parkway system of New York Times NIMBYism Nimitz, Chester 9/11 attacks Norberg, Karen Obama, Barack Oklahoma City Old Vic Theatre Company Olivier, Laurence Olmsted, Frederick Law Otis, Elisha O’Toole, Peter Otto, Nikolaus Owen, David Paris building regulations in bus transit in Eiffel Tower in housing in La Défense in Montparnasse Tower in paving of planning of police force formed in restaurants in schools in sewage system in transit and income zones in parks Pascal, Blaise patent citations Patni Computers Pedro II, Emperor Penn Station Pennsylvania Railroad Pericles Perlman, Philip Philadelphia Main Line in transit and income zones in water supply in Philip Augustus Phoenix Phukan, Ruban Pinker, Steven Pirelli, Giovanni Battista Pittsburgh plague Plato police policies, see public policies politics ethnic power and social groups and Ponti, Gio populations: loss of new building and wages and Potemkin villages Poulsen, Valdemar Poundbury poverty rural suburban poverty, urban African Americans and and attraction of poor to cities education and in favelas and helping people vs. places in megacities path to prosperity from public policies’ magnification of in Rio slums and ghettos transportation and Prada, Miuccia preservation in New York City printing press prisons Procopius productivity education and geographic proximity and impact of peers on skills and wages and Promise Academy property rights prosperity and wealth education and environmentalism and path from urban poverty to urbanization and Protestantism public policies building restrictions consumer cities and education and environmental; see also environmentalism helping people vs. places immigration and industrial land-use regulations level playing field in national NIMBYism and poverty magnified by preservation, see preservation suburban living encouraged by urban poverty and zoning ordinances, see zoning ordinances public spaces publishing: in New York printing technology and Pulitzer, Joseph quality of life Quigley, John Raffles, Thomas Stamford rail travel Ramsay, Gordon Rand, Ayn Ranieri, Lewis Raytheon recession Reformation Renaissance restaurants Richardson, Ralph Richmond right-to-work states Rio de Janeiro favelas in transportation in riots River Rouge plant Riverside roads asphalt paving for highways New York City streets traffic congestion and, see traffic congestion Robson Square Rochester (Minnesota) Rochester (New York) Rockefeller, Nelson Rogers, Richard Roman Empire Roosevelt, Franklin D.

pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

“After growing up in a small town in Massachusetts,” he writes in his preface, “I went off to pastoral Vermont to study and then work, all the while developing an appreciation and concern for the fragile state of the world’s ecology. But as easy as it is to don a green hat up in Vermont, the beast that is New York City has the tendency to tear that noble lid off and throw it into a puddle of mud. Upon arriving in the big city I struggled to reconcile the environmentally concerned mind-set that comes so effortlessly in a place like Vermont with my new urban lifestyle. Of course sustainable living is easier in a Vermont township, where local produce is plentiful and every backyard is equipped with a compost bin.”12 But this is exactly wrong. “Sustainable living” is actually much harder in small, far-flung places than it is in dense cities. Jervey cites New Yorkers’ “overactive dependence” on fresh water as an example of their supposed wastefulness, and he marvels that the city’s total use “amounts to well over one billion gallons per day.”13 A billion is a big number, to be sure, but New York City’s population is more than thirteen times that of the entire state of Vermont, so the city’s total consumption figures in any category will appear overwhelming in any direct comparison.

Los Angeles is at or near the top of almost everyone’s list of the examples of automobile-dependent development, but L.A. is actually quite dense, as American cities go, with an average concentration, inside the city limits, of just over 8,200 people per square mile, or nearly 13 people per acre. This is fairly close to Zupan and Pushkarev’s critical transit threshold of seven dwellings per acre—and it exceeds the density of many developments that have been promoted as examples of New Urbanism, or Smart Growth—yet only a microscopic percentage of Angelenos travel to work in anything but a car, and, largely because of the separation of uses mandated by local zoning regulations, there are very few parts of the city where transit, bicycling, or walking are feasible as regular means of getting around, no matter what the price of gasoline. Uninhibited car use invariably undermines the noblest of environmental intentions—always, everywhere.h In the early 1900s, Los Angeles, like many other American cities, actually had a thriving streetcar system—a variety of the type of transit that, nowadays, is usually referred to as light rail.

A brochure shows the cars being charged by rooftop solar panels and hydrogen-powered fuel cells. Ryan Chin, a Ph.D. candidate and the project’s coordinator, said, “The idea is to have the vehicle work in unison with its urban surroundings, taking advantage of existing infrastructure, such as subway and bus lines. Ultimately we see this as an effective way to merge mass transit with individualized mobility, creating a new urban transportation ecosystem.”52 But the City Car, as described by its inventors, is a good idea only if you believe that not being able to find a parking space is an environmental problem, and that dense urban areas have something to gain from getting pedestrians off their feet and into cars. Residents of dense urban cores largely get by without individual vehicles now; what would be gained by turning those people into drivers of high-tech golf carts?

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Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

The two great political reform acts of 1832 and 1867 further shifted the balance of power in parliament in favour of new urban middle and even working classes. By the end of the nineteenth century, as land was slipping out of mainstream economic thinking (see Chapter 3), the political power of the landowning class was diminishing too (Linklater, 2013). Housing supply and tenure The rapid increase in urban populations created a huge demand for accommodation in Britain’s major cities, most of which were not prepared for this increase in population. Large houses were turned into flats and tenements, and multiple families were crowded into already crammed houses by often unscrupulous landlords who saw an opportunity for quick profit. During this time those who ran the dominant industries in the city often wielded significant power, and much of the housing needs of the new urban workers were met by factory owners who built accommodation near their factories.

Leases were often sold for the lifetime of the tenant, giving an appearance of permanence, but landlords were clearly able to extract a high degree of economic rent: the Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes (1885) found that almost half of working class households were paying 25–50% of their income on rent alone (Samy, 2015). In part, this was due to the lack of transport, which required industrial workers to live near to the factories that employed them. In the new, urban and industrial economy that had been created, the problem of rent was still alive and well. But now it found its strongest expression in the housing market, rather than in the agricultural fields that Ricardo had originally used to explain his theory. 4.3 1900–1970: world wars and the golden age of capitalism By the dawn of the twentieth century there was an increasing awareness among social and political elites that the social problems of industrial, urban Britain were rooted in the economic and physical organisation of land and property, triggering interest in how these problems could be overcome at a more systemic level (Simpson et al., 1992).

The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark

Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

The draft London Plan explained that London’s ‘urban renaissance’ would consist of “making the city a place where people want to live, rather than a place from which they want to escape” (Mayor of London, 2002a). 72 The evolution of London, 1991 to 2015 Such a consensus around urban development would have appeared almost unthinkable during the political antagonism of the late 1980s. Sir Terry Farrell, a prominent architect in London’s new ‘urban renaissance’, has indicated that: “The biggest change of the last 20 years is the move from an era of confrontation over the status of industry and white collar employment, to a phase where by 2010 white collar industries are seen as the saviour of industrial areas.” (Personal communication, 24 January 2012) The broad acceptance that renewal could best be achieved through the recasting of the inner city for knowledge and creative sectors ultimately translated into new investment directives.

Shortly afterwards, Land Securities noted that urban community development now required “innovation, commitment, and partnership with stakeholders”, and Countryside Properties sought recognition “as an innovative, responsible developer . . . 76 The evolution of London, 1991 to 2015 [who] encourage local people to participate in the development process and in the management of community facilities to help promote social inclusion” (Imrie, 2009: 97). These sentiments reflected a step change in the vision and practices of London’s property industry. Since 2007, the specifically environmental elements of sustainability have gained credence as part of a new urbanism which depends on principles of highdensity, urban work–live villages and pedestrian and cycle spaces. The sustainability ambition is fuelled by ongoing investment in London’s transport system, notably the TfL Business Plan, which seeks among other things to reduce car dependency in mid-suburban boroughs and reduce carbon emissions associated with mobility. The incorporation of sustainability into London’s broader regeneration themes is described in Table 6.1.

St Pancras International station itself is now one of the most striking landmarks in London. Begun in 2001 and completed in 2007, the £800 million redevelopment was designed by Sir Norman Foster, later modified by Alistair Lansley, and aimed to achieve a modern testament to the original Victorian ‘train shed’ structure. The wider King’s Cross redevelopment encapsulates the predominant policy to rely on property development firms to produce new urban land markets with the appeal to attract global investors. In this case, the Argent group has had the responsibility of overcoming local political complexity and boldly recapitalising local land markets. The result has been “the biggest change to the northern edge of the Euston Road since the advent of the railways” (Littlefield, 2012). A new generation of rail terminus upgrades has begun with the £700 million rebuilding of London Bridge station by Network Rail up to 2018.

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Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, old-boy network, precariat, psychological pricing, Sloane Ranger, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

But nonetheless, this north–south divide constituted a force field in which the two classes recognized themselves and each other through a range of powerful reference points. However, just as we have argued that the fundamental class boundaries lie at the top of the social hierarchy, so the power of this regional divide has now broken down. It has been replaced by two other dynamics: firstly, the power of highly segregated urban cores as elite zones. The process of intense elite segregation can be detected in all major British cities – and that new urban investment has generated more powerful manifestations of this. Secondly the dominance of central London is now paramount and overwhelms that of the north–south divide. These two shifts generate a more powerful urban–rural division than used to be the case. Cities (especially London, but the process extends to other cities) are the centres of accumulation. The countryside is defined in terms of the repose – the rest and recuperation – it offers in the context of these voracious urban driving belts.

Figure 8.5 Percentage Shares of the Elite within Just One Quartile of Postal Sectors in 10 Major Built-up Areas in Britain Source: GBCS data Class and inequality are central to how we conceive of and construct our cities. Class has an interactive relationship with space because those with greater economic capital have greater choice about where. They possess freedoms which the housing market does not extend to those of lesser means. The elite class also have the power to transform and colonize new urban spaces both physically and socially, through processes of top-end ‘gentrification’.13 Mapping where those in the elite live in a detailed way is instructive because it opens up the different forms of ‘elective belonging’ that people hold – the emotional, economic and other reasons that bind them to particular places.14 The Manchester elite exemplifies this geography well, because this is the most segregated in class terms according to GBCS data of British cities.

There is therefore an unequal geography in the cultural and social domains as well as in the economic. These overlap, but imperfectly, showing that the wider identities of places cannot be read from their economic capital and prosperity alone. A powerful urban–rural divide, as much as a regional one between north and south, is marked in terms of the way urban centres operate as foci of cultural capital (especially emerging cultural capital) and social capital. And marking out these new urban spaces, we see the power of the elite as having a profound geographical imprint, as this is fundamentally an urban class. The old aristocratic class with roots in the land, at the apex of the class structure, has given way to a more fundamentally urbanized class – though one quite possibly with second homes tucked away in areas of repose. This, as Piketty has demonstrated, is an aspect of the profound shift in the organization of capital towards residential property and away from agricultural land.24 Underscoring all this is London itself.

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Municipal Dreams: The Rise and Fall of Council Housing by John Boughton

British Empire, deindustrialization, full employment, garden city movement, ghettoisation, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, young professional

The Hulme Tenant Participation Project – an autonomous body funded by City Challenge and the Housing Corporation – was formed to provide at least a semblance of the tenant input which remained, in principle, a significant element of the government’s strategy. Those Byzantine structures did somehow combine to carry out one of the country’s most radical regeneration transformations. In Hulme, ‘new realism’ met the ‘new urbanism’ – the latter an attempt to ‘create a new neighbourhood with the “feel” of a more traditional urban community’.8 The Hulme Crescents went, finally demolished in 1994. What replaced them was a pretty conventional streetscape of red-brick semi-detached homes, terraces and functional low-rise flats: ‘Barratt rabbit hutches’ in Owen Hatherley’s words.9 Beyond this, there lay the commitment, shared by the local council and government, to mixed tenure.

It was an estate with problems, those common to many: ‘high levels of deprivation’ among residents and the design flaws held typical of such designs of the era – ‘poorly defined public and private space … lack of natural surveillance on public routes’ and so on.41 And back in 2002 the council, then in Labour-Liberal Democrat hands, promised residents (about 700 secure council tenants and 140 leaseholders then) ‘the phased redevelopment’ of the estate with ‘modern homes for all existing residents, set in a new urban environment’.42 West Hendon needed work; the council claimed an £11.5 million price tag for bringing the estate up to the Decent Homes Standard. Three-quarters of those balloted – accepting the like-for-like pledge of new homes offered – were happy to offer an ‘in principle’ endorsement. Outline planning permission was granted by the council, now in Conservative control, to the Metropolitan Housing Trust in 2004; a development partnership with Barratt Homes was formed in 2006.

Research has shown, however, that the commonly deployed trope of three workless generations is very largely an urban myth. 2Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Sustainable Communities: People, Places and Prosperity, 2005, 65. 3Madanipour, Cars and Allen quoted in Dave Adamson, The Impact of Devolution: Area-Based Regeneration Policies in the UK (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, January 2010), 9,, accessed 14 March 2017. 4Adamson, The Impact of Devolution: Area-Based Regeneration Policies in the UK, 9–10. 5‘Report of the Social Exclusion Unit: A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal National Strategy Action Plan’, Cabinet Office, January 2001, 8,, accessed 14 March 2017. 6Aylesbury Tenants and Leaseholders First website,, accessed 14 March 2017. 7Christopher Beanland, ‘Channel 4’s Aylesbury Estate Ident Gets a Revamp – Starring the Residents’, Guardian, 14 March 2014,, accessed 15 March 2017. 8Loretta Lees, ‘The Urban Injustices of New Labour’s “New Urban Renewal”: The Case of the Aylesbury Estate in London’, Antipode, vol. 46, no. 4, 2014, 923–4. 9Southwark Council, Aylesbury Area Action Plan, January 2010, 179. 10David Blackman, ‘ “Where Did it All Go Wrong?” in Regeneration’, Inside Housing, 22 February 2002,, accessed 15 March 2017. 11Southwark Council, Southwark Affordable Rent Product Study July 2015, 5–6, and London’s Poverty Profile: Southwark,, accessed 17 March 2017. 12Colin Marrs, ‘Javid Rejects Aylesbury Estate CPO as Breach of Human Rights’, Architects’ Journal, 19 September 2016,, accessed 8 June 2017. 13Heygate was Home, ‘Broken Promises’,, accessed 8 June 2017. 14Jon Kirk, ‘Welcome to the Aylesbury Estate – Once So Grim its Residents Dubbed it a Hell-Hole’, The People, 24 June 2007. 15Cited in Karl Murray, ‘Understanding the Impact of the Economic Down Turn on BAME Communities: A Case Study of the Aylesbury Estate in the London Borough of Southwark’, Black Training and Enterprise Group, June 2012, 11,, accessed 22 March 2017. 16Murray, ‘Understanding the Impact of the Economic Down Turn on BAME Communities: A Case Study of the Aylesbury Estate’, 12. 17Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, Sheffield Hallam University, ‘The New Deal for Communities Experience: A Final Assessment’ (Department of Communities and Local Government, March 2010), 6,, accessed 23 March 2017. 18Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research, ‘The New Deal for Communities Experience: A Final Assessment’, 40. 19See Paul Watt, ‘Housing Stock Transfers, Regeneration and State-Led Gentrification in London’, Urban Policy and Research, vol. 27, no. 3, 2009. 20Gene Robertson, ‘Labour’s Legacy’, Inside Housing, 7 May 2010,, accessed 24 March 2017. 21London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Housing Evidence Base, June 2016, 86,, accessed 27 March 2017. 22Jennifer Maureen Lowe, ‘Social Justice and Localities: The Allocation of Council Housing in Tower Hamlets’, PhD thesis, Queen Mary College, University of London, March 2004, 150–2. 23Tower Hamlets Fairness Commission, ‘Who Lives in Tower Hamlets?

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The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation,, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hedonic treadmill, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, scientific worldview, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

Adams of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, in their landmark paper on the subject, published in the journal Science more than a half-century ago, concluded that[p]robably there is no historical event of this magnitude for which a single explanation is adequate, but that growing soil salinity played an important part in the breakup of Sumerian civilization seems beyond question.71 It should be noted that increasing salinity of soil led to massive crop failures and a similar entropy crisis in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago.72 Likewise, archaeologists have found evidence of soil salinity leading to catastrophic crop failure and the abandonment of territory in the ancient Mayan hydraulic civilization in Central America.73 In point of fact, salinization of soil and entropic buildup have been a precipitating factor in the weakening and collapse of complex hydraulic civilizations throughout history, reaffirming the inescapable relationship between increasing energy throughput and a rising entropy debt.74 ALL OF THE GREAT axial movements stressed the importance of the Golden Rule. But it was in Rome that the full impact of the new dictum came to the fore with the rise of a new urban religious sect that would be known as Christianity. The early Christian eschatology represented both the final flowering of the empathic surge of ancient theological times and the bridge to the modern era of humanism and the secularization of empathic consciousness. SEVEN COSMOPOLITAN ROME AND THE RISE OF URBAN CHRISTIANITY THE ROMAN EMPIRE represents the “high watermark” for ancient hydraulic civilizations.

They offered a spiritual universalism, but only by becoming a part of the Jewish nation. The Romans, by contrast, offered a political and judicial universalism, but their civic gods were too cold and distant to address the angst of an increasingly individualized Roman population in search of personal identification within a larger cosmic story. Neither the Jews nor the cult of the Roman pantheon of gods could provide the new urban population of Rome the very personal spiritual succor they so desperately craved. Rome was ready for the Christian story. Erich Kahler eloquently sums up the historic significance of the rise of Christianity in Rome in the first three centuries of the AD era. The fundamental innovation of this whole epoch is that the individual stands forth, the lonely private individual, with all his ancestral, tribal bonds broken off, the earthly individual standing on his own feet, under the vast sky of universality.

