Monroe Doctrine

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America in the World by Robert B. Zoellick

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Corn Laws, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hypertext link, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty

On Clay’s speech at Lexington, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 180. For the original speech, see Henry Clay, The Life, Correspondence, and Speeches of Henry Clay, vol. 1, ed. Calvin Colton (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1857), 241. 36. Traub, John Quincy Adams, 258–59. 37. May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 191, 197. 38. For JQA discussions with de Tuyll see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 196, 199; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 276–77, 279; Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 40. 39. On the cabinet meeting discussion, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 198–200; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 279–80; Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 41–42. 40. May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 200–208; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 280–81. 41. May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 204, 208–10. 42. May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 210. 43. For Monroe’s draft and debate, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 211–18; Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 43–44; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 281–82. 44.

For Monroe’s draft and debate, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 211–18; Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 43–44; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 281–82. 44. For Wirt, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 220–21; Traub, John Quincy Adams, 285; Sexton, Monroe Doctrine, 61. 45. On the length and context of Monroe’s message, see Sexton, Monroe Doctrine, 47–48. On the text, including the less noted opening and closing paragraphs, see ibid., 53–62. On “open diplomacy,” see Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 62. On JQA’s anticolonialism, see Traub, John Quincy Adams, 285. 46. May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 219–28. For Monroe’s letter to Jefferson, see Monroe to Jefferson, December 4, 1823, in The Writings of James Monroe, vol. 6, 1817–1823, ed. Stanislaus Murray Hamilton (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1903), 342–45. 47.

For Canning’s reaction and response, see May, Making of the Monroe Doctrine, 240–44; Sexton, Monroe Doctrine, 65–66. 48. Quoted in Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 56–57. 49. Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 57–58. 50. Quoted in Remini, Henry Clay, 221–22. For the original, see JQA, Memoirs of John Quincy Adams, vol. 6, ed. Charles Francis Adams (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1875), 224. 51. Cobbs Hoffman, American Umpire, 105; Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, 4, 387–89. 52. Traub, John Quincy Adams, 286. 53. Traub, John Quincy Adams, 286. 54. See the essays by Root and Hughes in The Monroe Doctrine: Its Modern Significance, ed. Donald Marquand Dozer (New York: Knopf, 1965), 51, 87, respectively. 55. Ammon, James Monroe, 491. 56. Sexton, Monroe Doctrine, 61. 57. On Bolivar, see Kinley Brauer, “Henry Clay,” in Mihalkanin, American Statesmen, 129.

pages: 518 words: 128,324

Destined for War: America, China, and Thucydides's Trap by Graham Allison

9 dash line, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, game design, George Santayana, Haber-Bosch Process, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, long peace, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, one-China policy, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, UNCLOS, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Sensing that Cleveland meant what he said, the British reluctantly agreed to determine the proper border with arbitration rather than test the limits of American patience with a de facto claim to the disputed territory.44 Roosevelt glowed, insisting that the United States had grown “sufficiently powerful to make what it said of weight in foreign affairs,” and belittled those who questioned whether it was sensible (or legal) for the US to threaten Britain over its actions in a remote part of South America. The Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt wrote, “is not a question of law at all. It is a question of policy . . . To argue that it cannot be recognized as a principle of international law is a mere waste of breath.”45 Roosevelt demonstrated the same resolve in his faceoff with Berlin and London. His ultimatum persuaded both countries to withdraw from Venezuelan waters and to settle their dispute at The Hague on terms satisfactory to the US. The results vindicated Roosevelt in his determination that “the Monroe Doctrine should be treated as the cardinal feature of American foreign policy.” But, he warned, “it would be worse than idle to assert it unless we intended to back it up, and it can be backed up only by a thoroughly good navy.”46 The US naval advantage in the Caribbean spoke more decisively than words ever could.

In the future, TR stated, “chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.”76 This resolution became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Political cartoon from the Montreal Star (1903) depicting the American eagle as a vulture in search of new prey following US actions in Panama and Alaska. In the remaining years of his presidency, TR showed just what kind of “wrongdoing or impotence” he had in mind.

See Collin’s Theodore Roosevelt’s Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990), xii. For details of Roosevelt’s suspicions about Germany’s designs on Venezuela, see also James R. Holmes, Theodore Roosevelt and World Order: Police Power in International Relations (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2006), 165–67. [back] 37. Morris, Theodore Rex, 186–87. [back] 38. Edmund Morris, “A Few Pregnant Days,” Theodore Roosevelt Association Journal 15, no. 1 (Winter 1989), 4. The episode is described in detail by Morris in both Theodore Rex, 183–91, and “A Few Pregnant Days,” 2–13. [back] 39. Morris, “A Few Pregnant Days,” 2. [back] 40. The Monroe Doctrine declared that countries in the Western Hemisphere were “not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers” and warned that the US “could not view any interposition by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the US.”

Turning the Tide by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, land reform, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

V. G. Kiernan, America: The New Imperialism (Zed, 1978), 11. 33. Connell-Smith, Inter-American System, 2; Dexter Perkins, The Monroe Doctrine, three volumes (1927, 1933, 1937; reprinted by Peter Smith, 1965-6), I, 9-10. 34. Perkins. Monroe Doctrine, III, 63; Connell-Smith, InterAmerican System, 10, 5; Perkins, II, 318, referring specifically to Mexico. 35. Gabriel Kolko, Main Currents in American History (Pantheon, 1984), 47; Taft, quoted by Pearce, Under the Eagle, 17; Connell-Smith, Inter-American System, 16; the reference in the latter case is to Mexico. 36. Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, III, 161; Millet, Guardians of the Dynasty, 52. 37. Perkins, Monroe Doctrine, III, 396. 38. Connell-Smith, Inter-American System, 48-9, 15. 39. Lester Langley, The Banana Wars (U. of Kentucky, 1983), 26; Hubert Herring, cited by Connell-Smith, 15. 40.

It is, he said, “as much a law of nature that this should become our pretension as that the Mississippi should flow to the sea,” while in his diary he recorded his statement to British minister Canning: “Keep what is yours, but leave the rest of this continent to us.”33 Connell-Smith comments that while it is not entirely clear what Jefferson, a well-known expansionist, meant by the term “America,” “the appropriation by United States citizens of the adjective ‘American’, not surprisingly resented by Latin Americans, has encouraged a proprietary attitude towards the hemisphere already present in 1823.” This proprietary interest was expressed in the Monroe Doctrine, announced by the President in 1823. This doctrine has no more standing in international affairs than the Brezhnev Doctrine a century and a half later, expressing the right of the USSR to protect the “socialist” world from influences regarded as subversive. In the major scholarly study of the Monroe Doctrine and its subsequent history, Dexter Perkins comments that “The Doctrine is a policy of the United States, not a fixed principle of international law,” a conclusion that is surely correct. Latin Americans “have seen [the Monroe Doctrine] as an expression of United States hegemony employed to justify that country’s own intervention,” not as protection against Europe, and since the days of Simón Bolívar have sought “to summon Europe to their aid against the Colossus of the North,” with good reason.34 The operative meaning of the Doctrine was lucidly explained by Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State Robert Lansing, in what Wilson described as an “unanswerable” argument but one that it would be “impolitic” to state openly: In its advocacy of the Monroe Doctrine the United States considers its own interests.

We were not defeated, and rarely are; for the people of Nicaragua, the verdict of history was different.36 Summarizing his three-volume work, Dexter Perkins writes that “In the development of the Monroe Doctrine, one of the most extraordinary and interesting objects of study must be the evolution of a doctrine which was intended for the protection of Latin American states by the United States into one that justified and even sanctified American interference in and control of the affairs of the independent republics of this continent.”37 The assessment of the early intention may be questioned, and one might be slightly taken aback by Perkins’s lack of comment over what this “interference” has meant to Latin America, evident enough when he wrote in 1937. But the basic thrust of his summary is much to the point. Over the years, there have been various “corollaries” to the Monroe Doctrine, most notably, the “Roosevelt Corollary” announced by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, after he had succeeded in stealing the Panama Canal route from Colombia and with an eye on the Dominican Republic: Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.

Year 501 by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

US policy “would involve the preservation of the absolute position presently obtaining, and therefore vigilant protection of existing concessions in United States hands coupled with insistence upon the Open Door principle of equal opportunity for United States companies in new areas.”5 That Latin America would be ours is an expectation that goes back to the earliest days of the Republic, given an early form in the Monroe Doctrine. The intentions were articulated plainly and illustrated consistently in action. It is hard to improve upon the formulation by Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, which the President found “unanswerable” though “impolitic” to state openly: In its advocacy of the Monroe Doctrine the United States considers its own interests. The integrity of other American nations is an incident, not an end. While this may seem based on selfishness alone, the author of the Doctrine had no higher or more generous motive in its declaration. With some reason, Bismarck had described the Monroe Doctrine in 1898 as a “species of arrogance, peculiarly American and inexcusable.” Wilson’s predecessor, President Taft, had foreseen that “the day is not far distant” when “the whole hemisphere will be ours in fact as, by virtue of our superiority of race, it already is ours morally.”

The US and other Western powers could not be expected to respond in kind in their dominions, including India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Cuba, and other vast regions from which the Japanese had been effectively barred by extremely high tariffs when they unfairly began to win the competitive game in the 1920s. Dismissing Japan’s frivolous appeal to the British and American precedent, Hull deplored the “simplicity of mind that made it difficult for...[Japanese generals] see why the United States, on the one hand, should assert leadership in the Western Hemisphere with the Monroe Doctrine and, on the other, want to interfere with Japan’s assuming leadership in Asia.” He urged the Japanese government to “educate the generals” about this elementary distinction, reminding his backward pupils that the Monroe Doctrine, “as we interpret and apply it uniformly since 1823 only contemplates steps for our physical safety.” Respected scholars chimed in with their endorsement, expressing their outrage over the inability of the little yellow men to perceive the difference between a great power like the US and a small-time operator like Japan, and to recognize that “The United States does not need to use military force to induce the Caribbean republics to permit American capital to find profitable investment.

Thomas Jefferson predicted to John Adams that the “backward” tribes at the borders “will relapse into barbarism and misery, lose numbers by war and want, and we shall be obliged to drive them, with the beasts of the forests into the Stony mountains”; the same would be true of Canada after the conquest he envisioned, while all blacks would be removed to Africa or the Caribbean, leaving the country without “blot or mixture.” A year after the Monroe Doctrine, the President called for helping the Indians “to surmount all their prejudices in favor of the soil of their nativity,” so that “we become in reality their benefactors” by transferring them West. When consent was not given, they were forcibly removed. Consciences were eased further by the legal doctrine devised by Chief Justice John Marshall: “discovery gave an exclusive right to extinguish the Indian right of occupancy, either by purchase or by conquest”; “that law which regulates, and ought to regulate in general, the relations between the conqueror and conquered was incapable of application to...the tribes of Indians,”...fierce savages whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest.”

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On Grand Strategy by John Lewis Gaddis

British Empire, David Brooks,, failed state, invisible hand, joint-stock company, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway

Thoroughly covered in William Earl Weeks, John Quincy Adams and American Global Empire (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992), with full attention to how negotiation of the “Transcontinental Treaty” intersected with the earlier Florida controversy. 80. Monroe’s message was the equivalent of what would later become the presidential State of the Union address, but in the nineteenth century they weren’t given in person. 81. Sexton, The Monroe Doctrine, pp. 49–50. 82. Federalist #11, p. 65. 83. The quotations are from Adams’s diary, March 3 and November 29, 1820, quoted in Edel, Nation Builder, pp. 157–59. Edel analyzes Adams’s dilemma in terms of Isaiah Berlin’s irreconcilable incompatibilities, discussed in chapter four. 84. Charles H. Sherrill, “The Monroe Doctrine and the Canning Myth,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 94 (July 1914), 96–97. See also Wendy Hinde, George Canning (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), pp. 345–74, 422. 85. The quotation is from the typescript notes for the speech, in the Churchill Archive, CHAR 9/140A/9-28, at:

Two hundred and thirty-five years after the Armada sailed, however, a staunchly Protestant statesman, in the swampy new capital of a secular state, was drafting an equally presumptuous proclamation for his republican sovereign: “that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” When Secretary of State John Quincy Adams made the Monroe Doctrine a motto for the “United States of America” in 1823, that country lacked the means of securing the “new world” against its “old” masters. It had the self-confidence, though, of Spain in its prime, and that, Adams saw, would suffice.3 “The failure of the Spanish Armada,” Geoffrey Parker has argued, “laid the American continent open to invasion and colonization by northern Europeans, and thus made possible the creation of the United States.”

Not literally, of course, but his first annual message to Congress, submitted against his cabinet’s advice in December 1825, mismatched aspirations and capabilities on a Napoleonic scale. From a mandate so minuscule that only he could detect it, Adams asked for everything: a national university, federally financed roads and canals, uniform weights and measures, a stronger navy and a naval academy, the promotion of global commerce, and vigorous diplomacy to bolster the Monroe Doctrine. Indulging his fascination with astronomy, Adams even called for a national observatory—an American version of Europe’s “lighthouses of the skies”—thus opening himself to allegations that his head wasn’t just in clouds but in the stars. To neglect these priorities, he insisted, would be “to hide in the earth the talent committed to our charge.” For “liberty is power,” and “the nation blessed with the largest portion of liberty must in proportion to its numbers be the most powerful nation upon earth.”

pages: 637 words: 199,158

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J. Mearsheimer

active measures, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, deindustrialization, discrete time, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War

Even if there had been no German threat in the early twentieth century, the United Kingdom would almost surely have abandoned the Western Hemisphere to its offspring, which had definitely come of age by then. The Monroe Doctrine American policymakers in the nineteenth century were not just concerned with turning the United States into a powerful territorial state, they were also deeply committed to getting the European powers out of the Western Hemisphere and keeping them out.28 Only by doing that could the United States make itself the region’s hegemon, highly secure from great-power threats. As the United States moved across North America, it gobbled up territory that previously had belonged to the United Kingdom, France, and Spain, thus weakening their influence in the Western Hemisphere. But it also used the Monroe Doctrine for that same purpose. The Monroe Doctrine was laid out for the first time in President James Monroe’s annual message to Congress on December 2, 1823.

Haglund, Latin America and the Transformation of U.S. Strategic Thought, 1936–1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984); Spykman, America’s Strategy; and Arthur P. Whitaker, The Western Hemisphere Idea: Its Rise and Decline (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1954). 29. Among the best studies of the Monroe Doctrine are Bemis, John Quincy Adams, esp. chaps. 28–29; Ernest R. May, The Making of the Monroe Doctrine (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975); and Dexter Perkins, A History of the Monroe Doctrine (Boston: Little, Brown, 1963). For a copy of Monroe’s address laying out the doctrine, from which the quotes in this paragraph are taken, see pp. 391–93 of the Perkins book. 30. See Felix Gilbert, To the Farewell Address: Ideas of Early American Foreign Policy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961). 31.

., Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997), pp. 115–45; Reginald Horsman, “British Indian Policy in the Northwest, 1807–1812,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 45, No. 1 (June 1958), pp. 51–66; and J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Britain and the American Frontier, 1783–1815 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1975). 47. This subject is discussed at length in Frederick Merk, The Monroe Doctrine and American Expansionism, 1843–1849 (New York: Knopf, 1966). Also see Pletcher, Diplomacy of Annexation. 48. Quoted in Merk, Monroe Doctrine, p. 6. Also see Sam W. Haynes, James K. Polk and the Expansionist Impulse (New York: Longman, 1997). 49. Merk, Monroe Doctrine, p. 289. 50. There is evidence that the founders’ resistance to a continental commitment was influenced by eighteenth-century British debates on the subject. See Gilbert, To the Farewell Address, chap. 2. 51. See Chapter 6. 52. See Chapter 8. 53. William C.

pages: 351 words: 96,780

Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, liberation theology, long peace, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, uranium enrichment

The contagion of these doctrines, they warned, “crosses the seas, and often appears with all the symptoms of destruction which characterize it, in places where not even any direct contact, any relation of proximity might give ground for apprehension.” Worse yet, the apostles of sedition had just announced their intention to expand their dominion by proclaiming the Monroe Doctrine—“a species of arrogance, peculiarly American and inexcusable,” as Bismarck later described it.23 Bismarck did not have to await the era of Wilsonian idealism to learn the meaning of the Monroe Doctrine, explained by Secretary of State Robert Lansing to President Wilson, who found his description “unanswerable,” though advising that it would be “impolitic” to let it reach the public: In its advocacy of the Monroe Doctrine the United States considers its own interests. The integrity of other American nations is an incident, not an end. While this may seem based on selfishness alone, the author of the Doctrine had no higher or more generous motive in its declaration.24 The doctrine could not yet be implemented fully because of the balance of world power, though Wilson did secure US domination of the Caribbean region by force, leaving a terrible legacy that remains to this day, and was able to move somewhat beyond, driving the British enemy out of oil-rich Venezuela and supporting the vicious and corrupt dictator Juan Vicente Gómez, who opened the country to US corporations.

It is useful to remember that no matter where we turn, there is rarely any shortage of elevated ideals to accompany the resort to violence. The words accompanying the “Wilsonian tradition” may be stirring in their nobility, but should also be examined in practice, not just rhetoric: for example, Wilson’s call for conquest of the Philippines, already mentioned; or as president, his interventions in Haiti and the Dominican Republic that left both countries in ruins; or what Walter LaFeber calls the “Wilson corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine, which dictated “that only American oil interests receive concessions” within the reach of its power.75 The same is true of the worst tyrants. In 1990, Saddam Hussein warned Kuwait of possible retribution for actions that were undermining Iraq’s battered economy after Iraq had protected Kuwait during the war with Iran. But he assured the world that he wanted not “permanent fighting, but permanent peace . . . and a dignified life.”76 In 1938, President Roosevelt’s close confidant Sumner Welles praised the Munich agreement with the Nazis and felt that it might lead to a “new world order based upon justice and upon law.”

The coup sent a more far-reaching message, spelled out by the editors of the New York Times: “Underdeveloped countries with rich resources now have an object lesson in the heavy cost that must be paid by one of their number which goes berserk with fanatical nationalism . . . Iran’s experience [may] strengthen the hands of more reasonable and more far-seeing leaders [elsewhere], who will have a clear-eyed understanding of the principles of decent behavior.”27 The same lesson had been taught nearer home, at the Chapultepec (Mexico) Conference in February 1945 that laid the basis for the postwar order now that the Monroe Doctrine could be enforced in the Wilsonian sense. Latin Americans were then under the influence of what the State Department called “the philosophy of the New Nationalism, [which] embraces policies designed to bring about a broader distribution of wealth and to raise the standard of living of the masses.” Washington was concerned that “economic nationalism is the common denominator of the new aspirations for industrialization”—just as it had been for England, the United States, and in fact every other country that succeeded in industrializing.

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

You could have relatively free competition with assurance that the playing field was tilted in the right direction, to use the common metaphor. It would be an international system in which U.S. corporations would be free to access resources, access markets, invest without constraints. That’s the basic conception of the international order. You’ve said that the Grand Area strategy essentially extended the Monroe Doctrine, which was limited to this hemisphere, to the rest of the world. The Monroe Doctrine, remember, was a hope for the future. The United States did not have the power in the 1820s to implement the Monroe Doctrine. They couldn’t even conquer Cuba, which was one of the main goals in the 1820s of John Quincy Adams and others. Also, they couldn’t conquer Canada. The United States repeatedly invaded Canada and was beaten back. At the time, John Quincy Adams pointed out that we couldn’t conquer Cuba because of the British naval deterrent, but sooner or later Cuba would fall into our hands by the laws of “political gravitation,” much as an apple falls from the tree.16 Meaning, over time we would become more powerful, and Britain relatively weaker, so we would eventually be able to conquer Cuba—which in fact happened.

There are by now other reasons for the United States to maintain Guantánamo, which would be Cuba’s major port. Holding on to Guantánamo prevents Cuba from using it as a port and prevents development of the eastern end of the island. So it’s part of the strangulation of Cuba, the punishment of Cubans for what the Democratic administrations of the early 1960s called its “successful defiance” of U.S. policies going back to the Monroe Doctrine.21 Very much like defiance against the Mafia don: it can’t be tolerated. It can’t be tolerated. In fact, international affairs has more than a slight resemblance to the Mafia. You often make that analogy in your talks. I think it’s real. By and large, the state acts as something like the executive agency of those who largely own the domestic society in the United States, the corporate sector.

Kirchner, Nestor Kirkpatrick, Jeane Kissinger, Henry Kollek, Teddy Korten, David Krieger, David Kristof, Nicholas Kristol, Bill Kull, Steven Kyoto Protocols L Latin America see also individual nations Lebanon Cedar Revolution see also Hezbollah liberation theology Lippmann, Walter Llewellyn, Tim London Review of Books M McCarthy, Eugene McNamara, Robert Making It (Podhoretz) al-Maliki, Nuri Mallat, Chibli Mamdani, Mahmood manufacturing sector, U.S. Mearsheimer, John media reform Mercosur Mexico microcredit loans Middle East. See individual countries Midstream Milhollin, Gary MIT Monroe Doctrine Montagne, Renée Morales, Evo Mueller, Robert N Nasrallah, Hassan Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nation nationalism, secular National Public Radio (NPR) Nature Nazarbayev, Nursultan neoliberalism Netanyahu, Benjamin New York Times Nicaragua Nixon, Richard North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) North Korea Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty nuclear weapons O Obama, Barack Obrador, Andrés Manuel Lopez oil Operation Miracle Ortega, Daniel Orwell, George O’Shaughnessy, Hugh P Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza (shah of Iran) Pakistan Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (Carter) Palestinians two-state solution see also Hamas; Israel, the occupied territories Pamuk, Orhan Panama Peck, Edward Pelosi, Nancy Pentagon Papers Peres, Shimon Peru pharmaceutical industry Pico, Juan Hernández Pinochet, Augusto Podhoretz, Norman Porath, Yehoshua Porter, Bernard Powell, Colin Program on International Policy Attitudes Putin, Vladimir Q Qatar, emir of R racism Rand Corporation Reagan, Ronald, administration of Record of the Paper, The (Friel and Falk) Reinhart, Tanya Rice, Condoleezza Rich, Frank Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World by Margaret Macmillan; Richard Holbrooke; Casey Hampton

Albert Einstein, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, facts on the ground, financial independence, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Scramble for Africa, trade route, traveling salesman, union organizing

The French, resentful over their failure to get a League with teeth, attacked with impeccable logic. There was already a provision in the covenant saying that all members would make sure that their international agreements were in accordance with the League and its principles. Was the Monroe Doctrine not in conformity? Of course it was, said Wilson; indeed, it was the model for the League. Then, said Bourgeois and Larnaude, why did the Monroe Doctrine need to be mentioned at all? Cecil tried to come to Wilson’s rescue: the reference to the Monroe Doctrine was really a sort of illustration. Wilson sat by silently, his lower lip quivering. Toward midnight he burst out in a spirited defense of the United States, the guardian of freedom against absolutism in its own hemisphere and here, much more recently, in the Great War. “Is there to be withheld from her the small gift of a few words which only state the fact that her policy for the past century has been devoted to principles of liberty and independence which are to be consecrated in this document as a perpetual charter for all the world?”

The French still hoped to get in something about military force; the Japanese had warned that they intended to introduce a controversial provision on racial equality; and the mandates over the former German colonies and the Ottoman empire still had to be awarded. There was also the tricky matter of the Monroe Doctrine, underpinning U.S. policy toward the Americas. Would the League have the power, as many of Wilson’s conservative opponents feared, to override the doctrine? If so, they would oppose the League, which might well lead to its rejection by Congress. Although Wilson hated to make concessions, especially to men he loathed, he agreed on his return to Paris to negotiate a special reservation saying that nothing in the League covenant invalidated the Monroe Doctrine.32 He found himself embroiled, this time with the British, in the sort of diplomatic game that he had always regarded with contempt. Although Cecil and Smuts sympathized with his predicament and were prepared to support him, Lloyd George had scented an opportunity.

He had been trying without success to get an agreement with the United States to prevent a naval race; he now hinted that he might oppose any reservation on the Monroe Doctrine. There was also a difficulty with the Japanese, who, it was feared, might ask for recognition of an equivalent doctrine for Japan warning other nations off the Far East. That in turn would upset the Chinese, already highly nervous about Japanese intentions.33 On April 10, with the naval issue thrashed out and the British back on-side, Wilson introduced a carefully worded amendment to the effect that nothing in the League covenant would affect the validity of international agreements such as the Monroe Doctrine, designed to preserve the peace. The French, resentful over their failure to get a League with teeth, attacked with impeccable logic. There was already a provision in the covenant saying that all members would make sure that their international agreements were in accordance with the League and its principles.

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The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Latin America and the Caribbean Alexander Main, Jake Johnston, and Dan Beeton In a speech at the Organization of American States (OAS) in 2013, US secretary of state John Kerry declared: “the era of the Monroe Doctrine is over.” A nearly 200-year-old hemispheric policy conceived in theory to protect Latin America from foreign intervention but in practice used to justify countless US military invasions and deep internal meddling was, according to Kerry, a thing of the past. “The relationship that we seek,” Kerry said, “and that we have worked hard to foster is not about a United States declaration about how and when it will intervene in the affairs of other American states. It’s about all of our countries viewing one another as equals…”1 Much of the major English-language media coverage of the WikiLeaks cables on Latin America and the Caribbean support the thesis that the Monroe Doctrine has gone out of style, and that US diplomacy in the region is, nowadays, largely benign and non-interventionist.

US support for dictatorships in Latin America is vividly illustrated by the WikiLeaks cables relating to three countries in particular: Haiti, Chile, and Honduras. They enable an understanding of the historical context that has motivated changing US strategies. The history of US empire and its relationship to dictatorships in Latin America falls into three broad phases, each corresponding to its own imperial moment. The first is that signaled by the “Monroe Doctrine,” whereby the United States claimed a strategic preeminence against colonial rivals in South America—a period reaching its zenith with the colonial turn of 1898, in which the United States first claimed formal colonies in its battle with Spain. The United States was still an up-and-coming economic power and, for much of the period, still expanding its territorial claims in North America. By the 1890s, it had defeated Native American opposition and closed the frontier, and was undertaking a longing look abroad for new territories, just as it developed a serious naval capacity.

