From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death

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pages: 323 words: 100,772

Prisoner's Dilemma: John Von Neumann, Game Theory, and the Puzzle of the Bomb by William Poundstone

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Hofstadter, Frank Gehry, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Jacquard loom, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, statistical model, the market place, zero-sum game

“I hope you have forgiven my modest venture in double crossing,” one letter of Johnny’s says. Another admits: “We both have nasty tempers, but let’s quarrel less. I really love you, and, within the limitations of my horrible nature, I do want to make you happy—as nearly as possible, as much of the time as possible.” What was the horrible nature? In an interview with journalist Steve J. Heims (in John Von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, 1980), Eugene Wigner asserted that “Johnny believed in having sex, in pleasure, but not in emotional attachment. He was interested in immediate pleasures but had little comprehension of emotions in relationships and mostly saw women in terms of their bodies.” Wigner suggested that von Neumann’s real love was his mother. Von Neumann’s mother, known as “Gittush,” was in many respects the center of the family von Neumann had brought to America.

In Good Housekeeping, September 1956, 80–81+. Guyer, Melvin J., and Anatol Rapoport. “A Taxonomy of 2 × 2 Games.” In General Systems (1966) 11:203–14. Haldeman, H. R., with Joseph DiMona. The Ends of Power. New York: Times Books, 1978. Halmos, Paul. “The Legend of John von Neumann.” In American Mathematical Monthly 80, no. 4 (April 1973): 382–94. Heims, Steve J. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. New York: Macmillan, 1958. Hofstadter, Douglas. Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. New York: Basic Books, 1985. Kahn, Herman. On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios. New York: Praeger, 1965. ______. On Thermonuclear War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960. Keohane, Robert O.


pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters

Albert Einstein, American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Davies, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technoutopianism, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine

Kay, “Cybernetics, Information, Life: The Emergence of Scriptural Representations of Heredity,” Configurations 5 (1) (1997): 23–91.Books on the cybernetic context before and during the U.S. cold war include Edwards, The Closed World; David Mindell, Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing before Cybernetics (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 2002); Jennifer Light, From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003); and Darren Tofts, Annemarie Jonson, and Alessio Cavallaro, eds., Prefiguring Cyberculture: An Intellectual History (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).A few biographical works include Steve J. Heims, The Cybernetics Group (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991); Steve J. Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982); Pesi R. Masani, Norbert Wiener, 1894–1964 (Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1990); Flow Conway and Jim Siegelman, Dark Hero of the Information Age: In Search of Norbert Wiener, the Father of Cybernetics (New York: Basic Books, 2005); and Hunter Crowther-Heyck, Herbert A. Simon: The Bounds of Reason in Modern America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).A few key theorizations and historical treatments include N.

Communists and Their Law: A Search for the Common Core of the Legal Systems of the Marxian Socialist States. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1969. Heidegger, Martin. The Question concerning Technology and Other Essays. Translated by William Lovitt. New York: Harper & Row, [1954] 1977. Heims, Steve J. The Cybernetics Group. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. Heims, Steve J. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982. Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914–1991. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994. Hobsbawm, Eric. How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011. Hoffmann, David E. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy. New York: Random House, 2009.


The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process, zero-sum game

Licklider," October 15, 1990). 2. George A. Miller, "Stanley Smith Stevens, 1906-1973," In Bzographical Memoirs, vol. 47 (Washing- ton, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1975). 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. George A. Miller, "J. C. R. Licklider, Psychologist" (unpublished address given before the Acousti- cal Society of America, 1 991). 7. Steve Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980), 379. 8. Jerome B. Wiesner, "The Communications Sciences-Those Early Days," in R. L. E.: 1946+20 (Cambridge, Mass.: Research Laboratory for Electronics, MIT, 1966), 13. 9. Pesi R. Masanl, Norbert Wiener (Basel: Blfkhauser, 1990), 16. 10. Wiesner, "The CommunICations Sciences-Those Early Days," 13. 11. Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, or Control and Communicatzon in the Animal and the Machine, 2d ed.