., in his book The Making of the Modern Mind, notes that the reverse flow back from the countryside to the newly emerging towns, with their own unique “vows and obligations,” was to have a profound impact on the whole future course of history. He writes:The rise of the urban civilization, first primarily commercial and later more and more industrial, was the outstanding social force in the later Middle Ages; from it can be traced practically everything that, beginning with the renaissance . . . created modern times.1 The new urban civilization brought with it an empathic surge that would take European consciousness to new heights. The late medieval empathic surge began with a technological revolution in agriculture and a novel harnessing of biological and inanimate energy. The introduction of the horse into agriculture greatly increased agricultural productivity. While draught horses were used in a very limited way as far back as antiquity, it wasn’t until the invention of the shoulder harness, iron horseshoes, and the harnessing of horses, one behind the other, that horses could be effectively utilized for plowing and other chores.

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Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

Some plans worked, and some didn’t. Many of the new public housing projects in America destroyed intricate communities to make room for buildings designed on an inhuman scale. Still other plans were swiftly defeated by the relentless pressure of human nature. In Tokyo, which was flattened during World War II, planners saw a chance to erase the ancient and convoluted street grid and build what one scholar called “an entirely new urban form,” with a series of dense downtowns “nestled against a background of green space, green corridors and broad tree-lined boulevards.” It didn’t happen. American bombs destroyed buildings, but didn’t destroy the claims of property owners, who resisted giving up their land. It was quicker and easier to build along the old streets. A glance at history might have shown this would happen; the world’s most famous example of urban planning, Sir Christopher Wren’s redesign of central London after a great fire in 1666, was never put in place.

Ayub Lays Foundation of Korangi Satellite Town,” Times of Karachi, December 6, 1958, 1, 5. 88 “rely on their wits to thrive”: Jean Gottmann, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1961), 46. 88 “migration and employment growth... thereby drawing more migrants”: Peter Morrison, “Migration from Distressed Areas: Its Meaning for Regional Policy” (New York: Ford Foundation, 1973), 17–18. 88 four million people in 1950 to 6.5 million in 1960: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database, 88 “furnaces, sliding doors, mechanical saws”: Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities (New York: Random House, 1969), 152. 88 “an entirely new urban form”... “broad tree-lined boulevards”: Andrei Sorensen, The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty-first Century (New York: Routledge, 2002), 162. 89 Constantinos Doxiadis caught the midnight flight: Doxiadis’s diary, December 15, 1958. 89 Ford had been assisting with planning and development: Doxiadis’s diary, December 15, 1958; also “Design for Pakistan: A Report on Assistance to the Pakistan Planning Commission by the Ford Foundation and Harvard University” (New York: Ford Foundation, February 1965). 89 Doxiadis snapped photos of arid land: Doxiadis’s diary, December 17, 1958. 89 The philosopher Plato spoke to him: Constantinos Doxiadis, Between Dystopia and Utopia (Hartford, CT: Trinity College Press, 1966), x–xi. 90 They worked everywhere from Baghdad to Rio de Janeiro: Doxiadis Associates archive, archive; also Between Dystopia and Utopia. 90 “helped resettle 10 million humans in 15 countries”: Time, November 4, 1966. 90 “Several aspects of the problem begin to worry me,”...

Nadeem, Azhar Hassan. Pakistan: The Political Economy of Lawlessness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Nasr, Vali. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. ———. The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama’at-I Islami of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2006. Orangi Pilot Project–Research and Training Institute. Katchi Abadis of Karachi, vol. III. Karachi: OPP-RTI, 2009. Owen, David. Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less are Keys to Sustainability. New York: Riverhead, 2009. Raman, T. A. Report on India. New York: Oxford University Press, 1943. Richter, Linda K. The Politics of Tourism in Asia.

Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas,, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight

This is not to deny a continuity of migrant settlement in these big British cities, especially Liverpool, which witnessed black settlement because of its role in the slave trade.187 Clearly London is different because it has always acted as the main area of settlement for most migrant groups who have made their way to Britain. No break exists in this history. This is essentially due to the centrality of London in the economic, political and cultural history of Britain. While the Industrial Revolution gave birth to new urban centres, important medieval and early modern towns such as York, Norwich or Bristol did not experience significant growth. London, on the other hand, expanded at the same time as the great industrial cities mushroomed during the nineteenth century.188 In terms of the continuity of migration, London would also appear fairly unique when making global comparisons. Clearly, great American cities such as New York189 or Chicago190 have evolved as a result of migration over the last two centuries, while German urban concentrations such as Berlin or Frankfurt have had similar multicultural histories since the Second World War.191 But none of these four examples can compare with the British capital in terms of the longevity of migration, dating back millennia.

For an introduction to these themes see, for instance: Gartner, Jewish Immigrant, pp. 187–291; and Newman, ‘Synagogues of the East End’, in Newman, Jewish East End, pp. 217–21. 81. David Dee, The ‘Estranged’ Generation? Social and Generational Change in Interwar British Jewry (Basingstoke, 2017), pp. 149–204. Religion receives more attention in Chapter 8 below. 82. Lynn H. Lees, ‘Patterns of Lower-Class Life: Irish Slum Communities in Nineteenth-Century London’, in Stephan Thernstrom and Richard Sennett, eds, Nineteenth-Century Cities: Essays in the New Urban History (London, 1969), pp. 359–85; ‘The London Irish’, Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, vol. 170 (1901), pp. 124–34; John A. Jackson, ‘The Irish in East London’, East London Papers, vol. 6 (1963), pp. 105–19. 83. Panayi, German Immigrants, pp. 94–8. 84. Count E. Armfelt, ‘German London’, in George R. Sims, ed., Living London: Its Work and Its Play, Its Humour and Its Pathos, Its Sights and Its Scenes, vol. 3 (London, 1902), p. 104. 85.

Dorothy George, London Life in the Eighteenth Century (Harmondsworth, 1966), p. 120. 56. Lynn Hollen Lees, Exiles of Erin: Irish Immigrants in Victorian London (Manchester, 1979), pp. 94–5. 57. John A. Jackson, ‘The Irish in East London’, East London Papers, vol. 6 (1963), pp. 108–9. 58. Lynn Hollen Lees, ‘Patterns of Lower-Class Life: Irish Slum Communities in Nineteenth-Century London’, in Stephan Thernstrom and Richard Sennett, eds, Nineteenth-Century Cities: Essays in the New Urban History (London, 1969), pp. 368–9. 59. Charles Manby Smith, Curiosities of London Life, or, Phases, Physiological and Social, of the Great Metropolis (London, 1853), pp. 135–8. 60. Gerard Leavey, Sati Sembhi and Gill Livingston, ‘Older Irish Migrants Living in London: Identity, Loss and Return’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 30 (2004), pp. 767–9. 61. Clair Wills, An Immigrant History of Post-War Britain (London, 2017), pp. 46–50. 62.

pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

They are changing the character and flavor of their cities, and their concerns for raising children are helping them lead charges for safer streets and better education where contextual tools play a part. These New Urbanists reverse a trend followed by each generation since the end of World War II. For more than 60 years, people migrated out of cities, into suburbs. Today, instead of opting for freestanding single-family homes surrounded by lawns, fences and chirping birds, this emerging generation is massively opting for less pastoral—and more stimulating—urban settings. New Urbanism is changing American demographic trends. Multiple reports, including those from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Brookings Institution, see multiyear trends where cities are growing younger and more affluent, while suburbs are shrinking, aging and experiencing increases in poverty. New Urbanists lead contextual lives in cities being planned, designed and rebuilt with contextual technologies.

However, when we look at a few forward-thinking municipal governments we see glimmers of hope. New Urbanists are active proponents of safer streets, reduced pollution, transparent government and neighborhood activism. They are using contextual technologies as power tools for change. Their shopping—even when local—is becoming mobile device-centric. They are encouraging and adopting new services that allow local merchants to deliver goods to urban doors. New Urbanism is not only taking hold in such cultural centers as New York and San Francisco, but also in previously forsaken places like Pittsburgh, Detroit and Youngstown, Ohio, which is reporting a significant growth in young adults, spawned in part by a tech center that employs more than 300 people, mostly recent college grads. Even Cleveland, which in 2010 was voted America’s most miserable city, is enjoying a resurgence of energy from this desirable demographic.

A History of British Motorways by G. Charlesworth

New Urbanism, North Sea oil, the built environment, urban planning, urban renewal

The Committee had support from a project team of officials and also arranged for several firms of consultants to carry out studies of schemes already built or which were already planned. The report of the Committee was published in 1972'2 and the reports prepared by the project team and consultants in 1973'9. In their report the Committee emphasised that by their terms of reference they were concerned with major new urban roads and were not confined solely to urban motorways. The Committee considered that a new approach to urban road planning was needed and that planning of major new urban roads should form an integral part of planning the urban area as a whole. This was not a new idea but the Committee put emphasis on the need to include indirect costs in assessing projects and on the importance of taking fully into account the views and values of people affected by road schemes. Objections to urban road proposals arise on three main counts; one is cost, another is demolition of houses and the third is the environment.

Ernest Davies, a former Labour opposition spokesman on transport, in a paper to the London School of Economics in 1962", said "Transport is ... inseparable from town planning and must be dealt with in relation to it, and development plans need to be drawn with full regard to their repercussion on transport ... ". The Buchanan Repore in 1963 stated" ... the ability to command the comprehensive development or redevelopment of large areas is extremely important to the successful handling of motor traffic". These views were restated in 1972 by the Urban Motorways Committee l2 who said "We regard it as essential that the planning of new urban roads should form an integral part of planning the urban area as a whole; and that the indirect costs and benefits of building urban roads should be looked at with the same care as the direct cost and movement benefits ... ». These various statements were made before the reform of local government took place in 1974 (in Greater London in 1965), that is at a time when statutory responsibility for town planning was spread among a large number of authorities.

pages: 446 words: 117,660

Arguing With Zombies: Economics, Politics, and the Fight for a Better Future by Paul Krugman

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, different worldview, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, employer provided health coverage, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, frictionless, frictionless market, fudge factor, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population

.), lean and efficient system of, 40, 41–43 Victorian Era, virtues of, 286 Vishny, Robert, 146 Voltaire, on the best of all possible worlds, 135 Voting Rights Act, 300 wage gap, 286 wage-price spiral, 126, 127 wage stagnation, 92, 168, 288, 289 Wallace, George, 310 Wall Street Journal, The, 271, 273, 279–80 Warren, Elizabeth, 210, 211–12, 238–40, 309 Washington Post, The, 303 wealth distribution: historical estimates of, 270 and income inequality, 274–75, 282, 284 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 132 wealthy: and capital gains, 273 concentration of, 238, 349 conservatives, 149 cutting taxes on, 4, 7, 20, 30, 51, 69, 196, 199, 200, 201, 215–17, 218–20, 221–23, 224, 227, 229, 236–37, 308, 309, 351, 355, 370, 371 donors to Republican Party, 370 exploding incomes of, 92, 283 health coverage for, 36, 39 idolizing of, 94 incentive effects on, 235 and income distribution, 265–66, 266, 267, 269–70, 273; see also income inequality income from assets, 221, 233 income from earnings, 349 increasing taxes on, 66, 211–12, 220, 238–40, 307, 309, 310, 324, 380 as Masters of the Universe, 270 and monopoly power, 236 optimal tax rates on, 235–37, 236 “stealth politics” of, 240 tax avoidance vs. evasion by, 349–50 as too rich, 274–75 and Trumpism, 343 Weigel, Dave, 28 welfare, 126 West Virginia, Republican Party in, 359 What’s the Matter with Kansas? (Frank), 302 When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (Wilson), 286–87 “Where Did the Productivity Growth Go?” (Dew-Becker and Gordon), 283 Whitaker, Matthew, 333 white nationalism, 343, 346, 360 “Why Not the Worst?” (Krugman), 343–44, 350 wildfire, growing risks of, 332 Will, George, 381 Wilson, William Julius, 292 When Work Disappears; The World of the New Urban Poor, 286–87 wing-nut welfare, 303 Wisconsin, Republican Party in, 369 Wolfe, Tom, Bonfire of the Vanities, 262, 270 Wolff, Edward, 270 working class: anti-worker bias in politics, 290, 318, 351–53 falling incomes of, 96, 244 family values of, 286 and health care, 352 and income inequality, 259–60, 272, 273 and “skills gap,” 167–68 stagnating wages of, 92, 168, 288, 289 tax increases on, 20, 221–23 and trade war, 372 and unions, 218, 289–90, 317 work opportunities available to, 286–87, 292 World Trade Organization (WTO), 247, 252 World War I, war debts from, 254 World War II: postwar economic growth, 219, 234 postwar trading system, 244, 250 wage controls in, 270 Wren-Lewis, Simon, 5, 385–86 “WSJ calculation,” 280 Yellen, Janet, 97 Yunus, Muhammad, 388 Zandi, Mark, 113 “zero lower bound” interest rates, 142–43, 153 zombie ideas: on climate change, 4 cutting taxes on the rich, 4, 215–17 eating people’s brains, 3–4 and health care, 216 on impossibility of universal health coverage, 4 invasion of, 259 in movement conservatism, 8 and racism, 4 Zucman, Gabriel, 238–39, 349 ALSO BY PAUL KRUGMAN End This Depression Now!

And Mr. Murray also tells us that working-class marriages, when they do happen, have become less happy; strange to say, money problems will do that. One more thought: The real winner in this controversy is the distinguished sociologist William Julius Wilson. Back in 1996, the same year Ms. Himmelfarb was lamenting our moral collapse, Mr. Wilson published When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor, in which he argued that much of the social disruption among African-Americans popularly attributed to collapsing values was actually caused by a lack of blue-collar jobs in urban areas. If he was right, you would expect something similar to happen if another social group—say, working-class whites—experienced a comparable loss of economic opportunity. And so it has. So we should reject the attempt to divert the national conversation away from soaring inequality toward the alleged moral failings of those Americans being left behind.

pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

Urban Relocations Three hundred years ago: UN Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2001 Revision (New York, 2002). 11 million Americans: David Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen, The American Pageant: A History of the American People, 15th (AP) edition (Cengage Learning, 2013), pp. 539–540. The rest of the world wasn’t far behind: Mike Davis, Planet of Slums (Verso, 2006). “hyper-city,” a locale with a population above 20 million: Ibid, p. 5. By 2050: UN Population Division, World Urbanization. professor Richard Florida: Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis (Basic Books, 2017). See also: Richard Florida, “The Roots of the New Urban Crisis,” Citylab, April 9, 2017, In 2016, the Brookings Institute: Jesus Leal Trijullo and Joseph Parilla, “Redefining Global Cities: The Seven Types of Global Metro Economies,” Global Cities Initiative, 2016. See: the National Bureau of Economic Research: Edward L.

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Just as stories about life in the 1950s reveal the emptiness and sham of stories around the wonderful things that flow from higher mobility so the same stories tell us that there are many examples of sustainable cities and child friendly cities and they did exist and we did destroy them. If we really do want to restore this kind of world with all its benefits we can only do so if we redefine our love affair with mobility, redefine it as an historical blip, show how lower mobility produces magnified benefits and embed 21st century “new” urban thinking in a strong low mobility context. That is the objective of this book. During the development of these ideas in the next 14 chapters it will be important to keep uppermost in our minds the very clear implication of “low mobility”. Low mobility is a decoupling concept. This book argues that we must decouple mobility from its association with progress, happiness and quality of life. The consumption of ever-increasing amounts of distance does not increase happiness or improve quality of life and is associated with a growing list of negative consequences.

This will not “sit well” with the world view of most of us in 2015 but the point of this book is to demonstrate that a low mobility world has a great deal to offer and its opposite is a logical impossibility. We cannot accommodate an annual average percentage increase in distance travelled for all 7 billion of us so we may as well start explaining, designing and delivering a low mobility alternative. It could not be clearer that most governmental statements in the UK about new urban design or so-called “active” transport (this means walking and cycling) are meaningless unless we engineer this paradigm shift from high mobility to low mobility. Such a paradigm shift also involves a shift in language. The phrase “low mobility” whilst accurately describing a world characterized by fewer kilometres travelled per person per annum fails to convey the richness of a world characterised by many more destinations opportunities within a much smaller physical area and a world where enormous amounts of time and money (and pollution) are not devoted to the business of accessing distant places.

pages: 423 words: 129,831

The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, Kickstarter, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

Interregional Highways included no maps of routes through cities, and no description of them beyond a catalog of possibilities, because the problems of extending four- and six-lane highways through dense settlement were simply too complicated and too local to generalize—besides which, it was a decision best made by the states and municipal authorities. " How near they should come to the center of the area, how they should pass it or pass through it, and by what courses they should approach it, are matters for particular planning consideration in each city," the committee decided, though it observed that surface streets carrying the heaviest traffic loads generally " pass through or very close to the existing central business areas." Fairbank again did most, if not all, of the writing, and this time his passages on urban expressways included a cautionary note. However they were located, the new urban highways would do more than simply carry traffic; they would be " a powerful influence in shaping the city," the report predicted, and " should be located so as to promote a desirable development or at least to support a natural development rather than to retard or to distort the evolution of the city. " In favorable locations, the new facilities, which as a matter of course should be designed for long life, will become more and more useful as time passes; improperly located, they will become more and more of an encumbrance to the city's functions and an all too durable reminder of planning that was bad."

Or in the second installment, when he castigated highway engineers for behaving "as if motor transportation existed in a social vacuum" and "building more roads, bridges, and tunnels so that more motorcars may travel more quickly to more remote destinations in more chaotic communities, from which more roads will be built so that more motorists may escape from these newly soiled and clotted environments." "Our transportation experts are only expert whittlers," he wrote, "and the proof of it is that their end product is not a new urban form but a scattered mass of human shavings. Instead of curing congestion, they widen chaos." Or in the series' third part, where he pointed out that the "fancy cures that the experts have offered for New York's congestion are based on the innocent notion that the problem can be solved by increasing the capacity of the existing traffic routes, multiplying the number of ways of getting in and out of town, or providing more parking space for cars," when the reality was that the city screamed for redesign and the dispersal of its crowd-generating employers, stores, and public amenities.