This involved reorganizing national elites, reducing the power of protectionist oligarchies, and—once leftist movements had been defeated by a tornado of CIA-orchestrated violence—encouraging them to rule through parliamentary institutions. With some outstanding exceptions, such as Plan Colombia and the Venezuelan coup, the United States was largely able to withdraw from military and paramilitary interventions, and let markets do the talking. Phase I: The “Monroe Doctrine” The Latin American continent and the Caribbean islands had long been regarded as America’s “backyard”—a colloquial expression of the doctrine outlined by US president James Monroe in 1823, which stated that any European intervention in these territories would be regarded by the US as an “unfriendly act.” This was arguably hubristic, given that the United States lacked the naval capacity to enforce the doctrine at this point.

pages: 215 words: 64,460

Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics by Michael Kenny, Nick Pearce

battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, corporate governance, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, informal economy, invention of the telegraph, Khartoum Gordon, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Nixon shock, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, trade route, Washington Consensus

Yet the interests of the USA and Great Britain could not always cohere on the basis of imagined racial kinship. America was becoming more diverse in the 1890s, its population infused with a surge of migration from Southern and Eastern Europe. After the 1898 war with Spain, it had begun to embrace a more expansionist, if not classically imperialist, foreign policy. In 1904 Roosevelt enunciated a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Henceforth, he argued, ‘in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of … wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.’30 This would lead it to challenge British supremacy on the seas. If the USA was to police the Western hemisphere and secure its new Open Door foreign policy objectives, it would require a stronger navy.

Racial utopia would lead to global peace.28 Anglo-America While Carnegie was dreaming of world peace under Anglo-Saxon tutelage, Great Britain and the USA were groping towards coexistence in the geo-political spaces of the late Victorian imperial order. As ever, Britain's primary concerns were the balance of power in Europe and the protection of India, the jewel in the crown of empire. But it had significant interests in the USA's immediate neighbourhood – in Canada, the Caribbean and South America. For its part, the USA was flexing its hemispheric muscles, increasingly assertive of the Monroe Doctrine that the New World was its bailiwick and out of bounds to European power. Although its elites were still divided between powerful expansionist and isolationist impulses, the USA was beginning to exert an international role in the promotion of its exports and extra-territorial corporate interests. It was at the end of the nineteenth century that John Hay, the US secretary of state, set out the country's new Open Door policy by which it demanded the right to transport and sell its goods in the spheres of influence being carved out by the world's imperial powers in China and other markets.

It was at the end of the nineteenth century that John Hay, the US secretary of state, set out the country's new Open Door policy by which it demanded the right to transport and sell its goods in the spheres of influence being carved out by the world's imperial powers in China and other markets. Relations came to a head between the two powers twice before the turn of the century. The first concerned a border dispute between Britain and Venezuela over which the USA in 1895 demanded powers of arbitration, to which the British government acceded. A potential crisis was averted, but the tacit result was that Britain accepted the legitimacy of the Monroe Doctrine. The status of the USA as a new regional hegemon was then starkly confirmed by the Spanish–American War of 1898, in which it had British support. This short war, in which the USA won a crushing victory, killed off the vestiges of Spanish power in the Caribbean. At the end of the nineteenth century, the USA either annexed or drew into its emerging informal empire a string of Pacific and Caribbean islands: Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba and the Philippines.

pages: 850 words: 224,533

The Internationalists: How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World by Oona A. Hathaway, Scott J. Shapiro

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, bank run, Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, humanitarian revolution, index card, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

The inspiration for Schmitt’s Grossraum theory was the Monroe Doctrine. Just as the Americans had prevented European nations from intervening in the Western Hemisphere, Germany had the legal right to exclude intruders from its own part of the world. Central Europe was Germany’s “Great Space,” its sphere of influence protected from outside interference. Schmitt not only co-opted an American doctrine for Germany’s use, but sought the moral upper hand by recasting the emerging Western alliance as the new “Holy Alliance” and Germany as the savior of weaker states. Schmitt was also careful to describe the Grossraum as a political doctrine, not a racial one: It asserted the right of a Great Power to protect its friends against their common enemies. Schmitt’s speech on the Grossraum and the new “German Monroe Doctrine” was reported in the British press.

He evidently envisioned himself as the Delphic Oracle.”136 More likely, he had his eyes shut because he was reciting Hitler’s instructions from memory. Ribbentrop parroted over and over that “Germany must have her ‘Monroe Doctrine’ in Central Europe.”137 Ribbentrop was lecturing the wrong person. In his scholarly study on the Dominican Republic Welles had authored during his exile from government following his divorce, Welles had argued that the United States “should keep in our own back yard and stop claiming rights for ourselves that we denied to other sovereign States,” as The New York Times later summarized it.138 Drawing on his extensive diplomatic experience in Latin America, he had also helped conceive Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy, which was effectively a rejection of a muscular Monroe Doctrine.139 Once Ribbentrop finished speaking, Welles explained that “the Minister was laboring under a misapprehension as to the nature of that policy.”140 Though the United States may have used the Monroe Doctrine as an instrument of political control in the past, it no longer views it in this way now.

In his scholarly study on the Dominican Republic Welles had authored during his exile from government following his divorce, Welles had argued that the United States “should keep in our own back yard and stop claiming rights for ourselves that we denied to other sovereign States,” as The New York Times later summarized it.138 Drawing on his extensive diplomatic experience in Latin America, he had also helped conceive Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy, which was effectively a rejection of a muscular Monroe Doctrine.139 Once Ribbentrop finished speaking, Welles explained that “the Minister was laboring under a misapprehension as to the nature of that policy.”140 Though the United States may have used the Monroe Doctrine as an instrument of political control in the past, it no longer views it in this way now. “At this moment, I was glad to say, a new relationship existed in the Western Hemisphere.”141 Hitler deployed Schmitt’s Monroe Doctrine idea the next day when he met Welles, and he repeated it in other venues as well.142 Schmitt had regained his influence. But, as always, success brought vulnerability. The attacks on Schmitt resumed. Unwilling to go through another ordeal, Schmitt withdrew to his study and refrained from commenting publicly on matters of contemporary concern. He would not resurface until May 1945. ELEVEN “GOD SAVE US FROM PROFESSORS!” Dismissed from Cologne in 1933, Kelsen moved to Geneva, where he managed to secure a teaching position at its Graduate Institute.

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

This counterhegemonic move undergirds how some on the contemporary left, have made use of Schmittian concepts, against what they take to be a US-centric neo-Wilsonian empire building, and instead in the service of a multipolar geopolitical architecture that is heterogeneous and programmatically antiuniversalist.31 For Schmitt, but not for most of these leftist deployments, that multipolarity is also couched in transnational Großraum (for ASCII, Grossraum), or “great spaces” or spheres of influences and domains of dominion over which dominant political cultures reserve systemic sovereignty, such as the US Monroe Doctrine claims over North and South American continental space. However, to establish what the nomos of the Cloud may or may not be, it is necessary to counter the misrecognition of the extraordinary spacefulness of global information networks, tracking their ongoing occupation, settlement, and doctrinal composition. We will observe the technically necessary and politically limited universality through which platforms can cohere polities, and toward that, we will look more closely at the grossraum, the type of claims it makes and could make (and how hard it is to decide its inside from its outside). 7.  The Nomos of the Cloud? For Schmitt, the Monroe Doctrine symbolized an end of older Jus Publicum European system of international relations and operated in a parallel domain to that arrangement of Westphalian modules, one for which multiple political geographic ordering principles abut and overlap.

At first the model it represented appealed strongly to Schmitt, and his “advocation of a Großraum world-view … grew out of his admiration for the origins of the Monroe Doctrine, when it was a territorially delimited, hemispherical order. From economic origins, it had found continental coherence, but had then been distorted into a liberal, universal, spaceless policy of non-intervention.”32 The model it suggested of a hemispheric multipolar arrangement of geographically natural transnational domains gave way, however, to what was for him most dubious thing about twentieth-century globalization. In Schmitt's positive vision for it, through the Monroe Doctrine, the United States is the sole sovereign in the Western Hemisphere and its will is fiat. The doctrine reintroduced transnational territorial lines of demarcation into the body of modern international law, infusing it not just according to population and land, or space and politics, but by “land, people and idea,” in opposition to liberal internationalism and “Anglo-Saxon pseudo-universalism.”33 For the older Schmitt, both Wilsonian/United Nations globalism as well as Nazi Germany's Lebensraum diluted a really “genuine” Grossraum solution, partially because both rejected true multipolarity and the coexistence of Grossräume (plural) in a stable order.

Especially since Google is, to date, so deeply associated with the US and its interests, to what extent has the global space of planetary computation been occupied by its particular ambitions and strategies, and already established a certain claim on an embryonic political geography? Does “Google” (literally the cloud platform and the geography defined by it) represent something like a Monroe Doctrine of the Cloud, filling out and supervising a domain extended well beyond the North American continental shelf, across a more comprehensive composite spectrum? For Schmitt, the first Monroe Doctrine represented a break with an older order, and perhaps the new one (if it so exists) does too, but just as the first lost its validity for him by its transformation from an upright territorial claim into deterritorializing universalization, then at least, to this extent, it is possible to consider a it new doctrine because the first was itself already also so nebular?

pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

But these and other independent nations that emerged in the wake of decolonisation tended to be controlled by autocratic local elites who were quite happy to maintain the economic arrangements that their European counterparts had imposed. And in any case, independence was in name only: at exactly the same time as European powers were pulling out of Latin America, the US established the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. The US was concerned that European powers might try to recolonise Latin America, and the Monroe Doctrine stated that any such attempt would be regarded as aggression against the United States itself. Far from being a benevolent gesture in support of the region’s newly independent countries, the real purpose of the Monroe Doctrine was to protect US interests in the region. This agenda became particularly clear when President Theodore Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary in 1904, which was used to justify military intervention against any Latin American country that refused to cooperate with US economic interests.53 The idea was to keep Latin America open to US trade companies, as a source of resources and agricultural goods as well as an outlet for US manufactures – the same strategy that Britain had pursued in India and China.

Five years later, Ghana won independence and set off a wave of decolonisation across British Africa. By 1960, France had begun to withdraw from its colonies in West Africa. And Latin America was given breathing room for the first time when US president Franklin Roosevelt implemented the Good Neighbor policy, which committed them to respecting the sovereignty of Latin American nations. The policy suspended the long history of US intervention that had beleaguered the region under the Monroe Doctrine and opened up the possibility for democratic revolutions to gain traction and overthrow US-backed puppet regimes.10 For the first time, global South countries were free to determine their own economic policies. And seeing how well Keynesian economics was working in Europe and the United States, they were quick to adopt its basic principles: state-led development, plenty of social spending and decent wages for workers.

But it outraged the British government, which quickly turned to the United States for assistance. The option of military intervention was on the table, but they worried that it might provoke the USSR into coming to Iran’s aid and set off a proxy war. So they worked covertly through a secret project called Operation Ajax, which was led by CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt (the grandson of Theodore Roosevelt, the man who established the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and paved the way for US intervention abroad). It was a clever plan. First, they bribed politicians to whip up anti-government sentiment and paid demonstrators to take to the streets to create the false impression that Mossadegh was unpopular. Then they convinced the military to depose Mossadegh and hand power over to the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. It worked: the coup in August 1953 toppled Mossadegh and the Shah assumed power as an absolute monarch alongside a military government.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

As the CIA explained, “The extensive influence of ‘Castroism’ is not a function of Cuban power … Castro’s shadow looms large because social and economic conditions throughout Latin America invite opposition to ruling authority and encourage agitation for radical change,” for which his Cuba provided a model.13 Kennedy feared that Russian aid might make Cuba a “showcase” for development, giving the Soviets the upper hand throughout Latin America.14 The State Department Policy Planning Staff warned that “the primary danger we face in Castro is … in the impact the very existence of his regime has upon the leftist movement in many Latin American countries.… The simple fact is that Castro represents a successful defiance of the United States, a negation of our whole hemispheric policy of almost a century and a half”—that is, since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, when the United States declared its intention of dominating the hemisphere.15 The immediate goal at the time of the doctrine was to conquer Cuba, but that could not be achieved because of the power of the British enemy. Still, that grand strategist John Quincy Adams, the intellectual father of the Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny, informed his colleagues that over time Cuba would fall into our hands by “the laws of political gravitation,” as an apple falls from the tree.16 In brief, U.S. power would increase and Britain’s would decline.

In the case of Cuba, the State Department Policy Planning Staff explained that “the primary danger we face in Castro is … in the impact the very existence of his regime has upon the leftist movement in many Latin American countries.… The simple fact is that Castro represents a successful defiance of the US, a negation of our whole hemispheric policy of almost a century and a half,” since the Monroe Doctrine announced Washington’s intention, then unrealizable, to dominate the western hemisphere.24 The right to dominate is a leading principle of U.S. foreign policy found almost everywhere, though typically concealed in defensive terms: during the Cold War years, routinely by invoking the “Russian threat,” even when Russians were nowhere in sight. An example of great contemporary import is revealed in Iran scholar Ervand Abrahamian’s important book on the U.S.

Mearsheimer asks, pointing out that “Washington may not like Moscow’s position, but it should understand the logic behind it.” That should not be too difficult. After all, as everyone knows, “The United States does not tolerate distant great powers deploying military forces anywhere in the Western hemisphere, much less on its borders.” In fact, the U.S. stand is far stronger. It does not tolerate what is officially called “successful defiance” of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, which declared (but could not yet implement) U.S. control of the hemisphere. And a small country that carries out such successful defiance may be subjected to “the terrors of the earth” and a crushing embargo—as happened to Cuba. We need not ask how the United States would have reacted had the countries of Latin America joined the Warsaw Pact, with plans for Mexico and Canada to join as well.

pages: 160 words: 46,449

The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, popular capitalism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck

This was accompanied by hard anti-Chinese talk in which President Obama underlined the imperial presence in the Far East, stressing that the US was an Asian power and warning the Chinese to ‘play by the rules of the road’. These are rules that the Chinese know are formulated, interpreted and enforced by the US. Elsewhere, only South America has experienced a rise of political resistance to imperial hegemony, both political and economic. This is the first time since the Monroe doctrine that four states are without US ambassadors: Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia. The largest state in the region, Brazil, has asserted a degree of independence lacking in recent decades. State Department functionaries visit Brasilia regularly to reassure the political elite that ‘Obama is not Bush’, a message greeted with some scepticism. It is hardly a secret that Obama/Clinton approved the coup in Honduras and that death squads are back in favour.

In other words they don’t want peer competitors; they like to keep other regions divided, so that they’ll compete with one another and be unable to focus on them. This, at least, is how the US and other great powers have acted in the past. On this assumption, Mearsheimer argues that China will try to maximize the power gap with regional rivals like Japan, Russia and India. It will also try to push the US out of its sphere of influence (as US did with Europe in Latin America) and develop its own Monroe Doctrine. This will inevitably lead to conflict with the US, since it doesn’t tolerate a peer competitor. The US will therefore go to any lengths to contain and weaken China. China’s neighbours will also be worried about its rise, and might join forces with the US in a balancing coalition to contain it. The US and Japan will want to prevent Taiwan falling into Chinese hands and will seek to strengthen it, fuelling further competition between the US and China.

China sees it as an opportunity. Decades of military cooperation with Pakistan, which shares India as a rival, have flowered into an economic alliance. A Chinese-built deepwater port in Gwadar, Pakistan, on the Gulf of Oman, is expected eventually to carry Middle Eastern oil and gas over the western Himalayas into China.24 It will not be easy for China to become a regional hegemon, implementing its version of the Monroe Doctrine. Whereas the US was surrounded mainly by weak states, China has powerful competitors in Japan, Russia and India, two of which are likely to band together with the US to contain a powerful China. China is more likely to rely on its economy to gain leverage over neighbouring powers, increasing their dependence. Though China has hitherto been excluded from the G8, in 2008 the decline of the West’s economic power was on display when even Bush had to turn to the G20 instead.

pages: 1,057 words: 239,915

The Deluge: The Great War, America and the Remaking of the Global Order, 1916-1931 by Adam Tooze

anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, credit crunch, failed state, fear of failure, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, labour mobility, liberal world order, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, price stability, reserve currency, Right to Buy, the payments system, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

Wilson had returned from Washington in an embarrassing situation. His conversations with congressional leaders had made clear that the Covenant would not pass without an explicit inclusion of the Monroe Doctrine. Britain had no objection, for it had been one of the original instigators of the doctrine. And the Royal Navy had been its de facto upholder throughout the nineteenth century. But America’s claim to naval dominance was profoundly disturbing, and not just to Britain. In the first week of April as the conference reached deadlock, Lloyd George made clear that there would be no British signature on an amended Covenant including the Monroe Doctrine unless Wilson agreed to refrain from an all-out naval arms race.46 Cecil was horrified at what he deemed Lloyd George’s cynicism. But his indignation did little to dent Downing Street’s logic: ‘The first condition of success for the League of Nations is . . . a firm understanding between the British Empire and the United States of America and France and Italy that there will be no competitive building up of fleets or armies between them.

But, confronted with the reality of imperial rule in the Philippines, the enthusiasm soon waned and a more fundamental strategic logic asserted itself. America could not remain detached from the twentieth-century world. The push for a big navy would be the principal axis of American military strategy until the advent of strategic air power. America would see to it that its neighbours in the Caribbean and Central America were ‘orderly’ and that the Monroe Doctrine, the bar against external intervention in the western hemisphere, was upheld. Access must be denied to other powers. America would accumulate bases and staging posts for the projection of its power. But one thing that the US could well do without was a ragbag of ill-assorted, troublesome colonial possessions. On this simple but essential point there was a fundamental difference between the Continental United States and the so-called ‘liberal imperialism’ of Great Britain.31 The true logic of American power was articulated between 1899 and 1902 in the three ‘Notes’ in which Secretary of State John Hay first outlined the so-called ‘Open Door’ policy.

In 1917 Russia’s collapse, France’s enfeeblement and the recovery of Britain’s military position in Mesopotamia came together with the new imperial focus of Lloyd George’s cabinet, to produce a far more aggressive strategy. In the eyes of Curzon and Viscount Alfred Milner the outcome of the war should be the total suppression of imperialist competition by the assertion of British control over the eastern Mediterranean and East Africa, establishing a British Monroe Doctrine in the Indian Ocean and its approaches. It was to be an all-empire project. The Indian Army played a decisive role in all the campaigns against the Turks.71 In 1917 London weighed up the possibility of giving Germany’s East African colonies to India as its own mandate.72 The Admiralty was abuzz with schemes to base squadrons of an imperial navy in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. Conceived at first at a moment of triumph, at the height of the crisis that followed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and Ludendorff’s Western offensive in the spring of 1918, this encompassing vision of empire became instead the vision of a defensive redoubt to which Britain would retreat if France collapsed and control of the continent fell to a rampant Germany.73 This made it all the more pressing to decide how such expansionism might be squared with the dominant power of the future, the United States.

pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

The Latin American countries do not have a natural affinity with the United States. Relations are dominated by America’s starting position, laid out in the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 (as we have seen in chapter three) during President Monroe’s State of the Union address. The doctrine warned off the European colonialists and said, in as many words, that Latin America was the United States’ backyard and sphere of influence. It has been orchestrating events there ever since and many Latin Americans believe the results have not always been positive. Eight decades after Monroe’s Doctrine, along came another president with “Monroe reloaded.” In a speech in 1904, Theodore Roosevelt said: “In the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.”

There was little chance of them putting down roots in the region we now know as modern Mexico, thus assimilating, and boosting, the population numbers there. Mexico is not blessed in the American way. It has poor-quality agricultural land, no river system to use for transport, and was wholly undemocratic, with new arrivals having little chance of ever being granted land. While the infiltration of Texas was going on, Washington, DC, issued the Monroe Doctrine (named after President James Monroe) in 1823, which boiled down to warning the European powers that they could no longer seek land in the Western Hemisphere, and that if they lost any parts of their existing territory they could not reclaim them. Or else. By the mid-1830s there were enough white settlers in Texas to force the Mexican issue. The Mexican, Catholic, Spanish-speaking population numbered in the low thousands, but there were approximately twenty thousand white Protestant settlers.

See also names of specific countries African trade, 114 Arab Spring, 43, 164–67 artificial borders in, 6, 133, 134–38, 141, 142, 153 climate and terrain, 135, 157–58 colonial period, 136–38, 141–43, 144, 152–53 energy resources, 135, 150, 157, 159–61, 163 Gulf War conflicts, 140, 158, 160 Islamists, 134, 145–52, 163–67 Kurds/Kurdistan, 136, 138–41, 141, 145–46, 149, 150, 161, 164 Ottoman Empire, 3, 15, 30, 90, 115, 117, 136, 138–39, 141–42, 152, 163, 174 Persian Empire, 15, 139, 160 and Russia, 34, 163 Shia Islam, 137–39, 143–44, 149, 150, 159, 160 size, 135 Suez Crisis (1956), 75–76 Sunni Islam, 137–39, 143–46, 148, 149–50, 160–61 United Kingdom in, 136–37, 141–42, 152–53 water supplies, 261 Mischief Islands, 58 Mississippi Basin, 62–63 Mississippi River, 62–63, 65, 67–72 Moldova, 8–9, 21, 27, 29, 29–31, 86–87, 91 Mongolia, 8–9, 18, 36–37, 40–45, 49–50 Mongols, 14–15, 42, 43, 158, 198, 206 Monroe Doctrine (1823), 70–71, 229–30 Monroe, James, 70–71, 229–30 Montenegro, 86–87, 91 Montreux Convention (1936), 22 Morales, Evo, 221 Mouillot, Miranda Richmond, 88 Mozambique, 109, 130 Mubarak, Gamal, 166–67 Mubarak, Hosni, 166–67 Muhammad, 137, 154 Multan, 181 Murat River, 261 Murmansk, 8–9, 19, 240–41, 246, 251 Musharraf, Pervez, 182–83 Muslim Brotherhood, 145, 163, 166–67 Muslims in Africa, 112, 123 in Albania, 3–4 in European countries, 105–6, 151 in India/Pakistan, 172–77, 190 in the Middle East, 137–39, 143–46, 148–50, 160–62 Salafi, 138, 150–51 Shia, 137–39, 143–44, 149, 150, 159, 160, 175 Sunni, 137–39, 143–46, 148, 149–50, 160–61, 175 Xinjiang, 42–43, 50–51 Nagaland, 190 Nagasaki, 193, 209 Namibia, 109, 112, 119–20 Napoleon, 13, 69, 92 Native Americans, 66, 67, 69, 71–72 NATO.

pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce


Similarly, Thomas Jefferson saw South America as a “continent unto itself”—by which he meant a continent to be fully controlled by the United States. America’s gradual assertion of hemispheric hegemony from the 1790s through the War of 1812 and onward was not a classic imperialist quest for land and labor, but it succeeded in supplanting European powers through a mix of pocketbook diplomacy and military conquest.3 The Monroe Doctrine, articulated by the U.S. president in 1823, promised to complete the ejection of European powers and ensure unfettered American dominance in perpetuity. America’s “Manifest Destiny” was not merely a westward expansion to the Pacific Ocean, as is often supposed; it was also a vision of northern and southern hemispheric control. President James K. Polk took advantage of Mexico’s weakness from its long war of independence to annex Texas in 1845.

But their technique—the Open Door policy of the early twentieth century—aimed to extend America’s power “without the embarrassment and inefficiency of traditional colonialism.”4 But America has always carried a big stick even if, contrary to Theodore Roosevelt’s dictum, it has not always spoken so softly. The most vivid example was Cuba. The United States declared war on Spain on April 21, 1898, ostensibly to liberate Cuba and initiate its democratic evolution. Roosevelt, then assistant secretary of the navy, sought not only to vanquish Spain but also to control the Philippines, which the United States simultaneously seized. Almost a century after America instituted the Monroe Doctrine, the Roosevelt Corollary was an imperial anticolonialism that justified American interference. Roosevelt’s guiding premise was clear: “Peace cannot be had until the civilized nations have expanded in some shape over the barbarous nations.” The case of Panama seemed an almost natural case for U.S. hegemony due to its dependence on agricultural export to America and an oligarchic political system that facilitated American control over the Canal Zone.

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

America is a different matter. So, too, is Taiwan. China’s incentive to maintain Hong Kong’s relative freedoms has less to do with honouring its obligations to Britain than with convincing Taiwan that its way of life would be secure under China’s rule. Taiwan is the big prize. Washington is the biggest obstacle. It is critical to try to see the dispute from China’s point of view. Since Washington proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, the US has treated outside interference in the Western hemisphere as a threat to its national interests. That includes Cuba, which the US helped liberate from Spanish colonial rule in 1898. The Caribbean island never fell under US sovereignty. Yet John F. Kennedy was prepared to risk nuclear war with the Soviets over the transfer of Soviet missiles to Cuba. In contrast, Taiwan was not only an historic part of China, but is recognised as such by the US and most of the rest of the world.