Jeremy Bernstein, "Profiles: A.I. (Profile of Marvin Minsky)," New Yorker, December 14, 1981. 2. Henry S. Tropp, "Ongln of the Term Bit," Annals of the H15tory of Computing 6 (1984). 3. Jerome B. Wiesner, "The Communications Sciences-Those Early Days," in R.L.E.: 1946+20 (Cambridge, Mass.: Research Laboratory for Electronics, MIT, 1966), 12. 4. Steve Helms, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980), 206. 5. Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, or Control and CommunicatiOn in the Animal and the Machine, 2d ed. (Cambndge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1961),23. 6. Heims, Von Neumann/Wiener, 189. 7. Norbert Wiener, "A Scientist Rebels," Atlantic Monthly, January 1947, and Bulletin of the Atomic Sci- entlSts, January 1947. 8. Helms, Von Neumann/Wiener, 334-35. 9.

Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, or Control and CommunicatiOn in the Animal and the Machine, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1961), vii. 14. Alan M. Turing, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," Mind 59, no. 236 (1950). Repnnted In The Mind's I: Fantasies and ReflectiOns on Self & Soul, ed. Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Den- nett (New York: BasIC Books, 1981), 53-67. 15. Ibid. 16. QIoted In Steve Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980), 276. 17. QIoted ibid., 370. 18. QIoted ibid. 19. QIoted ibid., 371. 20. George A. Miller, "The MagICal Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capac- ity for Processing Information," Psychological Review 63, no. 2 (1956): 81; http://www.well.com/user/ smalin/ miller.html. 21. Q!.Ioted in Bernard J. Baars, The Cognitive RevolutiOn in Psychology (New York: Guilford Press, 1986), 342. 22.


pages: 524 words: 120,182

Complexity: A Guided Tour by Melanie Mitchell

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, scientific worldview, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine

Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. For an account of self-replication in DNA and how it relates to mathematical logic and self-copying computer programs, see Hofstadter, D. R., Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books, 1979, pp. 495–548. “reproductive potentialities of the machines of the future’ ”: Quoted in Heims, S. J., John Von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980, pp. 212–213. “their respective nonfiction”: Kurzweil, R., The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. New York: Viking, 1999; and Moravec, H., Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. “now famous article in Wired”: Joy, B., Why the future doesn’t need us. Wired, April 2000.

Nature, 451, 2008, pp. 414–416. Hales, D. and Arteconi, S. SLACER: A Self-Organizing Protocol for Coordination in Peer-to-Peer Networks. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(2), 2006, pp. 29–35. Hardin, G. The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1968, pp. 1243–1248. Heims, S. The Cybernetics Group. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Heims, S. J. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980. Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, (1651/1991). Hodges, A. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. Hoelzer, G. A. Smith, E., and Pepper, J. W., On the logical relationship between natural selection and self-organization. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19(6), 2007, pp. 1785–1794. Hofmeyr, S.


pages: 332 words: 109,213

The Scientist as Rebel by Freeman Dyson

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, dark matter, double helix, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, undersea cable

The day after his arrival, he died suddenly of a pulmonary embolism on the steps of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Dark Hero of the Information Age5 is the third biography of Norbert Wiener, unless there are others of which I am ignorant. First came a joint biography of Wiener and the mathematician John von Neumann, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, by Steve Heims in 1980.6 Then came Norbert Wiener, 1894–1964, by Pesi Masani in 1990.7 The main justification for a new biography is that the three biographies emphasize different aspects of Wiener’s life and character. The Heims biography emphasizes politics. It is mainly concerned with Wiener’s activities as a social critic in the last third of his life. It presents the parallel lives of von Neumann and Wiener as a simple struggle between black and white, with von Neumann as the evil genius of science in the service of war, and Wiener as the good genius of science in the service of peace.


pages: 453 words: 111,010

Licence to be Bad by Jonathan Aldred

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, framing effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, full employment, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, nudge unit, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spectrum auction, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, zero-sum game