"In the utopia that highway engineers have been busily bulldozing into existence, no precinct of the city and no part of the surrounding countryside are to remain inaccessible to automobile traffic on a large scale," he wrote. "As a formula for defacing the natural landscape and ruining what is left of our great cities, nothing could be more effective." *** The most surprising critic of the new urban highways was the man who'd spurred their financing. It's hard to imagine how Dwight Eisenhower could have been unaware that the interstate system was designed to venture into cities, what with all the fuss in San Francisco, the controversies unfolding in Baltimore and other towns, and newspaper chatter on the paths of proposed freeways just blocks from the White House—not to mention that he'd signed the 1956 act and presumably read something about it beforehand.

pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

The reason that the world’s rural people are moving into cities is that they can make more money in town. This is partly because of the described growth of urban economies, and partly because demand for farm labor falls as agriculture commercializes, mechanizes, and becomes export-oriented. Worldwide employment in agriculture is falling fast and in 2006, for the first time ever, it was surpassed by employment in the services sector.46 And because every new urban resident is also a new urban consumer, the cycle is self-reinforcing. More urbanites buy more electronics, services, and imported processed food, prepared and served to them by others. More entry-level jobs for new migrants are created. More managerial posts are needed. Ladders rise and the urban economy grows .47 This urban shift is driving major demographic changes around the globe. City dwellers are projected to roughly double in number by 2050, rising from 3.3 billion in 2007 to 6.4 billion in 2050.48 However, the geography of this is not uniform.

Under the conservative ground rules of our thought experiment, it’s hard to envision how so many problems can be eliminated overnight. By 2050 I imagine much of sub-Saharan Africa—the cradle of our species—to be a dilapidated, crowded, and dangerous place. Shifting Economic Power Not only is the geography of the world’s urban population shifting, so also is its wealth. The economic impact of nearly two billion new urban consumers in Asia has not gone unexamined by economists. Unlike the situation in Africa, there is every indication that the rising Asian cities will be modern, globalized, and prosperous. In a thoughtful, forward-looking assessment the U.S. National Intelligence Council writes:65 The international system—as constructed following the Second World War—will be almost unrecognizable by 2025. . . .

pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

For Chicago, with its famously divided segments, its infamous segregation, and its stark inequality, is not only the quintessential American city of extremes. It is also the city in and through which scholars founded and developed the American approach to urban studies, creating an agenda for investigation in the urban environment that shaped much of twentieth-century urban social science. Although in recent decades scholars associated with the new urban sociology have levied compelling criticisms of the Chicago school’s “urban ideology”—most notably its failure to call attention to the political and economic production of inequality and domination in the city—the Chicago techniques for exploring the social fabric of the city offer rich possibilities for discovery. The marks of both the first and second waves of the Chicago school are evident throughout this analysis of the heat wave: the case study; the emphasis on physical and social space; the focus on community and public life; the investigation of ethnoracial differentiation; and the assessment of the city as a total social system—all at the heart of the Chicago school problematic—are central to this project.

The Challenger launch decision: Risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Velkoff, Victoria, and Valerie Lawson. 1998. International brief: Gender and aging: caregiving. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Venkatesh, Sudhir. 2001. Chicago’s pragmatic planners: American sociology and the myth of community. Social Science History 25, no. 2:276–317. Wacquant, Loïc 1994. The new urban color line: The state and fate of the ghetto in PostFordist America. In Social theory and the politics of identity, edited by Craig Calhoun. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. . 1996. The rise of advanced marginality: Notes on its nature and implications. Acta Sociologica 39:121–39. . 1997a. For an analytic of racial domination. Political Power and Social Theory 2:221–34. . 1997b. Three pernicious premises in the study of the U.S. ghetto.

Exploring the foundations of social inquiry, edited by Charles Ragin and Howard Becker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Williams, Raymond. [1974] 1992. Television: Technology and Cultural Form. London: Fontana. Reprint, Middleton, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press. Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. . 1996. When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Alfred Knopf. Wirth, Louis, and Eleanor Bernert. 1949. Local community fact book of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wolf, Jacquelyn, Naomi Breslau, Amasa Ford, Henry Ziegler, and Anna Ward. 1983. Distance and contacts: Interactions of black urban elderly adults with family and friends. Journal of Gerontology 38:465–71. Wuthnow, Robert. 1998. Loose connections: Joining together in America’s fragmented communities.

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

New York City’s economy alone is larger than most of sub-Saharan Africa’s. Port cities and entrepôts such as Dubai act like twenty-first-century Venice: They are “free zones” where products are efficiently re-exported without the hassles of government red tape. Such mega-cities as Rio, Istanbul, Cairo, Mumbai, Nairobi, and Manila are the leading urban centers of their countries and regions, yet each teems with hundreds of thousands of new urban squatters each year. The migrant underclass lives not in chaos and “shadow economies” but often in functional, self-organizing ecosystems, the typical physical stratification of medieval cities. Whether rich or poor, cities, more than nations, are the building blocks of global activity today. Our world is more a network of villages than it is one global village. Alliances of these agile cities, like the medieval Hanseatic League of the Baltic Sea, are forming.

.: Brookings Institution Press, 2007. Moss, Todd J. African Development: Making Sense of the Issues and Actors. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2007. Mueller, John. The Remnants of War. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2004. Munzele Maimbo, Samuel, and Dilip Ratha, eds. Remittances: Development Impact and Future Prospects. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2005. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2006. Newman, Edward, Ramesh Thakur, and John Tirman. Multilateralism Under Challenge? Power, International Order, and Structural Change. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2006. Nicolson, Harold. Diplomacy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1939. ———. The Evolution of Diplomatic Method. London: Cassell, 1954. Nilekani, Nandan. Imagining India: The Idea of a Renewed Nation.

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The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

For increasing numbers of people, gone were the days when your house was but one part of the complex that included your barn, your fields, your stables, or your orchards. If your job was in a factory or in some retail concern in the city, “work” was now a place to go to, a separate world outside the home. Cities became more differentiated into areas for working, living, and shopping. Driving this evolution was the rise of the factory as the center of economic life. “The main elements in this new urban complex,” wrote the fabled urbanist Lewis Mumford, “were the factory, the railroad and the slum…. The factory became the nucleus of this new organism. Everything else was subordinate to it.”10 Early factories were concentrated in and around the core of the city. But as the scale of production grew larger, some moved to the outskirts of towns where larger plots of land could be assembled. Pittsburgh’s steel industry, for example, developed along its three great rivers.

Pittsburgh suffered for two decades, “its wounds salved by the Steelers and other local sports teams, but the pain was very real,” he says. The lesson from this, he continues, is to pick yourself up and get back to work. Don’t expect the federal government or anyone else to save your city or bring back your industries. “It is that the old world will inevitably disappear, and that creating a new one is up to you, not someone else.” One response to the problems of rusted-out industrial cities such as Detroit has been a new urban reclamation effort called “shrinking cities.”19 The idea, perhaps inspired by Pittsburgh, has caught on in smaller cities in the American Midwest, such as Youngstown, Ohio, and Flint, Michigan, and their European counterparts. The basic notion is that older industrial cities need not grow to improve. They can be better places by making do with less, by focusing on improvements in the quality of life for their residents, and by bringing their level of infrastructure and housing into line with their smaller populations.

pages: 246 words: 76,561

Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus

The Curitiba experience was highly influential on Mayor Enrique Peñalosa’s implementation of the TransMilenio bus service in Bogotá, just as Antanas Mockus’s programme of civic education in Bogotá helped pave the way for the rehabilitation of the public realm that was so transformative in Medellín. This exchange of ideas between Brazil and Colombia, along with the unexpected use of cable car systems in the slums of Caracas, Medellín and now Rio, and the experimental housing methods introduced in Chile and Argentina, are all evidence of a continent-wide programme of reform. They also amount to a new urban repertoire. If there is one area where the Latin American experience contains a global lesson, however, it is in its attitude to the informal city. What do we mean by ‘informal’? The short answer is slums. The slums are not defined as informal because they have no form, but because they exist outside the legal and economic protocols that shape the formal city. But slums are far from chaotic. They may lack essential services yet they operate under their own self-regulating systems, housing millions of people in tight-knit communities and proving a crucial device for accessing the opportunities that cities offer.

The outside of Merwill’s apartment is lined with fake bricks, like a suburban semi, and there’s a bulbous ‘pigeon-chest’ grill over the window. Inside it’s fairly large, until you realise that nine people live here. Merwill’s own bedroom is tiny, with just a single bed on which he, his girlfriend and their son sleep. His parents are in another room, his sister and her daughter are in another, and his brother and his girlfriend are in another. ‘This is normal for 23,’ he says. Merwill, who is thirty-one and works for Avila TV, a new ‘urban’ station that frequently airs programmes about life in the barrios, grew up around drugs and violence. There used to be twenty-five other kids in this block of his age, but most of them were killed. Getting into music saved him, he says. 23 is famous for its music. Several renowned salsa musicians live here. First and foremost, though, it is notorious as a stronghold of radical left-wing politics.

pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

In Chicago it was nearly 19 percent. 23 In the 1980s many of the nation's northern cities partially revived by becoming hubs for the new information economy. Scores of downtown areas made the transition from "centers of production and distribution of material goods to centers of administration, information exchange and higher order service provision."24 The emerging knowledge-based industries have meant increased jobs for highskilled white collar and service workers. For large numbers of AfricanAmericans, however, the new urban renaissance has only served to accentuate the ever widening employment and income gap between highly educated whites and poor unskilled blacks. The only Significant rise in employment among black Americans in the past twenty-five years has been in the public sector: more than 55 percent of the net increase in employment for blacks in the 1960s and 1970S occurred there. 25 Many black professionals found jobs in the federal programs spawned by the Great Society initiatives of President Lyndon Johnson.

Millions of unskilled workers and their families became part of what social historians now call an underclass-a permanently unemployed part of the population whose unskilled labor is no longer required and who live hand-to-mouth, generation-to-generation, as wards of the state. A second smaller group of black middle-class professionals have been put on the public payroll to administer the many publicassistance programs designed to assist this new urban underclass. The system represents a kind of "welfare colonialism" say authors Michael Brown and Steven Erie, "where blacks were called upon to administer their own state of dependence."28 It is possible that the country might have taken greater notice of the impact that automation was having on black America in the 1960s and 1970s, had not a significant number of Mrican-Americans been absorbed into public-sector jobs.

Notes 303 21. Judis, John, "The Jobless Recovery," The New Republic, March 15, 1993, p. 20. 22. Boggs, James, "The Negro and Cybernation," in Lauda, Donald P., Advancing Technology: Its Impact on Society (Dubuque: W. G Brown Company, 1971) p. 154. 23. Wilson, Declining SignifICance of Race, pp. 111-112. 24. Kasarda, John D., "Urban Change and Minority Opportunities," in Peterson, Paul E., ed., The New Urban Reality (Washington D.G: The Brookings Instutition, 1985), p. 33· 25. Brown, Michael, and Erie, Steven, "Blacks and the Legacy of the Great Society," Public Policy, vol. 29, #3, Summer 1981, p. 305. 26. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population, 1960 and 1970, Subject Reports, Occupational Characteristics, in Wilson, William Julius, Declining Significance of Race, p. 103. 27. Lemann, p. 201. 28.

pages: 428 words: 134,832

Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

“Debunking Cato: Why Portland Works Better than the Analysis of Its Chief Neo-Libertarian Critic.” Congress for the New Urbanism, McNichol, Dan. The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the U.S. Interstate System. New York: Sterling, 2006. Mirk, Sarah. “The Dead Freeways Society: The Strange History of Portland’s Unbuilt Roads.” Portland Mercury, September 24, 2009. Montgomery, Charles. “Futureville.” Canadian Geographic, May/June 2006. Moses, Robert. “Portland Improvement.” &c=44077, 1943. Palahniuk, Chuck. Fugitives & Refugees: A Walk in Portland, Oregon. New York: Crown Journeys, 2003. Ozawa, Connie, ed. The Portland Edge. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004. Pobodnik, Bruce. “Assessing the Social and Environmental Achievements of New Urbanism: Evidence from Portland, Oregon.”

A slow-motion exodus from cities began when old, coherent neighborhoods were divided and degraded by on-ramps and overpasses, and highways were cut into the living tissue of the metropolis. By diminishing public space, the automobile has made once great cities terrible places to live. This book also tells the story of some very good ideas. Around the world, energetic and idealistic people are working hard to reclaim neighborhoods once left for dead. The movement goes under a variety of names: transit-oriented development, smart growth, new urbanism. In the wrong mouths, these are just buzzwords; in the wrong hands, they can serve as the justification for boondoggles as bad as any hastily thrown-up boomburg. But the advocates of livable cities and walkable small towns may be on to something—by investing in development that includes well-conceived transit, we can create more sustainable and, crucially, more civil communities. A caveat for readers: I am not a rail fan, a juicehead, or an aficionado of doodlebugs.

pages: 58 words: 18,747

The Rent Is Too Damn High: What to Do About It, and Why It Matters More Than You Think by Matthew Yglesias

Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, land reform, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism,, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, statistical model, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence

The ability of real estate developers to ride the currents of supply and demand ensures that land should always be a low portion of overall housing costs. According to Shiller, this tendency makes the land speculation issue a red herring in terms of house prices: “There will be a natural process of finding ways to build homes on less land, or less expensive land. This can be achieved either through building higher-density housing, such as more and taller apartment buildings or infill development in urban centers, or founding new urban areas.” Indeed, the United States still has plenty of empty space. So one could always respond to complaints about the rent being too high by suggesting that you move or build elsewhere. The rent may be too damn high in Santa Monica and Seattle, but it’s a good deal cheaper in Sioux Falls. Different pieces of land have different characteristics. The weather is different. The amenities are different.

pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

The majority of poor people, like the largest chunk of the overall metropolitan population, live in the suburbs, but on a percentage basis the concentration of poverty remains far greater in the central cities.39 Uncool Cities These statistics undermine the optimistic spin on urban renaissance, as the rise of the creative-class strategy has proven ineffective in reversing urban poverty. University of British Columbia’s Jamie Peck has described the current fashion of focusing on hipsters and the affluent as a “biscotti and circuses” approach that exacerbates poverty and inequality in urban centers.40 “To put it in political speak,” notes urban thinker Aaron Renn, “the creative class doesn’t have much in the way of coattails.” The new urbanism is a new, and equally ineffective, form of “trickle-down economics.” Even Florida, the guru of the “creative class,” admits that the benefits of the urban strategies he advocates “flow disproportionately to more highly-skilled knowledge, professional, and creative workers.” Yet many cities, including some unlikely cultural centers such as Detroit or Cleveland, have adopted the idea that sponsoring artists and “hip” urbanism are the keys to civic success.41 It seems clear that the current recipe for urban growth is destined to preserve and expand inequality, largely ignoring the needs of the lower and working classes.

James Howard Kunstler, The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the 21st Century (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005), p. 3. 80. James Howard Kunstler, “The Ghastly Tragedy of the Suburbs,” TED2004 Conference, February 2004,; Leslee Goodman, “The Decline and Fall of the Suburban Empire,” interview with James Howard Kunstler, The Sun (magazine), October 2009, issue 406. 81. Irvin Dawid, “New Urbanism Examined by Time Magazine, Andrés Duany,” Planetizen, December 24, 2007,; Brian Stone, “Land Use as Climate Change Mitigation,” Environmental Science and Technology, November 12, 2009; Ronald D. Utt, “The Oberstar Transportation Plan: A Costly Exercise in Lifestyle Modification,” Heritage Foundation Web Memo, November 10, 2009. 82. Peter Calthorpe, “Urbanism in the Age of Climate Change: Urbanism Expanded,” StreetsBlogSF, February 1, 2011, 83.

pages: 281 words: 83,505

Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

Immersion in their private worlds, writes the Berkeley sociologist Claude Fischer, probably goes hand in hand with alienation from public life. Moral suasion has failed to increase our level of engagement in local institutions, where democracy takes root. But cultural values, and exhortations to change them, are not the only influences on our everyday social routines. As proponents of the New Urbanism movement have demonstrated, people with the same interest in social connection, community building, and civic participation have varying opportunities to achieve those things depending on the conditions in the places where they spend time. The social and physical environment shapes our behavior in ways we’ve failed to recognize; it helps make us who we are and determines how we live. * * * This book argues that social infrastructure plays a critical but underappreciated role in modern societies.

But the most notable improvements in academic achievement are concentrated in schools that have doubled down on the places where face-to-face interaction between teachers and students happens regularly. Small, intimate settings where people get to know one another well are not only ideal places for young people to develop skills for civic engagement and community building but also ideal places to learn. * * * In the 1980s, when American political leaders had grown anxious about a new “urban underclass” and local governments throughout the country deployed armed security guards to monitor high school campuses, public schools—particularly those in poor areas—had ceased to be ideal places for anything. With metal detectors at the gates and pass cards restricting the circulation of students, educational institutions had come to resemble prisons. And that’s where a growing number of students were heading, after failing out of schools that were set up to fail them.

pages: 280 words: 83,299

Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline by Darrell Bricker, John Ibbitson

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump,, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

Economist, 30 April 2016. 278  World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2014). 279 Ibid. 280 Ibid. 281 Howard French, “How Africa’s New Urban Centers Are Shifting Its Old Colonial Boundaries,” Atlantic, 1 July 2013. 282  World Population Prospects, 2017 Revision (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division, 2017). 283 “China vs. United States,” Index Mundi, 2017. 284 Branko Milanović, “Inequality in the United States and China,” Harvard Business Review, 17 January 2014. 285 Feng Wang, “China’s Population Destiny: The Looming Crisis,” Brookings, 30 September 2010. 286 Joan Kaufman, “China Now Has the Lowest Fertility Rate in the World,” National Interest, 1 December 2016.

pages: 310 words: 85,995

The Future of Capitalism: Facing the New Anxieties by Paul Collier

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, bonus culture, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, centre right, Commodity Super-Cycle, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, greed is good, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, negative equity, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, too big to fail, trade liberalization, urban planning, web of trust, zero-sum game

Despite their high estimate of their moral self-worth, this proposal for an ethically just and economically efficient tax is likely to be greeted with self-righteous outrage. But recall, since we are taxing economic rents, the predictable arguments about disincentives and desert are self-serving: prepare for an avalanche of ‘motivated reasoning’. Taxation is not only analytically warranted: it is a fitting response to the new urban arrogance. REGENERATING PROVINCIAL CITIES: ‘SHACKLED TO A CORPSE’? How can cities like Sheffield, Detroit and Stoke be revived? The purpose of taxing the metropolis is not to finance welfare benefits for the inhabitants of these places, but to meet the costs of restoring them as clusters of productive work. As we have seen, the market will not replace a broken cluster with a new one; instead, the city fills up piecemeal with low-productivity activities.