., 149 media: exposure of Nixon, 131–2; fake news, 130, 148, 178–9; falling credibility in US, 130; in Russia, 129–31, 172–3; television, 84, 128, 129, 130 medicine and healthcare, 35, 36, 42, 58, 59, 60, 62, 102, 103, 198 Medvedev, Dimitry, 79 Meiji Restoration in Japan, 78 mercantilism, 78 ‘meritocracy’, 43, 44–6 Merkel, Angela, 15, 180 Mexico, 29, 114 Middle East, 181, 183 Middle East and North Africans (MENAs, US ethnic category), 95 Midland, Michigan, 194–5 migration, 41, 99–100, 196, 198; current crisis, 70, 100, 140, 180–1; and welfare systems, 101, 102 Milanovic, Branko, 31, 32, 33 Mill, John Stuart, 161, 162 Mineta, Norman, 134 Mitterrand, François, 90, 107 Modi, Narendra, 201 Moldova, Grape Revolution (2009), 79 Mongol China, 25 Monroe Doctrine (1823), 164–5 Moore, Barrington, 12 Morozov, Evgeny, The Net Delusion, 129 Mounk, Yascha, 68, 123 Müller, Jan-Werner, 90, 118, 139 multinational companies, 26–7, 69–70 multipolarity, 6–8, 70 Musharraf, Pervez, 80 Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, 82 Napoleonic Wars, 156 Nathan, Andrew, 84 National Endowment for Democracy (NED), 82 National Front in France, 15, 102, 108–10 National Health Service, 102 nationalism: comeback of, 11, 97, 102, 108–9, 170, 174; and end of Cold War, 5; European, 10–11, 102, 108–9; and global trilemma, 72–3; Summers’ responsible nationalism, 71–2 Nato alliance, 135, 140, 179 Navarro, Peter, 149, 167, 180 Negroponte, Nicholas, 127 Netherlands, 102 New York, 49–50, 54 New Yorker, 35 Nixon, Richard, 131–2, 134 non-governmental organisations (NGOs), 85 North American Free Trade Agreement, 73 North Korea, 175 nuclear weapons, 5, 167, 174–6 Nuttall, Paul, 90 Obama, Barack: and AIIB, 84; and Arab Spring, 82; Asia pivot policy, 157, 160–1; election of (2008), 97; and financial sector, 193, 199; gay marriage issue, 188; gender identity order (2016), 187–8; on history’s long arc, 190; and Islam, 182; and nuclear weapons, 175–6; trip to China (2009), 159–60; US–Russia relations, 79; and world trade agreements, 73; ‘wrong side of history’ language, 187–8, 190 Occupy Wall Street, 139 oikophobia, 111–12, 117 Opium Wars, 23 Orbán, Viktor, 138–9, 181 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 29 Orwell, George, 69, 128 Oxford University, 4 Paine, Thomas, 126 Pakistan, 175 Philippines, 61, 136–7, 138, 160, 202 Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE), 4 Plato, 137 politics in West: 1968 Democratic Convention, 188–9; decline of established parties, 88–90; declining faith in system, 8–9, 12, 14, 88–9, 98–100, 103–4, 119–23, 202–3; and disappearing growth, 13; falling voter turnout in UK, 99; left embraces personal liberation (1960s), 188–9; and ‘meritocracy’, 43–6; move rightwards of working classes, 95–9, 102, 108–10, 189–91, 194–5; and national identity, 71–3; privatising of risk since late 1970s, 191–3; responses to digital revolution, 52–4, 56–8, 59–61, 67–8; Third Way, 89–92; urban–hinterland split, 46–51, 119, 120, 130, 135; US political system, 131–6; voter disdain for elites, 14, 98–100, 110, 119 Pomerantsev, Peter, Nothing Is True and Everything Is Possible, 79, 130, 140, 172 populist right: ‘alt-right’ fringe, 97, 104; America First movement, 117; and automation, 67; cultural and economic anxieties, 190–6; Davos’s solution, 69, 70–1; in Europe, 139–40; Andrew Jackson’s election (1828), 113–14; and migration crisis, 181; as not democratic, 139; racism as not root cause, 97, 98, 100, 195; Republican Party dog whistles, 190; stealing of the left’s clothes, 103; ‘take back control’ as war cry, 190; and war against truth, 79, 86, 127, 128–31, 172–4, 178–9, 195–6; see also Putin, Vladimir; Trump, Donald Portugal, 77 Primakov, Yevgeny, 6 protectionism, 19–20, 73, 78, 149 Putin, Vladimir: 2012 presidential victory, 130; annexation of Crimea (2014), 8, 173; and fall of Soviet Union, 6; interference in Europe, 179, 180; and Islam, 182; mastery of diversion/confusion, 86, 129, 130–1, 137, 172–3; Medvedev succeeds (2008), 79; replaces Yeltsin as president, 78; Trump’s admiration for, 7, 129, 135; and Trump’s victory, 7, 12, 79; and US ‘war on terror’, 80; and US–China war scenario, 146–7, 152–3 Putnam, Robert, 38 Quadruple Alliance, 7 Quah, Danny, 21 race and ethnicity: and 2016 US Presidential election, 94, 95, 96–7, 98; and ‘identity liberalism’, 14, 96–8; majority-white backlash concept, 12, 14, 96, 102, 104; poor whites in USA, 95–6, 112–13; return of racial politics, 102, 103, 104; US classification data, 94–5; and welfare systems, 101, 102 racism, 97, 98, 99, 100–1, 104, 113–14, 195 Reagan, Ronald, 37 Reagan Democrats, 95, 189 Reeves, Richard, 44 Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, 167 remote intelligence, 13, 61–2 Renaissance, 24 Reuther, Walter, 66–7 the rich, 32–3, 50–1, 68, 197; Aristotle on, 200; loss of faith in democracy, 122–3; and rising inequality, 32–3, 43, 46; Trump’s support for, 193, 195, 196, 199–200 robot economy, 34, 51–5, 56, 60–2, 123 Rodrik, Dani, 72, 73 Rome, classical, 25, 128–9 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 10 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 128 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 126 RT (Russian state TV channel), 84, 85 Rubin, Robert, 71 Russia: conference on ‘polycentric world order’ (Moscow, 2016), 5–8; dissidents’ view of West, 140; expulsion of Western NGOs, 85; as failed democracy, 12, 78, 79, 82, 173; and fake news, 178; media in, 129–31, 172–3; metropolitan elites, 130; and multipolarity, 6–8; and nuclear weapons, 175; privatisation fire sale in, 79; reality-TV politics in, 79, 86, 129–31, 172–3; Revolution (1917), 115; and Trump, 7, 12, 79; and Washington Consensus, 29, 78–9; see also Putin, Vladimir; Soviet Union Sajadpour, Karim, 193, 194–5 Salazar, António de Oliveira, 77 San Bernardino massacre (2015), 182 San Francisco, 49 Sanders, Bernie, 92, 93 Santayana, George, 10 Saudi Arabia, 175, 182 Scandinavia, 43, 101, 197 Schröder, Gerhard, 90 Schwarzman, Stephen, 199–200 science, 72, 171, 172 Scopes Monkey trial, 111 Scruton, Roger, 111–12 Seattle world trade talks (1999), 73 Second World War, 116–17, 163, 169, 170–1 Sessions, Jeff, 151 Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 80 Shultz, George, 132 Shultz, Martin, 15 Singapore, 21 Sino-Indian war (1962), 166 slave trade, African, 23, 55, 56 Smith, Adam, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 38–9 Social Darwinism, 162 social insurance systems, 42, 101–3, 191, 198 social media, 34, 39, 53, 54, 66, 67, 70, 178 Solow, Robert, 34 South America, 32 South China Sea, 147–8, 160–1 South Korea, 21, 29 Soviet Union, 80, 115, 130, 171, 174; collapse of, 6, 78, 168; see also Russia Spain, 43, 63, 77, 140 Stalin, Joseph, 128, 171 suburban crisis, 46–8 Summers, Lawrence, 71 Sun Tzu, 161 Surkov, Vladislav, 172–3 surveillance technologies, 68 Sweden, 101, 122 Taiwan, 145, 158, 164, 165, 166–7, 168; and US ‘One China’ policy, 145–6, 158; and US–China war scenario, 145, 151–3 Taiwan Strait, 152, 158 Task Rabbit, 63 taxation, 110, 198, 199–200 technology: age of electricity, 58–9; and globalisation, 55–6; leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; steam power, 24, 55–6; the telegraph, 127; as Trump’s friend, 131, 171; and utopian leaps of faith, 127–8; see also digital revolution television, 84, 128, 129, 130 tesobono crisis, Mexican (2005), 29 Thailand, 21, 82 Thatcher, Margaret, 189–90 Thiel, Peter, 34, 53 Thompson, E.P., 201 Thoreau, Henry David, 127–8 Thrower, Randolph, 132 Tillerson, Rex, 147–8, 161 Toil Index, 35–6 Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership, 73, 167 transport, 54, 55, 56–7, 58, 61; self-driving vehicles, 54, 57, 60, 68 Trump, Donald: admiration for Putin, 7, 129, 135; and America First movement, 117; autocratic/authoritarian nature of, 133, 169, 171, 178–9; Bannon as Surkov of, 173; Chinese view of, 85–6, 140; confusion as strategic goal, 79, 86, 127, 128, 130, 131, 173, 178–9, 195–6; foreign policy, 167–70, 178–80, 181–4; ignorance of how other countries think, 161, 167–9; inaugural address, 135, 146; Andrew Jackson comparisons, 113–14; and male voters, 57; as mortal threat to democracy, 97, 104, 111, 126, 133–6, 138, 139, 161, 169–70, 178–84, 203–4; and Muslim ban, 135, 181, 182; narcissism of, 170; need for new Mark Felt/Deep Throat, 136; and nuclear weapons, 175, 176; offers cure worse than the disease, 14, 181; plan to deport Mexican immigrants, 114, 135; poorly educated as base, 103, 123; promised border wall, 94–5; protectionism of, 19–20, 73, 149; and pro wrestling, 124; stealing of the left’s clothes, 101, 103; stoking of racism by, 97; support for plutocracy, 193, 195, 196, 199–200; and Taiwan, 145, 166–7, 168; targeting of Muslims, 135, 181–3, 195–6; and Twitter, 70, 146; and UFC, 126; urban–hinterland split in 2016 vote, 47–8, 119, 120, 130, 135; and US political system, 131, 133–5; US–China war scenario, 145–53, 161; victory in US presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87, 96–8, 111, 120, 194–5 Trump: The Game (board game), 7 Tsai Ing-Wen, 151 Tunisia, 12, 82 Turkey, 12, 82, 137, 140, 175 Twitter, 34, 53, 70, 146 Uber, 63 UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship), 125–6, 127 UK Independence Party (UKIP), 90, 98, 100, 101–2, 190; xenophobia during Brexit campaign, 100–1 Ukraine: Orange Revolution (2004), 79; Putin’s annexation of Crimea (2014), 8, 173 United States of America (USA): 1968 Democratic Convention, 188–9; 2016 presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87–8, 91–8, 119, 130, 133, 135; 9/11 terrorist attacks, 79–80, 81, 182; America First movement, 117; civil rights victories (1960s), 190; ‘complacent classes’ in, 40; Constitution, 112–13, 163; and containment of China, 25–6, 145–6, 157–61, 165; decline of established parties, 89; declining hegemony of, 14, 21–2, 26–8, 140–1, 200–1; domestic terrorist attacks, 182, 183; elite–heartland divide, 47–8, 119, 130, 135; foreign policy since WW2, 183–4; gig economy, 63–5; gilded age, 42–3; growth after 2008 crisis, 30–1; growth of inequality in modern era, 43, 44–8, 49, 50–1; history in popular imagination, 163; Lend-Lease aid to Britain, 169; middle-income problem in, 35–41; Monroe Doctrine (1823), 164–5; murder rate in suburbs, 47; nineteenth-century migration to, 41; Operation Iraqi Freedom, 8, 81, 85, 156; opioid-heroin epidemic, 37–8; Patriot Act, 80; political system, 112–13, 131–6, 163; post-Cold War triumphalism, 6, 71; primacy in Asia Pacific, 26, 157, 160–1; racial/ethnic make-up of, 94–6; relations with Soviet Union see Cold War; relative decline of, 170; ‘reverse white flight’ in, 46; technological leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; vanishing class mobility in, 43–6; ‘war on terror’, 80–1, 140, 183; Washington’s ‘deep state’, 133–4 Universal Basic Income (UBI) proposals, 196–7 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 8–9, 10 Vance, J.D., 108 Venezuela, 82 Versailles Conference (1919), 154 Vienna, Congress of (1814–15), 7 Vietnam, 166 Wallace, George, 113 Walters, Johnnie M., 132 ‘war on terror’, US, 80–1, 140, 183 Warsh, Kevin, 150 Washington Consensus, 29–30, 71, 77, 78–9, 158–9 Washington Post, 132 Weber, Max, 162 welfare systems, 42, 101–3, 191, 198 Western thought: on China, 158–9, 161–2; conceit of primacy of, 4–5, 8–9, 85, 158–9, 162; declining influence of, 200–1; idea of progress, 4, 8, 11–12, 37; modernity concept, 24, 162; non-Western influences on, 24–5; see also democracy, liberal; liberalism, Western WhatsApp, 54 White, Hugh, 25, 158 Wilders, Geert, 102 Wilentz, Sean, 114 Williamson, John, 29 Wilson, Woodrow, 115 Woodward, Bob, 132 Wordsworth, William, 3 World Bank, 84 World Trade Organization (WTO), 26, 72, 149, 150 Wright, Thomas, 180 WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment), 124–5 Xi Jinping, 19–20, 26, 27, 146, 149, 168, 170; and US–China war scenario, 150, 152 Yellen, Janet, 150 Yeltsin, Boris, 78, 79 Young, Michael, 45–6 YouTube, 54 Zakaria, Fareed, 13, 119

., 201 Thoreau, Henry David, 127–8 Thrower, Randolph, 132 Tillerson, Rex, 147–8, 161 Toil Index, 35–6 Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership, 73, 167 transport, 54, 55, 56–7, 58, 61; self-driving vehicles, 54, 57, 60, 68 Trump, Donald: admiration for Putin, 7, 129, 135; and America First movement, 117; autocratic/authoritarian nature of, 133, 169, 171, 178–9; Bannon as Surkov of, 173; Chinese view of, 85–6, 140; confusion as strategic goal, 79, 86, 127, 128, 130, 131, 173, 178–9, 195–6; foreign policy, 167–70, 178–80, 181–4; ignorance of how other countries think, 161, 167–9; inaugural address, 135, 146; Andrew Jackson comparisons, 113–14; and male voters, 57; as mortal threat to democracy, 97, 104, 111, 126, 133–6, 138, 139, 161, 169–70, 178–84, 203–4; and Muslim ban, 135, 181, 182; narcissism of, 170; need for new Mark Felt/Deep Throat, 136; and nuclear weapons, 175, 176; offers cure worse than the disease, 14, 181; plan to deport Mexican immigrants, 114, 135; poorly educated as base, 103, 123; promised border wall, 94–5; protectionism of, 19–20, 73, 149; and pro wrestling, 124; stealing of the left’s clothes, 101, 103; stoking of racism by, 97; support for plutocracy, 193, 195, 196, 199–200; and Taiwan, 145, 166–7, 168; targeting of Muslims, 135, 181–3, 195–6; and Twitter, 70, 146; and UFC, 126; urban–hinterland split in 2016 vote, 47–8, 119, 120, 130, 135; and US political system, 131, 133–5; US–China war scenario, 145–53, 161; victory in US presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87, 96–8, 111, 120, 194–5 Trump: The Game (board game), 7 Tsai Ing-Wen, 151 Tunisia, 12, 82 Turkey, 12, 82, 137, 140, 175 Twitter, 34, 53, 70, 146 Uber, 63 UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship), 125–6, 127 UK Independence Party (UKIP), 90, 98, 100, 101–2, 190; xenophobia during Brexit campaign, 100–1 Ukraine: Orange Revolution (2004), 79; Putin’s annexation of Crimea (2014), 8, 173 United States of America (USA): 1968 Democratic Convention, 188–9; 2016 presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87–8, 91–8, 119, 130, 133, 135; 9/11 terrorist attacks, 79–80, 81, 182; America First movement, 117; civil rights victories (1960s), 190; ‘complacent classes’ in, 40; Constitution, 112–13, 163; and containment of China, 25–6, 145–6, 157–61, 165; decline of established parties, 89; declining hegemony of, 14, 21–2, 26–8, 140–1, 200–1; domestic terrorist attacks, 182, 183; elite–heartland divide, 47–8, 119, 130, 135; foreign policy since WW2, 183–4; gig economy, 63–5; gilded age, 42–3; growth after 2008 crisis, 30–1; growth of inequality in modern era, 43, 44–8, 49, 50–1; history in popular imagination, 163; Lend-Lease aid to Britain, 169; middle-income problem in, 35–41; Monroe Doctrine (1823), 164–5; murder rate in suburbs, 47; nineteenth-century migration to, 41; Operation Iraqi Freedom, 8, 81, 85, 156; opioid-heroin epidemic, 37–8; Patriot Act, 80; political system, 112–13, 131–6, 163; post-Cold War triumphalism, 6, 71; primacy in Asia Pacific, 26, 157, 160–1; racial/ethnic make-up of, 94–6; relations with Soviet Union see Cold War; relative decline of, 170; ‘reverse white flight’ in, 46; technological leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; vanishing class mobility in, 43–6; ‘war on terror’, 80–1, 140, 183; Washington’s ‘deep state’, 133–4 Universal Basic Income (UBI) proposals, 196–7 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 8–9, 10 Vance, J.D., 108 Venezuela, 82 Versailles Conference (1919), 154 Vienna, Congress of (1814–15), 7 Vietnam, 166 Wallace, George, 113 Walters, Johnnie M., 132 ‘war on terror’, US, 80–1, 140, 183 Warsh, Kevin, 150 Washington Consensus, 29–30, 71, 77, 78–9, 158–9 Washington Post, 132 Weber, Max, 162 welfare systems, 42, 101–3, 191, 198 Western thought: on China, 158–9, 161–2; conceit of primacy of, 4–5, 8–9, 85, 158–9, 162; declining influence of, 200–1; idea of progress, 4, 8, 11–12, 37; modernity concept, 24, 162; non-Western influences on, 24–5; see also democracy, liberal; liberalism, Western WhatsApp, 54 White, Hugh, 25, 158 Wilders, Geert, 102 Wilentz, Sean, 114 Williamson, John, 29 Wilson, Woodrow, 115 Woodward, Bob, 132 Wordsworth, William, 3 World Bank, 84 World Trade Organization (WTO), 26, 72, 149, 150 Wright, Thomas, 180 WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment), 124–5 Xi Jinping, 19–20, 26, 27, 146, 149, 168, 170; and US–China war scenario, 150, 152 Yellen, Janet, 150 Yeltsin, Boris, 78, 79 Young, Michael, 45–6 YouTube, 54 Zakaria, Fareed, 13, 119

Interventions by Noam Chomsky

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, cuban missile crisis, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, old-boy network, Ralph Nader, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, éminence grise

The gangsters leading the current coup in Haiti include FRAPH leaders. For the United States, Cuba has long been the primary concern in the hemisphere. A declassified 1964 State Department document declares Fidel Castro to be an intolerable threat because he “represents a successful defiance of the United States, a negation of our whole hemispheric policy of almost a century and a half,” since the Monroe Doctrine declared that no challenge to U.S. dominance would be tolerated in the hemisphere. Venezuela now presents a similar problem of successful defiance. A recent lead article in the Wall Street Journal says, “Fidel Castro has found a key benefactor and heir apparent to the cause of derailing the U.S.’s agenda in Latin America: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez.” Last month (February 2004), Venezuela asked the United States to extradite two former military officers who are seeking asylum in the United States.

., 93–96, 118, 195 South America, 159, 193–195 demonization of enemy, 141–142 demonstrations and protests, 74, 88, 105 newspaper coverage, xviii Summit of the Americas, 2005, 155 Department of Homeland Security, 148 Dewey, John, 108 Different Kind of War, A (Von Sponeck), 60, 136 diplomats, 75 Director of National Intelligence, 92, 115 Dobriansky, Paul, 121 doctrine and indoctrination, 141 Bush II doctrine of “force at will,” 48 See also Clinton Doctrine; Monroe Doctrine Dole, Robert, 55 Dowd, Maureen, 23 economic sanctions against Iraq, 3, 14, 59–61, 74 against Syria, 86 as genocide, 59–60 Ecuador, 198 Egypt, 29–30, 65, 83 Einstein, Albert, 128 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1, 21 ElBaradei, Mohamed, 138, 184, 185 El Salvador, 122 elections impermissible if wrong candidate might win, 165–166 Iraq, 25, 161–164 Palestine, 165–168 South America, 159 Brazil (2002), 94–95 Venezuela, 157 U.S. (2002), 27 U.S. (2004), 75–76, 93–100 voter turnout, wealth gap of, 94 Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 179 embassies U.S. in Honduras, 89–90 enriched uranium, 45 Erlanger, Steven, 166 Estrich, Susan, xix European Union, 217 and Iran, 183, 211 as model for South America, 197 euros, 170 evangelical Christians political power, 99 evolution, 151–152 Extra!

-Israel invasion (2006), 33, 187–192, 209 Leverett, Flynt, 182–183 Levinson, Sanford, 106, 108–109 Lewis, Anthony, xiii Lieven, Anatol, 7 Linzer, Dafna, 181–182 London bombings, 2005, 137, 140, 148 Los Angeles Times, xv–xvi, xix Lugar, Richard, 139 Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio, 94–95, 171, 198, 199–200 Lutzenberger, José, 120 Madrid train bombings, 2004, 73 Malley, Robert, 30 malnutrition Nicaragua, 91 Manufacturing Consent (Chomsky), 205 Marcos, Ferdinand, 53 Mayer, Arno, 143 McCarthy, Colman, xv MccGwire, Michael, 126–127 McNamara, Robert, 138–139 medical aid (international), 171–172 medical care, 130–132 Caribbean, 157 medical insurance, 131 American public opinion, 93 See also national health insurance media, xi and Iraq War, xxi “doctrinal system,” 133 on Iran, 210 See also newspapers mercenary armies Central America, 90 MERCOSUR, 157, 171, 200 Meyerson, Adam, xiv, xv Milhollin, Gary, 172–173 military bases, 13 Iraq, 26, 54, 75, 78, 85, 203 SCO calls on U.S. to withdraw, 208 Military Commissions Act immunizes U.S. officials from War Crimes Act, 103 military coups, 70, 143–144, 198 military spending, 137 public opinion, 121 Mill, John Stuart, 142–143, 216 missile testing North Korea, 48–49 Monroe Doctrine, 69 moral philosophy, 119–123 moral responsibility, 213–218 moral virtue and U.S. “mission to redeem the world,” 113, 141–145 Morales, Evo, 171, 195, 197 “bad guy” to U.S., 199 Morgenthau, Hans, 213, 216 Musharraf, Pervez, 172 Muslims, 144. See also Shiite Muslims; Sunni Muslims Mueller, John, 3 Mueller, Karl, 3 Mueller, Robert S., 38, 175 Mukerjee, Pranab, 173 Nader, Ralph, 95 Napoleon I, 54 Nasrallah, Sayyed Hassan, 189 National Guard deployed to Iraq, unavailable in New Orleans, 147 national health insurance American public opinion, 93, 131–132 National Intelligence Council, 135 national security, 30 and elections, 37 Israel, 33 U.S., 14 National Security Strategy 2002, 21, 26, 27, 36, 177 nationalism, 7 as U.S. enemy, 143 NATO, 108 natural gas, 169, 170, 171 Nazi philosophy, 142 echoed in the White House, 106 Necessary Illusions (Chomsky), xviii–xix Negroponte, John, 89–92, 115–116 “neoliberalism” neither new nor liberal, 194 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 82 New Generation Draws the Line, The (Chomsky), 179 New Orleans flooding, 2005, 147–149 New York Times, xi–xiii, xvii–xx New York Times Syndicate, xiv newspapers, xi–xxi syndicates, xiv–xv Nicaragua, xix U.S. covert war against, 90–91 9/11 terrorist attacks.

From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional

Morgan, the Secretary of State John Hay, who told Liang that China would be a great power one day, and finally by President Theodore Roosevelt himself at the White House. In his prose, which was a model of simplicity and directness, Liang proved to be a sharp and confident observer of the American scene, impressed but not overawed, and surprisingly insightful given that he had never been to the West before. He noted things both big and small: the extension, with Roosevelt’s big navy, of the Monroe Doctrine to the world, as well as New York traffic, American libraries and the condition of Italian and Jewish immigrants (‘their clothing is shabby, their appearance wretched’, he wrote). The United States he travelled to was a country of extreme inequality: ‘70 percent’, Liang reported in scandalized tones, ‘of the entire national wealth of America is in the hands of 200,000 rich people … How strange, how bizarre!’

‘What was his point’, he worried, ‘in talking about “role” and “purpose” when he said, “playing a great role on the world’s stage” and “carrying out our great purpose”? I hope my countrymen will ponder this.’68 Liang was in America, too, when the United States manipulated its way into control of Panama and its crucial canal. Reading newspaper accounts, Liang was reminded of how the British had compromised Egypt’s independence over the Suez Canal. Remarking on the Monroe Doctrine, he said the original meaning – ‘the Americas belong to the people of the Americas’ – had become transformed into ‘the Americas belong to the people of the United States’. ‘And who knows,’ he added, ‘if this will not continue to change, day after day from now on, into “the world belongs to the United States”.‘69 Indeed, the large modern business corporations of America threatened to dominate the entire world.

An Indian Muslim, Maulavi Barkatullah (1854 – 1927), edited a magazine titled The Indian Sociologist from Tokyo. In 1910 he revived The Islamic Fraternity, the English monthly that Abdurreshid Ibrahim had set up, and which the Japanese, yielding to British requests, had closed down. Barkatullah turned it into an explicitly anti-British forum. He also wrote for the influential Japanese pan-Asianist thinker Okawa Shumei, who had begun to outline a Japanese version of the Monroe Doctrine for Asia (in 1946 he would be indicted by the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal as the main civilian ideologue of Japanese expansionism). The revolutionary strain of Bengali nationalism was also well represented in Japan by Rash Behari Bose (1886 – 1945), another Indian associate of Okawa Shumei. At the age of twenty-six, he threw a hand grenade at the then British viceroy as the latter ceremonially entered Delhi on the back of an elephant.

On Power and Ideology by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, imperial preference, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, union organizing

When he became President a few years later, Wilson was in a position to implement his doctrine of self-determination, as he did by invading Mexico and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), where his warriors murdered and destroyed, reestablished virtual slavery, demolished the political system, and placed the countries firmly in the hands of U.S. investors. His Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, explained the meaning of the Monroe Doctrine in a memorandum that Wilson thought it would be “impolitic” to issue publicly, though he found its argument “unanswerable”: In its advocacy of the Monroe Doctrine the United States considers its own interests. The integrity of other American nations is an incident, not an end. While this may seem based on selfishness alone, the author of the Doctrine had no higher or more generous motive in its declaration. The major problem, Lansing went on, is to exclude European control over “American territory and its institutions through financial as well as other means.”

It was, in fact, not until the 1960s, when the popular movements in the United Stares substantially raised the moral and intellectual level of the country—the major reason why they are so reviled and despised by the educated classes—that it became possible to face this history with a degree of honesty. In 1786, Thomas Jefferson described “our confederacy” as “the nest, from which all America, North and South, is to be peopled.” It is just as well, he felt, that the continent should be in the hands of the Spanish throne until “our population can be sufficiently advanced to gain it from them piece by piece.” John Quincy Adams, while formulating the thinking that led to the Monroe Doctrine, described “our proper dominion” as “the continent of North America.” This is the law of nature, he explained. The law of nature had wide application. Adams invoked it again in reference to China’s vain attempt to bar opium imports from India, which led to the Opium Wars, as Britain resorted to violence to overcome China’s resistance to the noble principles of free trade that would have excluded Britain from the China market by blocking the major export it could offer to China.

Powers and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, theory of mind, Tobin tax, Turing test

The Strategic Conception The Gulf War took place against the background of important changes in the international economy and global affairs that offered the United States opportunities to organise the world that it had not enjoyed since the end of World War II. In the ashes of that catastrophe, the US was at last able to expel from the hemisphere its main rivals, France and Britain, and to implement the Monroe Doctrine. By the 1990s, the US was able to extend the Monroe Doctrine, in effect, over the Middle East. To understand what this implies for the region, it is necessary to dissipate the fog of ideology and see how the Doctrine has actually been understood by planners. Take just the Woodrow Wilson Administration, at the peak moment of ‘idealism’ in foreign policy. The Monroe Doctrine is based on ‘selfishness alone’, Wilson’s Secretary of State Robert Lansing explained privately and, in advocating it, the US ‘considers its own interests. The integrity of other American nations is an incident, not an end’.

