continuation of politics by other means

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pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Anticipating the “total” wars of the twentieth century, such tactics turned war into a contest of information and logistics, drawing in civilian government. Napoleon was as much a politician as he was a general, but a politician whose ambition was to build an empire. He didn’t fight only for the glory of it, but to achieve clearly defined objectives, and continued to fight until he’d achieved them. Reflecting on this led Clausewitz to make the observation for which he is best known: “war is the continuation of politics by other means.” The book in which that quote appears was written as a series of unpublished essays between 1816 and his death from cholera in 1831, later assembled by his wife to be published as On War. A number of his more sympathetic readers have noticed the influence of Kant over his work, especially in the method with which On War weaves together abstract principles with practical realities.

His definition of war—“an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfil our will”—was brutal in its simplicity and he believed that (in contrast to the smaller wars that came before) modern warfare was only really finished when one side had been utterly disempowered.4 In other respects, Clausewitz can be read like a management consultant, helping decisionmakers to dispassionately weigh the costs and benefits of different courses of action. In the aftermath of the Vietnam War, his work became required reading in US military colleges, as the Pentagon sought to rethink its core principles of defense and attack. To say that “war is the continuation of politics by other means” is to say that fighting is just one of various means of achieving some objective, to be used as and when it is rational to do so. General Gerasimov was arguing precisely this, leading observers to describe his doctrine as “Clausewitzian.” This idea reduces war to something administrative, turning violence into one of many instruments at the state’s disposal, to get stuff done. If there is anything chilling about Clausewitz, it is not so much his glorification of war as the cold calculating way in which he analyzes it—and this despite having repeatedly witnessed the physical traumas of battle from an early age.

Civil society and democracy are also framed as “wars,” with the “culture wars” splitting American politics down the middle since the 1960s, and Alex Jones, the notorious far-right talk-show host and conspiracy theorist, warning that “there’s a war on for your mind.” The alt-right accuses left-wingers of being “SJWs” (social justice warriors). In the early twenty-first century, it’s not so much that “war is a continuation of politics by other means” but that “politics is a continuation of war by other means,” although precisely where “peaceful” means end and “violent” ones begin is less and less clear. Of course most of these “wars” are not really wars at all, but only framed as such so as to mobilize supporters and frighten opponents. But the public and economic sphere is becoming increasingly organized around principles of conflict, attack, and defense, with less trust placed in those voices—such as professional journalists and judges—who purport to stand outside the fray.

pages: 186 words: 57,798

Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, desegregation, European colonialism, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, working poor

Leading scientists, writers, political activists, and the general population around the world agreed on their opposition to nuclear weapons. The so-called “father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb,” So-viet physicist Andrei Sakharov, and Albert Einstein, the Western “nuclear father,” were in agreement. Sakharov took on Clausewitz's famous dictum that war was “a continuation of politics by other means,” saying, “A thermonuclear war cannot be considered a continuation of politics by other means. It would be a means of universal suicide.” While governments were playing out their Cold War, young people in both blocs were having their ideas shaped as they were being taught to crouch under their school desks, which someone somewhere had decided would be the one safe place for them in the event of a nuclear World War III. Some films, such as Stanley Kubrick's 1964 Dr.

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

British historian Arnold Toynbee marveled that the West’s mastery of war, technology, and diplomacy had “unified the whole world in the literal sense of the whole habitable and traversable surface of the globe.”1 From Vienna in 1814 to Paris in 1919, diplomacy took on the aura of a clique of white men carving up the world—a secretive parlor game played by arrogant statesman with heavy accents. Since that time, diplomats have been charged with negotiating how to run the world. Diplomacy remains an element of everything we do. Carl von Clausewitz declared that war is the continuation of politics by other means. Diplomacy, by contrast, is supposed to play the role of “words that prevent us from reaching for our swords,” according to Bosnian scholar and diplomat Drazen Pehar. Yet war and diplomacy have often been two sides of the same coin, from the time of the Babylonians through Napoléon and Stalin. Diplomacy uses war as a threat, while war uses diplomacy to buy time. American diplomacy helped build a broad coalition (even including other Arab nations) for the first Iraq war in 1990 but failed to do the same in 2003.