., and DeScioli, P. (2014), ‘The psychology of coordination and common knowledge’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, pp. 657–76. Towers, A., Williams, M. N., Hill, S. R., Philipp, M. C., and Flett, R. (2016), ‘What makes the most intense regrets? Comparing the effects of several theoretical predictors of regret intensity’. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, p. 1941. Venables, A. J. (2018a), ‘Gainers and losers in the new urban world’. In E. Glaeser, K. Kourtit and P. Nijkamp (eds.), Urban Empires. Abingdon: Routledge. Venables, A. J. (2018b), ‘Globalisation and urban polarisation’, Review of International Economics (in press). Wilson, T. D. (2011), Redirect: Changing the Stories We Live By. London: Hachette UK. Wolf, A. (2013), The XX Factor: How the Rise of Working Women has Created a Far Less Equal World. New York: Crown.

pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation,, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The takeaway lesson is that a democratic form of self-management and governance designed to pool and share “commons” resources proved to be a resilient economic model for surviving a despotic feudal system that kept people locked in bondage. The great Enclosure Movements across Europe that led to the downfall of feudal society, the rise of the modern market economy, and eventually the capitalist system, put an end to rural commons but not the sharing spirit that animated them. Peasant farmers took their lessons learned to the new urban landscapes where they faced an equally imposing foe in the form of factory overlords of the industrial revolution. Urban workers and an emerging middle class, like their peasant serf forbearers, pooled their common resources—this time in the form of wages and labor skills—and created new kinds of self-governing Commons. Charitable societies, schools, hospitals, trade unions, cooperatives, and popular cultural institutions of all kinds began to take root and flourish, creating the foundation for what came to be known as the civil society in the nineteenth century.

This period saw the flowering of what historians call the Northern Renaissance—an awakening of the arts, literature, scientific experimentation, and exploration of new worlds. By the late medieval era, more than a thousand towns had sprung up across Europe, each bustling with economic activity. Aside from providing granaries, lodging, and shops, these urban centers became the gathering place for craftsmen of all stripes and shades. These new urban jurisdictions were often called free cities, as they were deemed independent of the reach of local lords. For example, it was customary practice that if a serf were to escape the feudal commons and take refuge in a nearby town for a year and a day, he would be deemed free, having safely left one jurisdiction and taken up residence in another.21 The craftsmen in the new towns organized themselves into guilds by trade—metalworkers, weavers and dyers, armorers, masons, broiders and glaziers, scriveners, hatters, and upholsterers—in order to establish quality standards for their goods, set fixed prices for their products, and determine how much to produce.

Private property exchanged in the market economy was henceforth “taken for granted as the fundamentals upon which social organization was to be based, and about which no further argument was admissible.”7 Max Weber was even more harsh, arguing that the replacement of spiritual values with economic ones in the changeover from a Christian-centered universe to a materialist one represented “the disenchantment of the world.”8 In fairness, it should be noted that despite the terrible toll in human suffering brought on by the enclosure of the commons and the letting loose of millions of peasants from their ancestral land to make their own way in a new urban world not yet ready to absorb their labor, the shift to a market economy did eventually improve the lot of the average person in ways that would be unfathomable to families living on the feudal commons. The shift from a purely market-exchange economy in the late medieval era to a capitalist economy by the mid-nineteenth century posed serious problems in regard to the notion of property. Recall Locke’s natural right theory that what a person adds to nature by his own labor belongs to him alone in the form of private property.

pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Some of these installations, including one in Dallas, have subsequently been sanctioned and made permanent. And of course, costs are relative. The American health crisis is predicted to be the single greatest drag on the nation’s economy in the decades ahead. We’ve watched for years as our investments in medicine have principally made medicine more expensive. It’s time to invest in walking. * * * Notes 1. L. Frank, keynote (18th national conference of the Congress for the New Urbanism, Atlanta, May 2010). 2. J. Gehl, Cities for People (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2010), 111. 3. N. Peirce, “Biking and Walking, Our Secret Weapon?,”, July 16, 2009. 4. T. Gotschi and K. Mills, Active Transportation for America (Washington, D.C.: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2008), 44. 5. E. Kolbert, “XXXL: Why Are We So Fat?,” The New Yorker, July 20, 2009. 6. Ibid. 7. Peirce. 8.

pages: 91 words: 24,469

The Once and Future Liberal: After Identity Politics by Mark Lilla

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Gordon Gekko, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley

They had fewer siblings, so they got used to spending a lot of time alone or being ferried around in SUVs outfitted to withstand Operation Desert Storm. They lived in actual or de facto gated communities where they never learned to take a stroll and meet people, and where the sight of a lone child walking to school would bring concerned calls to the police, who would scold the parents for taking such a risk. Eventually the kids went to college, often far away, and after graduation joined the new urban class of independent twenty- and thirtysomethings with no responsibilities to anyone but themselves. They visited their parents and siblings on rushed visits over the holidays; otherwise they just kept in contact online. Until they finally got married, moved to the suburbs, and the whole cycle began again. We have become a hyperindividualistic bourgeois society, materially and in our cultural dogmas.

pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Dean Kamen, digital map, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

Those newly free-floating laborers became another, equally essential, energy source for the Industrial Revolution, filling its cities and coketowns with a nearly inexhaustible supply of cheap labor. In a sense, the Industrial Revolution would have never happened if two distinct forms of energy had not been separated from the earth: coal and commoners. The dramatic increase of people available to populate the new urban spaces of the Industrial Age may have had one other cause: tea. The population growth during the first half of the eighteenth century neatly coincided with the mass adoption of tea as the de facto national beverage. (Imports grew from six tons at the beginning of the century to eleven thousand at the end.) A luxury good at the start of the century, tea had become a staple even of working-class diets by the 1850s.

London Labour and the London Poor. New York: Penguin, 1985. Mekalanos, J. J., E. J. Rubin, and M. K. Waldor. “Cholera: Molecular Basis for Emergence and Pathogenesis.” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 18 (1997): 241–48. Mumford, Lewis. The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations and Its Prospects. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2005. Nightingale, Florence. Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1992. Owen, David. “Green Manhattan.” The New Yorker, October 18, 2004. Paneth, Nigel. “Assessing the Contributions of John Snow to Epidemiology: 150 Years After Removal of the Broad Street Pump Handle.” Epidemiology 15 (2004): 514–16. Picard, Liza. Victorian London: The Life of a City, 1840–1870.

pages: 286 words: 95,372

The Fields Beneath: The History of One London Village by Gillian Tindall

ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, means of production, New Urbanism, profit motive, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Davenport, urban sprawl

The population of London increased six-fold during the century and by the 1870s the great majority of adult Londoners had not been born in London. They had come there, and had changed it from a basically traditional city ringed with semi-rural suburbs into a vast metropolis stretching for mile after unchanging mile, a phenomenon then unique in the world. Only in the twentieth century have other countries emulated it. It seemed as if the creation of this new urban habitat, once started, could not be stopped, however much people might lament the loss of the landscapes of their youth. And people did lament. Typical of many was the florid complaint of one Edwin Roffe, who grew up among leaves and streams such as Crosby depicted, but in middle age found himself in a different world: Bricks! are becoming the bane of the Pancredgian being … In Oak Village there is not even a sapling of that sturdy representative of English hearts to be found.

Some people thought they were Maoists and others that, on the contrary, they were not all that different in their basic attitudes from the Mission Hall clergymen of a hundred years ago. But nearly everyone was pleased when, in 1974, they succeeded in opening a riding stable, allotments and a miniature ‘farm’ (goats, chickens, a donkey, a calf) on a segment of railway land with old stabling and stock sheds. It was an inspired idea. As a symbol of the new urban peasantry, as a focus for the idea of the village that lurks disguised in city streets and as a means of creating a sense of the revival of the lost past, it could not be bettered. Look, it seemed to be saying, the fields are not only sleeping underneath: they are here, exposed once again, with people working in them, tending animals, learning about real things, doing things instead of gazing into shop windows and television sets.

pages: 291 words: 88,879

Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone by Eric Klinenberg

big-box store, carbon footprint, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Or does it represent a more risky and adventurous lifestyle, one best suited for those who are willing to continually put themselves on the line? Some questions are sociological: Does living alone mean something different now that we’re hyperconnected, through cell phones, social media, and the like? Has the fast growth of living alone among young adults led them to prioritize their personal development and avoid participating in communities and groups? Or has it paved the way for new “urban tribes” to replace the traditional families that, as so many of us know from experience, often break apart? Do the social networks formed by contemporary solo dwellers survive when participants marry, move, grow old, or become ill? If not, what happens to those who stay on their own? Some questions are political: Will the growing ranks of people who live alone develop a collective identity and, as some prominent strategists believe, establish themselves as a lobbying group or voting bloc?

Most of all, she gained privacy, and with that the freedom to experience a more adventurous, libidinous life. The single girl “has a better sex life than most of her married friends,” Brown claimed (albeit without providing any evidence). “She need never be bored with one man per lifetime. Her choice of partners is endless and they seek her.”22 The private apartment, writes the literature scholar Sharon Marcus, became a powerful symbol of the new urban culture during the 1960s because it “offered the single girl an eroticized arena in which to exercise her creativity and promote her own creative comforts.”23 But few single women expected to maintain this arena for long. Brown, after all, proposed living alone not as a means to subverting marriage but rather as a means to improving it. “Serving time as a single woman,” she counseled, “can give you the foundation for a better marriage if you finally go that route.”

pages: 347 words: 86,274

The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion by Virginia Postrel

Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, factory automation, Frank Gehry, indoor plumbing, job automation, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, washing machines reduced drudgery, young professional

If she could but stroll up yon broad walk, cross that rich entrance way . . . how quickly would sadness flee; how, in an instant, would the heartache end.”33 In the great commercial city, glamour expanded beyond the subjects of epic poetry, history paintings, and theatrical tragedy—grand and fraught with moral significance—to the more intimate seductions of lyrics and novels, portraits and domestic scenes, comedy and melodrama. The pursuit of happiness largely superseded the pursuit of immortality. Here emerged the culture that fostered what Colin Campbell calls “modern, self-illusory hedonism.” Contemplating the future enjoyment of goods and experiences became one of the “pleasures of the imagination,” a characteristic eighteenth-century expression. This new urban glamour was more banal than its predecessors, but also more benign. It could therefore appeal to a vastly larger audience. Among the objects of glamour was the city itself, as seen or imagined from afar. Considered at a distance, the great metropolis shimmered in the imagination like the Emerald City rising before Dorothy and her companions—the representation of all that was marvelous, mysterious, and missing from the audience’s life.

Orson Welles and Peter Bogdanovich, This Is Orson Welles (New York: Da Capo Press, 1998) p. 401. 2. Lynn Pan, Shanghai Style: Art and Design between the Wars (South San Francisco, CA: Long River Press, 2008) p. 127. The story, titled “Country Scenes,” was originally published in the February 1935 issue of Art and Literature Pictorial. 3. For an extensive discussion of Francophile intellectuals in Shanghai, see Leo Ou-fan Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930–1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999). 4. Pan Ling, In Search of Old Shanghai (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1982) p. 58. Pan is better known under the English version of her name. 5. Dany Chen, “A Curator’s Notes—Women in Shanghai, Part 1,” Asian Art Museum Blog, April 29, 2010, 6.

pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

On the queen’s health, safety, and reproductive capacity the continued existence of the hive does in fact depend. Here and only here, does one find such organized collective aggression by a specialized military force as one finds first in the ancient cities.” Mumford, 1961, 46. This constitutes one: Information about the history of Manchester from Marcus, 5–6. “From this foul”: Quoted in Marcus, 15. “Considering this new urban area on its lowest physical terms, without reference to its social facilities or its culture, it is plain that never before in recorded history had such vast masses of people lived in such a savagely deteriorated environment, ugly in form, debased in content. The galley slaves of the Orient, the wretched prisoners in the Athenian silver mines, the depressed proletariat in the insulae of Rome—these classes had known, no doubt, a comparable foulness; but never before had human blight so universally been accepted as normal: normal and inevitable.”

The Language of Genes: Solving the Mysteries of Our Genetic Past, Present and Future. New York and London: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1993. Joyce, James. Ulysses. New York: Vintage, 1986. Karsai, Istvan, and John W. Wenzel. “Productivity, individual-level and colony-level flexibility, and organization of work as consequences of colony size.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (1998): 8665–69. Katz, Peter. The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Kauffman, Stuart. At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1994. Kelso, J. A. Scott. Dynamic Patterns: The Self-Organization of Brain and Behavior.

pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The development of canals and railroads meant that shipping goods inland from the Eastern seaboard ports, which had been almost impossible in the eighteenth century, now took less than a week.6 Americans could communicate with unprecedented ease due to the development of the telegraph and the steam-powered printing press.7 The rate of growth of gross domestic product per capita doubled from 0.5 percent per year to almost 1 percent per year. At the same time, the concentration of populations in new urban areas presented problems of crowding, disease, lack of clean water, and lack of sanitation.8 The demand for, and possibility of producing, ever more cotton with slave labor led to the physical expansion of the United States. It also led to the increasing significance of the United States in the share of the world’s cotton production. From 1791 to 1851, the cotton production of the United States expanded from 469 million bales to 2.5 billion bales, and from less than 1 percent of the world production of that staple to 67 percent.

But he chalked these up to the pernicious impact of poverty and racism; “If all the laws were framed to provide equal opportunity, a majority of the Negroes would not be able to take full advantage of the change. There would still be a vast, silent, and automatic system directed against men and women of color,” he wrote.33 Not everyone agreed that the causes of African American poverty were environmental rather than internal. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s report The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965) sparked a debate about the social pathologies of the new “urban underclass.” The report, which at least in part blamed female-led families, single mothers, and welfare dependency for black urban poverty, produced an uproar because it was viewed as both patronizing and incorrect. Moynihan hoped that following his prescriptions would lead to a greater focus on providing jobs for African American men and increase the number of families with two parents, but his ideas were lost in the controversy over affixing blame.34 WAR ON POVERTY The discourse on inequality in the 1960s coincided with, and encouraged, major government efforts to counter its effects.

pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser,, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

As Jennifer Williams, the former ballet dancer and co-founder of Pop Physique, remarked of her time as an instructor at The Bar Method, initially she wore nondescript workout clothing, but in the early 2000s, as she taught barre class in San Francisco, Williams noticed, “Every woman in the class had those pants with the little symbol. I realized ‘I have to have those pants.’” Those pants, Lululemon’s Groove Pant, is the signature piece of the company’s collection and materialized as the badge of the new urban conspicuous leisure. The pants are indeed very flattering (black, bellbottom style, and made of a thick spandex blend that sucks everything in). Still, the Groove Pant requires one to actually work out to look good in them and to have the financial means to purchase a pair (they sell for $100 per pair, and one presumably needs more than one pair if exercising several times a week). So in one fell swoop, the wearer of these exercise pants fully transmits the wearer’s conspicuous leisure.

Inspired by the successful rehabilitation of major metros, other smaller cities like Boulder, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis also undertook a renaissance—retrofitting industrial lofts for residential living, bringing more amenities into the city, paving bike paths and pedestrian-friendly walkways to attract members of the creative class (thought to be the lifeblood of the new economy).13 Local politicians and developers advocate for active street life, coffee shops, and live music as a part of the new urbanity. Countless new-build developments around the country in both urban and suburban areas offer residential, shopping, and restaurants as a combined experience for the consumer. While some of these developments are in downtown (Zappos’ founder Tony Hsieh’s Las Vegas Downtown Project, Chicago’s New City, or the Los Angeles Staples Center), many simply replicate the downtown experience with sidewalks, outdoor music, and cafés and apartments overlooking the “street life” (Santana Row in Silicon Valley, the Grove in Los Angeles, or the uber-luxury Bal Harbour shops in Florida).

pages: 313 words: 100,317

Berlin Now: The City After the Wall by Peter Schneider, Sophie Schlondorff

Berlin Wall, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, young professional

The sale, which was made at a time when hardly anyone believed in an imminent end to the divided state of Germany, let alone in the dissolution of the Soviet Union, was a bold—a prophetic—investment. Indeed, it was driven more by a political vision than by commercial interests. Edzard Reuter, who was the son of West Berlin’s legendary first mayor, Ernst Reuter, wanted to build not only a new Daimler headquarters here but a whole new urban area, which would—at some distant point in the future—be connected to East Berlin. Rarely has the CEO of a major group been so right about a decision that many of his business colleagues greeted with smirks. Reuter himself was surprised by how quickly his bet paid off. The plot of land, which he bought for 93 million deutsche marks, is now one of the most valuable properties in Berlin. As an unwelcome “dowry,” Reuter had also inherited Weinhaus Huth, which the city had just spent 3 million deutsche marks renovating.

Lorenzo de’ Medici, the Renaissance dreamer and statesman, experienced precisely such a magical moment. He gathered the best minds of his generation around him and, in just a few short decades, succeeded in establishing the incomparable Florence. To build a marvelous city like Florence, Piano said, you need a great deal of power, a great deal of money, but more than anything you need passion and a willingness to play hard. What worried him was the incredible speed at which new urban entities arise. In his view, the constant and worldwide revolutionizing of construction materials, computer-programmed building techniques, and new transport routes had resulted in an unprecedented acceleration of construction processes and endless possibilities. This material revolution, Piano said, virtually precluded the biological growth of cities: “This is the first time in history that you can produce an entire urban area in five to ten years.

pages: 356 words: 97,794

The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

So while the ink was still drying on the Oslo Accord, Greater Jerusalem was reinvented as an area consisting of 600 square kilometres, which included 15 per cent of the West Bank (just one block of it, Maleh Edumain, is nearly 1 per cent of the West Bank).7 Satellite settlements in areas adjacent to this new Greater Jerusalem were built with the future intention of serving as land bridges between Greater Jerusalem and the rest of the Israeli colonies in the West Bank. This expansion soon covered the ancient hills of North and East Jerusalem with a new urban sprawl of modern housing dressed up here and there with orientalist façades that resembled the very houses demolished to build these new ‘neighbourhoods’. As Eyal Weizman elucidated so clearly in his book Hollow Land, the 1968 master plan for Jerusalem was committed to both a colonial and oriental heritage dating back to the British urban planning of 1917 – with two huge differences. The British redesign and beautification of the city was not done through the demolition of old houses and the eviction of the indigenous population, and did not involve covering Greater Jerusalem with the concrete monstrosities that characterize the new Jewish ‘neighbourhoods’.8 By 2005, 200,000 Jewish settlers lived in this area.