In the real world, Castro’s Cuba was a concern not because of a military threat, human rights abuses, or dictatorship; rather, for reasons deeply rooted in American history. In the 1820s, as the takeover of the continent was proceeding apace, Cuba was regarded by the political and economic leadership as the next prize to be won. That is ‘an object of transcendent importance to the commercial and political interests of our Union’, the author of the Monroe Doctrine, John Quincy Adams, advised, agreeing with Jefferson and others that Spain should keep sovereignty until the British deterrent faded, and Cuba would fall into US hands by ‘the laws of political . . . gravitation’, a ‘ripe fruit’ for harvest, as it did a century ago. By mid-twentieth century, the ripe fruit was highly valued by US agricultural and gambling interests, among others. Castro’s robbery of this US possession was not taken lightly.

Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Kennedy’s Latin American adviser, historian Arthur Schlesinger, recommended to the president that he should address Latin Americans with “a certain amount of high-flown corn” about “the higher aims of culture and spirit, [which] will thrill the audience south of the border, where metahistorical disquisitions are inordinately admired.” Meanwhile we’ll take care of the serious business.16 In the internal planning record, the guiding principles of policy are often articulated without illusion. The basic principles are revealed by the oldest concern of U.S. policy in Latin America: Cuba. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine declared Washington’s right to rule the hemisphere, but it was not powerful enough to exercise that right because of the British deterrent. The British did not try to impede the murderous conquest of Spanish Florida in 1818 and could not prevent the conquest of half of Mexico or the remainder of the national territory. But British forces did bar the conquest of Canada and Cuba. The intellectual father of Manifest Destiny, John Quincy Adams, predicted that Cuba would eventually drop into U.S. hands by the laws of “political gravitation” just as “an apple severed by a tempest from its native tree cannot but choose to fall to the ground.”

The determining factor is agency. And unsurprisingly, the long record of similar practices received no more notice than the pairing of Osama’s doctrines with our own. The reasons Cuba must be tortured were frankly explained in the internal record, particularly when the attack escalated under Kennedy. The basic reason was Cuba’s “successful defiance” of U.S. policies going back 150 years; not Russians, but rather the Monroe Doctrine. Then come the usual reasons for intervention: the concern that the Cuban example might infect others with the dangerous idea of “taking matters into their own hands,” an idea with great appeal throughout the continent because “the distribution of land and other forms of national wealth greatly favors the propertied classes and the poor and underprivileged, stimulated by the example of the Cuban revolution, are now demanding opportunities for a decent living.”

To achieve the goal, Washington “actively supported the vicious and venal regime of Juan Vicente Gómez,” violating its Open Door policy to achieve “U.S. economic hegemony in Venezuela” by pressuring its government to bar British concessions—more abuse of reality in the service of Wilsonian idealism.24 Meanwhile the United States continued to demand—and secure—oil rights in the Middle East, where the British and French were in the lead. By the end of World War II, everything had changed. U.S. industrial production more than tripled during the war, while industrial rivals were severely damaged or destroyed. The United States had literally half of the wealth of the entire world, along with incomparable security and military power, including nuclear weapons. U.S. planners had no doubt that they could now implement the Monroe Doctrine for the first time, and could also go on to dominate most of the world. High-level planners and foreign policy advisers determined that in the new global system the United States should “hold unquestioned power” while ensuring the “limitation of any exercise of sovereignty” by states that might interfere with its global designs, while developing “an integrated policy to achieve military and economic supremacy for the United States” throughout most of the world, all if possible.

Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The U.S. and Canada were alone in barring Cuban participation, on grounds of Cuba’s violations of democratic principles and human rights. Latin Americans can evaluate these charges from ample experience. They are familiar with the U.S. record on human rights. Cuba especially has suffered from U.S. terrorist attacks and economic strangulation as punishment for its independence—its “successful defiance” of U.S. policies tracing back to the Monroe Doctrine. Latin Americans don’t have to read U.S. scholarship to recognize that Washington supports democracy if, and only if, it conforms to strategic and economic objectives, and even when it does, favors “limited, top-down forms of democratic change that [do] not risk upsetting the traditional structures of power with which the United States has long been allied . . . [in] quite undemocratic societies,” as neo-Reaganite scholar Thomas Carothers points out.

Patrick, 187 Lebanon, 35, 60, 115, 118 Libya, 25–26, 180 Lindsey, Graham, 122 Lipner, Shalom, 26 Lozada, Gonzalo Sánchez de, 123 Lumumba, Patrice, 180 MacInnis, Bo, 94 Madison, James, 149–150 Madrid, 125–127 Magna Carta, 31, 32, 51, 160, 174 Malacca strait, 85 Malkin, Elisabeth, 112 Mandela, Nelson, 32 Mankell, Henning, 99 Manning, Bradley, 122 Manning, Chelsea, 157–158 Maoz, Zeev, 34, 35 Marines, 46 Marshall Islands, 86 Martí, José, 153 Marx, Karl, 149, 151 McChesney, Robert W., 93 McChrystal, Stanley A., 160 McCoy, Alfred, 108 McGuiness, Margaret E., 31 Mearsheimer, John, 158 Meir, Golda, 77 Menachem Begin, 69 Mexico, 39, 42–43, 116, 147, 154 Miami, 124, 137 Micronesia, 86, 141 Middle East, 35–36, 58, 60, 65, 74, 83–87, 117, 153–154, 176, 183, 190 Mill, John Stuart, 145, 149 Mladic, Ratko, 46 Molina, Perez, 42 Monroe Doctrine, 41 Montt, Rios, 110, 111 Morales, Evo, 121–122 Morgenthau, 129–130 Morsi, Mohammed, 74, 75 Moscow, 55, 61 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 132 Moyn, Samuel, 47–48 Mozambique, 99 Mubarak, Hosni, 74 Mukhabarat, 99 Murray, William, 138 Namibia, 156 Nasr, Hassan Mustafa Osama, 124 National Defense Authorization Act, 32 Negev, 27–28 Nelson Mandela, 155 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 185 Nevada, 86 New Spirit of the Age, 53 Nicaragua, 111, 113, 180–181 Nicolaides, Kypros, 47 Nile Valley, 189 Nixon, Richard, 24, 64 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), 60, 84 Norman Ornstein, 135 North American Free Trade Agreement, 116 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 25, 160, 163–164, 171 Northern Laos, 31, 108 NPT, 35, 65, 84, 86, 139–141 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 35, 65, 84, 139 Nuremberg Trials, 31, 131, 155 Nystrom, Paul, 54 Obama, Barack, 32, 52, 63, 65, 85–86, 105, 107, 128, 129, 131, 139, 140, 154, 158, 159, 166, 169, 171, 174, 175, 179, 181, 185, 186 Okinawa, 55 Oklahoma, 166 Olmert, Ehud, 71, 73 Olstrom, Elinor, 53 Open Society Institute, 124 Operation Cast Lead, 70, 71, 186 Operation Gatekeeper, 116 Operation Mongoose, 56 Operation Pillar of Defense, 79, 184 Operation Protective Edge, 185 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 62 Organization of American States (OAS), 41, 121 Orwell, George, 26, 29 Oslo, 125 Oslo Accords, 70, 73, 75, 82, 125, 127 Oslo process, 127 Owl of Minerva, 189 Pacific Rim, 53 Pakistan, 35, 57, 106–107, 116, 153, 160, 192 Palau, 86, 128, 141 Palestine, 71, 79, 99, 101, 103, 117, 127–128, 161, 184–185 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 125 Panetta, Leon, 59 Pantucci, Raffaello, 81 Parry, Robert, 110 Pashtuns, 116 Peace Union of Finland, 85 Pearl Harbor, 29 Peck, James, 45, 48 People’s Summit, 54 Peres, Shimon, 127 Peri, Yoram, 69 Petersen, Alexandros, 81 Petrov, Stanislav, 164 Philippines, 108 Phoenicia, 189 Portugal, 42, 121 Powell, Lewis, 39 Power, Samantha, 132 Pretoria, 156 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, 158 Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), 21, 22 Putin, Vladimir V., 129, 169, 171 Rabbani, Mouin, 183 Rabin, Yitzhak, 125, 127 Rafah Crossing, 74, 75 Raz, Avi, 77 Reagan, Ronald, 32, 109–111, 163, 175 Red Crescent, 46 Reilly, John, 23 Republicans, 28, 135–136 Riedel, Bruce, 35 Rio+20 Conference, 54 Roberts, Leslie, 106 Rocker, Rudolf, 146, 149 Romney, Mitt, 64, 83 Rose, Frank, 141 Ross, Dennis, 87, 126, 128 Rousseff, Dilma, 121 Roy, Sara, 72, 101 Rubinstein, Danny, 127 Rudoren, Jodi, 141 Rumsfeld, Donald, 178 Russia, 23, 25, 33, 56, 61, 140, 163–164, 171–172 Ryan, Paul, 62 Sakharov, Andrei D., 47 Samidin, 76 San Diego, 158 Sanger, David E., 141 Santos, Juan Manuel, 42 Saudi Arabia, 23, 60, 166, 190 Scahill, Jeremy, 107 Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., 55, 138 Schlosser, Eric, 164 Schneider, Nathan, 147 Seko, Mobutu Sese, 180 Shafi, Haidar Abdul, 125 Shalit, Gilad, 27, 79 Shane, Scott, 52 Shehadeh, Raja, 70, 99 Sick, Gary, 57 Silk Road, 85 Sinai Peninsula, 77 Singapore, 91 Smith, Adam, 38, 91, 146 Snowden, Edward J., 121–123, 157, 173–176 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I., 47 Sourani, Raji, 71, 74, 82, 183 South Africa, 21, 25, 110, 155–156 South Vietnam, 29–30, 45 Soviet Union, 48, 164, 175 Spain, 121, 147 Sponeck, Hans von, 189 Stearns, Monteagle, 107 Stevenson, Adlai III, 161 Stiglitz, Joseph E., 38 Stratcom, 164–165 Stratfor, 46 Summer Olympics, 45 Sweden, 61 Swift, Jonathan, 62 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 115 Syria, 117, 131, 154, 177, 180, 189–190 Taiwan, 37, 91 Taksim Square, 118–119 Taliban, 178–179 Tehran, 65, 84, 141 Telhami, Shibley 141, 159 Tigris, 189 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 159 Trilateral Commission, 39 Tripoli, 137 Truman Doctrine, 175 Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar, 105 Turkey, 25, 33, 49, 56, 85, 118, 140, 170 U.K., 35 Ukraine, 169, 171 Union Carbide, 46 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 121 United Nations (U.N.), 30, 128, 132, 137 U.N.

Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order by Noam Chomsky

Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, declining real wages, deindustrialization, full employment, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, Washington Consensus

In secret postwar planning, each part of the world was assigned its specific role. Thus the “major function” of Southeast Asia was to provide raw materials for the industrial powers. Africa was to be “exploited” by Europe for its own recovery. And so on, through the world. In Latin America, Washington expected to be able to implement the Monroe Doctrine, but again in a special sense. President Wilson, famous for his idealism and high moral principles, agreed in secret that “in its advocacy of the Monroe Doctrine the United States considers its own interests.” The interests of Latin Americans are merely “incidental,” not our concern. He recognized that “this may seem based on selfishness alone,” but held that the doctrine “had no higher or more generous motive.” The United States sought to displace its traditional rivals, England and France, and establish a regional alliance under its control that was to stand apart from the world system, in which such arrangements were not to be permitted.

pages: 165 words: 47,405

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

Regime change is normal policy. If you go back to the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, there was a period of real frenzy about regime change in Cuba. Internally, the reason given by U.S. intelligence for regime change was that the very existence of the Castro regime “represents a successful defiance of the United States, a negation of our whole hemispheric policy of almost a century and a half,” meaning the Monroe Doctrine.2 So we have to overthrow Cuba by a campaign of large-scale terror and economic warfare. This terrorist campaign almost led the world to a terminal nuclear war. It was very close. Right after the First World War, the British replaced the Turks as the rulers of Iraq. They occupied the country, and faced, as one account says, “anti-imperialist agitation … from the start.” A revolt “became widespread.”

Kerry, John Kimhi, David Kim II Sung Kinzer, Stephen Kissinger, Henry Kurds Kuwait Kyoto protocol Lancet Lasswell, Harold Latin America Lebanon LeMay, Curtis Lewis, Anthony liberation theology Lippmann, Walter Lloyd George, David London, Jack London Review of Books Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio McCann, Thomas McNamara, Robert Madison, James Mandela, Nelson Mankiw, Gregory “manufacture of consent,” Marshall Plan Mayr, Ernst media Medicaid Mein Kampf (Hitler) mercenary army Mexico Middle East militarization of space military bases Mill, John Stuart Milošević, Slobodan mini nukes missile defense Monroe Doctrine Mossadegh, Mohammed Mussollini, Benito My Lai massacre Nagasaki Nanking Massacre National Security Strategy (2002) Native Americans nativism Nature Nazis Necessary Illusions (Chomsky) Negroponte, John Nehru, Jawaharlal New York Times Magazine Nicaragua Nigeria Nimitz, Chester William 9/11. See September 11, 2001 Nitze, Paul Nixon, Richard Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT) Noriega, Manuel North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Northeast Asia North Korea nuclear weapons Nuremberg tribunal Occupied Territories Office of Public Diplomacy off-job control oil O’Neill, Paul Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Mongoose Operation Wheeler oppression Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Orwell, George Osirak nuclear reactor Pakistan Palestine Palestinians Panama “Patterns in Global Terrorism,” Pequot massacre Perle, Richard Philippines Polk, James K.

pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

His breakthrough trip to Mao Zedong’s China, undertaken in 1972, turned an erstwhile Communist enemy into a potential ally and converted the Cold War from an increasingly preposterous ideological crusade into a geopolitical competition with some plausible grounding in reality. Gone was the fiction of “monolithic communism,” its place taken by a more concrete expression of what the United States was up against: the Soviet Union and its ragtag allies. With the possible exception of the Monroe Doctrine, Nixon’s China initiative (among other things thereby opening the United States to China) remains the most creative gambit in the history of American statecraft. On the domestic front, Nixon displayed a penchant for activism that bears comparison to Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. Among his administration’s major initiatives were: ending military conscription in favor of a so-called all-volunteer force; creating the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration; signing into law the Clean Air and Endangered Species Acts; launching the “war on cancer”; embracing “affirmative action” to promote equal employment opportunity; imposing wage and price controls in an effort to curb inflation; abandoning the gold standard; expanding social security; and increasing federal expenditures on Medicare, Medicaid, and food stamps.8 Although Nixon may have been a Republican, he routinely defied conservative orthodoxy, going so far at one point as to assert that “we are all Keynesians now.”9 Not every program Nixon initiated achieved its intended (or at least advertised) purpose.

Marshall Plan McCain, John McGovern, George McGrory, Mary McKinley, William media Medicaid and Medicare Merrill Lynch #MeToo movement Mexican War Mexico Bill Clinton and NAFTA and wall and middle class militarized global leadership (hegemony). See also specific military actions military-industrial complex military service end of conscription and military spending Mills, C. Wright Milošović, Slobodan minimum wage missile gap Monroe Doctrine Moonves, Les morality mortgage crisis MSNBC multiculturalism My Life (Clinton) Napoleon Bonaparte narcissism Nation National Conference of Christians and Jews national debt National Football League (NFL) National Interest nationalism National Prayer Breakfast National Public Radio (NPR) National Review National Rifle Association (NRA) national security national service NBC neoconservatism neoliberalism.

pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

In addition, there is no passable land bridge between North and South America because of Central America’s jungle terrain, and even if there were a bridge, only Colombia and perhaps Venezuela could take advantage of it. The key to American policy in Latin America has always been that for the United States to become concerned, two elements would have to converge: a strategically significant area (of which there are few in the region) would have to be in the hands of a power able to use it to pose a threat. The Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed in order to make it clear that just such an eventuality was the single unacceptable geopolitical development as far as the United States was concerned. During World War II, the presence of German agents and sympathizers in South America became a serious issue among strategists in Washington, who envisioned German troops arriving in Brazil from Dakar, across the Atlantic. Similarly, during the Cold War, the United States became genuinely concerned about Soviet influence in the region and intervened on occasion to block it.

As for migration, it is a problem now, but as demography shifts, it will be the solution. The United States has a secure position in the hemisphere. The sign of an empire is its security in its region, with conflicts occurring far away without threat to the homeland. The United States has, on the whole, achieved this. In the end, the greatest threat in the hemisphere is the one that the Monroe Doctrine foresaw, which is that a major outside power should use the region as a base from which to threaten the United States. That means that the core American strategy should be focused on Eurasia, where such global powers arise, rather than on Latin America: first things first. Above all else, hemispheric governments must not perceive the United States as meddling in their affairs, a perception that sets in motion anti-American sentiment, which can be troublesome.

pages: 266 words: 76,299

Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History by Stephen Jay Gould

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, correlation coefficient, Drosophila, European colonialism, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Scientific racism, sexual politics, the scientific method, twin studies

And shall the potential of mind cease to inspire our awe and fear because several billion neurons reside in our skulls? 2 | Darwin’s Sea Change, or Five Years at the Captain’s Table GROUCHO MARX ALWAYS delighted audiences with such outrageously obvious questions as “Who’s buried in Grant’s tomb?” But the apparently obvious can often be deceptive. If I remember correctly, the answer to who framed the Monroe Doctrine? is John Quincy Adams. Most biologists would answer “Charles Darwin” when asked, “Who was the naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle?” And they would all be wrong. Let me not sound too shocking at the outset. Darwin was on the Beagle and he did devote his attention to natural history. But he was brought on board for another purpose, and the ship’s surgeon, Robert McKormick, originally held the official position of naturalist.

., 122, 123 Martin, Robert, 70 Marx, Groucho, 28 Marx, Karl, 26–27 Maunsell, Archdeacon W., 83 Mayr, Ernst, 43, 44, 232–33 Meiosis (or reduction division), 55 Mendelian genetics, 219 Mercury, craters of, 194 Metazoans, evolution of, 122–23 Micromalthus debilis, 92, 96 Mill, John Stuart, 150, 247 Miller, Hugh, 157 Milieu, Kate, 242 Milton, John, 24 “Missing link,” 58, 207, 208 Moja (chimpanzee), 52 Molyneux, Thomas, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84 Monroe Doctrine, 28 Montagu, Ashley, 72, 73, 74, 221, 231–32 Moon craters, 194 More, H., 35 Morris, Desmond, 237–38 Mosaic evolution, concept of, 66–67 Muller, H. J., 11, 14, 43 Multivariate analysis, techniques of, 60 Murchison, Roderick, 126, 149, 192 Museum of Comparative Zoology, 92 Mycophila speyeri, 93–94, 95 Napoleon I, 29, 80 National Museum of Ireland, 86 Natural History Magazine, 13–14, 16, 70, 109 Natural selection, basis of, 11 creative process of, 116 defined, 40 essence of, 11–12 principle of, 41 Victorian unpopularity, 45 See also Darwinism, evolutionary theory and Neanderthals, 207 Neo-Darwinism, 43 Neoteny, 63–66, 216, 219–21 New Conquest of Central Asia (Andrews), 207 New York Times, 56, 167, 252, 259, 266 Newsweek, 259 Newton, Sir Isaac, 43, 144, 151, 154, 195, 267 Noah’s flood, 83, 84, 142 Oken, Lorenz, 209–10 Old Red Sandstone, fossil fishes of, 155–56 Olympus Mons, 197 Ontogeny, 119 Organic diversity, ecological theory and, 119–25 cropping principle, 123–24 Permian extinction, 134–38 Precambrian fossil deposits, 121, 122 stromatolites, 124–25 Organisms, 23, 53, 54, 79–110 adaptation by evolution, 91–96 bamboos and cicadas, 97–102 Irish Elk, 79–110 problem of perfection, 103–110 See also names of organisms Origin of Races (Coon), 238 Origin of Species (Darwin), 11, 25, 41, 50, 84, 119, 120 Marx on, 26 Orthogenesis, theory of, 84–85, 87, 88 Owen, Sir Richard, 49, 50, 51, 84 Oxford English Dictionary, 35 Oxnard, Charles, 60 Paleontology, 56–62, 83, 120, 127, 134, 186, 192 allopatric theory, 61–62 mosaic evolution, 58 Paleozoic glaciation, 162 Paley, Archdeacon W., 103 Parkinson, James, 82 Part Played by Labor in the Transition from Ape to Man (Engels), 210–11 Parthenogenesis, reproduction by, 92, 93, 94, 95–96 Pascal, Blaise, 198 Passingham, R.

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Imperial Legacies by Jeremy Black;

affirmative action, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

This is possibly because many of these people went into agriculture in the South, while the Catholics concentrated in major cities, notably Boston and New York, where they became politically influential. In practice, the majority of emigrants who left the British Isles in the nineteenth century came from England, but English Americans do not act as a lobby, and their contribution to American life tends to be seriously undervalued.7 American hostility to imperial rule was seen in the rejection of European intervention in the Americas, notably with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 and the criticism of Emperor Maximilian, the French-backed Austrian ruler of Mexico, in the 1860s. Opposition to the maintenance of the European empires after 1945 was also apparent. Despite being NATO allies, the Americans proved unwilling to back the French presence in Algeria, which was seen in France as a part of metropolitan France and not as a colony, or to support the Portuguese position in Goa, which was forcibly seized by India in 1961.

Kaalapani (Siraichalai) Kashmir imbroglio Kearney, Richard Kent, Thomas Kenya Khalistan King’s Speech, The (film) Kiram III, Jamalul Kirchner, Nestor Korea Korean War Kwarteng, Kwasi lackeys Lady Amos Lahore Conspiracy Lake, Cleo Land of Hope and Glory League of Corinth League of Nations liberation struggle Little Britishness Livingstone, David “London,” poem “lost centuries,” idea Loyalists Macaulay and Son: Architects of Imperial Britain Macaulay, Thomas Maccabean Revolt Macleod, Iain Macron, Emmanuel Malaysia Malta Manchu Maori Affairs Amendment Act Maori Martens, Henry martyrdom massacre Mau Mau Uprising Maudling, Reginald Maximilian McEachin, Donald E. McEwan, Ian McIntyre, Stuart McQueen, Steven. See Twelve Years a Slave memorialization Menzies, Robert Mercia Mesopotamia Mexican–American War middle-ground Middlekauff, Robert Midnight’s Children “modern,” perception Modi, Narenda Monday Club Monroe Doctrine Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms Mugabe, Robert Mughals Mussolini, Benito Napoleon III Nasser, Gamal Abdel nation-states National Heritage Board nationalism; protonationalism; transnationalism NATO Nazi Germany neo-Britishness neo-colonialism Network of Sikh Organizations New Zealand Nicolls, Edward Nigeria no pride in genocide, phrase no pride, phrase nom de guerre Northern Rhodesia Nyasaland (Malawi) O’Dwyer, Michael Ohamei Herut Yisrael Operation Zipper Opium War, The Opium Wars opium opprobrium ornamentalism Orwell, George Ostkrieg other Ottawa Agreement Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turks Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, The Pakistan Palin, Sarah pan-Islamism Papacy parallelism Parkes, Henry Patel, Sardar Patriot, The (film) patriotic education bases patriotism Pax Britannica Pentonville Prison People’s Revolutionary Party peoples, term Peshwa Baji Rao II Philip II Philip of Macedon Philippines Phillip, Arthur Piedmontese expansion pigmentocracy Pioneer, The (painting) Pirates of the Caribbean Pitt (the Younger), William plantation Pol Pot Pomp and Circumstance March No 1.

pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin

accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

When the new Republic of the United States was founded, the term “empire” was quite often used to describe it—George Washington was not the only Founding Father to do so when he spoke of it ambitiously as “a rising empire”—but proponents of American power gradually ceased to use the word.1 Unlike previous empires, the new American empire was primarily built without colonies. The early articulation of dynamic capitalist development at home with the Monroe Doctrine abroad involved building the continental territorial expansion of the republic directly into the American state structure, while at the same time trying to contain, and finally sweep out, the colonies established in the Western hemisphere by the European powers. This laid the foundation, despite the few colonies the US took over from Spain at the beginning of the twentieth century, for the eventual global reach of the informal American empire.

In a bald assertion of the universality of American law and constitutional principles, Elihu Root, Theodore Roosevelt’s secretary of state and one of the founders of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice, equated the protection of American capital with the extraterritorial enforcement of property rights in general. From Root’s perspective, all governments had a legal duty to afford foreign investors a “minimum standard of treatment” equivalent to what they would be afforded in the United States.64 Although Theodore Roosevelt’s “Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” in his 1904 address to Congress was full of talk about the need for the “great civilized nations of the present day” to employ force against the “recrudescence of barbarism,” it also explicitly rejected colonialism and guaranteed that states within the American sphere of influence would be independent and sovereign. Within this sphere, Roosevelt insisted, it fell to the US, as part of its “general world duty” given the absence of a regime of “international law” and other means of “international control” (such as the conventions adopted at the Hague Peace Conference of 1899), to serve as an “international police,” with the purpose of establishing regimes that know “how to act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters,” and to ensure that each such regime “keeps order and pays its obligations.’’65 As Thomas McCormick has recently written, the colonies and protectorates the US informal empire acquired through this practice “were principally important as means to a more important end—the economic penetration of heavily populated, emerging market areas such as Mexico and China.”

Wilson’s promise to help establish the economic conditions that would lay the basis for social-democratic reform after the war—and offset the need for revolutionary change—appeared to be grounded in the expectation that even the victorious allies could be forced “to our way of thinking because by that time they will . . . be financially in our hands.”8 But expectations that the US “way of thinking” had much to do with substantial social reform were dashed at the Paris peace talks. Wilson’s sordid compromises with the leaders of the victorious old empires—allowing them to retain their colonies, and even to extend their “spheres of influence,” while unanimously turning their face against the Bolshevik revolution in Russia—exposed how little the Fourteen Points he had brought to Paris were capable of transcending the old contradictions. In putting forward the Monroe Doctrine as the model for the League of Nations and its principles,9 Wilson revealed the extent to which his main goal was to get the other victorious Great Powers to adopt in their spheres of influence a more informal style of imperialism, along US lines. At the same time, the concerns of Wilson and his advisers at the Paris talks not to tie the US “to the shaky financial structure of Europe” and to preserve the US’s “freedom of action” led them to reject Keynes’s proposals for the cooperative financing of postwar reconstruction.10 Together with their refusal to cancel the massive debt that the Allies owed the US at the end of war, this effectively condemned social-democratic reformist politics in Europe to failure in the interwar period.

pages: 1,056 words: 275,211

Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan by Herbert P. Bix

anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, defense in depth, European colonialism, land reform, Malacca Straits, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

In “A View of International Law in the Kellogg-Briand Pact” and “Britain’s New Monroe Doctrine and the Effect of the No-War Treaty,” both published in 1928, Tachi belabored the obvious point that the signatories to the pact had renounced war “as an instrument of national policy,” but not the right of self-defense. Focusing on the interpretive notes that France, Great Britain, and the United States exchanged prior to signing the Pact on August 27, 1928, he observed that: Britain does not recognize the application of the No-War Pact in regions where it claims to have a vital interest…. If other countries recognize this claim of Britain, it will lead to a situation where the United States too will claim that war based on the principle of the Monroe Doctrine is not prohibited by the No War Pact. I have to acknowledge, therefore, that, in addition to cases of the activation of the right of self-defense, wars exist that cannot be prohibited by the Pact in connection with the Monroe Doctrine of the United States and the New Monroe-ism of Britain.