Each intervention is cobbled together with piecemeal funding and supplies (from the first world) and troops (from the third world) without sufficient training or a clear mandate for today’s more dangerous stabilization missions. Once on the ground, UN operations have fallen into every postconflict trap, from failing to confront local warlords to following mandates that don’t match local realities to designing constitutions without popular buy-in. Peacekeeping has become the continuation of politics by other means: Some operations have gone on for so many years that they may have become part of the problem themselves. For peacekeeping to not further degenerate into never-ending, halfhearted occupations, the more than $8 billion spent on it each year would be better allocated to building local, multinational forces managed by regional organizations. Regional—not global—peacekeeping forces are the future of conflict management.

pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, post-work, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

War was thus to be the exception and peace the norm. Conflicts within the nation were to be resolved peacefully through political interaction. The separation of war from politics was a fundamental goal of modern political thought and practice, even for the so-called realist theorists who focus on the central importance of war in international affairs. Carl von Clausewitz’s famous claim that war is the continuation of politics by other means, for example, might suggest that politics and war are inseparable, but really, in the context of Clausewitz’s work, this notion is based, first of all, on the idea that war and politics are in principle separate and different. 6 He wants to understand how these separate spheres can at times come into relation. Second, and more important, “politics” for him has nothing to do with political relations within a society but rather refers exclusively to political conflicts between nation-states.7 War in Clausewitz’s view is an instrument in the state’s arsenal for use in the realm of international politics.

When the state of exception becomes the rule and when wartime becomes an interminable condition, then the traditional distinction between war and politics becomes increasingly blurred. The tradition of tragic drama, from Aeschylus to Shakespeare, has continually emphasized the interminable and proliferating nature of war.15 Today, however, war tends to extend even farther, becoming a permanent social relation. Some contemporary authors try to express this novelty by reversing the Clausewitz formula that we cited earlier: it may be that war is a continuation of politics by other means, but politics itself is increasingly becoming war conducted by other means.16 War, that is to say, is becoming the primary organizing principle of society, and politics merely one of its means or guises. What appears as civil peace, then, really only puts an end to one form of war and opens the way for another. Of course, theorists of insurrection and revolutionary politics, particularly in the anarchist and communist traditions, have long made similar claims about the indistinction of war and politics: Mao Zedong, for instance, claimed that politics is simply war without bloodshed, and Antonio Gramsci in a rather different framework divided political strategies between wars of position and wars of maneuver.

In order for war to occupy this fundamental social and political role, war must be able to accomplish a constituent or regulative function: war must become both a procedural activity and an ordering, regulative activity that creates and maintains social hierarchies, a form of biopower aimed at the promotion and regulation of social life. To define war by biopower and security changes war’s entire legal framework. In the modern world the old Clausewitz adage that war is a continuation of politics by other means represented a moment of enlightenment insofar as it conceived war as a form of political action and/or sanction and thus implied an international legal framework of modern warfare. It implied both a jus ad bellum (a right to conduct war) and a jus in bello (a legal framework to govern war conduct). In modernity, war was subordinated to international law and thus legalized or, rather, made a legal instrument.

pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Academics and former government officials have come up with no shortage of acronyms to embody their grand visions for managing global order—but reality always seems to have a different opinion.79 The evolution of international laws and codes without war would undoubtedly serve the great powers most, but as the playwright Bertolt Brecht aphorized, “War is like love; it always finds a way.”80 Mankind will only progress systemically as far as it has progressed psychologically. Diplomacy is “the management of international relations by negotiation,” wrote Sir Harold Nicolson.81 War, in this sense, is not the continuation of politics by other means, but rather the cessation of negotiation.*68 A century ago, globalization was defeated by geopolitics, unleashing World War I. The question is whether history will repeat itself a century later. The answer remains unknown, for as the second world shapes both geopolitics and globalization, diplomacy becomes ever more an art. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS OVERWHELMED AT THE experience of his round-the-world journey, Arnold Toynbee wrote, “Words of thanks are inadequate.

See Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard; Graham Allison, Karl Kaiser, and Sergei Karaganov, “The World Needs a Global Alliance for Security,” International Herald Tribune, November 21, 2001; and Etzioni, From Empire to Community. 80. Freud argued that “so long as there are nations and empires…all alike must be equipped for war.” In his masterful rebuttal of Karl von Clausewitz’s famous dictum that “war is the continuation of politics by other means,” historian John Keegan argues that war is natural and cultural—nature, not nurture—preceding even the creation of polities, states, and armies. From cannibalism to conflicts among nations, strife is part of the human condition. Keegan, A History of Warfare (New York: Vintage, 1993). 81. Harold Nicolson, Diplomacy, 13. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Parag Khanna is a senior research fellow and director of the Global Governance Initiative in the American Strategy Program of the New America Foundation.

pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, different worldview, disruptive innovation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

There’s no real war, so to speak, until the fighters intend to go to war and until they do so with a heavy quantum of force.5 This is in line with the views of the great German military strategist Carl von Clausewitz, who saw war as “nothing but a duel on an extensive scale . . . an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will.” To this, he famously added, “ ‘War is nothing more than the continuation of politics by other means. . . . For political aims are the end and war is the means, and the means can never be conceived without the end.” War, to Clausewitz, “is only a branch of political activity . . . it is in no sense autonomous.”6 But the element of violence remains critical: as historian Michael Howard notes, political or economic conflicts such as “trade wars and tariff wars may involve conflicting interests, but unless there is an element of organized, sanctioned and purposeful violence, these are not war.”7 Most of us intuitively follow these definitions when we try to understand war.

It would be a mistake not to take these words seriously, however. Most of the men and women who drafted the U.N. Charter had experienced the “untold sorrows” of war firsthand, as had the leaders and populations of the states that employed them. Historically, war had been viewed as a prerogative of states: an acceptable mode of territorial expansion, revenue production, or political dispute resolution. Clausewitz saw war as the continuation of politics by other means, and just war theory was simply that: theory. But the U.N. Charter sought to cement into law the Kellogg-Briand Pact’s earlier prohibition on waging aggressive war—this time, with considerably more success. Under the charter, U.N. member states pledged “to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and . . . to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest.”

pages: 222 words: 74,587

Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929 by Markus Krajewski, Peter Krapp

business process, continuation of politics by other means, double entry bookkeeping, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Index librorum prohibitorum, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacques de Vaucanson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, means of production, new economy, paper trading, Turing machine

One must have learned and viewed plenty of things before one can act independently following the preliminary work of Library Bureau.15 A dark threat. What does “plenty of things” possibly refer to? Does an enterprise need to fail twice—as in Dewey’s case—before it opens new markets or manages to consolidate its accounting? Or is it necessary to take Clausewitz’s line that “war is merely a continuation of politics by other means” seriously? Is 1912 possibly an anticipation of an impending wartime economy? If the management of soldiers and the management of books in Vienna around 1800 converge, index cards a century later are substitutes mediating between reader and book. Made precisely and according to standards, they in fact become ammunition in the shape of precise media of transmission, that is, projectiles.16 As a former librarian of the Essen Library as well as the Krupp corporate libraries (and at times a welcome guest at the Krupp residence), Paul Ladewig is aware of the distributive power of his library policy book, which went into three printings, undertaking as normalization nothing other than the recommendation of “impartially working” Library Bureau products.17 The unequivocal program of the industry-friendly librarian barely comes as a surprise: “the strict application of indexing practices in specialized publications, [. . .] an international format of index cards, a coherent collection of office forms, the construction of storage towers for libraries, [. . .] taking precautions against the effects of bombing in the likely event of war” are among his innovations in the field of German librarianship.18 Punch Cards The Viennese card index thus manages to assert itself as the permanent basis for book search, and this expansion of interfaces requires a gradual yet inevitable extension in everyday interaction with these delicate devices.

pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

It does something to your attitude to war when you see a picture of a nine-year-old girl, running for her life from a napalm attack, on the cover of your morning newspaper. It makes it more difficult to talk about glory, or of how the enemy got what they deserved. The United Nations was founded in 1945, with the explicit goal of avoiding another such conflict, and it worked hard to make borders sacrosanct. The old idea that war was merely the continuation of politics by other means, just one of the tools for statecraft, was replaced by the idea that war is a crime and illegal unless in self-defence. European powers gave up the idea of territorial expansion and dismantled their empires, sometimes after revolts and conflict, sometimes peacefully, which meant the end of colonial wars and atrocities. A new Cold War between America and its allies and the Soviet Union broke out, and many experts were certain that it had to end in a global war at some point, with the possibility of global nuclear annihilation.

pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

Obama may have clarified the nomenclature, but he left in place a significant portion of the imbalance, which is an obsession with the threat of terrorist attacks. As we consider presidential options in the coming decade, it appears imperative that we clear up just how much of a threat terrorism actually presents and what that threat means for U.S. policy. According to the Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz, war is a continuation of politics by other means. Victory in World War II did not consist of compelling Japan to stop using aircraft carriers. Victory meant destroying Japan’s ability to wage war, then imposing American will—a political end. If a president is to lead a nation into war, he must crisply designate both the enemy and the end being sought. If terror was the enemy after September 11, then everyone who could use terror was the enemy, which is an awfully long list.

White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard

British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal

Multicultural City Parallels with this ‘White City, Black City’ story can be found all over the world and in various different forms and scales: Tel Aviv and Jaffa, Israel and Palestine, Paris and Algiers, West and East, North and South, First and Third Worlds. In this story all places resemble each other, and so does the physical reality: the architectural, the urban, and the political intertwine and sustain one another. If we adopt Carl von Clausewitz’s formula, complete with all its geometries and possible inversions, White City is an example of how architecture, like war, is the continuation of politics by other means. In turn, we can classify a Black City as an example of how war is the continuation of architecture by other means.239 Eventually, the division into a black city and a white city is the outcome of the perspective, the terms, and the rules of the game as dictated by the White City. In Israel, this division is even more paradoxical if we acknowledge that only the non-whites could wish to be white.

We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

The myth feeds the assumption that there is a continuum of enlightenment, briefly interrupted by two world wars, two aberrations, that lasts to this day. The truth is that Anglo-American history (and to a similar extent, Western European history) is founded on both the cultification of whiteness in order to instil a sense of superior national identity and the pursuit of conflict abroad which confers a sense of purpose at home. The Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz coined the aphorism that war is the continuation of politics by other means. From the late 1800s, imperialist expansion into the Americas, Africa and the Indian sub-continent was war as an outsourcing of politics by other means. Take Cecil Rhodes, a man whose life is a testament to the happy marriage of expansionist white supremacy and capitalist success. In 1870, his jaunt as a teenager to South Africa for health reasons, resulted in him founding both De Beers and the South African territory of Rhodesia.

pages: 329 words: 102,469

Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

If you kill ten terrorists, without changing the political circumstances, they can become martyrs for their own community and give birth to a hundred more. Terror is a means, not an end—except for a few psychopaths. To be sure, even for non-psychopaths, terrorism can, with time, become a way of life, and of supposedly honorable death. It is often deeply entangled with organized crime and profiteering. Nonetheless, for most terrorist leaders, most of the time, terror is like war in Clausewitz’s famous definition: the continuation of politics by other means. If you look more closely at the politics of early-twenty-first century terrorism, the distinction between domestic and international soon becomes blurred. Domestic in this context means inside one country. But what most terrorists in the world want is precisely that one country should become two, or that two parts of different countries should become one new country, or, in any case, that a state should be fundamentally re-made.

pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

The weapons that make news today—miniature aircraft, missiles, and guided bullets; applications of surveillance systems and drones—all point to an interest in applying lethal force from a distance, yet with the precision of sniper fire. It is important to remember, however, that coercion—not killing—is the usual purpose of war. As Sun Tzu said, “Supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting,” and in his best-known quotation Clausewitz described war as “merely the continuation of politics by other means.” Accordingly, the primary use of weapons is coercion—and although killing has to date been more economical, the economics of advanced technologies and low-cost production will make non-lethal weapons more competitive. Imagine a swarm of unmanned drones—built at low cost and in enormous numbers—pitted against conventional air power. Air defenses could be saturated if there were sufficient drones—they could simply absorb hits until a defender’s munitions ran out.

pages: 410 words: 106,931

Age of Anger: A History of the Present by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, informal economy, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, Republic of Letters, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