Such a powerful tool enabled the bureaucrats to grab any land it wanted from either the West Bank or the Gaza Strip for Jewish settlement, military bases or anything else that was needed to swallow the territories, and without the people. By 1979 the area that was first confiscated for urgent military requirements had been transformed into colonies, such as Matityahu, Neve Zuf, Rimonim, Beit El, Kochav Hashahar, Alon Shevut, Elazar, Efrat, Har Gilo, Migdal Oz, Gitit, Yitav, Qiryat Arba and others. Some of them had grown into little towns and others remained small communities. This new urban sprawl served not only the purpose of territorial expansion of the Jewish State, but also provided major observation and monitoring centres in the midst of the mega-prison the Israelis had built. The Likud government did, in fact, obey one injunction by the Supreme Court that had pronounced the transformation of military bases into colonies illegal. But this first ever ruling of the court in accordance with international law did not protect the Palestinians from further pillage – it only caused a change in the method, not in the purpose, of the Israeli policies.

pages: 289

Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy by Alexandrea J. Ravenelle

"side hustle", active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Howard Zinn, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, precariat, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, very high income, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

But the freedom promised by the gig economy is often a mirage, and workers may be left feeling as though they have fewer choices than before. As part of the sharing economy’s casualization of labor, many long-held assumptions about the American workplace and the redeeming qualities of work are overturned. WORK AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CRIME OR ENABLING CRIMINAL ACTIVITY? William Julius Wilson, in When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor, writes that it’s the loss of manufacturing jobs, along with white flight from cities, that led to the deterioration of African American families and an increase in the crime rate. Without jobs, the logic goes, there are few ways to make money—and little incentive to marry. And without the social stability of marriage and work, there are fewer social controls preventing crime, both in terms of personal deterrents and “old heads” who can talk down the young men who may be considering a life of crime.1 The answer, meanwhile, is promoted in every American economic development plan: bring in industry, bring in job opportunities, and the crime rate will drop.2 The increasing employment levels of the late 1990s are even regularly offered as a reason behind the resulting crime drop.

“Airbnb: We’re Bringing ‘Economic Opportunity’ to NYC’s Black Neighborhoods.” Gothamist, April 21. Williams, Joan C., Mary Blair-Loy, and Jennifer L. Berdahl. 2013. “Cultural Schemas, Social Class, and the Flexibility Stigma.” Journal of Social Issues 69:209–34. Williams, Mike, and D.A. Farnie. 1992. Cotton Mills in Greater Manchester. Lancaster, UK: Carnegie. Wilson, William Julius. 1996. When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Vintage. Wingfield, Nick, and Mike Isaac. 2015. “Seattle Will Allow Uber and Lyft Drivers to Form Unions.” New York Times, December 14. Wise, Scott, and Jon Burkett. 2016. “‘He Was Trying to Kill Me’: Uber Driver Attacked on I-95.”, April 25. Worstall, Tim. 2016. “US Median Household Income Is Now Back to Pre-recession Peak.” Forbes, August 8. Worthman, Jenna. 2011.

pages: 162 words: 34,454

Mad Mobs and Englishmen? Myths and Realities of the 2011 Riots by Steve Reicher, Cliff Stott

Brixton riot, Deng Xiaoping, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), New Urbanism

See 219. For an account of the violence, see For a description and analysis of the faciliatory strategy, see O. Adang and C. Cuvelier, (2001) Op cit. (note 23). 220. D.O. Sears and J.B. McConahay, The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot (Boston, Mass: Houghton-Mifflin, 1973). 221. See D.O. Sears, (1994) Op cit (note 5) 222. See J. Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (London: Penguin, 1963/1964). Table of Contents Title page Copyright page Contents Acknowledgements Dedication page Preface Chapter 1: A Story Full of Sound and Fury Chapter 2: Lessons from the History of Riots Chapter 3: Understanding Urban Riots Chapter 4: Four Days in August Chapter 5: Conclusion References

pages: 335 words: 111,405

B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

It is a measure of the extent of his skill as a polemicist that he has made his position the official architectural policy of the next king of England, as well as of the mayor of Rome. Robert Stern, once a board member of the Disney Corporation, now Dean of Yale University’s School of Architecture, is the author of the introduction to Krier’s most recent book and the architect of the presidential library of George Bush the Younger in Texas. And Krier has disciples everywhere from Florida to Romania. He is the father of what his American followers like to call the New Urbanism: of which the Prince of Wales’s development project at Poundbury outside Dorchester, is the prime British example. In argument, Krier takes no prisoners, and apparently accepts no compromises. He certainly has no fear of unfashionable causes. He has written at length of his most dubious architectural hero, Albert Speer, whom he purports to see as the last great hope of classical urbanism. Speer in Krier’s eyes was the tragic victim of Nuremburg, incarcerated in Spandau because he was guilty of a passion for Doric columns.

Naturally, ‘the idea of replacing the world’s rich panoply of traditional architecture by a single international style is dangerously insane’, an observation which, given that it would be all but impossible to find anyone who would suggest such a thing, seems a little redundant. However, it is possible to see a certain family resemblance between the languid village hall in Florida designed by Krier and his work on the Italian town of Alexandria. Krier set out to provide a primer for the New Urbanism. ‘The lack of clarity in the vocabulary, the mixing-up of terms, and the extensive use of meaningless professional jargon stand in the way of clear architectural and environmental thinking … I shall now define some of the main concepts and notions.’ Pay attention at the back: ‘The terms “modern” and “modernist” are regularly confused. The former has a chronological meaning … the latter is an ideological designation,’ he points out, to demonstrate that he is no hopeless reactionary but is perfectly ready to accept fast cars, and to deftly sketch in a silver-hulled, four-turbo prop-engine Super Constellation in the skies over his scheme for the completion of Washington, rendered in the grandest classical manner, a style that President Lindbergh would have warmed to as he took over the country in Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America.

pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

affirmative action, British Empire, coherent worldview, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

The ascendancy of the northeastern region of the United States ended in the second half of the twentieth century, as manufacturing centers like Pittsburgh and Detroit withered and as cities in other regions such as Atlanta, Houston, Phoenix, and San Diego surged, becoming hubs of information technology, aerospace, the military, and leisure activities. By 1990 only four of the ten largest cities—and none of the fastest-growing ones—were located in the northeast.47 New York City remained the primary economic center of the nation, but decentralization brought new urban rivalries. Because New York comprised a decreasing share of the U.S. population and was remote from the fastest-growing regions of the country, its manufacturers and retailers were at a disadvantage in serving national markets. And while the damage to the New York City corporate headquarters complex slowed after the 1970s, the enlargement of southern and western cities offered corporations more alternatives to Manhattan for their home office sites.48 Great wealth became more broadly dispersed.

Social Register Association, Social Register, New York, 1949, (New York: Social Register Association, 1948). 93. N = 201. Ibid. 94. N = 338, HHEP. 95. This residential pattern of a new uptown neighborhood arising simultaneously with new suburbs was not unique to New York. In Pittsburgh in the 1880s and 1890s, some upper-class families moved from their old quarters downtown and in Allegheny City to new urban neighborhoods in the East End of the city that boasted large houses and mansions positioned closely together on rectilinear blocks. At the same time, others relocated to Sewickley, an upper-class railroad suburb. In Boston, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, Buffalo, New Orleans, and Milwaukee, urban upper-class residential districts survived until at least the mid-twentieth century, even as elite suburbs sprouted on the outskirts.

., 343 Knickerbocker Club, 201 Knickerbocker Greys, 321–22 Knox, General Henry, 42–43, 68 Ladies’ Mile, 212–14, 213 Lafayette Place-Bond Street neighborhood, 110–12, 111, 116–17 Laight, William E., 105 Lamont, Thomas W., 271 late-17th-century New York, 14–15 late-18th-century New York, 66–69 late-19th-century New York. See Gilded Age (late-19th century) late-20th-century New York: accrued social power in, 329–42; antielitist turn, 316–21; apparent decline of, 311–13; economic changes in, 313–14; new urban rivalries, 314–15; responses to antielitism, 321–29; transition to modernism, 300–311 Lawrence, John L., 198–99 Lay, Julia, 136–37 Lee, Richard Henry, 68 lesser merchants, 16–17 levees, Washington’s institution of, 70, 71–73 Lewis, Sinclair, 289 liberation movements, 303 Lincoln, Abraham, 145 literary works: on the dangers of Wall Street, 93–96; histories of New York, 154–55 Liu, Alex, 354 Lives of American Merchants (Hunt), 85 Livingston, Kathryn, 326 Livingston, Maria, 52, 53 Livingston, Philip, 77 Livingston, Robert R., 45, 51 Livingston, William, 1–2, 13–14, 51–53 Livingston Manor, 52–53 Livingston party (patriots), 18, 51–53 Lodge, Abraham, 26 London Gazette, 15, 40, 367n32 Lord & Taylor’s department store, 213, 214 Lorillard, George, 97 Lorillard, Peter, 97–98 Lorillard, Pierre, IV, 289 low-income families.

pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, Corrections Corporation of America, deindustrialization, desegregation, different worldview, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

., 56; see also Julian Roberts, “Public Opinion, Crime and Criminal Justice,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol. 16, ed. Michael Tonry (University of Chicago Press, 1992). 72 Beckett, Making Crime Pay, 53, citing Executive Office of the President, Budget of the U.S. Government (1990). 73 Ibid., citing U.S. Office of the National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy (1992). 74 Ibid. 75 Ibid., 56. 76 See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1997). 77 Ibid., 31 (citing John Kasarda, “Urban Industrial Transition and the Underclass,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 501, no. 1 (1990): 26-47. 78 Ibid., 30 (citing data from the Chicago Urban Poverty and Family Life Survey conducted in 1987 and 1988). 79 Ibid., 39. 80 Ibid., 27. 81 Robert Stutman, Dead on Delivery: Inside the Drug Wars, Straight from the Street (New York: Warner Books, 1992), 142. 82 See Craig Reinarman and Harry Levine, “The Crack Attack: America’s Latest Drug Scare, 1986-1992,” in Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems (New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1995). 83 Ibid., 154. 84 Ibid., 170-71. 85 Doris Marie Provine, Unequal Under Law: Race in the War on Drugs (University of Chicago Press, 2007), 111, citing Congressional Record 132 (Sept. 24, 1986): S 13741. 86 Provine, Unequal Under Law, 117. 87 Mark Peffley, Jon Hurwitz, and Paul Sniderman, “Racial Stereotypes and Whites’ Political Views of Blacks in the Context of Welfare and Crime,” American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 1 (1997): 30-60; Martin Gilens, “Racial Attitudes and Opposition to Welfare,” Journal of Politics 57, no. 4 (1995): 994-1014; Kathlyn Taylor Gaubatz, Crime in the Public Mind (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995); and John Hurwitz and Mark Peffley, “Public Perceptions of Race and Crime: The Role of Racial Stereotypes,” American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (1997): 375-401. 88 See Frank Furstenberg, “Public Reaction to Crime in the Streets,” American Scholar 40 (1971): 601-10; Arthur Stinchcombe, et al., Crime and Punishment in America: Changing Attitudes in America (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980); Michael Corbett, “Public Support for Law and Order: Interrelationships with System Affirmation and Attitudes Toward Minorities,” Criminology 19 (1981): 337. 89 Stephen Earl Bennett and Alfred J.

., 151 65 Ibid. 66 See Musto, American Disease, 4, 7, 43-44, 219-20; and Doris Marie Provine, Unequal Under Law, 37-90 67 Eric Schlosser, “Reefer Madness,” Atlantic Monthly, Aug. 1994, 49. 68 Mauer, Race to Incarcerate, 149. 69 The most compelling version of this argument has been made by Randall Kennedy in Race, Crime and the Law (New York: Vintage Books, 1997). 70 Tracy Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences in Attitudes Toward Drug Legalization and Law Enforcement: Lessons for Federal Criminal Law,” 1 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 1 (1997): 137; Stephen Bennett and Alfred Tuchfarber, “The Social Structural Sources of Cleavage on Law and Order Policies,” American Journal of Political Science 19 (1975): 419-38; and Sandra Browning and Ligun Cao, “The Impact of Race on Criminal Justice Ideology,” Justice Quarterly 9 (Dec. 1992): 685-99. 71 Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences,” 157. 72 Glenn Loury, “Listen to the Black Community,” Public Interest, Sept. 22, 1994, 35. 73 Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences,” 160-61. 74 See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), 22, citing Delbert Elliott study. 75 Glenn C. Loury, Race, Incarceration and American Values (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 81, commentary by Tommie Shelby. 76 See Troy Duster, “Pattern, Purpose, and Race in the Drug War: The Crisis of Credibility in Criminal Justice,” in Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice , ed. Craig Reinarman and Harry G.

pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

But many activists, Follett included, treated these problematic developments as an opportu­ nity to revitalize American democracy from below. New to the post-Civil War industrial city was a growing spatial separation of work from the home, and this gave rise to a new configuration of city space, which now combined a set of predominantly industrial or commercial zones with a patchwork of specifically residential neighborhoods. Whether through settlement houses, community centers, or neighborhood organizations, the new urban residential space became a locus of intense grassroots politi­ cal activism. “We can never reform American politics from above,. . . by charters and schemes of government,” Follett warned: Political progress must be by local communities. Our municipal life will be just as strong as the strength of its parts. We shall never know how to be one of a nation until we are one of a neighborhood. . . .

South Atlantic Quarterly 104, n o . 2 (2005): 3 4 9 -5 7 . W eber, M ax . Politics as a Vocation. P hiladelphia: F ortress Press, 1965. ----------. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . N ew York: Free Press, 1964. W hyte, W illiam Foote, a n d K athleen K ing W hyte. Making Mondragon: The Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex. Ith aca, N.Y.: ILR Press, 1991. W illiam s, M ichael. Neighborhood Organization: Seeds of a New Urban Life. W estport, C onn.: G reen w o o d Press, 1985. W illiam s, R ay m o n d . “ Base an d S u p erstru ctu re in M a rx ist C ritical T heory.” In Problems in Materialism and Culture, 3 1 -4 9 . L ondon: V erso, 1980. W illiam son, Oliver. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implica­ tions. N ew York: Free Press, 1975. W illiam son, O liver E., a n d Sidney G . W inter, ed s. The Nature o f the Firm: Origins, Evolution, and Development.

pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

If there are no particularly unique features to hand, then hire some famous architect, like Frank Gehry, to build a signature building (like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao) to fill the gap.6 History, culture, uniqueness and authenticity are everywhere commodified and sold to tourists, prospective entrepreneurs and corporate heads alike, yielding monopoly rents to landed interests, property developers and speculators. The role of the class monopoly rent that is then gained from rising land values and property prices in cities like New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London and Barcelona is hugely important for capital in general. The gentrification process that is then unleashed is, worldwide, a critical part of an economy based as much on accumulation through dispossession as on creating wealth through new urban investments. In cultivating monopoly power, capital realises far-reaching control over production and marketing. It can stabilise the business environment to allow for rational calculation and long-term planning, the reduction of risk and uncertainty. The ‘visible hand’ of the corporation, as Alfred Chandler terms it, has been and continues to be just as important to capitalist history as Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’.7 The ‘heavy hand’ of state power exercised broadly in support of capital also plays its part.

Dispossession and destruction, displacement and construction become vehicles for vigorous and speculative capital accumulation as the figures of the financier and the rentier, the developer, the landed proprietor and the entrepreneurial mayor step from the shadows into the forefront of capital’s logic of accumulation. The economic engine that is capital circulation and accumulation gobbles up whole cities only to spit out new urban forms in spite of the resistance of people who feel alienated entirely from the processes that not only reshape the environments in which they live but also redefine the kind of person they must become in order to survive. Processes of social reproduction get re-engineered by capital from without. Everyday life is perverted to the circulation of capital. The coalition of the unwilling in relation to this forced redefinition of human nature constitutes a pool of alienated individuals that periodically erupts in riots and potentially revolutionary movements from Cairo to Istanbul, from Buenos Aires to São Paulo, and from Stockholm to El Alto.

pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

While the industrial age was transformed by factories and trains, today’s city is redrawn by the mobile phone. Modern technology offers an alternative way to rethink the city where the internet, computing and ubiquitous data transform the places where we live as well as how we work. How can the phone in your pocket improve the world? How have the things that we now take for granted – text messaging, social networks, sat nav – changed the lives of millions? We are at the beginning of a new urban era in which technology can create smart cities, where information can regulate the metropolis. Perhaps this latest era of technology offers the key to the true potential of the city. In parts of Nigeria, the mobile phone is called oku na iri, ‘the fire that consumes money’; nevertheless this simple piece of equipment has had a huge impact on the developing nations of Africa.2 Since 2000, the rapid escalation of mobile technology across the continent has been extraordinary: in 1999 only 2 per cent of the total population had access to mobile phones; by 2010 this had risen to 28 per cent; adoption has been at twice the speed found elsewhere in the world, growing at approximately 45 per cent a year.