But what about himself and the emperor? Belief in a policy of expansion, disagreement over how to use imperial authority to control the army, and fear of domestic unrest all lay behind the court’s appeasement of military expansion. Makino, particularly susceptible to such fear, had abruptly abandoned his support for Japanese-Anglo-American-cooperation when he was confronted by the advocates of a Monroe Doctrine for Asia. Rather than clash with the military, he abjured his long-held belief in the Versailles-Washington treaty system. He supported Hirohito’s decision to quit the League, which he himself had helped establish. Hirohito and Makino, standing at the top of the polity, became, in a sense, the earliest apostates in a decade of apostasy.87 No documentation has been presented to show that Hirohito or his palace advisers ever sought to avoid a break with the League by proposing alternatives to the army’s continental policy.

It will be effective to have an imperial conference depending on the circumstances [at the time of defining fundamental policy].”15 Yet because of deep divisions among the political elites, not to mention the opposition and chronically poor judgment of Saionji and Makino, no such conference was convened. II The premeditated efforts of the Kwantung Army and the China Garrison Force to separate North China further hardened Chinese opposition. Japan’s “Monroe Doctrine” for Asia became an immediate source of conflict with the United States and Britain.16 While this was occurring, domestic debate on the kokutai rekindled, gradually resulting in popular distrust of the nation’s ruling elites. For nearly a decade the court group had initiated efforts to “clarify” the national polity—that is, counter antimonarchist thought and impart rationality to the tangle of statements and intellectual arguments pertaining to the nature of the state.

pages: 939 words: 274,289

The Man Who Saved the Union: Ulysses Grant in War and Peace by H. W. Brands

California gold rush, clean water, Corn Laws, industrial cluster, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, retrograde motion, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway

During the war the French government under Napoleon III had concocted a scheme for reviving French influence in the Americas. The centerpiece of the scheme was an underemployed Austrian prince named Maximilian, whom Napoleon’s troops installed in Mexico City to the cheers of Mexican conservatives and the dismay of Mexican republicans. The American government protested this violation of the Monroe Doctrine’s principle of noninterference by Europe in the affairs of the Americas, but under the duress of the war Lincoln could do little more. Grant likewise resented the French influence across the Rio Grande and upon the war’s end determined that there was something that could be done. Sending Sheridan south was a first step. “The Rio Grande should be strongly held whether the forces in Texas surrender or not,” he told Sheridan.

The insurgents’ fight was democracy’s fight, Rawlins said, and taking their part, at least to the degree of recognizing their belligerent status, would affirm America’s position as the defender of democracy in the Western Hemisphere. Rawlins was hardly alone in calling for a pro-insurgent policy. The Cuban cause—promoted by an energetic and imaginative political office, or junta, in New York—elicited substantial support among the American people and on Capitol Hill. New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley organized a rally at Manhattan’s Cooper Union and forwarded to Grant its petition citing the Monroe Doctrine, hemispheric peace and the principles of republican self-government as grounds for American recognition of Cuban belligerency. Members of Congress lent their voices to the chorus. Some were sincere, others opportunistic. By damning Spain they could show their devotion to democracy, demonstrate their commitment to American national security and distract voters from the troublesome questions of domestic politics.

For the Grant administration to adopt a policy toward Cuba akin to the policy it was condemning Britain for having taken toward the South would, needless to say, weaken Fish’s hand in the bargaining. Grant initially tilted toward Rawlins. He looked on Spain in Cuba much as he had looked on France in Mexico at the close of the Civil War. He thought European soldiers anywhere near the United States posed a danger to American interests, and he believed that the sooner and more definitively they were withdrawn the better. He put great weight on the Monroe Doctrine, with its assertion of the Americas for the Americans, and he looked for opportunities to enforce it. In July 1869 he drafted a statement recognizing Cuban belligerency and declaring American neutrality between the insurgents and the government, in order to have it ready if the need arose. And he conspicuously held the possibility of recognition and neutrality over Spain’s head as he volunteered America’s diplomatic resources to mediate an end to the conflict.

pages: 286 words: 82,970

A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass

access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

It had the advantage of aiding individuals and movements fighting against unpopular authoritarian governments that offered little to their people. But again the Soviet help was just that—help—usually in the form of intelligence, military assistance, and subsidies. Direct Soviet military intervention for the most part did not take place in Latin America, a part of the world where the United States had declared (through the Monroe Doctrine) that it was prepared to act to protect what it judged to be important or even vital interests. If nuclear weapons had never been developed, one could make a plausible case that the Cold War would not have stayed cold, that it might have evolved in very different ways because calculations would have been very different. Any number of confrontations might well have triggered either local military clashes or something much larger and more geographically diffuse.

See Gulf War Latin America, 10, 48, 71, 192–93, 283–84 League of Nations, 31 legitimacy, 21–22, 31–32, 101, 105, 195–98, 200–201, 225–27 and Iraq War, 123–24, 196 See also sovereign obligation; world order liberal democratic order, 55–73, 210–11 Libya intervention (2011), 89, 115, 117, 136, 160–63, 235, 236 linkage, 220–21 Lisbon Treaty (2009), 190 Maastricht Treaty (1992), 188–89 MAD (mutually assured destruction), 42, 43 major-power relations, 201, 202–3, 215–24, 233, 326n2 post–Cold War, 12, 77–79, 101 post–World War II, 59, 153 in Westphalian order, 22–23 See also China; Cold War; Russia al-Maliki, Nouri, 174 Mao Tse-tung, 80, 84 Marshall Plan, 39, 70 Medvedev, Dmitry, 100 Middle East, 8–9, 50, 62–63, 71, 151–77, 180, 268–83 and Arab Spring, 118, 155–60, 163, 172, 230 and Iran, 131, 132, 273, 274–75 and Iraq War, 89, 122–24, 153–55 and Israel, 125, 275–76 and military force, 276–77 and oil, 269–70 and stateless groups, 279–83 and Yemen, 172–73 See also Iraq War; Syrian crisis military force, 22–23, 28–29, 59, 99, 132, 133, 165–66, 170, 234 and Cold War, 38–41 preventive vs. preemptive, 123–24, 127–28, 240–42 and self-determination, 107 and terrorism, 120–22 and U.S. foreign policy, 217, 240–43, 273, 276–77 monetary systems, 147–49, 249, 251 and China, 81–82 and European integration, 189, 190 post–World War II, 56–57, 65–66 Monroe Doctrine, 48 multilateralism, 198, 254–55 multipolarity, 203 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 63 nationalism. See self-determination negotiation. See diplomacy Nixon administration, 66, 80, 85, 228, 318n11 nonpolarity, 11, 47, 201–4, 210, 211, 255 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 39, 41, 217, 222, 284 enlargement of, 93–96, 318n14 and Libya intervention, 161 and Yugoslav transition, 110, 196, 198 Northern Ireland, 122 North Korea, 10, 88–89, 262–64 nuclear capability of, 88, 126–28, 136, 239–40, 241, 262–63 NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons), 59–60, 68–69, 125, 130, 131, 238, 239, 243 nuclear weapons.

The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten

Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, different worldview, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, shared worldview, social intelligence, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey

Through courtroom victories, corporations successfully claimed the status of legal personhood entitled to the same constitutional protections accorded to real persons under the Bill of Rights. Most of it happened with no public discussion and even without the vote of elected legislators.25 GOING GLOBAL In 1823, even as the westward expansion was still in progress, President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine as a cornerstone of U.S. policy. The publicly expressed intent was to protect independent Latin American and Caribbean nations from efforts by European powers to recolonize them; the implicit message was that the United States claimed hegemony over the Western Hemisphere. Theodore Roosevelt took the Monroe doctrine a step further during his presidency (1901–9), announcing that the United States claimed the right to intervene in the internal affairs of any nation that engaged in “flagrant and chronic wrongdoing.” Future U.S. administrations defined this to mean any nation that transgressed against a U.S. trade or investment interest.

., 193 recipients of U.S. aid, 197 responses to terrorism, 66 security of, 306–307 support of friendly regimes, 197 U.S. interventions in other countries, 192 U.S. personnel in Gulf War (1991), 64 use of power of, 196 militia, citizen’s, 183 millionaires, 209 Mills, Mark, 71 mines, active worldwide, 64 missionaries, 191, 193–194 mob rule, 184 modern empires, 126–127, 127–133 Mohler, Albert, 256–257 monarch butterfly metaphor, 74–75, 84 monarchical model of God, 259, 262–263 monarchies. See also kings ancient Athens, 143 current view of, 214 end of, 133–134 replacement of, with elected leaders, 199 rights of kings, 133 money bias of money system, 140 idolatrous worship of, 250 making money from, 139–140 psychological attitude toward, 138 391 ultimate money con, 138–139 as wealth, 68–69 money system, 141 monopolies, 240 Monroe, James, 187, 192 Monroe Doctrine, 192 moral autism, 51–52 moral bankruptcy, 340 moral behavior/values, 132–133, 153–154, 225, 240, 324, 329, 339 Moral Majority, 221 moral maturity, 51 Morgan, Sir Henry, 129 Mott, Lucretia, 204 Murolo, Priscilla, 209 mutuality, 276–277 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 228 Nagin, Ray, 321 Napoleonic Wars, 133 narcissism, 25, 43, 48, 114 narratives/stories communicating Earth Community– based, 355–356 competing, 33–34 contemporary story of Creation, 267–269 creation stories, 246 discovering and sharing, 310–311 Earth Community meaning story, 308–310 Earth Community prosperity story, 303–305 Earth Community security story, 305–307 imperial biblical meaning story, 246–247, 249 imperial meaning story, 257 imperial prosperity story, 238–242 imperial secular meaning story, 247–248 imperial secular story, 249 imperial security story, 242–246 as key to New Right’s success, 249–250 lack of contemporary, 253 prosperity story, 250 shifts in national, 356 National Association of Evangelicals, 325 392 INDE X National Association of Manufacturers, 213 national economies, access to, 137 national policy, use of war as instrument of, 81–82 National Research Council, 335 National Trades Union, 207 nation-states, 140 Native Americans, 165–166, 191, 204–205 natural succession process, 15 nature, Empire’s assault on, 317 nature as teacher, 291–294 neoliberal economics, 164–165, 241 neoliberal elitism, 240 neoliberal policies, 336–337 New Deal, 212–214 New Jerusalem, 162–163 New Orleans, 321 New Right, 219, 285 agenda/goals of, 228–229 economic agenda, 241 family stress propaganda, 335–336 focus of, 328–329 imperial secular story favored by, 247–248 leaders versus followers of, 225 prosperity story of, 239–240 relations between the owning and working classes, 226 self-presentation of, 339–340 standing against, 340 war against children, families, and community, 285, 335–338 worldviews of leaders of, 237–238 New Rules Project, 319 Newtonian science, 263–264, 300, 308 New World, 160 New York State Supreme Court, 207 New Zealand, 356 NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), 15–16 NIA (Philippine National Irrigation Administration), 10 Nicaragua, 193 Nickels, Greg, 321 Nixon, Richard, 228 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 15–16 noosphere, 271 Norquist, Grover, 222 North West Company, 131 nuclear bombs, 65–66 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 333 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 228 occupations, U.S., 197 oil dependence, 62–63, 234 oil reserves, 60–62 oligarchy, 148 Olin Foundation, 220–221 One River, Many Wells (Fox), 258 operant conditioning, 270 Opium War, 130 orders of consciousness, 42–56, 147, 286, 347 OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration), 228 Ottawa Treaty, 333 owners, separation of, from management, 131 owning class, 139–140, 186, 208–209, 215 Pacific Legal Foundation, 220 Paine, Tom, 189 pain of an unlived life, 286–288 Palmer, Parker, 84 Panama, 193 Parable of the Tribes, The (Schmookler), 35–36 parents/parenting, 284–285, 285–286, 288, 290, 336.

America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

American ideology, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

People on the Left view the policies of all U.S. administrations as reflecting above all the enduring dynamics and requirements of an imperial version of American capitalism: the domination of the world by capitalism and the primacy of the United States within the capitalist system.29 This analysis is indeed partly true, but in emphasizing common goals, left-wing analysts have a tendency to lose sight of certain other highly important factors: the means used to achieve these ends; the difference between intelligent and stupid means; and the extent to which the choice of means is influenced by irrational sentiments which are irrelevant or even contrary to the goals pursued. Of the irrational sentiments which have contributed to wrecking intelligent capitalist strategies—not only today, but for most of modern history—the most important and dangerous is nationalism. Walter Russell Mead, an American nationalist and no Marxist, sees Bush's globalization of the Monroe Doctrine as a process stretching back to World War II. Andrew Bacevich and Chalmers Johnson, basing their work in part on the analysis of the economic and institutional roots of American imperialism by William Appleman Williams, also see the administrations of Clinton and Bush as characterized by an essential continuity when it comes to the extension of American power.30 For them, Bush's Iraq is just Clinton's Kosovo or Haiti on a much larger scale and with greatly increased risks.

In this conception, "balance of power"— a phrase used repeatedly in the NSS—was a form of Orwellian doublespeak. The clear intention actually was to be so strong that other countries had no choice but to rally to the side of the United States, concentrating all real power and freedom of action in the hands of America.40 13 INTRODUCTION This approach was basically an attempt to extend a tough, interventionist version of the Monroe Doctrine (the "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Doctrine, laid down by President Theodore Roosevelt) to the entire world.41 This plan is megalomaniac, completely impracticable (as the occupation of Iraq has shown) and totally unacceptable to most of the world. Because, however, this program was expressed in traditional American nationalist terms of self-defense and the messianic role of the United States in spreading freedom, many Americans found it entirely acceptable and indeed natural.42 The accusation against the Bush administration then is that like the European elites before 1914, it has allowed its own national chauvinism and limitless ambition to compromise the security and stability of the world capitalist system of which America is the custodian and greatest beneficiary.

., 44-45, 77-78, 85,218 military and economy, 150, 156-57, 158, 171, 172 Miller, Zell, 106, 114, 166 Mills, C.Wright, 156 Milton, John, 34 Mind of the South, The (Cash), 103 Minogue, Kenneth, 6 272 minorities, 37, 40, 60. See also assimilation mission civilisatrice, 35-36, 71. See also "universal mission/nation" modernism/modernity: fight against, 91-93; and nationalism, 211-12; religions' response to, 8, 9, 124, 126-27; U.S. example of, 123 Monroe Doctrine, 11, 14 moral campaigns, 28-29, 13033 Morocco, 26-27 Morris, Benny, 181, 196 Mosse, George, 29 multilateralism, 77, 170 Muslims/Muslim states, 30, 40, 86; anti-Semitism among, 206; disrespect/ hostility towards, 15, 27, 37, 71, 81, 203; grievances of, 74, 210; U.S. relations with, 15, 174-75. See also Islam Myrdal, Gunnar, 42, 99 myth, American nationalist, 10, 33-34, 49-50, 52-53, 55, 57-61 Namier, Lewis, 216 Napoleon Bonaparte, 81 Nash, Gary B., 60 nationalism: causes of, 88-90; in Europe, 6-7,17, 35-36, 192; in India, 39-40; irrationality of, 191; Jewish, 192-93; and socioeconomic change, 7-10, 21012; as strategy, 27, 28 nationalism, American civic, x, 1, 4-18, 37, 222; antithesis to, 36-40; and assimilation, 36-37,51, 133-37; in books, 20-21,55, 59-60; causes/elements of, 4-8, 32-36,48,91-100; character of, 15-17, 16668; and class differences, 97-98; exploitation of, 21, 22-24; and imperialism, 24-28; vs.

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Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

In particular, the position ofblack labor in the United States strongly paralleled the position ofcolonial labor in European regimes in terms ofthe division oflabor, working conditions, and wage structure. Indeed, the super-exploitation ofblack labor gives us one example, an internal example, ofthe imperialist tendency that has run throughout U.S. history. A second example ofthis imperialist tendency, an external example, can be seen in the history ofthe Monroe Doctrine and the U.S. efforts to exert control over the Americas. The doctrine, announced by President James Monroe in 1823, was presented first and foremost as a defensive measure against European colonialism: the free and independent American continents ‘‘are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by a European power.’’24 The United States assumed the role ofprotector ofall the nations ofthe Americans against European aggression, a role that was eventually made explicit with the Theodore Roosevelt corollary to the doctrine, claiming for the United States ‘‘an inter- national police power.’’

See Antonio Negri, ‘‘Keynes and the Capitalist Theory ofthe State,’’ in Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Labor of Dionysus (Minneapolis: University ofMinnesota Press, 1994), pp. 23–51. 24. The effects of Monroe’s original declaration were ambiguous at best, and Ernst May has argued that the doctrine was born as much from domestic political pressures as international issues; see The Making of the Monroe Doctrine (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975). The doctrine only really became an effective foreign policy with Theodore Roo- sevelt’s imperialist campaigns, and particularly with the project to build the Panama Canal. 25. For the long history ofU.S. military interventions in Latin America and particularly in Central America, see Ivan Musicant, The Banana Wars: A History of United States Military Intervention in Latin America (New York: Macmillan, 1990); Noam Chomsky, Turning the Tide: U.S.

See also general network power, 161–163 intellect; subsumption, formal and network production, 294–297 real; Vogelfrei New Deal, 51, 176, 180, 381; on global Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels, level, 241–244, 265 63–65, 226, 304 New Left, 179 mass intellectuality, 29, 410 new social movements, 275 measure ofvalue, 86, 354–359, 392 Nicholas ofCusa, 71–72 media, the, 311–312, 322–323 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 90, 213, 359, 375, 378 Melville, Herman, 203–204 Nixon, Richard, 266 militant, the, 411–413 nomadism, 76, 212–214, 362–364 miscegenation, 362–364 non-governmental organizations mobility ofpopulations, 213, 253, 275, (NGOs), 35–37, 312–314 344: and suffering, 154–155; right to, non-place ofpower, 188, 190, 203, 396–400 210, 319, 353, 384; and construction modernity, 46–47, 69–74; as crisis, ofa new place, 216–217, 357 74–78, 90, 109; postmodernist non-work, 273 critique of, 140–143, 155 nuclear weapons, 345–347 modernization, 249–251, 280–281, 284–286 omni-crisis, 189, 197, 201 money, 346–347 ontology, 47–48, 62, 206, 354–364; Monroe Doctrine, 177–178 absence of, 202, 391 Montesquieu, 20–21, 371–372 outside versus inside, 45, 183–190, More, Thomas, 73 353–354, 444n5; ofcapitalist Morris, William, 50 development, 221–228, 233–234, Moulier Boutang, Yann, 123–124 257–258 multitude, 60–66, 73–74, 90, 161, 164, overproduction and underconsumption, 353; negated by modern sovereignty, 222–225, 449n3 I N D E X 477 Palestinians, 109 reproduction, social, 28, 64, 85, parasitical nature ofEmpire, 359–361 273–274, 385, 465n17.

Culture of Terrorism by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, centre right, clean water, David Brooks, failed state, Farzad Bazoft, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

., support for what they absurdly take to be the “elected government” of Nicaragua] is no doubt a sop to the left in their own countries,” just as South America and the American media are dominated by the left, as the official Nicaraguan democrats and their supporters lament. But the Journal editors, not subject to such illusions about Nicaragua, see that diplomatic measures will not do the job: If the Sandinistas remain in power, they will surely carry out their promise to spread revolution throughout Central America. The U.S. will have no choice but to invoke the Monroe Doctrine and spend more of its defense budget securing its southern flank by blockading or finally invading communist Nicaragua.3 Presumably, the editors are not anticipating direct conquest of neighboring countries by the Nicaraguan superpower while the U.S. stands by helplessly (though this reading may be too charitable). It must be, then, that the Sandinistas will achieve their nefarious ends, thus threatening our security, even without invading their neighbors, by “ideological subversion.”

., 3 Kennedy administration, 29, 31, 174, 185, 289n7 Khashoggi, Adnan, 187 Khmer Rouge See Pol Pot Kimche, David, 180–81 Kinsley, Michael, viii, 72 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 86–87 Kissinger, Henry, xi, 11, 148–49, 163, 171 Koch, Edward, 150–51 Komer, Robert, 181 Kondracke, Morton, viii, 47, 72–73, 102, 212 Krauss, Clifford, 53, 219, 221, 276n23, 276n26 Krauthammer, Charles, xi, 13, 75, 122–23, 173, 274n16 L La Prensa, 108–9, 138, 157, 207, 296n14 Laird, Melvin, 171 Lane, Charles, 47 Lansdale, Edward, 123–24 Laos, 56, 97, 124, 128, 185, 275n20, 292n50 Law, Richard, 48–49 Lebanon, 28, 78, 180 Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher, 279n58 Leiken, Robert, 61, 65, 206, 212, 267n13, 277n28 LeMoyne, James, x, 99–100, 142, 144, 151–52, 231, 233, 276n23, 298n12 Leopold, King, 78 Lewis, Anthony, ix, 75 Libya, ix, 28, 50, 62, 75, 190 Linowitz, Sol, 114–15 Lodge, Henry Cabot, 96 Lubrani, Un, 180 M Marcos, Ferdinand, 93, 124, 279n58 Martinez, Ruben, 119–20 Marxism, 21, 72, 158, 165, 174, 235 in Central America, 14, 88, 212, 219–20 in Nicaragua, 18, 53, 72, 110, 129, 131–35, 145, 151, 165, 205, 243, 274n6 McCain, John, 244 McFarlane, Robert, 57, 181, 201 McGovern, George, 59 McMahon, John, 37 McNamara, Robert, 95, 184 Mecklin, John, 96 Meese, Edwin, 39, 47 Mexico, 173, 271n33 Miami Herald, 56–57, 62–63 Middle East, vii, xii, 68, 171 See also specific countries Miskito, 80–81, 102, 247 Monroe Doctrine, 218 Mutual Support Group (GAM), 238 N Nairn, Alan, 118 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 172 National Liberation Front (NLF), 148 National Reconciliation Commission, 155–57 National Security Council, 55, 185, 201 NATO See North Atlantic Treaty Organization Nazi Party, 36, 78, 255–56 New Republic, viii–ix, 29, 47, 72, 111, 227 New York Times, x, xi, 39, 71, 110–11, 131, 144, 154, 210, 219–20, 228, 231, 233 on aid to contras, 55, 60, 203 critical of Sandanistas, x, 100 endorsement of peace plan, 121, 133, 161 news media See specific publications Newspaper Guild, 118 Newsweek, 62, 84 Nicaragua church-state relations, 296–97n14 economic and social conditions, 51–53, 244, 249 opposition to US attack on, 30, 35, 49–50, 109, 114–15 peace plans for, 8–12, 16–19, 115–16, 120–21, 129–38, 141–48, 150–68 and reasoning behind US intervention, 13–15, 26–27, 45, 110–13, 189–91, 231, 251–54 relations with USSR, 26–27, 42–43, 111–12, 173, 188–89, 206, 222 and US attacks and terrorism, viii–xi, xvi, 8, 25, 27–28, 40–44, 71–74, 77, 79–90, 93–95, 99–102, 218–23 and US covert actions, 36–39, 55–58, 61, 175, 200–201 See also contras; Sandinistas; Somoza regime Nidal, Abu, 62, 72, 146, 277n28 Nimrodi, Yaakov, 178, 180–81 Nixon, Richard, 67–68 Nixon administration, 31, 170–71 Nordland, Rod, 83–86 North, Oliver, 17, 36, 55, 167, 182, 201, 211 testimony in congressional hearings, 38–39, 60–62, 86, 87, 109–10, 178–79, 268n16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 195–96, 198 North Vietnam See Vietnam war Norton, Augustus Richard, xii O Obama, Barack, xi Obando y Bravo, Miguel Cardinal, 155, 243 ORDEN, 78 Ortega, Daniel, 8, 131, 159, 208, 244–45, 274n6 Orwellism, reference to, 32–33, 41, 71–72, 122, 123, 184, 272n1 Owen, Robert, 86 Oxfam, x, 51, 203–4 P Paris Peace agreements, 19, 128, 147–50, 284n2 Pastora, Edén, 37, 81–82, 273n9, 276n23 Pazner, Avi, 179 Pellecer, José Ramiro, 239 Pinochet, Augusto, 185–86 Poindexter, John, 47, 110–11, 182 Pol Pot, 44, 291n41 Polgar, Thomas, 62 Potsdam agreement, 127 Pravda, 29, 92, 205 press See specific publications Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG), 148 public, deception and manipulation of, xi–xiii, xx–xxi, 2, 10, 24–25, 32–34, 42–43, 47, 51–52, 88, 188–91, 272n47 See also Public Relations industry public opinion and dissidence, 1–4, 23, 35–6, 66, 189 opposition to war on Nicaragua, 30, 35, 55 preference for New Deal policies, 30 Public Relations industry, 33–4, 64, 201 R Radosh, Ronald, 105, 114, 122, 129, 130, 143 Read, Conyers, xxi Reagan, Ronald, 18, 50, 64, 169 elections, 23, 29–30, 183, 192n32 and hostages in Iran, 108, 181, 183, 186, 291n32 support of Apartheid, vii See also Reagan administration Reagan administration disdain for democratic process, 38, 59–60, 113, 200 economics during, 31–32, 53–55, 266n2 Office of Public Diplomacy, 201, 210, 221, 262 and Operation Truth, xi, 204–5, 207, 210, 212–13, 220–23, 239, 247, 262 opposition to policies of, 24, 35, 109, 189 and peace plans, 9–12, 16–18, 132–34, 138–47, 151–53, 159 policies of, xi, 23–30, 107, 110–17, 187–91, 251 and sending arms to Iran, 36–37, 59–60, 183 terrorism during, vii–viii, x, xvi–xvii, 8, 24–29, 35–51, 56–8, 59, 66, 69–79, 92–94, 100, 105, 120, 129–30, 136–39, 154, 169–70, 187–91, 218–22, 225–28, 236–38, 246–47, 252 and war on Nicaragua, 25–7 world opinion of, 48–50 Reagan Doctrine, 23–24, 39, 40, 43–44, 47, 76, 110, 170, 183, 210 Reagan-Wright peace plan, 139–47, 159–60, 253 Red Cross, 83–84 “Red Scare,” 33 Republican Party, 50 Reston, James, 110–11 Reza Shah Pahlavi, Mohammad, 170, 175, 176, 177 “right turn,” 23, 28–34, 38 Rios Montt, General, xvi, 157 Rivera, William Hall, 219 Robb, Charles, 151 Robelo, Alfonso, 76, 88, 93–94, 212 Rohwer, James, 11–12 Romero, Archbishop, 25 Rosenthal, A.

pages: 431 words: 106,435

How the Post Office Created America: A History by Winifred Gallagher

British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, white flight, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Some were driven by the exigencies imposed by the great financial Panic of 1837, others by the American tradition of moving on if life in one place fails to meet expectations, and still others by the stirring rhetoric of the imprecise, emotionally charged principle of Manifest Destiny. This theory of American exceptionalism proposed that the United States was a unique, divinely favored country that had a moral duty to spread its enlightened values and government from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The concept cleverly blended the era’s “postmillennial” Protestant belief that Christ was already building his new kingdom right here in America and the hard-edged Monroe Doctrine of 1823, which declared that North and South America were now off-limits to new European colonization. Manifest Destiny generally played well in the press and with Democrats, including President James Polk, who used the idea to rationalize taking half the Oregon Territory from Britain and seizing a big hunk of the Southwest from Mexico. Many Whigs, however, later including Abraham Lincoln, suspected that the theory was just wolfish imperialism in sheep’s clothing.