He also confessed to a deep unease over the fact that: I didn’t kill them in self-defense … When I took a human life, it taught me these were human beings, even though they speak a different language and have different customs. The truth is, we all have the same dreams, the same desires, the same care for our children and our family. These people were humans, like me, at the core. McVeigh’s proclamation of a common humanity now seems radical. For during the years since 9/11, war ceased to be the continuation of politics by other means; it took on a theological intensity, aiming at the extirpation of what Chris Kyle in American Sniper, a sniper’s personal account of the American war in Iraq, calls ‘savage, desperate evil’. ‘I wanted everyone to know I was a Christian,’ Kyle wrote, explaining his red Crusader-cross tattoo in his chronicle of exterminating the brutes. The xenophobic frenzy unleashed by Clint Eastwood’s film of Kyle’s book suggested the most vehement partisans of holy war flourish not only in the ravaged landscapes of South and West Asia.

pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters

Albert Einstein, American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Davies, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technoutopianism, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine

The Soviet state was too familiar with the unpredictable dynamism of competing informal networks (the same kinds of networks celebrated by Internet commentators in the 1990s) to be able to carry out systematic reform and infrastructure upgrade to bring the Soviet state into the current network information age. The Red King’s Book, or Botvinnik and the Soviet Case of Computer Chess If war, in Carl von Clausewitz’s famous phrase, is a continuation of politics by other means, then perhaps the most visible continuation of cold war politics by means of a game is chess (second to Go, the world’s most popular war game). This classic thinking man’s game is synecdoche for cold war confrontation, complete with two diametrically opposed rational strategists plotting the endgame of the other.36 It is no surprise that the Soviet Union, which reigned as chess hegemony for most of its existence, took its strategic chess, computer, and long-term planning thinking seriously.

pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

The third variant of the war-machine involves its appropriation by the State as a means to serve the State’s essentially political ends: the aim of striating, securing, and expanding territory. The State war-machine always has war as its exclusive object (it must constantly protect, if not expand, its territory), yet it remains subordinate to the State’s political aim: in this context, war is merely “the continuation of politics by other means,”100 and it is still only limited war. The fourth variant of the war-machine, which is fascism, serves for Deleuze and Guattari as a transition from the third war-machine to the fifth: fascism is what transformed limited war into total war, paving the way for the totalizing war-machine of global capitalism. The fifth variant of the war-machine—global capitalism—has escaped the grasp of the State and now envelops it, with the State becoming merely a variable model of realization for capitalist axiomatization.

pages: 480 words: 122,663

The Art of SQL by Stephane Faroult, Peter Robson

business intelligence, business process, constrained optimization, continuation of politics by other means, database schema, full text search, invisible hand

* * * [*] For readers unfamiliar with British history, the Plantagenet dynasty ruled England between 1154 and 1485. Chapter 1. Laying Plans Designing Databases for Performance C'est le premier pas qui, dans toutes les guerres, décèle le génie. It is the first step that reveals genius in all wars. --Joseph de Maistre (1754-1821) Lettre du 27 Juillet 1812 à Monsieur le Comte de Front The great nineteenth century German strategist, Clausewitz, famously remarked that war is the continuation of politics by other means. Likewise, any computer program is, in one way or another, the continuation of the general activity within an organization, allowing it to do more, faster, better, or cheaper. The main purpose of a computer program is not simply to extract data from a database and then to process it, but to extract and process data for some particular goal. The means are not the end. A reminder that the goal of a given computer program is first of all to meet some business requirement [*] may come across as a platitude.

pages: 756 words: 120,818

The Levelling: What’s Next After Globalization by Michael O’sullivan

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, cloud computing, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, global value chain, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, liberal world order, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, private military company, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, tulip mania, Valery Gerasimov, Washington Consensus