This appears to promise the best of all possible places, inspired by the finest examples of architecture from around the world, smarter than any previous city in order to make the mundane moments of urban living run smoothly: improving traffic congestion; energy efficiency and smart buildings; enhanced security and surveillance. The instant city, super-smart, built from the ground up from a masterplan is, for many, the vision of the future, the latest version of a hi-tech Utopia, and it can be found across Asia. Songdo is not alone in attempting to find a new urban order, and many of the latest cities sound more like aisles in an electronic store than metropolitan areas: Putrajaya and Cyberjaya form part of the Multimedia Super Corridor in Malaysia, built in the last decade out of land previously covered by rubber plantations. Mentougou Eco Valley has been designed west of Beijing by the Finnish architect Eriksson as a beacon of what a city could be. Elsewhere in southern China there are plans for the self-styled Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City.

pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk,, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

To make way for cars and all that comes with them, such as parking lots, gas stations, and major arteries, “city streets are broken down into loose sprawls, incoherent and vacuous for anyone afoot.” Neighborhoods that were once “marvels of close-grained intricacy and compact mutual support” are “casually disemboweled.” The rise of the automobile is closely connected to the transformation of American cities in ways that Jacobs and many others (including myself) regret; this complaint is prominent in the “new urbanism.” But on Jacobs’s account, this connection isn’t entirely a causal one; “we blame automobiles for too much.” She finds a prior cause of the degradation of American cities in urban planning, the kind that seeks to optimize the city according to a plan hatched from on high, without a street-level understanding of what makes a place thrive. She offers a thought experiment in which the automobile had never been invented, but the modernist project is left otherwise undisturbed (think windswept plazas and high-rises, or model suburbs of socially detached, nuclear families).

Tabor, 187 Muir, John, 94 multi-agent intersection control scheme, 245–246 Musk, Elon, 87 mutual predictions, 121, 258–259 Nader, Ralph, 108 narcissism, 171–172 National Economic Council, 4 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 86–87, 98, 228 National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis), 138–139 National Transportation Safety Board, 122–123 navigation systems, 98–100 neighborhoods disturbed by automobiles, 35–36 social life of, 69–70 zoning laws, 71 Nest thermostat, 305 Netherlands, 249 New Deal, 38 New Nationalism, 38, 138 new urbanism, 35–36 Niantic Labs, 308 Nicholson, Jack, 25 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 12, 169, 196–197 Noë, Alva, 61 Norman, Don, 98 Norton, Peter D., 20 NSU Motorenwerke, 139–140 nuisance alerts, 101 Nürburgring, 115 Oakeshott, Michael, 73, 82 Obama, Barack, 4 Obama administration, 95 O’Connor, M. R., 13 Oedipal dynamic, 197 off-road riding, 2–3, 205. See also SNORE Knotty Pine 250 Oh My God Hill, 207 old cars artistry of, 81–83 authenticity of, 67 cash-for-clunkers programs, 18, 74, 76, 78 deep attachments to, 73–74 dispossession and, 71–79 feelings from, 67 focal point to orient the world, 67–68 folk-classic status of, 80 forced obsolescence of, 83 gearheads and, 80 as gross polluters, 74–75 new cars emissions vs., 76–78 organic quality of, 128–129 prejudice against, 73 as ruin porn, 81 scrappage fever, 78–79 yard wealth and, 68–71 open problem spaces, 65 overcomer complex, 197 oxidative process, 130 Page, Larry, 292 panel beating, 137 partial automation, unnatural cognitive demands of, 102–103 parts cars, 18 parts managers, 154–155, 158 parts numbers, 154–155 Paso Robles, California, 57 Pasquale, Frank, 286–287 patriarchy, 195, 196 pattern of life analysis, 301 Pee Wee classes, hare scramble race, 192 Peltzman, Sam, 90, 92–94, 97 people’s car.

pages: 143 words: 43,096

Tel Aviv 2015: The Retro Travel Guide by Claudia Stein

illegal immigration, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, New Urbanism, urban planning

The construction of the railway confirmed Jaffa’s status and brought even more business activities to the city. The old train station, “HaTachana,” was renovated a couple of years ago and is a nice and lively place with coffee shops, restaurants and boutiques today. The train station was located in the former urban Arabic quarter of Manshiye that was demolished in the 1960s. In 1870s the first sections of the old city wall were torn down to prepare for future expansion. A new urban district developed in the north of Jaffa, right next to the beach: Manshiye. The Charles Clore Park stands on the former western part of this quarter. The Jewish citizens of Jaffa moved further north and founded Neve Tzedek, Hebrew for “Oasis of Justice,” (1887) and Neve Shalom, Hebrew for “Oasis of Peace” (1890.) The stand-alone Etzel Museum is one of the last witnesses to history as well as the train station itself, the Red House next to it and last but not least the Hassan Bek Mosque.

pages: 165 words: 45,397

Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming by Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby

3D printing, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate governance, David Attenborough,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, life extension, Mark Zuckerberg, mouse model, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social software, technoutopianism, Wall-E

Inspired by these groups we imagined a group of people take their fate into their own hands and begin building devices that function as external digestive systems. They use synthetic biology to create microbial stomach bacteria and mechanical devices to maximize the nutritional value of the urban environment, making up for any shortcomings in the increasingly limited diet available commercially. These people are the new urban foragers. When developing the objects we explored a range of points of access into the scenario for different people: from a near-future fermenting container worn around the neck to a more extreme prosthetic device that suggested possible transhumanist values. We avoided hyper-realism in the design of the objects and the photography. It was very important that they clearly signaled their unreality so that viewers were aware they were looking at ideas, not products.

pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

He was arrested and jailed in Brescia, where he organized a mass breakout:260 political prisoners escaped. A pen-and-ink self-portrait in beard and glasses survives from his prison days. He was recaptured in September 1944, and died in Mauthausen in the last days of the war, a casualty of totalitarianism whose death was a lesson in the nature of courage to all of us, not least Albert Speer. Leon Krier, the architect best known for his role in planning Seaside, the outpost of New Urbanism on the Florida panhandle, and the Prince of Wales’s village of Poundbury, has been the most active voice in attempting to rehabilitate Speer. Why, he wondered, was it considered necessary to destroy the inoffensive street lights that Hitler’s architect had designed for Berlin? Why, Krier asked, did Speer end up as Spandau’s penultimate prisoner? Long after Werner von Braun, who devised the highly destructive V2 rockets that were built using slave labour and which killed so many Londoners, had bypassed the prisoner-of-war camps and flown to the USA to build the arsenal of democracy, Speer was still in jail.

Mao’s Tiananmen was the most ubiquitous image of China, the icon by which the country was recognized all over the world. Not surprisingly, such a charged arena has also been used by those who have challenged the repression with which the Communists have maintained their hold on power. It has become the most contested of spaces, a representation of the authority of Mao and his successors, but also a reminder of the tragic massacre of 1989 and the events leading up to it. And it is now being supplanted as the new urban iconography of Beijing is manufactured with astonishing speed. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the area in front of Tiananmen was the administrative centre of the imperial city. The emperor’s more distant kin lived in this buffer zone between the palace and the merchant city beyond, fringed by shops and narrow lanes, muddy underfoot, dotted with little groves of trees, and still enclosed by walls.

pages: 578 words: 141,373

Concretopia: A Journey Around the Rebuilding of Postwar Britain by John Grindrod

Berlin Wall, garden city movement, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, megastructure, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, Right to Buy, side project, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional

After the police had left Park Hill with their forensics evidence and crime-scene tape, I wandered around the top end of the estate, the part that was mostly still occupied. There were window boxes. Two women of a certain age were leaning on the balustrade of a ground floor flat, having a classic over-the-garden-fence gossip. At this end of the estate, people had gone to great lengths to personalise their flats, with shiny new paint, satellite dishes and creepers growing up trellises. It was hard to see how this could be done in the gaudy new Urban Splash zone. As the evening sun hit the façade, the whole of Park Hill, refurbished, derelict or inhabited, turned a warm gold. The colours on the renovated section glowed like a bank of LCD screens, and from the city centre the estate blazed bright on the hilltop, rising above the city like a man-made Vesuvius. In its scale and ambition, Park Hill seems less a run-of-the-mill housing estate than an experiment with nature.

The Hook team’s criticisms were forgotten when a delegation from the American Institute of Architects visited Cumbernauld in 1967 as they scoped out potential entries for the R. S. Reynolds Memorial Award for community architecture. ‘To our amazement we were on the shortlist with Stockholm and Tapiola,’ said Ken, his delight still plain to see for all his efforts to conceal it, ‘and we then won!’ The award was announced in Washington on 10 May 1967, the Financial Times reporting that the jury chose it as ‘the western world’s highest achievement in new urban design for modern human needs’. A month later at the award ceremony in Scotland, Richard Reynolds, whose metals business sponsored the prize, claimed that ‘Cumbernauld has set the standard for the world … some of the most expensive buildings in the history of architecture have been the ugliest. In Cumbernauld you have, to your credit, combined outstanding design with reasonable cost.’21 It was the biggest international prize given to any of the new towns.

The New Enclosure: The Appropriation of Public Land in Neoliberal Britain by Brett Christophers

Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Corn Laws, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, estate planning, ghettoisation, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, late capitalism, market clearing, Martin Wolf, New Journalism, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, Right to Buy, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, wealth creators

Only around 6 per cent of the total land area acquired by Scottish community bodies has come from the public sector.4 The extension of the community right of first refusal to urban areas under the terms of the 2015 Community Empowerment (Scotland) Act generated considerable optimism, but the initial signs are not encouraging. When NHS Lothian recently sold the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh in what ‘was considered by many as an “acid test” for the new urban right-to-buy laws’, the outcome was predictably familiar. The site was sold to a property developer, Downing; the bid by the community group that was attempting to buy the land under the new legislation was not even considered.5 In short, public land disposal in Scotland, as elsewhere in Britain, has typically taken the form of land privatization. Scottish community organizations may in principle have more power to acquire public land than their English and Welsh counterparts, but in practice this power has been scarcely more effective.

But his assertion that, in deregistering the three upland commons, the MoD would ‘turn them into private land’ was, it should by now be clear, legally wrong: the land would remain public land, but with enclosed access and use rights. See C. Fallowfield, ‘Cumbrian Commons Face Biggest Threat Since Enclosure Movement’, 8 May 2017, at 1 D. Harvey, The New Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). 2 Ibid., p.158. 3 See, for example, M. Levien, ‘The Politics of Dispossession: Theorizing India’s “Land Wars”’, Politics & Society 41 (2013), pp. 351–94. 4 S. Hodkinson, ‘The New Urban Enclosures’, City 16 (2012), pp. 500–18, at p. 504. 5 A. Sevilla-Buitrago, ‘Capitalist Formations of Enclosure: Space and the Extinction of the Commons’, Antipode 47 (2015), pp. 999–1,020, at pp. 1,000–1. 1 N. Blomley, ‘Enclosure, Common Right and the Property of the Poor’, Social & Legal Studies 17 (2008), pp. 311–31, at p. 316. 1 See, for example, B. Fine and A. Saad-Filho, ‘Thirteen Things You Need to Know about Neoliberalism’, Critical Sociology, 43 (2017), pp. 685–706. 2 W.

pages: 182 words: 55,234

Rendezvous With Oblivion: Reports From a Sinking Society by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, edge city, Frank Gehry, high net worth, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

Sometimes, according to a passage in the 2000 book Suburban Nation, by Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, the purpose of all this tacky architecture is to create a strong impression on a potential buyer in the first few minutes of a realtor-guided visit. These are assets, not homes. They are built to flip: human settlements organized around the premise of the Greater Fool Theory. * * * They weren’t called McMansions at first, of course; that epithet came later. The man who bears the most responsibility for popularizing the term seems to have been Duany, the well-known architect and proponent of “New Urbanism.” A Florida newspaper quoted Duany using the term in 1990, and he could be found using it himself in an article he co-wrote for the Wilson Quarterly in 1992. His critique of the McManse—“the fast-food version of the American dream,” it segregated people by income and it forced us to drive if we wanted to go anywhere—was part of a lecture he gave criticizing botched planning in the suburbs. Google the word and you will find that nearly everyone who uses it criticizes McMansions.

pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, social intelligence, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

But by 1960, there were 141, and today world urban population is rocketing upward at a rate of 6.5 percent per year, according to Edgar de Vries and J. P. Thysse of the Institute of Social Science in The Hague. This single stark statistic means a doubling of the earth's urban population within eleven years. One way to grasp the meaning of change on so phenomenal a scale is to imagine what would happen if all existing cities, instead of expanding, retained their present size. If this were so, in order to accommodate the new urban millions we would have to build a duplicate city for each of the hundreds that already dot the globe. A new Tokyo, a new Hamburg, a new Rome and Rangoon—and all within eleven years. (This explains why French urban planners are sketching subterranean cities—stores, museums, warehouses and factories to be built under the earth, and why a Japanese architect has blueprinted a city to be built on stilts out over the ocean.)

Because societies in the past had been spatially and locally structured, and because urban societies used to be exclusively city-based, we seem still to assume that territoriality is a necessary attribute of social systems." This, he argues, leads us to wholly misunderstand such urban problems as drug addiction, race riots, mental illness, poverty, etc. See his provocative essay, "The Post-City Age" in Daedalus, Fall, 1968, pp. 1091-1110. 93 Average residence duration is taken from "New Urban Structures" by David Lewis in [131], p. 313. CHAPTER SIX 96 References to Weber, Simmel and Wirth are from [239], pp. 70-71. 98 Cox on limited involvements: [217], pp. 41-46. 102 On the number of people who preceded us, see "How Many People Have Lived on Earth?" by Nathan Keyfitz in Demography, 1966, vol 3, #2, p. 581. 104 Integrator concept and Gutman quote from "Population Mobility in the American Middle Class" by Robert Gutman in [241], pp. 175-182. 106 Crestwood Heights material is from [236], p. 365. 107 Barth quote from [216], pp. 13-14. 109 Fortune survey in [84], pp. 136-155. 110 I am indebted to Marvin Adelson, formerly Principal Scientist, System Development Corp., for the idea of occupational trajectories. 110 The quote from Rice is from "An Examination of the Boundaries of Part-Institutions" by A.

pages: 409 words: 145,128

Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton

clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal

Motordom, however, had effective rhetorical weapons, growing national organization, a favorable political climate, substantial wealth, and the sympathy of a growing minority of city motorists. By 1930, with these assets, motordom had redefined the city street. In the new model, some users of once unquestioned legitimacy (notably pedestrians) were restricted. Traffic engineers no longer burdened motorists with the responsibility for congestion; their goal now was to ease the flow of motor vehicles, either by restricting other users or by rebuilding city thoroughfares for cars. New urban roads were treated as consumer commodities bought and paid for by their users and to be supplied as demanded. On this basis, over the following four decades, the city was transformed to accommodate automobiles. Overview The book is divided into three parts, named for the perspectives or technological frames of leading social groups. Perspectives on safety and legitimate access to the streets are featured in part I.

These routes were almost exclusively rural in 1920, but as the new highway funds poured in, counties and states began to extend them into and through cities. Beginning in the late 1920s and at an accelerating pace thereafter, counties and states turned to highway engineers to solve city traffic problems. Highway engineers brought highways into the cities, reducing the role of city traffic control engineers in the congestion problem. The new urban thoroughfares were largely bought and paid for by motorists with gasoline tax money. State and local governments were quick to recognize revenue possibilities in the growing number of motorists. License and registration fees were universal by 1913.111 Motorists and their auto clubs resisted. Through the early 1920s, most auto interests fought for low fees, for the use of general revenues supplemented by federal aid in state highway projects, and for the use of bond issues and special assessments of property holders to pay for city streets and county roads.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

As the hub for several of Saudi Arabia’s new city developments, Jeddah is emerging as the country’s Red Sea capital. From its humble origins as an ancient fishing village and entrepôt for trading tortoise shells, spices, and frankincense, Jeddah was anointed the gateway to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina in the seventh century. Over time, this mellow seaside oasis has become a bustling city of over five million residents and the hub for an archipelago of new urban developments stretching hundreds of kilometers. The city’s modern and moderate commercial class, like the maritime city itself, is intrinsically open to the world. The business of religion is also providing a major boost to the Jeddah region. Driving east, I witnessed a construction bonanza aimed at creating jobs, diversifying the economy, and managing the twelve million and growing annual visitors to Mecca and Medina each year, one-quarter of whom come for hajj.

Warm thanks to Avner de-Shalit and participants in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem workshop on the “spirit of cities”: Jeremy Adelman, Gilles Campagnolo, Kateri Carmola, and Susan Clarke. From Tianjin Eco-city to Guangzhou Knowledge City, thank you to the many dozens of officials who have hosted me at “smart cities” and special economic zones in China. I am similarly grateful to the managers of many other new urban developments on all continents for sharing their ambitious plans with me. Your projects are not yet on the map but surely will be thanks to your tireless efforts. Thanks also to Tony Reynard and Lincoln Ng of the Singapore Freeport for an insightful tour and conversation. At the Barcelona Smart City Expo 2014, I’d like to thank Ugo Valenti, Álvaro Nicolás, and Folc Lecha Mora. I appreciate learning about the inner workings of the City of London and its global strategy from Mark Boleat, Giles French, Anita Nandi, and Andrew Naylor.

pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The number of people per square mile increased from 10.6 in 1860 to 35.6 in 1920. The proportion of the population who lived in places with eight thousand inhabitants or more increased over the same period from 16.1 percent to 43.8 percent. Great cities such as New York and Chicago were honeycombed with tenements. This produced obvious problems with human and animal waste. In the old rural America, nature had been able to take care of itself. In the new urban America, sanitation and pollution became pressing problems. The streets were crowded not just with people but also with animals: pigs scavenging in refuse piles, cows tethered in yards to provide milk, and, above all, horses carting loads, pulling carriages, and providing entertainment. Water supplies were contaminated by human and animal waste. Dead bodies generated disease: in one year alone, 1880, the New York City authorities removed the carcasses of almost ten thousand dead horses.15 It also produced industrial pollution on a terrifying scale.