., 168 Mexican-American War, 85, 120, 130 Mexico, 194 Meyer, George, 192 Miles, Pliny, 82–83, 150 military mail, 264–65 in Civil War, 145, 147–48, 150 in World War II, 4, 237 Military Postal Service Agency, 265 Miller, Bronco Charlie, 138 Mills, Robert, 77, 202 Miracle on 34th Street, 214–15 money orders, 152, 182, 203 monopolies, 4, 83, 121, 184, 187, 189, 205 post office, 83, 86, 87, 138, 150, 169, 244, 279, 280 railroad, 169, 170, 189 Monroe, James, 64 Monroe Doctrine, 113 Moore, Ann, 111 moral issues, 73–77 Mormons, 43, 130, 136 Morse, Samuel F. B., 79, 84–85, 185 Mott, Lucretia, 95 Myers, Isaac, 157 naming of communities, 105–6 Nast, Thomas, 69 National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, 183, 199–200 National Postal Museum, 27, 100, 101, 215, 236 National Republicans, 67–70, 74 National Road, 60, 62 National Telegraph Act, 185 Native Americans, 9–10, 16, 18, 54, 68, 114, 123, 127, 199 Pony Express and, 131, 133, 136 Whitmans and, 117–19 Navy, U.S., 171, 172 Neale, Thomas, 15 “Neither snow nor rain . . . ,” 12, 214 Nell, William Cooper, 157 Nero (dog), 165 New, Harry, 227 Newcomb, H.

pages: 302 words: 82,233

Beautiful security by Andy Oram, John Viega

Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, defense in depth, Donald Davies,, fault tolerance, Firefox, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Nick Leeson, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, pirate software, Robert Bork, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, security theater, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, web application, web of trust, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

It naturally follows, however, that without a broad federal doctrine and associated strategy on cyber security, development of a culture of security can be tremendously difficult. Consistent with this view, Commission members appeared before the House Homeland Cybersecurity Subcommittee in a September 2008 hearing. The members testified that the U.S. lacks a coherent and actionable national strategy for addressing the daunting challenges of securing cyberspace. The U.S. has had various doctrines at different times in history. In the early 1800s, the Monroe Doctrine articulated a policy on political development in the rest of the Americas and the role of Europe in the Western Hemisphere. The three main concepts of (1) separate spheres of influence for the Americas and Europe, (2) noncolonization, and (3) nonintervention were meant to show a clear break between the diplomatic approach of the new United States and the autocratic realm of Europe. Following World War II, the Truman Doctrine established a policy that drove diplomatic endeavors of the United States for several decades.

Brazos, 206 Gutmann, Peter, 117 H handshakes, 28 Hannaford Brothers security breach, 67, 68, 211 hash algorithms data translucency and, 241 LAN Manager, 4 SET procedure, 78 INDEX 273 Windows NT, 5 Hasselbacher, Kyle, 127 health care field infosecurity and, 208 security metrics, 34–38 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 80, 214 hierarchical trust cumulative trust comparison, 110 defined, 109 HijackThis change tracker, 92 HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), 80, 214 HIPS (Host-based Intrusion Prevention Systems), 253 Holz, Thorsten, 145 Homeland Security, Department of, 36 honeyclients defined, 133 future of, 146 implementation limitations, 143 open source, 133–135 operational results, 139–140 operational steps, 134, 137 related work, 144–145 second-generation, 135–138 storing and correlating data, 140 honeymonkeys, 144 Honeynet Project, 138, 145 honeypot systems defined, 133 proliferation of malware, 252 Honeywall, 138 host logging, 232–237 Host-based Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS), 253 hostile environments confirmation traps and, 10 specialization in, 249 hotspot services, 22 House Committee on Homeland Security, 201 Howard, Michael, 195 HTTPS protocol, 66 Hubbard, Dan, 144 Hula Direct ad broker, 98, 99 I IBM, social networking and, 159 IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm), 117, 118 iDefense Labs, 59, 156 identity certificates, 111 identity management services, 154 identity theft devaluing credit card information, 71 274 INDEX wireless networking, 23–25 IDS (intrusion detection system) building a resilient model, 233–237 challenges detecting botnets, 231 false positives, 217 functionality, 226 honeyclient support, 133, 144 host logging, 232–237 host-based, 253 improving detection with context, 228–231 limitations, 227, 229 log handling considerations, 218, 132 incident detection, 233 (see also malicious attacks) building a resilient model, 233–237 host logging and, 232–237 improving with context, 228–231 percentage identified, 226, 227 SQL Slammer worm, 225 InCtrl change tracker, 92 information dealers defined, 64 IRC data exchange, 67 malware producers and, 64 sources of information, 68 information security as long tail market, 165–167 balance in, 202–207 basic concepts, 200 cloud computing, 150–154 communication considerations, 207–211 connecting people and processes, 154–158 doing the right thing, 211–212 historical review, 248–251 host logging, 232 need for new strategies, 247 organizational culture, 200–202 overview, 147–150 September 11, 2001 and, 249 social networking and, 158–162 strict scrutiny, 252–254 suggested practices, 257 supercrunching, 153, 162–164 taking a security history, 44–46 web services, 150–154 Information Security Economics, 162–164 Information Security Group, 168 injected iFrames, 69 International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), 117, 118 International Tariff on Arms Regulations (ITAR), 3 Internet Explorer exploit-based installs and, 92 open source honeyclients, 134 recent vulnerabilities, 131 Internet Relay Chat (see IRC) intranets, security flaws, 25 introducers in PGP, 113 (see also certificate authorities) defined, 109, 112 extended, 123 Web of Trust process, 113 intrusion detection system (see IDS) investment metrics, 47 IRC (Internet Relay Chat) botnet communication, 66 cyber underground communication, 65, 67 ISO 2700x standard, 214 ISPs, costs versus profits, 16–17 ITAR (International Tariff on Arms Regulations), 3 ITIL regulation, 214 iTunes, 165 J J/Secure, 76 JCB International, 76 Jericho Forum, 156 Jerusalem virus, 248 K Kaminsky, Dan, 161 KBA (knowledge-based authentication), 68 key loggers as information source, 68 specialization in, 249 key signatures bloat and harassment, 124 certificate support, 111 exportable, 125 freshness considerations, 122 in-certificate preferences, 126 Web of Trust, 113, 115, 120 keyrings, 112 keys (see certificates; public key cryptography) keyservers defined, 112 key-editing policies, 126 PGP Global Directory, 127 Klez virus, 248 knowledge-based authentication (KBA), 68 Kovah, Xeno, 138 L L0phtCrack government interest in, 13 learned helplessness example, 3–6 Lai, Xuejia, 117 LAN Manager, 4 Lancaster, Branko, 117 Langevin, Jim, 201 LANs, physical security inherent in, 28 Lansky, Jared, 90–92 learned helplessness backward compatibility and, 2 defined, 2, 7 L0phtCrack example, 3–6 overview, 2–7 Leeson, Nick, 38–49 legacy systems backward compatibility, 7 e-commerce security and, 74 end-of-life upgrades, 2, 7 password security and, 4–6 legal considerations balance in information security, 202–207 communication and information security, 207– 211 doing the right thing, 211–212 information security concepts, 200 log handling, 223 organizational culture, 200–202 value of logs, 214 Levy, Steven, 119 LinkShare affiliate network, 102 Linux systems, 221 log management tools, 222–223 log messages, 215 logs case study, 218–221 challenges with, 216–218 classifying, 214 database, 221 defined, 215 email tracking, 221 future possibilities, 221–223 host logging, 232–237 incident detection and, 226, 228 regulatory compliance and, 214 universal standard considerations, 217 usefulness of, 153, 214, 215 long straddle trading strategy, 40 Lucent (see Bell Labs) Lynch, Aidan, 144 M machine learning, 254 malicious attacks, 228 (see also cyber underground; incident detection) attack indicators, 233–237 Blaster, 248 INDEX 275 Code Red, 248 confirmation traps, 10 directionality of, 227 energy companies vulnerabilities, 18 identity theft, 22–28 Jerusalem, 248 Klez, 248 Melissa, 248 Michelangelo, 248 Morris, 248 MyDoom, 248 Nimda, 248 Pakistani Flu, 248 Slammer, 248 Snort signatures, 228 Sober, 248 Sobig, 248 SQL Slammer worm, 225–227, 229 Symantec reports on, 229 VBS/Loveletter—“I Love you”, 248 W32.Gaobot worm, 229 malvertisements, 92–94 malware anti-virus software and, 251 as cyber attack method, 69 banking trojans, 141, 249 client-side exploitation, 15, 132, 141–143 common distribution methods, 69 current market values, 67 directionality of attacks, 227 gaming trojans, 141, 249 historical review, 248–249 polymorphic, 70 production cycle, 64 streamlining identification of, 254 targeted advertising, 250 testing, 65 zero-day exploits, 252 malware producers defined, 64 information dealers and, 64 polymorphic malware, 70 testing code, 65 man-in-the-middle attacks, 25 manual penetration testing, 190 Massey, James, 117 MasterCard 3-D Secure protocol, 76 SET protocol, 78 Maurer, Ueli, 128 MBNA, 79 McAfee online safety survey, 187 SiteAdvisor, 97 vulnerability management, 152 276 INDEX McBurnett, Neal, 128 McCabe, Jim, 178, 179 McCaul, Mike, 201 McDougle, John, 178 McGraw, Gary, 186 McManus, John, 171–182 Mean Time Between Security Incidents (MTBSI), 48 Mean Time to Repair (MTTR), 58 Mean Time to Repair Security Incidents (MTTRSI), 48 Media Guard product, 94 medical field infosecurity and, 208 security metrics, 34–38 Melissa virus, 248 Merchant Server Plug-in (MPI), 77 meta-introducers, 123 metrician, 34 metrics Barings Bank security breach, 38–49 coverage, 46 for data responsibility, 72 health care field, 34–38 investment, 47 measuring ROI, 163 scan coverage, 58 software development lifecycle and, 172–174, 189 TJX security breach, 49–59 treatment effect, 48 MetricsCenter technology, 45, 54 Michelangelo virus, 248 microchunking, 166 Microsoft, 134 (see also Internet Explorer) Authenticode, 110 Azure cloud operating system, 152 Commission on Cyber Security, 201 CPC advertising, 100 hierarchical trust, 110 honeymonkeys, 144 L0phtCrack example, 3–6 security controls in SDLC, 194 SQL Server, 225 supporting legacy systems, 7 testing approach, 10 Unix systems and, 8 MITRE Corporation, 135, 222 money, 44, 70, 141 (see also financial institutions; PCI) Monroe Doctrine, 201 Morris virus, 248 mothership systems, 230 Motorola Corporation, 31 Mozilla Firefox honeyclient support, 140, 145 malware exploits and, 141 MPI (Merchant Server Plug-in), 77 MTBSI (Mean Time Between Security Incidents), 48 MTTR (Mean Time to Repair), 58 MTTRSI (Mean Time to Repair Security Incidents), 48 Murray, Daragh, 144 MyDoom virus, 248 MySpace social network, 159 N naïveté client counterpart of, 8–9 learned helplessness and, 2–7 NASA background, 171 perception of closed systems, 172 software development lifecycle, 172–174, 178– 181 National Institute for Standards, 159 National Office for Cyberspace (NOC), 201, 202 Nazario, Jose, 145 newsgroups, 250 Nichols, Elizabeth, 33–61 Nichols, Elizabeth A., 30 Nimda virus, 248 NOC (National Office for Cyberspace), 201, 202 NTLM authentication, 6 O OCC, 191 off-the-shelf software (see software acquisition) Office Max, 50 online advertising advertisers as victims, 98–105 attacks on users, 89–98 CPA advertising, 102–103 CPC advertising, 100–101 CPM advertising, 100–103 creating accountability, 105 deceptive ads, 94–98 exploit-laden banner ads, 89–92 false impressions, 98–99 fighting fraud, 103–104 malvertisements, 92–94 special procurement challenges, 104 targeted, 250 online advertising, targeted, 249 online forums, 250 Open Security Foundation, 55 open source honeyclients, 133–135 Open Web Application Security Project (see OWASP) OpenID identity management, 154 OpenPGP standard/protocol background, 108 certification support, 111, 112 designated revokers, 122 direct trust, 109 exportable signatures, 125 extended introducers, 123 in-certificate preferences, 126 key support, 112 key-editing policies, 126 revoking certificates, 122 OpenSocial API, 159 operating systems, host logging, 232, 236 OptOut spyware removal tool, 251 Orange Book, 213 organizational culture, 200–202 outsourcing extending security initiative to, 190 trends in, 154 vulnerability research, 156 OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) background, 159 CLASP methodology, 187 Top 10 list, 187 P P2P (peer-to-peer) networks botnet communication, 66 honeyclient considerations, 146 packet sniffers, 92 packets handshake, 28 SQL Slammer worm, 227 Pakistani Flu virus, 248 PAN (Primary Account Number), 77 Panda Labs, 69 PAR (Payer Authentication Request), 77 PARAM tag, 94 passive sniffing, 9 passphrases, 29 password grinding, 28 password-cracking tools L0phtCrack example, 3–6 passphrases and, 29 passwords authentication security, 7 identity theft and, 24 NTLM authentication and, 6 PATHSERVER, 129 Payer Authentication Request (PAR), 77 Payment Card Industry (see PCI) INDEX 277 PayPal, 79 PCI (Payment Card Industry) Data Security Standard, 75, 82, 159, 211, 214, 237 protecting credit card data, 44 peer-to-peer networks (see P2P networks) PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail), 117 perma-vendors, 156 Personally Identifiable Information (PII), 180 Pezzonavante honeyclient, 144 PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 111 (see also Web of Trust) background, 107, 108, 116 backward compatibility issues, 117 Crypto Wars, 118 designated revokers, 122 encryption support, 107, 116–120 key validity, 108 patent and export problems, 117 source download, 116 trust models, 109–116 trust relationships, 108 PGP Corporation, 108 PGP Global Directory, 127 pharmware, 68 phishing 3-D Secure protocol, 77 as information source, 68 botnet support, 66 challenges detecting, 231 spam and, 70 specialization in, 249 PhoneyC website, 145 PII (Personally Identifiable Information), 180 Piper, Fred, 168 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authoritative keys, 123 defined, 111 DSG support, 203 revoking certificates, 120 SET considerations, 79 PlexLogic, 45 Plumb, Colin, 119 port scanning, 231 pragmatic security, 200, 209 Pre-Shared Key (PSK), 28 Pretty Good Privacy (see PGP) Price, Will, 127 Primary Account Number (PAN), 77 Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), 117 proof-of-concept project, 191–193 Provos, Niels, 145 PSK (Pre-Shared Key), 28 psychological traps confirmation traps, 10–14 278 INDEX functional fixation, 14–20 learned helplessness, 2 public key cryptography cumulative trust systems, 111 key revocation, 121 PGP support, 107 RSA algorithm, 117 SET support, 78 steganographic applications, 245 validity, 108 Public Key Infrastructure (see PKI) Public Key Partners, 118 put options, 39 Q Qualys vulnerability management, 151 R Raduege, Harry, 201 Regular, Bob, 90 regulatory compliance (see legal considerations) Reiter, Mark, 129 Reliable Software Technologies, 171, 173 reputation economy, 167 resource dealers, 64 Return on Investment (ROI), 163, 205–207 Return on Security Investment (ROSI), 206 Returnil, 254, 255, 256, 257 revoking certificates, 120–122 RFC 1991, 108, 119 RFC 3156, 108 RFC 4880, 108 Right Media, 94 ROI (Return on Investment), 163, 205–207 root certificates defined, 109 direct trust, 110 rootkits example investigating, 220 Rustock.C, 252 specialization in, 249 ROSI (Return on Security Investment), 206 routers DDoS attacks on, 16 host logging, 232 watch lists, 231 Routh, Jim, 183–197 RSA Data Security Incorporated, 117 RSA public-key algorithm, 117 RSAREF library, 117 Rustock.C rootkit, 252 S Sabett, Randy V., 199–212 sandboxing functionality, 254 HIPS support, 253 need for new strategies, 248 Santa Fe Group, 44 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), 80, 214 SCADA systems, 18 Schoen, Seth, 127 SDLC (see software development lifecycle) Second Life virtual world, 159 Secret Service Shadowcrew network and, 65 TJX security breach and, 50 Secunia, 156 Secure Electronic Transaction (see SET) security breaches attorney involvement in investigating, 211 Barings Bank, 38–49 California data privacy law, 203–205 cyber underground and, 63–72 databases and, 239 impact of, 208 logs in investigating, 218–221 public data sources, 59 tiger team responses, 210–211 TJX, 49–59 security certificates defined, 22 encryption and, 22, 24 fundamental flaw, 25 paying attention to, 26 wireless access points, 26, 27 Security Event Managers (SEMs), 153 security metrics (see metrics) Security Metrics Catalog project, 54 security traps (see psychological traps) SecurityFocus database, 132, 54 SEI (Software Engineering Institute), 176 Seifert, Christian, 138, 145 self-signed certificates, 109 SEMs (Security Event Managers), 153 separation of duties, 39 September 11, 2001, 249 server applications, host logging, 232 Service Set Identifier (SSID), 52 service-oriented architecture (SOA), 150 SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) background, 78 evaluation of, 79 protections supported, 78 transaction process, 79 SHA256 hash algorithm, 241 Shadowcrew network, 65 short straddle trading strategy, 39, 40 signature harassment, 125 Sinclair, Upton, 149 Skinner, B.

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How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

Kennan went on to explain the means we have to use against our enemies who fall prey to this heresy: The final answer might be an unpleasant one, but…we should not hesitate before police repression by the local government. This is not shameful since the Communists are essentially traitors....It is better to have a strong regime in power than a liberal government if it is indulgent and relaxed and penetrated by Communists. Policies like these didn’t begin with postwar liberals like Kennan. As Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State had already pointed out 30 years earlier, the operative meaning of the Monroe Doctrine is that “the United States considers its own interests. The integrity of other American nations is an incident, not an end.” Wilson, the great apostle of self-determination, agreed that the argument was “unanswerable,” though it would be “impolitic” to present it publicly. Wilson also acted on this thinking by, among other things, invading Haiti and the Dominican Republic, where his warriors murdered and destroyed, demolished the political system, left US corporations firmly in control, and set the stage for brutal and corrupt dictatorships.

See also Israel; Third World; specific countries The Nation and Chomsky’s views on oil reserves “peace process,” PLO threat used to justify US policies US intervention in military. See Pentagon; Pentagon system; weapons manufacturers military coups. See coups military-industrial complex Million Man March Mill, James Mill, John Stuart “miracles.” See economic “miracles” Miskito Indians MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Mobutu, Joseph Mokhiber, Russell Mondale, Walter Mondragon money laundering Monroe Doctrine Montgomery, David Moorehouse, Ward Moore, Michael moratorium, debt Morgan (Mohammed Hersi) Moynihan, Daniel multinational corporations. See corporations Multinational Monitor Murdoch, Rupert Muslims myths Friedman’s hard times are here Third World debt Nader, Ralph NAFTA beneficiaries of Clinton and criticism of critics of effects of Gore-Perot debate on as “investor rights agreement,” Mexican opposition to purpose of reporting lacking until passed US opposition to US violation of as world government institution Naiman, Arthur Namibia “narcissism of small differences,” Nash, Nathaniel Nassar, Gamal Abd al- Nation National Association of Manufacturers National Bureau of Standards and Technology national debt National Defense Highway System National Guard (Nicaragua) nationalism economic as threat to new world order National Public Radio (NPR) access to ADM as sponsor of Chomsky’s appearance on political leanings of National Security Council (NSC) Italian election undermined by Martin Indyk appointment to memorandum 1 (1948) memorandum 68 (1950) National Security Policy Review leak “nation building,” Nation, The native population (of Western Hemisphere).

Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew

agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade

In seeking to ensure the United States’ station “among the powers of the earth,” American founders imagined the fledgling federation as an empire. The federal government created in 1787 would secure the United States as free and independent by providing the institutional structures and resources required for the pacification of its colonial periphery.42 The aims of postcolonial independence and imperial expansion were intertwined and culminated in the Monroe Doctrine, which prevented European encroachment in the Western Hemisphere while sanctioning American hegemony and expansion.43 The imperial character of the US federal government was directed not only outward with the aim of expansion but also inward in an effort to expropriate Native Americans, dominate enslaved Africans, and curtail populist politics.44 While Nkrumah and Williams recognized the United States as an imperial power, they did not understand its imperialism to be embedded R ev isiting the Feder a lists in the Bl ack Atl a n tic [ 119 ] within the structure of American federalism.

Manley, 180; mechanisms of, 174; and NIEO, 144; and poor nations, 164; regional, 131, 143 Martinique, 116 Marx, Karl: Capital, 3; Communist Man­ ifesto, 3, 73 Marxism, 4, 68, 76, 77, 81, 83, 145, 167 Marxists, 168 Mazzini, Giuseppe, 76 Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), 104 metropole, 49, 78, 82, 111, 112 mines, 72, 82 Mitchell, Timothy, 50 Mobutu, Joseph, 100 modernization, 28, 148, 214n4 modernization theory, 147, 148, 152 Monroe Doctrine, 118 Mont Pèlerin Society, 174 most favored nation standard, 164, 165 Movement for Black Lives, 181 Moyn, Samuel, 92 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 176–­77, 178 Mozambique, 87 Mussolini, Benito, 69 Myrdal, Gunnar, 144, 159, 160–­62, 218n77; Beyond the Welfare State, 149, 161; Eco­ nomic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions, 148–­49; “The Equality Issue in World Development,” 162 Nardal, Paulette, 5, 184n16 nationalism, 159; and Berlin, 76; as compatible with internationalism, 170; congenital defects of, 30; and democratic state, 27; and economic development, 143–­44; good vs. bad, 27; and Habermas, 27; and Lenin, 37–­ 38; and liberalism, 26, 27; and liberal universalism, 28; as necessary for national independence, 24; pathological character of, 26; and postcolonial di- index lemmas, 25; and regional federations, 110; and United States of Europe, 113 National Party (South Africa), 48 nation-­building, 2, 11; and dependen­ cies after decolonization, 17; and ex­ ternal forces, 12; and internal instability, 29; international conditions for, 24; and international market, 144, 157; and NIEO, 167, 174; and self-­ determination, 15, 180; socialist, 154, 156, 157, 163; and worldmaking, 4, 15, 17, 22, 24, 28, 106, 154, 180 nation-­state, 96, 181; and anticolonial nationalism, 25; and decolonization, 112; decolonization as diffusion of, 26; decolonization as globalization of, 16; empirical and normative limits of, 30; as majoritarian, homogenizing, and exclusionary, 179; as normative, 4; rights of, 29; rise of, 3; and self-­ determination, 16; territorial form of, 25; universalization of, 1, 16, 112 Native Americans, 19–­20, 118 native rulers, 83–­84 natural resources, 89, 90, 91–­92, 144, 153, 170, 180, 215n17.

pages: 136 words: 42,864

The Cable by Gillian Cookson

British Empire, cable laying ship, joint-stock company, Monroe Doctrine, undersea cable

These are advantages to rejoice in, and be thankful for … But let the praise be discriminating, and then it will be at once more sincere and more valuable. The critic also thought Americans were trying to take more than their share of credit for the success. ‘One might suppose, from the style and tone of the demonstrations in New York, that it was as thoroughly American as if it had been the out-growth of the Monroe doctrine.’ In fact, the United States’ involvement extended only to the fact that Field was an American citizen, and that some of the initial surveys had been carried out by the US Navy. ‘For the rest, it was done chiefly by British science and mechanical skill, British enterprise and British capital.’ This, though, is hardly a full story. The cable had been driven forward from the start by Americans, from the Canadian provinces and the United States.

pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

No Russian leader would tolerate a former enemy’s military alliance moving into Ukraine. Nor would any Russian leader stand idly by while the West helped install a government in Kiev that was determined to join that alliance. Washington may not like Moscow’s position, but it should understand the logic behind it. Great powers are always sensitive to threats near their home territory. The United States, for instance, under the Monroe Doctrine does not tolerate distant great powers deploying military forces anywhere in the Western Hemisphere, much less on its borders. Imagine the outrage in Washington if China built an impressive alliance and tried to install governments in Canada and Mexico that wanted to join. Logic aside, Russian leaders have told their Western counterparts many times that they will not tolerate NATO expansion into Ukraine and Georgia, or any effort to turn those countries against Russia—a message the 2008 Russia-Georgia War should have made crystal clear.

See also war military-industrial complex, 72 Mill, James, 74, 76 Mill, John Stuart, 55, 74, 76, 113 minorities, in democracies, 11, 50 minority cultures, 88, 98–99 modern state system: history of, 144–49 imperialism and, 99 nationalism at foundation of, 4, 147–49 realism at foundation of, 4, 131–34, 145–47 sovereignty in, 93–94. See also international politics/system; nation-states; state modus vivendi liberalism: classical liberalism synonymous with, 245n24 decline of, 46, 68, 74 foreign policy based on, 143–44 as ideal type, 237n11 key features of, 55–56 Libertarian Party and, 70 progressive liberalism vs., 9–10, 45–46, 65–68 and rights, 65–66 state’s role in, 50, 144 Monroe Doctrine, 176 Monteiro, Nuno, 139 Monten, Jonathan, 170 Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de, 112 morality: disagreements over, 23 individual differences in conceptions of, 29 influences on, 28–29 societal role of, 22 universal principles of, 23–26, 58–59. See also good life moral relativism, 23–24, 42 Morefield, Jeanne, 81 Morgenthau, Hans, 36, 43–44, 267n20, 271n63 Morkevičius, Valerie, 221 Morsi, Mohamed, 168 Moyn, Samuel, 9, 264n112 Mubarak, Hosni, 167–68 Mueller, John, 141 multinational states, 72, 98, 111, 255n17 multipolarity: dangers of, 2 emergence of, in contemporary international politics, 228 liberal interventionism in contexts of, 139–40 realism appropriate to contexts of, 122, 130–31, 218.

Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

When Mexican independence was achieved and ties with Spain were broken, the United States recognized the new nation and designated its first ambassador, Joel R. Poinsett. Poinsett’s assignment explicitly focused on modifying the border treaty with Spain (and, therefore, with New Spain, i.e., Mexico) through the purchase—or eventual annexation—of bordering territories. His appointment also coincided with the declaration of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) prohibiting any European meddling in the Americas. In those enthusiastic early days of the Mexican republic, few foresaw that a defensive doctrine would transform itself, within a few years, into the aggressive and expansionist concept of “Manifest Destiny” (1839), according to which the historical plan of the United States was to expand its frontiers and its civilization all the way to Patagonia.

., 246–247 McLane-Ocampo Treaty, 53 Mejía, Hipólito, 119 Menem, Carlos, 206, 212–213 Merkel, Angela, 210 Mesoamerica, 269 Mexican Revolution, 69 Mexico agrarian reforms in, 82 anti-Yankeeism in, 59 conditional cash transfer programs, 291–292 Conservative Party of, 51 constitution of, 28–29, 50 economy of from 1950 to 1970, 78–81 state-owned enterprises, 80 state’s role in, 79–80 trade liberalization effects on, 93–94 educational reforms in, 287, 291 electoral reform in, 285 exports by, from 1950 to 1960, 79, 81 Federal Electoral Institute, 286 foreign investment in, 54 Fox administration, 63–64, 208 gas imports by, 68 hatred of United States by, 67 immigration to United States, 48–49, 64, 68 independence effects on per capita income in, 108t industrialization process and growth in, 78–79 institutional reform in, 216 land ownership rates in, 82 liberals in, 52–53 nationalism in, 58–59, 61–62, 68 Partido Acción Nacional, 208 per capita gross domestic product of, 73–74, 77, 164t per capita income in, 103t, 106 poverty in, 66–67 PRI, 140, 208, 286 radical populist labor in, 139 revolutionary movement in, 28 Salinas de Gortari administration, 62 secondary education statistics, 83 teacher salaries in, 83–84 Texas war of separation from, 51–52 trade liberalization program in, 93–94 United States and border between, 66–67 distant reconciliation of, 62–70 framing of relationship between, 64–67 future of relations between, 67 historical and cultural roots of gap between, 49–70 Index 307 Mexico (continued) income inequalities, 74 U.S. authors writing books about Mexico, 69 U.S. films about Mexico, 68–69 War of Independence, 50 War of the Reform, 52–53 Zedillo administration, 63 Michels, Robert, 186 Military coups, 88–89, 121 Military regimes in Argentina, 88, 90, 144 in Brazil, 87, 144 in Chile, 144 description of, 88, 90, 124 in Peru, 90 Mitre, Bartolomé, 25 Monroe, James, 12 Monroe Doctrine, 50 Morelos, José María, 50 Morrow, Dwight D., 59 Mortality rates, 176 Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, 185, 187 Muñoz, Oscar, 79 NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement Napoleon III, 53 National emergency tax, 237 Nationalism, 58–59, 61–62, 68 Neo-English America, 23 Neo-Europes, 173 Neo-Ibero-America, 16, 23 Neo-institutionalist proposition, 118 Neoliberal restructuring, 145–146 Nepomuceno, Juan, 50 New institutionalism, 99–100 New Zealand, 210–211 Nicaragua, 31, 73, 85, 108t North American Free Trade Agreement, 63, 66, 93, 283 Nuestra América, 25 Ocampo, Melchor, 53 Old World, 12 Operation Pan America, 39 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 83–84, 113, 165 Organized labor, 137–138 308 Index Pacted transitions, 278 Palma, José Gabriel, 79 Panama, 108t Paraguay, 102, 108t Parliamentary systems, 199–200 Partido Acción Nacional, 208 Paz, Octavio, 49, 65 Peninsulares, 110 People’s Party, 137 Per capita gross domestic product of Argentina, 73, 78, 164t of Brazil, 73, 77–78, 164 of Chile, 73, 78, 164t of Colombia, 73, 85, 164t of Cuba, 164t growth of from 1870 to 1950, 72–73 from 1973 to 2000, 91 labor effects on, 137 of Mexico, 73–74, 77, 164t of Peru, 164t of South Korea, 73–74, 77–78 of Taiwan, 73–74, 77 of Venezuela, 164t Per capita income factors that affect, 165 independence effects on, 107 in Latin America vs.

pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

The early republic had brushed the Spanish, French and Russian empires back from territory it coveted, using guile, force and money. Against the odds, the United States had survived and grown. The North muddled through the zig-zag intricacies of Civil War diplomacy, after which the supreme achievement of American diplomacy was the avoidance of great-power conflict in the Western Hemisphere. Impossible in theory, the Monroe Doctrine worked in practice, but it may have worked because the United States was on the margins of the international system, too peripheral to be worth disturbing. At any rate, in order to work, the Monroe Doctrine relied on the British navy, while American strategy and interests did not factor much in nineteenth-century European calculations. Until 1892, European countries did not even have ambassadors in Washington. There was not enough to discuss in this rich, rising but still remote country. Even after 1892, mosquito-ridden Washington was not the place for ambitious international diplomats to be.

pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

And would not a foreign adventure deflect some of the rebellious energy that went into strikes and protest movements toward an external enemy? Would it not unite people with government, with the armed forces, instead of against them? This was probably not a conscious plan among most of the elite—but a natural development from the twin drives of capitalism and nationalism. Expansion overseas was not a new idea. Even before the war against Mexico carried the United States to the Pacific, the Monroe Doctrine looked southward into and beyond the Caribbean. Issued in 1823 when the countries of Latin America were winning independence from Spanish control, it made plain to European nations that the United States considered Latin America its sphere of influence. Not long after, some Americans began thinking into the Pacific: of Hawaii, Japan, and the great markets of China. There was more than thinking; the American armed forces had made forays overseas.

It had “opened” Japan to its trade with gunboats and threats. It had declared an Open Door Policy in China as a means of assuring that the United States would have opportunities equal to other imperial powers in exploiting China. It had sent troops to Peking with other nations, to assert Western supremacy in China, and kept them there for over thirty years. While demanding an Open Door in China, it had insisted (with the Monroe Doctrine and many military interventions) on a Closed Door in Latin America—that is, closed to everyone but the United States. It had engineered a revolution against Colombia and created the “independent” state of Panama in order to build and control the Canal. It sent five thousand marines to Nicaragua in 1926 to counter a revolution, and kept a force there for seven years. It intervened in the Dominican Republic for the fourth time in 1916 and kept troops there for eight years.

., 451–52, 461, 462, 485, 644 “King Philips War,” 16, 40 Kissinger, Henry, 9, 441, 484, 491, 498, 544, 548, 551, 552, 553–54, 556, 569 Kistiakowsky, George, 604 Kitt, Eartha, 487 Kleindienst, Richard, 544, 547, 548 Knights of Labor, 251, 267–68, 269, 273, 274, 279, 285, 289, 307 Knox, Henry, 81, 95, 126 Kolchin, Peter, 199 Kolko, Gabriel, 350, 413 Koning, Hans, 17–18 Korea/Korean war, 428, 429, 647, 652, 685 Kornbluh, Joyce, 332 Kovic, Ron, 496–97, 619, 621 Kozol, Jonathan, 539 Kristol, Irving, 435 Kropotkin, Peter, 271 Krushchev, Nikita, 592 Ku Klux Klan, 203, 382, 432, 452, 636 Kurds, 656 Kuwait, 594–96, 598, 622, 627, 653 labor: blacks, 199, 203, 208, 209, 241, 274, 328, 337–38, 381, 404–05, 415, 466, 467 children, 43, 44, 49, 221, 230–31, 266, 267, 324, 335, 346–47, 403 Colonial era, 23, 25, 27–28, 29, 30, 32, 37, 42–47, 50, 53, 55, 56, 57, 62, 80, 104–05 Constitution, support for, 99 convicts, 209, 275, 292 Depression and unemployment, 386–95 passim factories and mills, 10, 111, 115, 116–17, 216, 221, 228–31, 239, 241, 243–44, 253, 300, 324–27, 334–39 passim, 346, 349, 381, 386, 387, 397 Fair Employment Practices Commission, 415 health and safety in working conditions, 230, 239, 241, 242, 246, 254, 255, 256, 278, 325, 326, 327, 338–39, 346 insurance and compensation, 349, 352–53 ILGWU, 326 immigrants, 49, 125, 216, 221, 225, 227–28, 230, 238, 244, 253, 254, 265–67, 307, 324 see also individual ethnic groups Independent Labor party, 272 Indians, 25, 29, 53 Knights of Labor, 251, 267–68, 269, 273, 274, 279, 285, 289, 306 minimum-wage (1938), 403 National Labor Relations Board, 401, 402, 574 1980s and 1990s, 617 organization (unions, strikes): 19th century, 218–19, 221, 222, 223, 225–51 passim, 260, 265, 267–83, 293, 310; 20th century, 324, 326, 330, 334–39 passim, 346–47, 354, 377–82, 386, 392, 397, 399–402 passim, 406, 407, 415, 416, 417–18, 575, 578, 668–74 socialism and, 244–45, 249, 268–73, 278, 281, 282, 307–08, 336, 339–40, 382, 385, 406, 547 Spanish American war and, 317 Wagner Act, 395, 401 women, 10, 32, 43, 44, 103, 104–05, 110, 111, 114–15, 123, 228–31, 234–35, 240–41, 253, 257, 267–68, 324–27 passim, 336, 338–39, 347, 405–06, 504, 506–11 passim Workingmen’s party, 244–45, 248–49 see also American Federation of Labor; Congress of Industrial Organizations; farming; Industrial Workers of the World; slavery Lafeber, Walter, 301, 304 La Follette, Robert, 353 LaGuardia, Fiorello, 384, 385, 388, 684 LaMonte, Robert, 354 Land, Aubrey, 57 land: Bacon’s Rebellion, 37, 39–42, 45, 54, 55, 59 blacks and post-Civil War problems, 197–98, 199 “eminent domain” favoring business, 239 Homestead Acts, 206, 238, 282 Indians, 13, 20, 86–88, 128 Indian Removal and treaties, 126–28, 295, 526, 529 private property, Colonial era, 13, 17, 47, 48, 49, 54, 84, 85; in Europe, 16, 27, 74; law’s regard for, 260–62; as qualification for voting, 49, 65, 83, 96, 214–16, 291; after Revolutionary War, 84, 85, 86–87, 99, 126; tenants and rebellions, 47, 62–65, 84, 85–86, 91–95, 98, 211, 212–14 Proclamation of 1763, 59, 71, 87 railroads acquisition of, 220, 238, 239, 283 territorial expansion, 9, 87–88, 111, 124, 685: Florida, 129; Louisiana Purchase, 126, 149; Mexico/Mexican war, 10, 149–69 passim, 181, 297, 408, 411, 492; overseas, 297–300; see also Spanish-American war see also farming Laos, 472, 473, 481–83, 484, 556 las Casas, Bartolomé de, 5–7 Latin America, 53, 299, 408 Alliance for Progress, 438 Good Neighbor Policy, 439 Monroe Doctrine, 297, 408 Organization of American States, 440 slavery, 25, 32, 173 see also Indians, Central and South American Latinos, 615–16 Lattimore, Owen, 432, 436 Lease, Mary Ellen, 288 Lebanon, 439, 586, 595 Lee, Richard, 42 Lee, Richard Henry, 81 Lee, Robert E., 185, 192, 195 Lehman, John, 597 Lehrmann, Leonard, 628 Leisler, Benjamin, 48 Lekachman, Robert, 571 Lemon, James T., 50 Lenin, V.

pages: 1,477 words: 311,310

The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 by Paul Kennedy

agricultural Revolution, airline deregulation, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, industrial robot, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, long peace, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, oil shock, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, zero-sum game

The American banking crisis of 1907 (originally provoked by an attempt by speculators to corner the market in copper), with consequent impacts on London, Amsterdam, and Hamburg, was merely one example of the way the United States was impinging upon the economic life of the other Great Powers, even before the First World War.164 This growth of American industrial power and overseas trade was accompanied, perhaps inevitably, by a more assertive diplomacy and by an American-style rhetoric of Weltpolitik.165 Claims to a special moral endowment among the peoples of the earth which made American foreign policy superior to those of the Old World were intermingled with Social Darwinistic and racial arguments, and with the urging of industrial and agricultural pressure groups for secure overseas markets. The traditional, if always exaggerated, alarm about threats to the Monroe Doctrine was accompanied by calls for the United States to fulfill its “Manifest Destiny” across the Pacific. While entangling alliances still had to be avoided, the United States was now being urged by many groups at home into a much more activist diplomacy—which, under the administrations of McKinley and (especially) Theodore Roosevelt, was exactly what took place. The 1895 quarrel with Britain over the Venezuelan border dispute—justified in terms of the Monroe Doctrine—was followed three years later by the much more dramatic war with Spain over the Cuban issue. Washington’s demand to have sole control of an isthmian canal (instead of the older fifty-fifty arrangement with Britain), the redefinition of the Alaskan border despite Canadian protests, and the 1902–1903 battlefleet preparations in the Caribbean following the German actions against Venezuela were all indications of U.S. determination to be unchallenged by any other Great Power in the western hemisphere.

Despite the vast inflow of European immigrants by the 1850s, the ready availability of land in the west, together with constant industrial growth, caused labor to be relatively scarce and wages to be high, which in turn induced manufacturers to invest in labor-saving machinery, further stimulating national productivity. The young republic’s isolation from European power struggles, and the cordon sanitaire which the Royal Navy (rather than the Monroe Doctrine) imposed to separate the Old World from the New, meant that the only threat to the United States’ future prosperity could come from Britain itself. Yet despite sore memories of 1776 and 1812, and border disputes in the northwest,78 an Anglo-American war was unlikely; the flow of British capital and manufactures toward the United States and the return flow of American raw materials (especially cotton) tied the two economies ever closer together and further stimulated American economic growth.

In any case, except in Chinese affairs, such diplomatic activism was not maintained by Roosevelt’s successors, who preferred to keep the United States free from international events occurring outside the western hemisphere. Along with these diplomatic actions went increases in arms expenditures. Of the two services, the navy got the most, since it was the front line of the nation’s defenses in the event of a foreign attack (or a challenge to the Monroe Doctrine) and also the most useful instrument to support American diplomacy and commerce in Latin America, the Pacific, and elsewhere. Already in the late 1880s, the rebuilding of the fleet had commenced, but the greatest boost came at the time of the Spanish-American War. Since the easy naval victories in that conflict seemed to justify the arguments of Admiral Mahan and the “big navy” lobby, and since the strategists worried about the possibility of a war with Britain and then, from 1898 onward, with Germany, the battle fleet was steadily built up.

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, Kickstarter, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

He would point out that when the US and the UK had signed the Atlantic Charter, earlier in the war, which contained a sweeping statement about the freedom of people to choose the form of government they wished, Churchill had insisted on an assurance that the Charter would not apply to any of the colonies in the British Empire, including India, where a popular independence movement had long been campaigning for freedom. The Monroe Doctrine gave the US a self-appointed right to stop others interfering anywhere in the Americas – and the Americans permitted nobody else any say in the future of Japan. From Stalin’s point of view the other Allies had limited rights to interfere in Poland, a country so clearly important to the USSR. Averell Harriman, who had met Stalin many times when he was US Ambassador to Moscow, was right when he told Truman that the Soviet leader could not grasp that others believed firmly in their own ideology too.

P. ref1 Metaxas, Ioannis ref1, ref2, ref3 Michael, King ref1 Mikołajczyk, Stanisław ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Mikoyan, Anastas ref1 Ministry of Food ref1 Misaka, Prince ref1 Missouri, USS ref1 Mitford, Nancy ref1, ref2, ref3 Mitsubishi ref1 Modern Times ref1 Molotov, Vyacheslav ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Greece ref1 humiliation of by Stalin ref1 and Poland ref1, ref2, ref3 on Stalin ref1 and Turkey ref1, ref2 view of by Churchill ref1 Monopol-Grimberg mine accident (Germany) ref1 Monroe Doctrine ref1 Montand, Yves ref1 Montgomery, Field Marshal Bernard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Moon, Major Arthur ref1 Moon, Sir Penderel ref1 Morgan, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick ref1 Morgenthau, Henry ref1, ref2 Morrison, Herbert ref1, ref2 Mountbatten, Edwina ref1 Mountbatten, Lord Louis ref1, ref2 Mournier, Emmanuel ref1 Moyne, Lord (Walter Guinness) ref1 Munich ref1 Munich Conference (1938) ref1 Murdoch, Iris ref1 Murphy, Robert ref1, ref2 Murray, Wallace ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Muslim League ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Nagasaki ref1, ref2 Naidu, Padmaja ref1 al-Nashashibi, Ragheb ref1 National Liberation Front see EAM National Republican League (EDES) ref1 Nazis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20 see also de-Nazification Nehru, Jawaharlal ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Neumann, Gunther ref1 New Statesman ref1 Nicolson, Harold ref1 NKVD ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Nobusuke, Kishi ref1 Novikov, Air Marshal Aleksandr ref1 Nowakowski, Tadeusz Camp of All Saints ref1 nuclear weapons see atomic bomb Nuremberg trials (1946) ref1, ref2 Odrodzenie (magazine) ref1 OGPI ref1 Okulicki, General Leopold ref1 O’Neill, Con ref1 Operation Paperclip ref1 Operation Pincher ref1 opium trade (China) ref1 Oppenheimer, J.

pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Consider that the Pacific Ocean has historically been Earth’s greatest barrier to regular contact between continents. Though ancient humans crossed the Bering Strait land bridge from Asia to the Americas more than 17,000 years ago, there is no thousand-plus-year history of regular trading relations between Asian and Latin American civilizations as there has been in the Afroeurasian realm. Furthermore, the United States’ dominant position in Latin America has scarcely been threatened since the Monroe Doctrine was articulated in the early nineteenth century. Neither Fidel Castro’s Cuba (despite the 1962 missile crisis) nor Venezuela under Hugo Chávez spawned regionwide resistance, and the region’s nearly total economic dependence on trade and investment with the United States has imposed strict limits on Latin American geopolitical flirtations. This time really is different. Europe’s economic slowdown, North America’s energy revolution, and President Trump’s combative stance toward Hispanic immigration have been unfolding just as Asia’s ties with Latin America have blossomed.