Yet this is not a given, and in a multipolar world some players may have a different view. One dimension that may complicate the need for less central bank intervention and diminish their independence is the quest by the large poles for financial dominance over each other. Central banks could become a vital instrument in such pursuits. Echoing Carl von Clausewitz’s view that “war is the continuation of politics by other means,” in a multipolar world central banks could become the monetary battleships of the large regions, with currency wars shadowing trade wars.16 Indeed, the epidemic of countries sanctioning each other in 2018 (Saudi Arabia sanctioning Canada and the United States sanctioning Turkey, Russia, and China, for instance) suggests that finance is a key part of the geopolitical arsenal. Against this backdrop, governments may be tempted to allow central banks to take on a more strategic or geostrategic role than the “mere” economic function they play today.

pages: 872 words: 135,196

The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security by Deborah D. Avant

barriers to entry, continuation of politics by other means, corporate social responsibility, failed state, hiring and firing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rolodex, The Nature of the Firm, trade route, transaction costs

Private security and the control of force: the question Why should we worry – or even care – about this market? The answer is simple, private security may affect how and whether people can control violence. The effort to contain violence within collective structures – rules, laws, norms, and institutions – has been an ongoing struggle throughout human history. “War,” John Keegan writes, “is not the continuation of politics by other means,” we only wish that were so. He argues that Clausewitz’s dictum was part of a theory of what war ought to be.6 Clausewitz’s conception reflected the emerging view in the west that the state – or the “public” sphere – was the institution through which the use of violence could be most effectively linked to endeavors endorsed by a collective. The endurance of references to Clausewitz indicates the degree to which state control of force (though often imperfect) has provided the best (even if highly uneven) mechanism human kind has known for linking the use of violence to political processes and social norms within a territory.

pages: 621 words: 157,263

How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism by Eric Hobsbawm

anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Simon Kuznets, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

(The first specific reference to the possibilities of a Russian revolution occurs in 1870.)71 Though Ireland ceased to play much part in Marx’s calculations after the collapse of Fenianism, 72 Russia became increasingly important: its revolution could ‘give the signal for a workers’ revolution in the west, so that both complement each other’ (1882).73 The major significance of a Russian revolution would, of course, lie in its transformation of the situation in the developed countries. These changes in the perspectives of revolution determined a major change in Marx’s and Engels’ attitude to war. They were no more pacifist in principle than they were republican democrats or nationalists in principle. Nor, since they knew war 76 Marx, Engels and Politics to be Clausewitz’s ‘continuation of politics by other means’ did they believe in an exclusive economic causation of war, at least in their lifetime. There is no suggestion of this in their writings. 74 Briefly, in the first two phases, they expected war to advance their cause directly, and the hope of war played a major, sometimes a decisive part in their calculations. From the late 1870s on – the turning point came in 1879–8075 – they saw a general war as an obstacle in the short run to the advance of the movement.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Economic coercion precedes military hostilities in today’s geopolitical maneuvering. Even though interdependence can be weaponized through financial sanctions, cyber-attacks, and supply chain disruptions, escalation is far costlier for both sides today than a century ago because they immediately harm one’s own businesses operating in the rival country. Clausewitz’s dictum that “war is the continuation of politics by other means” must be updated: War is the continuation of tug-of-war by other means. * * * *1 The regions they are warring over, those squeezed in between these continental mega-powers, are the ones I explored in The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order. *2 There is an ongoing debate as to whether China itself might join TPP if it agrees to adhere to the standards of protecting intellectual property and ending preferential treatment for state-owned enterprises.

Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

He wrote: “Hence, the political exposures in themselves serve as a powerful instrument for disintegrating the system we oppose, the means of diverting from the enemy his casual or temporary allies, the means for spreading enmity and distrust among those who permanently share power with the autocracy.”13 Some analysts in West Germany had learned from their East German opponents that understanding active measures required understanding Lenin first. As West German counterintelligence noted in the 1985 report, Lenin reversed the famous line, by the Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz, that war was a continuation of politics by other means. Politics was a continuation of war by other means, in Lenin’s reading, and active measures an “ersatz for (military) warfare.”14 By this point in the Cold War, the West Germans understood not just Lenin but also the tactics, techniques, and procedures of this form of ersatz war. The analysts in Cologne had “no doubt” that the KGB coordinated the overall planning for offensive political influence operations with the Stasi in Berlin, StB in Prague, and other satellite agencies.

pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

One person ruling ­brutally in his own interests isn’t merely a bad political system: it’s not a political system at all.5 Others disagree, arguing that this perspective wrongly elevates one particular conception of ­politics—a liberal one—above all others, including dictatorship, which can qualify as political just the same. Another grey area is whether war is part of politics as opposed to something distinct. The Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz famously believed that OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 29/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 72 FUTURE POLITICS war is the ‘continuation of politics by other means’, yet scholars such as Sir Bernard Crick and Hannah Arendt argue that war represents the breakdown of politics, not politics itself.6 You may already be clutching your cranium in despair. How are we supposed to make sense of the future of politics when we can’t even agree on what politics is? The good news is that, as I mentioned before, there is no inherently right or wrong answer.

pages: 812 words: 180,057

The Generals: American Military Command From World War II to Today by Thomas E. Ricks

affirmative action, airport security, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, hiring and firing, MITM: man-in-the-middle, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Yom Kippur War

This is all political.” He continued: “My Marine commander says we need to wait. We’re talking about Marines’ lives.” Powell probably should have responded coolly that as chairman of the Joint Chiefs it was his job—his obligation—to ensure that politics were connected to military operations. After all, the best-known observation of Clausewitz, the great Prussian theorist of war, is that war is the continuation of politics by other means. A war not fought for political ends is simply mindless bloodshed. Yet Powell did not say any of that. Rather, he responded with full-throated emotion. “Don’t you pull that on me,” he shouted back at his fellow Vietnam veteran. “Don’t you try to lay a patronizing guilt trip on me! Don’t tell me I don’t care about casualties!” Schwarzkopf backed down a bit. “You’re pressuring me to put aside my military judgment out of political expediency,” he pleaded.

pages: 684 words: 188,584

The Age of Radiance: The Epic Rise and Dramatic Fall of the Atomic Era by Craig Nelson

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, Doomsday Clock, El Camino Real, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, Project Plowshare, Ralph Nader, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, éminence grise

All the other ones . . . are games, are window dressings, and they are window dressing for upmanship. . . . But when you take away all these layers of cloth, at the bottom of the thing, basically, is MAD, and no one likes it.” Nikita Khrushchev’s son, Sergei: “For thousands of years peoples have resolved their conflicts by armed clashes. There was good reason for Karl von Clausewitz to write that war is a continuation of politics by other means. With the invention of nuclear weapons, politicians suddenly realized that war would no longer lead to victory, that both sides would lose. But they didn’t know how to behave differently. So they behaved the same way, but without going to war. War without war was called ‘cold war.’ . . . Thus the Cold War was a kind of transitional period from a disconnected world that used weapons as its main instrument for resolving world conflicts to some kind of different state of being—to a new world order, if you like.”

pages: 637 words: 199,158

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J. Mearsheimer

active measures, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, deindustrialization, discrete time, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War

In essence, great powers are like billiard balls that vary only in size.28 Third, realists hold that calculations about power dominate states’ thinking, and that states compete for power among themselves. That competition sometimes necessitates going to war, which is considered an acceptable instrument of statecraft. To quote Carl von Clausewitz, the nineteenth-century military strategist, war is a continuation of politics by other means.29 Finally, a zero-sum quality characterizes that competition, sometimes making it intense and unforgiving. States may cooperate with each other on occasion, but at root they have conflicting interests. Although there are many realist theories dealing with different aspects of power, two of them stand above the others: human nature realism, which is laid out in Morgenthau’s Politics among Nations, and defensive realism, which is presented mainly in Waltz’s Theory of International Politics.

pages: 850 words: 224,533

The Internationalists: How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World by Oona A. Hathaway, Scott J. Shapiro

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, bank run, Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, humanitarian revolution, index card, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

The rules of the Old World Order were understood to be obligatory, and sovereigns largely obeyed them. The rules differed starkly from the ones that govern today. The Old World Order was defined first and foremost by the belief that war is a legitimate means of righting wrongs. The inhabitants of the Old World Order would have found the famous maxim from Carl von Clausewitz’s On War to be incontrovertibly true: War is simply the continuation of politics by other means.21 Resorting to arms did not signal a failure in the system: It was how the system worked. War was an instrument of justice. Might was Right. But it is not just that the Old World Order sanctioned war: It relied on and rewarded it. All states had the right of conquest: Any state that claimed it had been wronged by another state, and whose demands for reparations were ignored, could retaliate with force and capture territory as compensation.

Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss

anti-communist, British Empire, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

“Evolution of the Modern Rhetorical Presidency: Presidential Presentation and Development of the State of the Union Address.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, June 2003. Van Ells, Mark D. “Assuming the White Man’s Burden: The Seizure of the Philippines, 1898–1902.” Philippine Studies, Fourth Quarter 1995. White, Jonathan W. “The Strangely Insignificant Role of the U.S. Supreme Court in the Civil War.” Journal of the Civil War Era, June 2013. Yoo, John C. “The Continuation of Politics by Other Means: The Original Understanding of War Powers.” California Law Review, Mar. 1996. CHAPTER NOTES Presidential speeches and messages are in Public Papers of the Presidents (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office), unless otherwise noted. Newspaper and magazine articles and oral histories are cited within each chapter’s notes. PROLOGUE: THE FUGITIVE Madisons and British invasion of DC: Muller, pp. 167–192; Jane Cook, pp. 3–261; Peter Snow, pp. 67–134; Allgor, Perfect Union, pp. 305–330; Lord, pp. 106–108, 116–117, 124–125, 130–131, 146–148, 150–153, 157, 167–179, 191–195, 201, 212–216; Langguth, pp. 291–315; Borneman, 1812, pp. 216–235; Howard, pp. 132–208; Pitch, pp. 113–126; Brant, vol. 6, pp. 298–315; Cheney, pp. 405–412; Brookhiser, pp. 208–209; Papers of James Madison, Presidential Series, vol. 8, pp. 137–141.

pages: 950 words: 297,713

Crucible: The Long End of the Great War and the Birth of a New World, 1917-1924 by Charles Emmerson

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Etonian, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Solar eclipse in 1919, strikebreaker, trade route

When Nazi thugs break up a rally of Bavarians who want to separate from Germany, Adolf is delighted. The Bavarian leader was literally ‘dragged down from the podium by the outraged masses, and kicked out of the room’, he writes gleefully. Hitler is briefly held in police custody for incitement. The nineteenth-century Prussian theorist of war Carl von Clausewitz once wrote that war is the continuation of politics by other means. Hitler turns this famous dictum on its head, and suggests that the party needs to apply the tactics of Flanders in 1918 to the streets of Munich in 1921. ‘Just as during the war we moved from a war of position to a war of attack, so it must be now’, says the mangy field-runner when he meets members of the euphemistically named gymnastics and sports units of the party: ‘You too will be trained as storm-troopers’, he tells them.

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, do-ocracy, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

"Sadat aimed not so much for territorial gain but for a crisis that would alter the attitudes into which the parties were then frozen—and thereby open the way to negotiations. The shock would enable both sides, including Egypt, to show a flexibility that was impossible while Israel considered itself militarily supreme and Egypt was paralyzed by humiliation. His purpose, in short, was psychological and diplomatic, much more than military." Sadat's decision was calculated; he was operating on Clausewitz's dictum that war was the continuation of politics by other means. Yet, at the same time, he made his decision with a profound sense of fatalism; he knew he was gambling. While the possibility of a war was hinted and even talked about in a general way, it was not taken very seriously, especially by those who would be its object—the Israelis. Yet by April of 1973 Sadat had begun formulating with Syria's President Hafez al-Assad strategic plans for a joint Egyptian-Syrian attack.

Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

‘War’, he wrote at the end of his Metaphysics of Manners, ‘ought to have no place there.’ But much more common was the assumption of De Maistre that war was ‘the habitual state of the human species’. The treatise On War (1832), written by the Prussian general Karl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), was one of the most lucid and influential books of the century. ‘War’, he wrote, ‘is the continuation of politics by other means.’ Recounting the onward march of modernization, it is easy to give the impression that the road was smooth and the direction obvious. But such an impression would be false. The territory was often hostile, the obstacles enormous, the accidents unremitting. For every entrepreneur there was an aristocrat who did not want the railway to cross his land; for every machine there was a dispossessed craftsman who wanted to smash it; for every fresh factory, abandoned villages: for every shining city hall, slums.