A nation that had defined itself in terms of prairies and cowboys began to define itself in terms of skyscrapers and city slickers. Skyscrapers reached ever higher: between 1930 and 1931, Manhattan acquired two of its greatest landmarks, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building, and the amount of office space in the borough roughly doubled. A succession of new magazines—Time (1923), the American Mercury (1924), and the New Yorker (1925)—flattered the new urban sophisticates, helping to ignite the culture wars that rage to this day. The New Yorker boasted that it was “not edited for the old lady in Dubuque.” F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote airily about “the vast obscurity beyond the city.” H. L. Mencken used the Scopes trial to create the impression that rural America, particularly southern rural America, was populated by stump-toothed idiots (interestingly, the textbook that Scopes used was, in fact, a crude hymn to the wonders of eugenics).

pages: 261 words: 57,595

China's Future by David Shambaugh

Berlin Wall, capital controls, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, market bubble, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent-seeking, secular stagnation, short selling, South China Sea, special drawing rights, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

If successful, it will contribute positively to two key elements of the new macro-economic growth model by creating a new pool of labor for the services sector and stimulating consumer spending. China’s urbanization has been a steady process since the reform era began in 1978 (Figure 3.7). At that time only 18 percent (172 million people) lived in urban areas—today slightly more than half of the national population (54 percent or 731 million) are categorized as urban. This steady increase was the result of three processes: rural-to-urban migration; massive building of new urban infrastructure; and rezoning (physically expanding the boundaries) of cities. Figure 3.7 China’s Urbanization Growth Source: Australian Treasury Department. The three main drivers of urbanization in the future, according to Premier Li Keqiang, will be to give urban residency (hukou) to 100 million migrants who currently live in cities (an amnesty, in effect); rebuilding dilapidated parts of existing urban areas, where an additional 100 million currently live; and urbanizing an additional 100 million in the central and western regions of the country.32 This “300 million initiative” will account for the additional 16 percent due to become urban dwellers between now and 2030.

Top 10 Prague by Schwinke, Theodore.

centre right, Defenestration of Prague, G4S, Johannes Kepler, New Urbanism

You might have trouble with large luggage. d Seminářská 4 • Map K4 • 222 221798 • www. • KKK U staré paní ( Hotel A no-frills affair, but the clean, modern building is staffed with an amiable crew. Each of the 18 rooms has a minibar and satellite TV, but for better entertainment, catch the acts at the club downstairs. d Michalská 9 • Map L5 • 224 228090 • www. • No air conditioning • KKK Josef ) Hotel Modern and trendy in design, Hotel Josef fits in with Prague’s new urban chic image with its simple clean-cut interiors and spacious rooms. d Rybná 20 • Map N2 • 221 700111 • www. • KKK Note: Unless otherwise stated, all hotels accept credit cards, and have en-suite bathrooms and air conditioning Price Categories For a standard, K double room per KK night (with breakfast KKK if included), taxes KKKK and extra charges. KKKKK under Kč1,500 Kč1,500–Kč3,000 Kč3,000–Kč4,500 Kč4,500–Kč6,000 over Kč6,000 Malá Strana and Hradčany Hotels Pštrosů !

pages: 222 words: 60,207

Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup by Andrew Zimbalist

airline deregulation, business cycle, carbon footprint, East Village,, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, longitudinal study, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, selection bias, urban planning, young professional

To understand this, one must understand that the underlying characteristic of the Spanish tradition, from dictatorship to democracy, was one of forgetting—wiping out the past and ignoring the responsibility of Francoism…. This programmed amnesia was similarly applied to urbanism…. The aim being to erase the city's working class memory, by demolishing popular and cooperative centers, old social housing and factories…and the total absence of any sustainability objectives…. In no building project…were any ecological criteria or sustainability standards implemented.9 Barcelona's new urban zones were redeveloped with improved public services and, in some cases, direct access to the sea. These parts of the city became gentrified, and hand in hand with gentrification came higher prices. Higher prices meant that lower-income people had to relocate, and, more generally, plans for public housing were underfulfilled.10 One study noted the following impacts: —Strong increases in the prices of housing for rent and for sale (from 1986 to 1993 the cumulative increase was 139% for home sale prices and nearly 145% in home rentals) —A drastic decrease in the availability of public housing (from 1986 to 1992 there was a cumulative decrease of 5.9%) —A gradual decrease in the availability of private houses for rent (from 1981 to 1991 the cumulative decrease was 23.7%)11 Thus, like the experience with mega-events elsewhere, hosting the games in Barcelona was accompanied by a redistribution of living standards to the detriment of lower-income groups.12 Finally, it is noteworthy that Barcelona made a major investment to host the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures.

pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

Both seemed unbounded in their imaginative visions and were willing to embrace the fantasy of organic structures as witnessed by Gaudí’s magnum opus, the extraordinary Sagrada Familia cathedral in Barcelona, or Goff’s Bavinger House in Norman, Oklahoma, inspired by the famous Fibonacci sequence of numbers manifested in nautilus shells, sunflowers, and spiral galaxies. All of these innovative examples are of individual structures, but there is no real equivalent in the design of entire cities, nor in urban development beyond variations on the garden city theme. However, in the 1980s a movement called the New Urbanism arose that was an attempt to combat some of the issues inherent in an automobile and steel and concrete–dominated society where people become alienated from one another and where commuting long distances to work becomes the norm. The movement advocated a return to diverse, mixed-use neighborhoods architecturally as well as socially and commercially, with an emphasis on community structure through designs that enhanced pedestrian use and public transportation.

See also resource limitation natural selection, 23–24, 79, 87, 143, 428 allometric scaling laws and, 26–27, 98, 103–4 death and, 84–85 life expectancy and, 194 Malthus and, 228 maximum size, 162–63 metabolic rate and, 88–90 optimization and, 115 terminal units and, 114, 151–52 Navier, Claude-Louis, 71 Navier-Stokes equation, 71–72, 75, 131–32 Nazi Party, 290, 292, 301 neo-Malthusians, 229–30, 238, 414–15, 422–23 network science, 296, 319 network theory, 27–28, 159–60, 407–8 cities and, 247, 250–51, 319–20 ontogenetic growth and, 165–66 origins of allometric scaling and, 103–5, 111–18 New Orleans, 359 New Science of Cities, The (Batty), 294–95 Newton, Isaac, 37, 38, 63, 71, 107–8, 181, 339, 428 New Towns in the United Kingdom, 263–65 New Urbanism, 259–60 New York City, 10, 251, 278, 358 economic diversity, 366–68, 367 growth curve, 377, 418–19, 419 infrastructure networks, 252 Jacobs and, 253–54, 260–62 pace of life, 327 pollution, 275 population size, 310 water system, 362–63 New York Stock Exchange, 390 New York Times, 241, 258, 300 New York University, 260, 261 Niemeyer, Oscar, 257–58, 259 “night-lights,” 212 Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, 406 Nobel Prizes, 78–79, 86, 111, 160, 177, 369–70, 383, 436, 437 nodes, 296–98, 298 nonlinear behavior and scaling, 15–19 normal (or Gaussian) distribution, 56, 313–15 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), 364–65, 370 Northridge earthquake of 1994, 46, 47 nuclear energy, 242–44 nuclear fusion, 242–43 obedience experiments, 301–2 obscenity, 20 Oklahoma City, 17–18 bombing, 47 zoo, 52–53 olive oil, 189 Olympic Games (1956), 49 On Growth and Form (Thompson), 86–88 On Man and the Development of His Faculties, or Essays on Social Physics (Quetelet), 56 ontogenesis, 164–65 ontogenetic growth, 165–73 open-ended growth, 31–32 of cities.

pages: 510 words: 163,449

How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World and Everything in It by Arthur Herman

British Empire, California gold rush, creative destruction, do-ocracy, financial independence, global village, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, Republic of Letters, Robert Mercer, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

Its institutional emblem was Glasgow’s Chamber of Commerce, the first in Britain, formed on New Year’s Day, 1783, with a hefty round of rum toasts. Its more obvious and visible emblem was Barrie’s George Square, laid out in his Meadowflats development between Queen and Frederick Streets. Unfortunately, by the time building actually began at Meadowflats in 1787, Glasgow had been upstaged by another, even more successful design for the new urban lifestyle: Edinburgh’s New Town. II “Look at those fields,” George Drummond said to a young friend who was standing beside him at a window looking north of Edinburgh Castle. It was 1763. Drummond, the belated hero of the city’s failed resistance against the Jacobites, was approaching the end of his fourth consecutive, and last, term as Lord Provost. He was seventy-five and the most revered figure in Edinburgh.

It became as influential as Campbell’s Vitruvius Britannicus in changing the visual taste of a generation. But its most immediate effect was to reinforce the insights of Robert Adam that the key to all ancient design was the projection not of weight and power, but of elegance and sophistication. Refinement, one might even say. So here were the elements for constructing a setting for the social morality of Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, not to mention the new urban Scotland. This fit nicely with the other great, but more unexpected, source of inspiration for the Adam style: the writings of Lord Kames. Kames’s theory of art, summarized in his Elements of Criticism, was that beauty truly is (as the cliché has it) in the eye of the beholder. Human beings have an innate sense of beauty, which objects—paintings, houses, landscapes, a bar of music or a couplet of poetry—trigger in our consciousness.

pages: 522 words: 162,310

Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

Celebration is the real town that Disney built at the south end of Disney World in the 1990s. It’s an example of New Urbanism, the movement among architects and planners, beginning in the 1980s, that considers the development of cities and suburbs since World War II disastrously misguided. America abandoned the accumulated wisdom of centuries and built streets too wide, houses too far apart, driveways and garages too dominant, and homes too far from jobs and shopping, with too much dependence on driving and too much incoherent sprawl. The houses Americans built are architecturally inferior not because they ape old styles but because they’re inauthentically nostalgic. Most New Urbanists want new houses and neighborhoods to be more accurate simulations of houses and neighborhoods from the past. New Urbanism was upscale Disneyfication before the people running Disney called themselves New Urbanists.

pages: 531 words: 161,785

Alcohol: A History by Rod Phillips

clean water, conceptual framework, European colonialism, financial independence, invention of the printing press, Kickstarter, large denomination, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, New Urbanism, profit motive, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

It was not that workers were perceived as drunken and debauched—the sort of allegations made in England—but that their drinking made them “lazy, unreliable, disruptive and dissatisfied,” as one temperance leader put it.25 By 1885, two-thirds of factories in one survey had banned the use of spirits on their premises, but half of them reported problems of resistance by workers who smuggled alcohol in.26 The nineteenth-century social lens was firmly focused on the new urban working class, the unprecedented, growing, and often threatening social class of the industrial economy everywhere. Alcohol was consumed in small towns, villages, and isolated farms, too, but it was far less visible. Drinking establishments in small communities and the country were thought of as places where agricultural workers socialized. Small-town and rural social pressure and convention might well have ensured that they remained reasonably orderly.

Its administrators intervened in the making of the movie Casablanca (1942) to delete any suggestion that the two main characters, Rick and Ilsa, had had a sexual relationship, yet there was no objection to the fact that the movie was not only set in a bar (referred to in the movie as a “gin-joint”) that had many of the trappings of a saloon but was replete with scenes of alcohol and drinking and references to gambling and other saloonlike activities. The new urban drinking cultures that had developed in the privacy of homes and speakeasies in much of urban America during prohibition came to the surface after repeal. Cocktails, made popular as a way of concealing the poor quality of much prohibition-era liquor, maintained their popularity afterward—particularly among women, for whom undiluted spirits were widely thought to be unsuitably strong. (Drinking spirits straight or on the rocks was associated with masculinity.)

pages: 236 words: 66,081

Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age by Clay Shirky

Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game

Selling gin was made illegal; women sold from bottles hidden beneath their skirts, and some entrepreneurial types created the “puss and mew,” a cabinet set on the streets where a customer could approach and, if they knew the password, hand their money to the vendor hidden inside and receive a dram of gin in return. What made the craze subside wasn’t any set of laws. Gin consumption was treated as the problem to be solved, when it fact it was a reaction to the real problem—dramatic social change and the inability of older civic models to adapt. What helped the Gin Craze subside was the restructuring of society around the new urban realities created by London’s incredible social density, a restructuring that turned London into what we’d recognize as a modern city, one of the first. Many of the institutions we mean when we talk about “the industrialized world” actually arose in response to the social climate created by industrialization, rather than to industrialization itself. Mutual aid societies provided shared management of risk outside the traditional ties of kin and church.

pages: 263 words: 61,784

Patricia Unterman's San Francisco Food Lover's Pocket Guide by Patricia Unterman, Ed Anderson

Golden Gate Park, New Urbanism, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco

Try octopus salad, grilled sardines, roasted whole fish, a plate of Portuguese cheeses with a tasting flight of port, and vibrant Portuguese wines with your meal. LA TOQUE 1340 McKinstry Street (in the Westin Verasa Hotel), Rutherford; 707-257-5157; Open nightly first seating 5:30 P.M. to 6:45 P.M., second seating 7:45 P.M. to 9:30 P.M.; Expensive; Credit cards: AE, MC, V La Toque has moved to sleek new urban quarters in Napa’s Westin Verasa Hotel. Chef Ken Frank’s voluptuous prix fixe menu brings many courses that showcase rich ingredients—artisanal cheeses, wild mushrooms, and foie gras—that go particularly well with wine. MARTINI HOUSE 1245 Spring Street (at Oak), St. Helena; 707-963-2233;; Friday through Sunday 11:30 A.M. to 3 P.M., Sunday through Thursday 5:30 P.M.

pages: 216 words: 69,480

Sweetness and Light: The Mysterious History of the Honeybee by Hattie Ellis

back-to-the-land, haute couture, New Urbanism, the scientific method, urban decay

But by the time of the Victorians, insects were avidly collected. Specialist groups sprung up, most notably the Entomological Society of London, of which Charles Darwin was a lifelong member. During the summer months, working-class men would find rare species and sell them to enthusiasts. The natural history writer David Elliston has suggested this rise in interest was perhaps a symbol of the new urban middle classes’ need for nature; trapped in their new towns and cities, these fledgling city dwellers needed a memory of freedom and flight. Writers on bees tended to divide into those who were absorbed by the science and those who were commercial beekeepers, who were often down-to-earth people making a living in a rural economy. Both sides had much to learn from each other in this age of improvement: beekeepers found applications for the scientific theories; and those exploring the science—frequently clergymen—were beekeepers themselves and therefore practical in bent, if not explicitly commercial.

pages: 281 words: 72,885

Stuff Matters: Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, active measures, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, liquidity trap, New Urbanism, stem cell, trade route

NOTES FOR SCENE 1 The game of pool evolved from billiards, a fifteenth-century Northern European game that started in royal palaces and was essentially an indoor version of croquet. This is why the table surface was colored green, to simulate grass. One of the results of the Industrial Revolution was to make billiard tables much cheaper to produce. As in our day, it was found that the game could increase the income of bars and public taverns, and it started being adopted by the new urban poor. During the nineteenth century the game got more technically sophisticated. First the cue sticks became tipped with leather and covered in chalk, to allow greater control of the ball by using spin. This technique was introduced to America by English sailors and is still referred to as putting “English” on the ball. In the 1840s the invention of vulcanized rubber by Charles Goodyear allowed for the introduction of “cushions” at the sides of the playing surface, which were soft and springy instead of wooden, ensuring that the balls would bounce off them in a predictable manner for the first time.

pages: 235 words: 68,317

The Rum Diary by Hunter S. Thompson

anti-communist, job-hopping, New Urbanism

Sometimes there would be a breeze and Al's would usually catch it because of the fine location -- at the very top of Calle O'Leary hill, so high that if the patio had windows you could look down on the whole city. But there is a thick wall around the patio, and all you can see is the sky and a few plantain trees. As time passed, Al bought a new cash register, then he bought wood umbrella-tables for the patio; and finally moved his family out of the house on Calle O'Leary, out in the suburbs to a new urban-izacion near the airport. He hired a large negro named Sweep, who washed the dishes and carried hamburgers and eventually learned to cook. He turned his old living room into a small piano bar, and got a pianist from Miami, a thin, sad-faced man called Nelson Otto. The piano was midway between the cocktail lounge and the patio. It was an old baby-grand, painted light grey and covered with special shellac to keep the salt air from ruining the finish -- and seven nights a week, through all twelve months of the endless Caribbean summer, Nelson Otto sat down at the keyboard to mingle his sweat with the weary chords of his music.

pages: 246 words: 70,404

Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

Lauren worked that summer for Arkansas’s Heifer Project, an institute for mutualist agricultural lending sanctioned by all the right-minded subjects of progressive piety. She lived near the Little Rock Community Church in the old downtown historic district. Touring her neighborhood in a morning spent talking, we would pass the church and its pure-white Herod’s Temple façade. Louisiana Street’s own Holy of Holies, just around the corner from the governor’s mansion. Lauren enjoyed mixed-income neighborhoods, new urbanism, community gardening, and meeting for lunch at the Clinton Library. In short, she was a beautiful planner, the kind NATO sends to Eastern Europe. I enjoyed her nonlethal aid tremendously. We shared an intuition. Was it millennial? Some nights I’d join her house-sitting for bankers in West Little Rock. We raided their refrigerators like we would one day raid their 401ks—with the dim awareness that home ownership, country club dues, and large portraits of hateful little twins would never be ours.

pages: 231 words: 69,673

How Cycling Can Save the World by Peter Walker

active transport: walking or cycling, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, car-free, correlation does not imply causation, Enrique Peñalosa, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, New Urbanism, post-work, publication bias, the built environment, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, urban planning

The maverick campaigners’ role in all this is acknowledged—the main bike route through the center of Montreal is named after Claire Morissette, Silverman’s coleader in La Monde à Bicyclette, who died in 2007. Desjardins says he is proud of their achievements: “All of this was the result of a citizen’s movement, and not because of the authorities. We forced them to take decisions, year after year.” He adds: “I think we were in many ways probably twenty years ahead of our time. What you call new urbanism—it was talked about in most places in the 1990s, but we were talking about it in the 1970s. Our first congress was about changing the city. We looked much further than the bicycle. The bicycle was a tool to change the city.” — For all the romantic triumph of La Monde à Bicyclette, it should never be forgotten that the theatrics were just one part of the story. For example, while the stunts on the subway helped shape the political climate, it was a parallel challenge in the courts that prompted the eventual policy change.

pages: 219 words: 67,173

Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America by Sam Roberts

accounting loophole / creative accounting, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, New Urbanism, the High Line, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, Y2K

Those three megaprojects shared a number of epochal characteristics, not the least of which was they each defied the inviolable street grid that city commissioners had presciently mapped in 1811 from Houston Street all the way uptown to 155th Street. “They are significant,” Fitch and Waite wrote, “for having served to polarize the forces of growth, thus acting to stabilize the whole center of the island rather like the electro-gyroscopes employed on large ocean liners. They have not been passive containers of urban activity; instead they have acted as generators of new urban energies, infusing the urban tissues around them with nourishment and strength. This capacity is a mysterious one in urban affairs, not much analyzed and never adequately explained.” Attempting to do just that, the authors concluded that Wilgus’s perspicacity converted the terminal complex “from an inert obstacle to urban development into a dynamic reciprocating engine for urban activity.” The railroad air rights that Wilgus pioneered have produced a private and public development bonanza.

pages: 213 words: 70,742

Notes From an Apocalypse: A Personal Journey to the End of the World and Back by Mark O'Connell

Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Carrington event, clean water, Colonization of Mars, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, Elon Musk, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-work, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the built environment, yield curve

In 1987, after about a year and a half living elsewhere in Ukraine, Ivan brought his family back to their village and this home he had built with his own hands from wood and corrugated iron. Returning was not, strictly speaking, legal, but the government tolerated the two thousand people who decided they would rather risk the consequences of returning to the only land they’d ever known than live healthy but miserable lives in the government-provided apartments in inner-city Kiev. Many of those who were resettled after the accident were isolated and shunned by their new urban neighbors, who were wary of contamination through the physical proximity of these Chernobyl people. After his return, Ivan Ivanovich worked for a few years as a guard at the power plant, and then as a road builder, before retiring to live off the land with his wife, Maria. She had died the previous year, and he now lived alone, though he had a son in Kiev who visited him often. Ivan Ivanovich grew his own vegetables, gathered mushrooms and berries from the forest around his house, kept chickens and a pig, and he burned radioactive wood in his stove to keep warm, and if this life in the Zone had caused him any serious harm, he had failed to notice it.