Quoted in Morgenstern (1976), ‘The Collaboration between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann on the Theory of Games’, Journal of Economic Literature, 14 (3), 810. 7 Morgenstern’s diary, April–May 1942. Quoted in Leonard, Robert J. (1995), ‘From Parlor Games to Social Science: Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory 1928–1944’, Journal of Economic Literature, 33 (2), 730. 8 Nasar, 94. 9 Ibid. 10 Quoted in Heims, S. (1980). John Von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge: MIT Press), 327. 11 Quoted in Poundstone, W. (1992), Prisoner’s Dilemma (New York: Anchor Books), 168. 12 Quoted in Ferguson, N. (2017), The Square and the Tower: Networks and Power, from the Freemasons to Facebook (London: Allen Lane), 260. 13 Hertzberg, H. (2001), ‘Comment: Tuesday, and After’, New Yorker, 24 September 2001, 27. Quoted in Amadae, S. (2003), Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 6. 14 Russell, B. (1959), Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare (London: Allen and Unwin), 30. 15 Nasar, 242, 244. 16 Ibid., 379. 17 Goeree, J., and Holt, C. (1999), ‘Stochastic Game Theory’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 96, 10564–7. 18 Mirowski and Nik-Khah in D.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

pagewanted=all. 12.Ibid. 13.Ibid. 14.Carew, Walter Reuther, 144. 15.The Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution, “The Triple Revolution,” Liberation, April 1964, http://www.educationanddemocracy.org/FSCfiles/C_CC2a_TripleRevolution.htm. 16.Mark D. Stahlman, “Wiener’s Genius Project” (invited paper, IEEE 2014 Conference on Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century, 2014). 17.Steve J. Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980), 343. 18.Norbert Wiener, God and Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964), 29. 19.“Machines Smarter Than Men? Interview with Dr. Norbert Wiener, Noted Scientist,” U.S. News & World Report, February 24, 1964, http://21stcenturywiener.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Machines-Smarter-Than-Man-Interview-with-Norbert-Wiener.pdf. 20.Defense Science Board, “The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems,” U.S.


pages: 759 words: 166,687

Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics by David A. Mindell

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, Computer Numeric Control, discrete time, Frederick Winslow Taylor, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, telerobotics, Turing machine

“Artificial Representation of Power Systems.” Journal of the AIEE 44 (1925). Hecht, Gabrielle. The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. Heims, Steve J. Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America: The Cybernetics Group, 1946–1953 . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993. ———. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980 . Hewlett, E. M. “The Selsyn System of Position Indication.” General Electric Review 24 (March 1921): 210–18. Hochheiser, Sheldon. “What Makes the Picture Talk: AT&T and the Development of Sound Motion Picture Technology.” IEEE Transactions on Education 35 (November 1992): 278–85. Hoddeson, Lillian. “The Emergence of Basic Research in the Bell Telephone System, 1875–1915.”


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From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. Heims, Steve J. Constructing a Social Science for Post-War America: The Cybernetics Group, 1946 –1953. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. ———. “Gregory Bateson and the Mathematicians: From Interdisciplinary Interaction to Societal Functions.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 13 (1977): 141–59. ———. John Von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980. Helmreich, Stefan. “Artificial Life, Inc.: Darwin and Commodity Fetishism from Santa Fe to Silicon Valley.” Science as Culture 10, no. 4 (2001): 483 –504. ———. Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. Henwood, Doug. After the New Economy. New York: New Press, 2003. B i b l i o g ra p h y [ 301 ] Herring, Susan.


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Life's Greatest Secret: The Race to Crack the Genetic Code by Matthew Cobb

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, anti-communist, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, post-materialism, Stephen Hawking

., ‘Alphonse Raymond Dochez, 1882–1964’, Biographical Memoir, Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1971. Heijmans, B. T., Tobi, E. W., Stein, A. D. et al., ‘Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, vol. 105, 2008, pp. 17046–9. Heims, S. J., John von Neumann & Norbert Weiner: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, London, MIT Press, 1980. Heims, S. J., The Cybernetics Group, London, MIT Press, 1991. Henikoff, S., Keene, M. A., Fechtel, K. and Fristrom, J. W., ‘Gene within a gene: nested Drosophila genes encode unrelated proteins on opposite DNA strands’, Cell, vol. 44, 1986, pp. 33–42. Hershey, A. D., ‘Functional differentiation within particles of bacteriophage T2’, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 18, 1953, pp. 135–40.