ECOVILLAGE: 1001 ways to heal the planet by Ecovillage 1001 Ways to Heal the Planet-Triarchy Press Ltd (2015)

Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, land tenure, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, off grid, Ronald Reagan, young professional

And all the while people were subjected to media images of a romanticised urban consumer culture that painted them as backward and primitive. I saw young people who previously had deep self-respect become confused and demoralised. For young boys the new role model was Rambo and for the girls Barbie dolls. Unemployment, self-rejection, poverty and pollution became commonplace. Community bonds were eroded as people competed for scarce jobs in the new, urban, money economy. In 1989, the psychological and economic pressures culminated in violent conflict between Buddhists and Muslims. Healthy Sources of Energy As the negative changes escalated in Ladakh, I became even more motivated to do what I could to present alternatives to a development path that was, so clearly, socially and environmentally destructive. First of all, it was clear that the urbanising development in Ladakh was based on fossil fuels.

Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity by Brian Hare, Vanessa Woods

Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Law of Accelerating Returns, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, out of africa, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, smart cities, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, white flight, zero-sum game

Published online February 23, 2016,​news/​morning-mix/​wp/​2016/​02/​23/​donald-trump-on-protester-id-like-to-punch-him-in-the-face/. 93. J. Diamond, “Trump: I Could Shoot Somebody and Not Lose Voters” CNN Politics (2016). Published online January 24, 2016,​2016/​01/​23/​politics/​donald-trump-shoot-somebody-support/. 94. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 2016). 95. Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class, and What We Can Do About It (UK: Hachette, 2017). 96. R.T.T. Forman, “The Urban Region: Natural Systems in Our Place, Our Nourishment, Our Home Range, Our Future,” Landscape Ecology 23 (2008), 251–53. 97. A. Andreou, “Anti-Homeless Spikes: Sleeping Rough Opened My Eyes to the City’s Barbed Cruelty,” Guardian 19 (2015), 4–8. 9 Circle of Friends 1.

pages: 877 words: 182,093

Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, European colonialism, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, very high income, War on Poverty

., pp. 3, 5–6, 23, 34–35, 49, 63, 74. 21. Mahathir bin Mohamad, The Malay Dilemma (Singapore: Asia Pacific Press, 1970), p. 25. 22. Ibid., p. 44. 23. Donald L. Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 226. 24. Pyong Gap Min, Ethnic Business Enterprise: Korean Small Business in Atlanta (New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1988), p. 104. 25. Illsoo Kim, New Urban Immigrants: The Korean Community in New York (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), p. 114. 26. Elissa Gootman, “City to Help Curb Harassment of Asian Students at High School,” New York Times, June 2, 2004, p. B9; Joe Williams, “New Attack at Horror HS: Top Senior Jumped at Brooklyn’s Troubled Lafayette,” New York Daily News, December 7, 2002, p. 7; Maki Becker, “Asian Students Hit in Rash of HS Attacks,” New York Daily News, December 8, 2002, p. 7; Samuel G.

Williams, Up from The Projects: An Autobiography (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 2010), pp. 6–7. 51. Ibid., p. 7. 52. Robyn Minter Smyers, “High Noon in Public Housing: The Showdown Between Due Process Rights and Good Management Practices in the War on Drugs and Crime,” The Urban Lawyer, Summer 1998, pp. 573–574. 53. William Julius Wilson, “The Urban Underclass in Advanced Industrial Society,” The New Urban Reality, edited by Paul E. Peterson (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1985), p. 137. 54. Theodore Dalrymple, Life at the Bottom: The Worldview That Makes the Underclass (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001), p. 150. 55. Ibid., p. 164. 56. Ibid., p. 159. 57. Ibid., pp. 68–69. 58. Joyce Lee Malcolm, Guns and Violence: The English Experience (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002), p. 168.

pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Bombay city, once called “Bombay the Beautiful,” an urban vision against the Arabian Sea, atrophied so rapidly postindependence that such a label is now unimaginable. The complicated layers of state administration made it especially difficult to manage such rapid urban growth. This administrative weakness had been in full view during India’s Partition, that intense, bloody amputation of the Indian subcontinent which saw the displacement of hundreds of thousands from the northwest into India. While this mass migration led to the creation of new urban spaces that resettled these people—such as Faridabad, Kalyani and Nilokheri—the bureaucracy impeded the growth of these cities, throttling any strategy for planned growth with its “everything in triplicate” sentiment and its snail-like pace. L. C. Jain, former member of the planning commission who participated in the building of Faridabad, tells me, “We had angry refugees, trigger-happy Pathans, and chaos at the government level.

To figure out if our urban policies have changed in recent years, I meet Ramesh Ramanathan, the other half of Janagraaha’s leadership, over coffee one sunny afternoon in Bangalore. I reach late for our meeting thanks to traffic, but there could not be a more understanding audience for my apologies. Ramesh is in his forties, and his boyish smile under a head of silver hair is both incongruous and charming. I ask him about the possibilities of a new urban vision and he says, “We are making progress in the typical Indian way—two steps forward, one step back.” India’s urban transformation, as Ramesh points out, had begun with the policies of Rajiv Gandhi’s government. Rajiv represented a dynamic shift for Indian policy on a number of fronts, and one of them was his attempt to give cities in independent India a measure of power. With his Nagarpalika bill, Rajiv pushed for the empowerment of local bodies both in the cities and in the villages.

pages: 607 words: 185,487

Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, commoditize, deskilling, facts on the ground, germ theory of disease, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, new economy, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit maximization, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, stochastic process, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

The rigor and unity of this ideal city required that it make as few concessions as possible to the history of existing cities. "We must refuse to afford even the slightest concession to what is: to the mess we are in now," he wrote. "There is no solution to be found there." Instead, his new city would preferably rise on a cleared site as a single, integrated urban composi tion. Le Corbusier's new urban order was to be a lyrical marriage between Cartesian pure forms and the implacable requirements of the machine. In characteristically bombastic terms, he declared, "We claim, in the name of the steamship, the airplane, and the automobile, the right to health, logic, daring, harmony, perfection."10 Unlike the existing city of Paris, which to him resembled a "porcupine" and a "vision of Dante's Inferno," his city would be an "organized, serene, forceful, airy, ordered entity." 11 Geometry and Standardization It is impossible to read much of Le Corbusier or to see many of his architectural drawings without noticing his love (mania?)

And it was a state-imposed city in at least one other sense: inasmuch as it was created to be a city for civil servants, many aspects of life that might otherwise have been left to the private sphere were minutely organized, from domestic and residential matters to health services, education, child care, recreation, commercial outlets, and so forth. If Brasilia was to be Brazil's urban future, what was Brazil's urban past and present? What, precisely, was the new capital intended to negate? A large part of the answer can be inferred from Le Corbusier's second principle of the new urbanism: "the death of the street." Brasilia was designed to eliminate the street and the square as places for public life. Although the elimination of local barrio loyalties and rivalries may not have been planned, they were also a casualty of the new city. The public square and the crowded "corridor" street had been venues of civic life in urban Brazil since colonial days. As Holston explains, this civic life took two forms.

pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

., 1817). 4 Joseph Schumpeter, Theory of Economic Development, Harvard University Press, 1934 (1st ed., 1911); Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Harper, 1975 (1st ed., 1942). Thomas McCraw has written an illuminating biography of Schumpeter, Prophet of Innovation: Joseph Schumpeter and Creative Destruction, Belknap, 2007. 5 Bill Steigerwald, “City Views: Urban Studies Legend Jane Jacobs on Gentrification, the New Urbanism, and Her Legacy,” Reason, June 2001. 6 See the discussion of Jacobs’s ideas in David Ellerman, “Jane Jacobs on Development,” Oxford Development Studies, December 4, 2004, pp. 507-521. 7 Geoffrey West et al., “Growth, Innovation, Scaling, and the Pace of Life in Cities,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 24, 2007, pp. 7301-7306. 8 Robert Axtell and Richard Florida, “Emergent Cities: Micro-foundations of Zipf’s Law,” March 2006.

pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

It must fund a hukou system in the cities for those who have come from the rural areas, while also increasing the funding for social services in general as the cities continue to grow – then somehow, ideally simultaneously, raise standards in the countryside while still encouraging movement to the built-up areas, preferably creating new cities in the interior. This is quite a challenge, and how to tackle it is not straightforward; quite apart from the vast expense, the creation of so many new urban environments, spread out around the country, is a logistical challenge. Beijing is toying with the idea of allowing regional governments more power to tax at a local level, raise revenues through land sales and spend the proceeds as it sees fit. It might work. But if it fails, Beijing will have to bail out the local government. And even if it succeeds, it might fuel what the Party dreads – regionalism.

pages: 294 words: 77,356

Automating Inequality by Virginia Eubanks

autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, experimental subject, housing crisis, IBM and the Holocaust, income inequality, job automation, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, payday loans, performance metric, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, statistical model, strikebreaker, underbanked, universal basic income, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, zero-sum game

If we just gather all the facts, systems engineers assume, the correct answers to intractable policy problems like homelessness will be simple, uncontroversial, and widely shared. But, for better or worse, this is not how politics work. Political contests are more than informational; they are about values, group membership, and balancing conflicting interests. The poor and working-class residents of Skid Row and South LA want affordable housing and available services. The Downtown Central Business Improvement District wants tourist-friendly streets. The new urban pioneers want both edgy grit and a Whole Foods. The city wants to clear the streets of encampments. While Los Angeles residents have agreed to pay a little more to address the problem, many don’t want unhoused people moving next door. And they don’t want to spend the kind of money it would take to really solve the housing crisis. These are deeply conflicting visions for the future of Los Angeles.

pages: 237 words: 74,109

Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener

autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Armchair urbanists blogged about Jane Jacobs and discovered Haussmann, Le Corbusier. They fantasized about charter cities. They were beginning to notice something interesting—a potential opportunity, perhaps—taking place outside the windows of their ride-shares. They were beginning to catch on to the value of civic life. At a party, I met a man who leaned in and told me, with warm breath, that he was trying to get involved with an exciting new urbanism project. His T-shirt was creased geometrically, as if he’d had it same-day delivered and only unfolded it an hour ago: artful dishevelment in the age of on-demand. I asked if he worked for the city, or in urban planning. He’d gotten his start like the rest of us, he said, gesturing vaguely around the room, which was full of technologists. But he’d been meaning to read more about urbanism, if I had any book recommendations.

Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking About Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives by Jarrett Walker

Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, congestion charging, demand response, iterative process, jitney, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, Silicon Valley, transit-oriented development, urban planning

I’ve personally worked on several redevelopment projects for suburban centers where a huge local bus interchange was perceived as a barrier to making the area attractive. 178 | HUMAN TRANSIT These facilities are often designed on the assumption that each bus line needs its own stop location, and that buses also need space for driver breaks separate from the stops themselves. These assumptions yield facilities that are so big that they cannot be integrated into an attractive mixed-use development except by putting them entirely (and expensively) underground. One solution (not the only one) is some kind of new urban street that can serve the needs of the transit connection while also being part of an interesting urban center. In a plan for the new downtown of Surrey, British Columbia, for example, I worked with the consulting team led by Hotson Bakker Boniface Haden architects to develop an optimum urban design that was both an attractive and efficient town center and also a major busrail connection point.2 Our proposal (figure 13-8) was a new civic plaza and street grid designed to turn the required connection into an urban design asset.

pages: 241 words: 75,417

The Last President of Europe: Emmanuel Macron's Race to Revive France and Save the World by William Drozdiak

Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, centre right, cloud computing, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, UNCLOS, working poor

And in France, the Yellow Vest movement took root in the working-class exurbs and deserted rural areas of France. “Geography is the common point of the gilets jaunes, Brexit and Trump, and the populist wave,” Guilluy says, whose book La France péripherique (Peripheral France) is often cited as one of the rare works that foreshadowed the rise of the Yellow Vest protesters. He claims that many of these people, left behind by globalization and shunted aside by the new urban economic model, are struggling to preserve their social and cultural capital, as well as their individual identity. “What is very important with the crisis of the gilets jaunes is obviously the yellow vest itself; it says, ‘look at me, I exist,’” Guilluy observes.20 Nonetheless, apart from a shared disdain for globalization, there are significant differences among the populist movements that have disrupted Western democracies.

pages: 273 words: 76,786

Explore Everything by Bradley Garrett

airport security, Burning Man, call centre, creative destruction, deindustrialization, double helix, dumpster diving, failed state, Google Earth, Hacker Ethic, Jane Jacobs, Julian Assange, late capitalism, megacity, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, shareholder value, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight, WikiLeaks

From the perspective of the crane, people on the street blur into an urban flow, and the rhythm and sounds of the city, often so intrusive and abrasive, are attenuated to a subtle drone.19 When we were sitting on top of the Shard, which was at that point seventy-six stories tall, Marc said, ‘At this height the train lines going into London Bridge begin to resemble the Thames. It’s all flow.’ We understood these experiences were not isolated events: we were building completely new urban assemblages where connections, rhythms, flows, boundaries and potentiality were foregrounded. It felt increasingly like we were an integral part of London, witnesses to all its connections. Dan, sitting on the edge of the King’s Reach Tower, watching the new Crossrail construction at Blackfriars, told me, ‘I keep coming back because I feel so alive up here. It’s more real than real life.’ This sense of overcoming the ‘futile’ daily grind in the city impacted the way we interacted with one another as well.

pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

Thus Nagasaki was not so much a closed door as a narrow gateway and a listening post where the bakufu collected information from visiting ships (whose captains were required to write ‘news reports’ for transmission to Edo) and through which it imported books. ‘Dutch knowledge’ percolated slowly among the samurai, teachers and savants. The regime of political seclusion did not mean economic stagnation. Japanese economic growth after 1600 was driven by a remarkable double revolution. Firstly, the political system created a large new urban economy as daimyo and samurai settled in castle towns. The most spectacular case was Edo itself. The sankin kotai rules brought to Edo hundreds of daimyo and their families and vast retinues of samurai.116 By 1700 half of Edo’s 1 million people were samurai retainers living in the great clan compounds that made up nearly three-quarters of the city area. Together the daimyo and the samurai formed a huge concentration of elite consumption for the services and manufactures of the urban merchants, artisans and day-labourers.

Nasser stood forth as an Arab Napoleon. His prestige was matchless: he was the rais (boss). With its large middle class, its great cities and seaports, its literature and cinema, its journalists and teachers, Egypt was the symbol of Arab modernity. Nasser’s pan-Arab nationalism (formally inscribed in Egypt’s newconstitution) chimed with a phase of sharp social change in most Middle Eastern states. To the new urban workers, the growing number of students, the expanding bureaucracy, the young officer class, it offered a political creed and a cultural programme. It promised an end to the Palestinian grievance, through the collective effort of a revitalized nation. Within less than two years of his triumph at Suez, Nasser drewSyria into political union, to form the United Arab Republic. The same year (1958) sawthe end of Hashemite rule in Iraq.

pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Intimate authority isn’t mainly about writing down formal codes and laws; it is about setting up patterns, instilling habits, and creating contexts so that people are most likely to exercise individual responsibility. It means setting up welcome wagons so that new people feel part of an interdependent community. It means volunteering at the youth center so teenagers will have a place to go and be minded. It can be as trivial as the penny jar near the cash register so that the next person will have a penny handy if it’s needed. Or it can be as pervasive as residential projects along the lines of the New Urbanism movement, which are designed to make sure there are eyes on the street, people watching out for each other and subtly upholding community standards of behavior and decency. In true reconciling fashion, intimate authority is a Third Way between excessive individualism on the one hand and imposed formal authority on the other. This is not authority as physics—one powerful body exerting pressure on a smaller body.

pages: 299 words: 83,854

Shortchanged: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy by Howard Karger

big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, delayed gratification, financial deregulation, fixed income, illegal immigration, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, microcredit, mortgage debt, negative equity, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, predatory finance, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, underbanked, working poor

CHAPTER 11: WHAT CAN BE DONE TO CONTROL THE FRINGE ECONOMY? 1 John P. Caskey, Lower Income American, Higher Cost Financial Services (Madison, WI: Filene Research Institute, 1997). 2 Industry Pages, “Check Cashing—Federally Regulated, State Regulated or Unregulated?” April 24, 2003, 3 For a fuller discussion of poverty see William J. Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1997); Dalton Conley, Being Black, Living in the Red (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999); Katherine Newman, No Shame in My Game (New York: Vintage, 2000); Thomas Shapiro and Edward Wolff, Assets for the Poor: The Benefits of Spreading Asset Ownership (New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 2001); David Shipler, The Working Poor (New York: Vintage, 2005); and Matthew Lee, City Limits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

pages: 212 words: 80,393

Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie

British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, financial exclusion, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor

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