., 49, 265, 316 Ganges region, 29, 32 Ganges River, 33, 35, 46 “Gangnam Style” (music video), 343 Gates, Bill, 317 Geely, 194 General Electric, 110, 168, 211 Genghis Khan, 39–40 Georgia, Republic of, 59 technocracy in, 307 Germany, Nazi, 50 Germany, unified: Arab refugees in, 255 Asian immigrants in, 253, 254, 256 Asia’s relations with, 242 multiparty consensus in, 284 Ginsberg, Allen, 331 Giving Pledge, 317 Global-is-Asian, 22 globalization: Asia and, 8–9, 162, 357–59; see also Asianization growth of, 14 global order, see world order Goa, 44, 89, 186 Göbekli Tepe, 28 Goguryeo Kingdom, 34 Go-Jek, 187 Golden Triangle, 123 Google, 199, 200, 208–9, 219 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 58 governance: digital technology in, 318–19 inclusive policies in, 303 governance, global: Asia and, 321–25 infrastructure and, 322 US and, 321 government: effectiveness of, 303 trust in, 291, 310 violence against minorities by, 308–9 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 293 GrabShare, 174–75 grain imports, Asian, 90 Grand Canal, China, 37, 42 Grand Trunk Road, 33 Great Britain: Asian investments in, 247 Brexit vote in, 283–84, 286, 293–94 civil service in, 293–94 colonial empire of, 46–47 industrialization in, 46 Iran and, 252 populism in, 283–84 South Asian immigrants in, 253, 254 West Asian mandates of, 49–50 Great Game, 47 Great Leap Forward, 55 Great Wall of China, 31 Greece, 60, 91, 248 Greeks, ancient, 29, 34 greenhouse gas emissions, 176–77, 182 gross domestic product (GDP), 2, 4, 150 Grupo Bimbo, 272 Guam, 50, 136 Guangdong, 42, 98 Guangzhou (Canton), 37, 48, 68 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 58, 101, 102 Gulf states (Khaleej), 6, 9, 57, 62, 81 alternative energy projects in, 251 Asianization of, 100–106 China and, 101, 102 European investment in, 251 India and, 102 Israel and, 99–100, 105 Japan and, 102 oil and gas exports of, 62, 74, 100–101, 176 South Asian migrants in, 334 Southeast Asia’s trade with, 102 South Korea and, 102 technocracy in, 311–12 US arms sales to, 101 women in, 315 see also specific countries Gulliver, Stuart, 148, 150 Gupta Empire, 35 H-1B visas, 219 Hamas, 59, 100, 139 Hamid, Mohsin, 184 Han Dynasty, 32, 33, 34, 300 Hanoi, 180 Han people, 31–32, 37, 69 Harappa, 29 Hardy, Alfredo Toro, 275 Hariri, Saad, 95 Harun al-Rashid, Caliph, 37 Harvard University, 230 Haushofer, Karl, 1 health care, 201–2 Helmand River, 107 Herberg-Rothe, Andreas, 75 Herodotus, 30 heroin, 106–7 Hezbollah, 58, 95, 96, 106 Hindus, Hinduism, 29, 31, 32, 34, 38, 70–71 in Southeast Asia, 121 in US, 220, 221 Hiroshima, atomic bombing of, 51 Hispanic Americans, 217 history, Asian view of, 75 history textbooks: Asia nationalism in, 27–28 global processes downplayed in, 28 Western focus of, 27–28, 67–68 Hitler, Adolf, 50 Ho, Peter, 289 Ho Chi Minh, 52 Ho Chi Minh City, 56 Honda, 275 Hong Kong, 56, 74 American expats in, 234 art scene in, 342 British handover of, 60, 141 civil society in, 313 Hongwu, Ming emperor, 42 honor killings, 315 Hormuz, Strait of, 103, 106 hospitality industry, 190, 214 Houthis, 106, 107 Huan, Han emperor, 33–34 Hulagu Khan, 40 Human Rights Watch, 313 human trafficking, 318 Hunayn ibn Ishaq, 37 Hungary, 40, 248, 256 Huns, 35, 76 hunter-gatherers, 28 Huntington, Samuel, 15 Hu Shih, 332 Hussein, Saddam, 58, 62, 101 Hyundai, 104 IBM, 212 I Ching, 30 Inclusive Development Index (IDI), 150 income inequality: in Asia, 183–84 in US, 228, 285 India, 101, 104 Afghanistan and, 118 Africa and, 264–66 AI research in, 200 alternative energy programs in, 178–79, 322 Asian investments of, 118 Australia and, 128 British Raj in, 46, 49 charitable giving in, 316–17 China and, 19–20, 113, 117–18, 155, 156, 332 civil society in, 313 in Cold War era, 52, 55, 56 corporate debt in, 170 corruption in, 161, 305 demonetization in, 184, 186–87 diaspora of, 333–34 early history of, 29, 30–31 economic growth of, 9, 17, 148, 185–86 elections in, 63 European trade partnerships with, 250–51 expansionist period in, 38, 41–42 failure of democracy in, 302 family-owned businesses in, 160 film industry in, 349–51 financial markets in, 186 foreign investment in, 192 gender imbalance in, 315 global governance in, 322–23 global image of, 331–32 Gulf states and, 102 inclusive policies in, 304 infrastructure investment in, 63, 110, 185 Iran and, 116, 118 Israel and, 98–99 IT industry in, 204, 275 Japan and, 134, 156 Latin America and, 275 manufacturing in, 192 as market for Western products and services, 207 naval forces of, 105 Northeast Asia and, 154–55 oil and gas imports of, 96, 107–8, 176 Pakistan and, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18 partitioning of, 52–53 pharmaceutical industry in, 228, 275 population of, 15, 186 in post–Cold War era, 61, 62 privatization in, 170 returnees in, 226 Russia and, 86–87 service industry in, 192 Southeast Asia and, 154–55 special economic zones in, 185 spiritual heritage of, 332 technocracy in, 304–6 technological innovation in, 186–87 territorial claims of, 11 top-down economic reform in, 305 traditional medicine of, 355 West Asia and, 155 Indian Americans, 217, 218, 219–20, 222 Indian Institutes of Technology (ITT), 205 Indian Ocean, 38, 47, 74, 105, 261, 262, 266 European voyages to, 44 Indians, in Latin America, 276 IndiaStack, 187 Indochina, 45, 50, 52 see also Southeast Asia Indo-Islamic culture, 38 Indonesia, 53, 61, 121, 125, 182 art scene in, 342 in Cold War era, 54 economic growth of, 17, 148 eco-tourism in, 340 failure of democracy in, 302 foreign investment in, 187 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies of, 304 Muslims in, 71 technocracy in, 304–5 Indus River, 32, 113 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), 92, 159 industrialization, spread of, 22 Industrial Revolution, 2, 46, 68 Indus Valley, 29 infrastructure investment, in Asia, 6, 62, 63, 85, 88, 93, 96, 104, 108, 109, 110–11, 185, 190, 191, 243–44 see also; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank; Belt and Road Initiative Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), 257, 286–87 insurance industry, 210 intermarriage, 336, 337–38 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 162, 163, 166, 323 International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC), 116 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 100 International Systems in World History (Buzan), 7 Internet of Things (IoT), 134, 136, 197 Interpol, 324 Iran, 11, 15, 62, 92, 95, 98, 101, 140 China and, 101, 106–7, 116 in Cold War era, 54 European trade with, 251–52 growing opposition to theocracy in, 312 India and, 116, 118 Islamic revolution in, 57 Israel and, 99, 100 nuclear program of, 62 oil and gas exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 in post–Cold War era, 58–59 privatization in, 170 re-Asianization of, 81, 106 Russia and, 87 Saudi Arabia and, 95–96, 100, 105–6 Syria and, 106 tourism in, 252 Turkey and, 94 US sanctions on, 87, 107, 241, 251, 252 women in, 315 Yemen and, 107 Iran-Iraq War, 58, 106 Iraq, 9, 11, 16, 49 Kuwait invaded by, 59 oil exports of, 55, 96 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 312 Iraq Reconstruction Conference (2018), 96 Iraq War, 3, 62, 91, 217, 240 Isfahan, 41 Islam, 40, 316 politics and, 71–72 spread of, 36, 38–39, 43, 69–72, 74 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 95, 312 Sunni-Shi’a division in, 36 see also Muslims; specific countries Islamic radicalism, 58, 59, 62, 65, 68, 71, 72, 115, 117, 139 see also terrorism Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), 63, 71, 94, 96, 117 Israel, 11, 54, 96 arms sales of, 98 China and, 98–99 desalinzation technology of, 181 EU and, 97 Gulf states and, 99–100, 105 India and, 98–99 Iran and, 99, 100 Russia and, 88 see also Arab-Israeli conflict; Palestinian-Israeli conflict Japan, 14, 16, 63, 68, 69, 73 Africa and, 265 Allied occupation in, 51 alternative energy technologies in, 322 Asian investments of, 118, 156 Asianization of, 81 Asian migrants in, 336–37 Asian trade with, 273 capitalism in, 159 cashless economy in, 189 China and, 19–20, 77, 134, 136–37, 140–42 in Cold War era, 5, 55 corporate culture of, 132 early history of, 29, 31, 34–35 economic growth of, 55, 132, 148, 158, 163 economic problems of, 132, 134–35 in era of European imperialism, 47–48 EU trade agreement with, 133 expansionist period in, 38, 42, 44 foreign investment in, 135 in global economy, 133–37 global governance and, 322–23 global image of, 331 Gulf states and, 102 immigration in, 135–36 India and, 134, 156 infrastructure investment in, 110 Latin America and, 275 precision industries in, 134, 135–36 robotic technology in, 134 Russia and, 82, 86–87 Southeast Asia and, 133, 153–54, 156 South Korea and, 141–42 technological innovation in, 134, 196, 197 territorial claims of, 11 tourism in, 135 US and, 136 in World War I, 49 in World War II, 50–51 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 265 Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement, 273 Java, 35, 38, 39, 45 Javid, Sajid, 254 Jericho, 28 Jerusalem, 54, 98 Jesus Christ, 35 jihad, 38 Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, 52 Jobs, Steve, 331 Joko Widodo (Jokowi), 305, 306, 320 Jollibee, 172 Jordan, 54, 62, 97, 99 Syrian refugees in, 63 Journal of Asian Studies, 352 Journey to the West, 353 Judaism, 36 Kagame, Paul, 268 Kanishka, Kush emperor, 35 Kapur, Devesh, 218 Karachi, 113 Karakoram Highway, 113 Kashmir, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18, 119 Kazakhstan, 59, 140, 207 China and, 20, 108 economic diversification in, 190 energy investment in, 112 as hub of new Silk Road, 111–12 Kenya, 262, 263 Kerouac, Jack, 331 Khaleej, see Gulf states Khmer Empire, 70 Khmer people, 34, 38, 239 Khmer Rouge, 56 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 57, 59 Khorgas, 108 Khrushchev, Nikita, 56 Khwarizmi, Muhammad al-, 37 Kiev, 40 Kim Il Sung, 55 Kim Jong-un, 142 Kish, 28 Kissinger, Henry, 357 Koran, 316 Korea, 11, 31, 51, 68, 69 early history of, 34 expansionist period in, 38 Japanese annexation of, 48 reunification of, 142–43 see also North Korea; South Korea Korea Investment Corporation, 164 Korean Americans, 217 Korean War, 51 Kosygin, Alexei, 56 K-pop, 343 Kuala Lampur, 121, 246 Kublai Khan, 40 Kurds, Kurdistan, 87, 94, 99, 256 Kushan Empire, 32, 35 Kuwait, 101 Iraqi invasion of, 59 Kyrgyzstan, 59, 108, 182 language, Asian links in, 68–69 Laos, 45, 52, 60, 122, 154 Latin America: Asian immigrants in, 275–76 Asian investment in, 273–75, 276–77 Indian cultural exports to, 350 trade partnerships in, 272–73, 274, 275 US and, 271–72 Lebanon, 49, 54, 58, 95, 106 Syrian refugees in, 63 Lee, Ang, 347 Lee, Calvin Cheng Ern, 131 Lee Hsien Loong, 296–97 Lee Kuan Yew, 56, 127, 268, 288, 289, 292–93, 299, 305 voluntary retirement of, 296 Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 22, 299 Lenin, Vladimir, 49, 89 Levant (Mashriq), 81, 95, 97 LG, 275 Li & Fung, 184–85 Liang Qichao, 48–49 Liberalism Discovered (Chua), 297 Lien, Laurence, 317 life expectancies, 201 literature, Asian, global acclaim for, 353–54 Liu, Jean, 175 Liu Xiaobo, 249 logistics industry, 243 Ma, Jack, 85–86, 160, 189 Macao (Macau), 44 MacArthur, Douglas, 51 McCain, John, 285 McKinsey & Company, 160, 213 Macquarie Group, 131 Maddison, Angus, 2 Made in Africa Initiative, 262 Magadha Kingdom, 31 Magellan, Ferdinand, 43 Mahabharata, 35 Mahbubani, Kishore, 3 Mahmud of Ghazni, Abbasid sultan, 38 Malacca, 38, 43, 44, 124 Malacca, Strait of, 37, 39, 102, 103, 118, 125 Malaya, 46, 50 Malay Peninsula, 39, 53 Malaysia, 53, 61, 188 Asian foreign labor in, 335 China and, 123, 124 in Cold War era, 54 economic diversification in, 190 economic growth of, 17 technocracy in, 308 Maldives, 105 Malesky, Edmund, 308 Manchuria, 38, 48, 50, 51 Mandarin language, 229–30, 257 Manila, 121, 245 Spanish colonization of, 44 Mansur, al-, Caliph, 37 manufacturing, in Asia, 192 Mao Zedong, 51–52, 55, 56, 261, 300, 301 Marawi, 71 Marcos, Ferdinand, 53–54, 61 martial arts, mixed (MMA), 340–41 Mashriq (Levant), 81, 95, 97 Mauritius, 268 Mauryan Empire, 32–33, 68 May, Theresa, 293 Mecca, 57 media, in Asia, 314 median ages, in Asia, 148, 149, 155 Median people, 29 Mediterranean region, 1, 6, 29, 30, 33, 68, 84, 92, 95, 99, 106 see also Mashriq Mehta, Zubin, 332 Mekong River, 122 Menander, Indo-Greek king, 33 mergers and acquisitions, 212–13 meritocracy, 294, 301 Merkel, Angela, 242, 254 Mesopotamia, 28 Mexico, 7 Asian economic ties to, 272, 273, 274, 277 Microsoft, 208 middle class, Asian, growth of, 3, 4 Mihov, Ilian, 309 mindfulness, 332 Ming Dynasty, 42–43, 44, 69, 73, 75, 76, 105, 137, 262 mobile phones, 157, 183–84, 187, 188, 189, 193, 199, 208–9, 211 Modi, Narendra, 63, 98, 117, 119, 154–55, 161, 180, 185, 222, 265, 305, 306, 307, 320 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 54 Mohammed bin Salman, crown prince of Saudi Arabia, 72, 247, 310, 312, 315 Mohenjo-Daro, 29 Moluku, 45 MoneyGram, 196 Mongolia, 92, 111–12 alternative energy programs in, 112, 182 technocracy in, 307 Mongols, Mongol Empire, 39–40, 42, 44, 68, 69, 73, 76, 77, 239 religious and cultural inclusiveness of, 40, 70–71 Monroe Doctrine, 271 Moon Jae-in, 142 Moscow, 81, 82 Mossadegh, Mohammad, 54 MSCI World Index, 166, 168 Mubadala Investment Company, 88, 103, 104 Mughal Empire, 41–42, 46 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Muhammad, Prophet, 36 Mumbai, 185–86 Munich Security Conference, 241 Murakami, Haruki, 354 Murasaki Shikibu, 353 music scene, in Asia, 343 Muslim Brotherhood, 59 Muslims, 70–72 in Southeast Asia, 38–39, 43, 70–71, 121 in US, 220 see also Islam; specific countries Myanmar, 60, 63, 161 Asian investment in, 118–19 charitable giving in, 316 failure of democracy in, 302 financial reform in, 184 Rohingya genocide in, 122–23 see also Burma Nagasaki, atomic bombing of, 51 Nanjing, 42, 49 Napoleon I, emperor of the French, 1 nationalism, 11, 20, 22, 49–50, 52–55, 77, 118, 137, 138–39, 222, 312, 329, 337, 352 Natufian people, 28 natural gas, see oil and gas natural gas production, 175–76 Nazism, 200 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 52, 55 Neolithic Revolution, 28 neomercantilism, 20, 22, 158 Nepal, 46, 119–20, 333 Nestorian Christianity, 36, 70 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 97, 98, 100 Netflix, 348 New Deal, 287 New Delhi, 245 Ng, Andrew, 199 NGOs, 313 Nigeria, 265 Nisbett, Richard, 357 Nixon, Richard, 56, 101 Nobel Prize, 48, 221, 249, 323, 353–54 nomadic cultures, 76 Non-Aligned Movement, 55 Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty, 61 North America: Asian trade with, 13, 14, 207 as coherent regional system, 7 energy self-sufficiency of, 175, 272 internal trade in, 152 see also Canada; Mexico; United States North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2, 57, 92, 116 Northeast Asia, 141 India and, 154–55 internal trade in, 152 manufacturing in, 153 North Korea, 55, 61 aggressiveness of, 63 China and, 143 cyber surveillance by, 142 nuclear and chemical weapons program of, 142 Russia and, 143 South Korea and, 142 US and, 142–43 Obama, Barack, 18, 82, 229, 240 oil and gas: Asian imports of, 9, 62, 82–83, 84–85, 96, 102, 106, 107–8, 152, 175, 176, 207 Gulf states’ exports of, 62, 74, 100–103, 176 Iranian exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 Iraqi exports of, 55, 96 OPEC embargo on, 57 price of, 61 Russian exports of, 82–83, 84, 87–88, 175, 176 Saudi exports of, 58, 87–88, 102, 103 US exports of, 16, 207 West Asian exports of, 9, 23, 57, 62, 152 Okakura Tenshin, 48 oligarchies, 294–95 Olympic Games, 245 Oman, East Asia and, 104 ONE Championship (MMA series), 341 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 57 Operation Mekong (film), 123 opium, 47, 123 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 241 Oslo Accords, 59 Osman I, Ottoman Sultan, 41 Ottoman Empire, 40–41, 43, 45, 46–47, 48, 73, 91 partitioning of, 49–50 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Out of Eden Walk, 4 Overseas Private Investment Company (OPEC), 111 Pacific Alliance, 272 Pacific Islands, 181–82 US territories in, 48 Pacific Rim, see East Asia Pakistan, 52–53, 58, 62, 72, 95, 102, 105 AI research in, 200 Asianization of, 81, 113–18 as Central Asia’s conduit to Arabian Sea, 113–14 China and, 20, 114–16, 117–18 corruption in, 161 failure of democracy in, 302 finance industry in, 168–69 foreign investment in, 115 GDP per capita in, 184 India and, 55, 61–62, 117–18 intra-Asian migration from, 334 logistics industry in, 185 as market for Western products and services, 207 US and, 114–15 Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), 307 Palestine, Palestinians, 49, 54, 99 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 59 Palestinian-Israeli conflict, 59, 62, 97, 100 Pan-Asianism, 48, 351–52 paper, invention of, 72 Paris climate agreement, 178, 240 Paris Peace Conference (1918), 49 Park Chung-hee, 56 Park Geun-hye, 313 parliamentary democracy, 295 Parthians, 33, 76 Pawar, Rajendra, 205 Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack on, 50 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 169 People’s Action Party (PAP), Singapore, 294 People’s Bank of China (PBOC), 110, 188 Pepper (robot), 134 per capita income, 5, 150, 183, 186 Persia, Persian Empire, 29, 30, 42, 45, 47, 50, 68, 75 see also Iran Persian Gulf War, 61, 101, 217 Peru: Asian immigrants in, 275, 276 Asian trade with, 272 Peshawar, 32 Peter I, Tsar of Russia, 45, 90 pharmaceutical companies, 209–10 Philippines, 61, 157, 165 alternative energy programs in, 180 Asian migrants in, 333 China and, 123–24 Christianity in, 74 in Cold War era, 53–54 eco-tourism in, 340 foreign investment in, 124 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies in, 304 as market for Western products and services, 207 Muslims in, 71 privatization in, 170 technocracy in, 304–5 urban development in, 190 US acquisition of, 48 US and, 123–24 philosophy, Asian vs.

pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower

anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

The commission was comprised of prominent civilians drawn from big business, politics, the academic world, and the diplomatic corps, and its “first” (and apparently last) report was published in English in July under the title “The American-British Challenge Directed Against Nippon.”71 After a brief introduction by foreign-policy adviser Arita Hachirō, which spoke of the need “to expose the outrageous words and actions of the enemy nations, words and actions which violate all the principles of justice and humanity,” the report launched into a detailed summary of the causes of the present conflict. The Greater East Asia War was described as “the counteroffensive of the Oriental races against Occidental aggression,” and the United States was depicted as having been Japan’s primary antagonist since the turn of the century, when it hypocritically demanded an open door in China while using the Monroe Doctrine to prohibit outsiders from interfering in the Americas. The decades that followed witnessed a steady increase in anti-Japanese sentiment and activity on the part of the Americans: attempts to neutralize Manchuria and gain U.S. railroad rights there after the Russo-Japanese War; criticism of Japan’s position in China at the peace conference at Versailles in 1919; pressure to force Great Britain to give up the Anglo-Japanese alliance in the early 1920s; the imposition of an unfavorable naval ratio at the 1921–22 Washington Conference; anti-Japanese immigration and commercial policies; support, along with Great Britain, of Chiang Kai-shek’s attack on Japan’s legitimate rights and interests in Manchuria and China, especially after the 1931 Manchurian Incident; and the ABCD (American, British, Chinese, Dutch) encirclement that began at the end of the 1930s, involving both economic strangulation and the strengthening of the Anglo-American military presence in Asia and the Pacific, most notably in Singapore and the Philippines.

By 1919, the Japanese appeared to have attained not merely equality but eminence on the global scene, sitting at the Paris Peace Conference as one of the Big Five victors after World War One and helping to reapportion the world. When the Japanese expanded onto continental Asia, their most cosmopolitan officials spoke of the need to emulate British colonial models. When they came under fire for accelerating their expansion in the 1920s and 1930s, they invoked the rhetoric of a “Monroe Doctrine for Asia.” They were patriots and nationalists, of course, and thus believed their country possessed unique virtues, but until late in the game they also believed themselves to be just good, practical imperialists, like their European and American teachers. These accomplishments naturally drew special attention and consideration to the Japanese from Europeans and Americans, even murmurs of admiration; but they did not bring them genuine respect.

pages: 475 words: 156,046

When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches That Shape the World – and Why We Need Them by Philip Collins

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, Copley Medal, Corn Laws, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invention of the printing press, late capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rosa Parks, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, Torches of Freedom, World Values Survey

This is not just what we should do – it is who we are. You might wonder why Wilson does not begin with the appeal to America and work out from his strongest point. The answer is that he needs the preceding argument in order to establish it because the point was exceptional. The standard American attitude before then had been, in the words of John Quincy Adams, that America ‘goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy’. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 had committed America not to interfere in Europe, as well as vice versa. Wilson’s demand that America take part in the spread of liberty was as much a rift in the argument then as it is now. At the immediate conclusion of the speech there was a moment of silence which gave way to a great explosion of applause. Wilson then drove back to the White House past crowds of cheering people.

., 49 Trump, Donald, 37, 62, 70–1, 72, 76, 77–81, 397 Tsiprias, Alexis, 79 Turkey, 74, 79, 81 Twain, Mark, 11 Ukraine, crisis in, 73 United Nations, 73, 151, 164 United States of America: 1800 election campaign, 32; 1960 election, 46, 48–9; 2016 election campaign, 70–1; absence from International Criminal Court, 149; Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba (1961), 47, 51, 345; Civil Rights Act (1964), 46, 268; civil rights movement, 70, 267–79; Civil War, 88, 299; Constitution, 28, 29–30, 40, 59, 63, 80–1, 165, 174–80; debate over role/size of government, 29–30, 32–4, 54, 65; Declaration of Independence, 29, 36; declining confidence in democracy, 75; founding fathers, 6, 29, 32, 165, 177–8, 355, 378; Holocaust Memorial Council, 371; Invasion of Grenada (1983), 137; Iran-Contra affair, 137; left wing anti-Americanism, 73, 316, 345–6, 349; meritocratic idea of itself, 61–2, 66; Monroe Doctrine (1923), 122; Populist movement (1890s), 76; second-order Gettysburg Addresses, 68–71; ‘the paranoid style of politics’ in, 77–81; Voting Rights Act (1965), 268; Elie Wiesel on, 377, 378–9; see also entries for individual speechmakers utopia, 185, 213, 306–7, 308, 313, 316, 369, 381, 393, 398; and democracy, 17, 18–19, 82–3, 295, 407–8; as desire for progress, 18–19; Guevara’s el hombre nuevo, 349; history as having a ‘destination’, 314–15, 317, 323, 388; history as obeying laws, 383, 385; and Mao, 387; moment of arrival, 263; and populism, 71–2, 76–80, 82–3, 84, 306; and Robespierre, 318, 319–25 Verres, Gaius, 20–1 Versailles Treaty (1919), 119, 150, 217, 332, 338 Vidal, Gore, 47 Vietnam, 47, 51 Virgil, 79 Voltaire, 82 Wales, 100, 102, 103, 110 Walker, Wyatt, 275 Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars, 159 warfare, 87–8; and Blair’s oratory, 148–9; changed nature of, 154; consequences of inaction, 158; democracies against autocracies, 148; democracy and peace, 153–8; funeral oration ritual in ancient Greece, 90–9; and Lloyd George, 101–11, 124–5, 148, 157; purpose of in democracies, 88, 110, 158–9; ‘the just war’, 149–53, 158–9; verdict on the wars justified by great speeches, 158; see also First World War; Second World War Washington DC, 31, 38, 48, 371, 405; March on Washington (August 1963), 232, 267, 268, 271, 273–4 Washington, George, 6, 29, 31, 174, 179, 328 Webb, Beatrice, 392 Webb, Sidney, 392 Weber, Max, 72 Wedgwood, Josiah, 240 Welliver, Judson, 6 Wells, H.G., When the Sleeper Wakes, 78 Wiesel, Elie, 317, 370–1, 372, 397–8, 409; on indifference, 373–6, 377–9; Night, 370–1, 376, 381; speech at White House (April 1999), 12, 371–81 Wilberforce, William, 232, 234–6, 245; speech to House of Commons (12 May 1789), 232, 235–45 Wilders, Geert, 74, 80 Williams, Thomas, 235 Wills, Judge David, 42 Wilson, Harold, 7, 220 Wilson, James, 309 Wilson, Sir Horace, 340 Wilson, Woodrow, 51, 69, 112–13, 153, 247, 310, 404; Fourteen Points, 112, 119; speech to Congress (April 1917), 88, 113–19, 120–2, 159; Man Will See the Truth, 159 Winthrop, John, 139, 405–6, 407 Wodehouse, P.G., 308 Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), 247–54, 305–6 World Bank, 73 Wroe, James, 297 Wycliffe, John, 44 Yeats, William Butler, 12 Yettaw, John, 203 Young, Michael, The Rise of the Meritocracy (1958), 309 Zamyatin, Yevgeny, We, 80, 403–4 Zappa, Frank, 369 Zhou Enlai, 382 PHILIP COLLINS is a columnist for The Times and an Associate Editor of Prospect magazine.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The great British historian Arnold Toynbee argued against the setting of arbitrary borders in such a system, writing, “The erection of a limes [boundary] sets in motion a play of social forces which is bound to end disastrously for the builders….Whatever the imperial government may decide, the interests of traders, pioneers, adventurers, and so forth will inevitably draw them beyond the frontier.”1 Maps 13 and 30, corresponding to this chapter, appear in the map insert. Connectivity has mattered as much as geography in imperial rise and decline. From the Monroe Doctrine to the Spanish-American War, the United States in the nineteenth century muscled European powers out of the Caribbean basin and Pacific islands in favor of American commercial dominance. Topographical engineering was the complementary strategy on terra firma: surveying terrain, making maps, and plotting the necessary infrastructures to extend influence into the unknown. In 1803, Thomas Jefferson established the Corps of Discovery to study the geography of the Louisiana Purchase and reach the Pacific Ocean.

China’s now infamous “9-dash line” map—most recently issued with ten dashed lines—depicts sovereign claims hanging downward like a tongue along the Vietnamese coast, along Borneo island, and past the Philippines to Taiwan. It would be like America claiming the entire Caribbean to Venezuela’s coast as its own—which was indeed the gist of the early twentieth-century Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. But China’s aggressive maps and aerial defense identification zones are meant not to deny others’ usage of the South China Sea but rather to position itself to better harvest as much as possible of the estimated thirty trillion cubic meters of natural gas and ten billion barrels of oil deposited under disputed waters. China’s “use it or lose it” approach also involves installing brick-and-mortar airstrips, lighthouses, garrisons, signals stations, and administrative centers on neglected or abandoned islands in the Spratly and Paracel chains.*3 Fiery Cross Reef in the Spratly Islands has become the epicenter of what some call an “island factory” where large-scale sand dredging and land reclamation are used to build up and connect separate shoals into larger islands.

pages: 668 words: 159,523

Coffeeland: One Man's Dark Empire and the Making of Our Favorite Drug by Augustine Sedgewick

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, European colonialism, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, Food sovereignty, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Honoré de Balzac, imperial preference, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Philip Mirowski, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Samper and Fernando, “Historical Statistics,” 450–53; Williams, States and Social Evolution, 265–72. 4. [James Hill], “Remarks from a Planter,” in E. A. Kahl, Coffee Prices—High or Low?, printed by W. R. Grace & Co., San Francisco, May 26, 1926, Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc., Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 7, 11, 5. 5. Quoted in Albert Bushnell Hart, The Monroe Doctrine: An Interpretation (Boston: Little, Brown, 1916), 190. 6. G. S. McMillan to Harold Stokes, January 29, 1926, RG 151:351.1, Folder: General File, 1926–1927, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD. 7. “The Tariff and the Pan American Congress,” Chicago Tribune, October 7, 1889, 4. 8. “Pan-American Exposition,” New York Times, November 11, 1900, 14. 9.

Washington, DC: Inter-American Affairs Press, 1951. Hargrove, James L. “The History of the Calorie in Nutrition.” Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 12 (December 2006): 2957–61. Harner, Claudia M. “Sustainability Analysis of the Coffee Industry in El Salvador.” Case #706, INCAE Business School, Alajuela, Costa Rica, July 1997. Hart, Albert Bushnell. The Monroe Doctrine: An Interpretation. Boston: Little, Brown, 1916. Hartman, Paul T. Collective Bargaining and Productivity: The Longshore Mechanization Agreement. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. Harvey, David. “Revolutionary and Counter-Revolutionary Theory in Geography and the Problem of Ghetto Formation.” In Harvey, The Ways of the World, 10–36. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

Germany and Japan were transformed into model democracies after 1945, but they started out as highly developed countries with strong states whose cores for the most part survived the war intact. They were, moreover, thoroughly defeated societies that had turned decisively against the political forces that led them to war. 25 Better comparators would have been America's experience in governing the Philippines, the many Caribbean and Latin American interventions under the Monroe Doctrine, or the intervention in Bosnia, where the U.S. record has been decidedly mixed. The United States ruled the Philippines for almost fifty years, yet the record of democracy after independence up to 1986 was shaky, and it remains one of the least successful ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) states in terms of economic development. The United States intervened repeatedly in Cuba, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti and did not succeed in leaving behind strong institutions in any of these countries.

Rethinking Camelot by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Howard Zinn, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, Paul Samuelson, Ronald Reagan

Policy there, Haines explains, was designed “to develop larger and more efficient sources of supply for the American economy, as well as create expanded markets for U.S. exports and expanded opportunities for the investment of American capital,” a “neocolonial, neomercantilist policy” that permitted local development only “as long as it did not interfere with American profits and dominance.” The Monroe Doctrine was also effectively extended to the Middle East, where the huge oil resources, and crucially the enormous profits they generated, were to be controlled by the US and its British client, operating behind an “Arab Façade” of pliant family dictatorships. As explained by George Kennan and his State Department Policy Planning Staff, Africa was to be “exploited” for the reconstruction of Europe, while Southeast Asia would “fulfill its major function as a source of raw materials for Japan and Western Europe,” helping them to overcome the “dollar gap” so that they would be able to purchase US manufacturing exports and provide lucrative opportunities for US investors.

pages: 559 words: 178,279

The Cold War: Stories From the Big Freeze by Bridget Kendall

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Ronald Reagan, white flight

‘Everything that you thought is not true any more’ The Coup in Chile (1973) THROUGHOUT THE COLD War, one of Washington’s key concerns was to keep countries in Latin America and the Caribbean from moving into the Soviet camp. Whether a government declared itself to be Communist, like Castro’s Cuba, or was merely a left-wing administration that Washington feared could be infiltrated by Soviet sympathisers, the assumption was that it represented a potential threat. It was a new take on an old mindset, a rewriting of the so-called Monroe Doctrine, according to which the United States would not tolerate outside powers interfering in Central and Latin America, which it claimed as its sphere of influence. Thus, in 1954, the CIA sponsored a coup in Guatemala to depose a left-wing government. Eleven years later, in 1965, Washington sent US Marines to counter what it feared was a left-wing takeover of the Dominican Republic. It was the reason why there was such alarm in US government circles when Fidel Castro took over Cuba in 1959.

and Berlin Wall 212, 213 and Cuban Missile Crisis 229, 230–1, 238 and Indochina 295 Kent, Bruce 430 KGB, Soviet Union Andropov as head 245, 279, 352 power of 163, 172, 250–1, 255, 256, 439, 479, ‘Reminder for the Arrested’ 253 Khmer Rouge 332–3 Khrushchev, Nikita 167 and art 248 and Berlin Wall 213, 214 and Cuba 230, 231, 236, 243 deposing of 163, 243–6 and de-Stalinisation 246, 277 fear of West German success 212 and Hungarian Revolution 180 and International Youth Festival 252 as leader 161–3, 169, 299, 300 and Nixon 163, 253 Secret Speech 159–74, 178, 259 ‘thaw’ 163, 255, 259 and transformation of Soviet Union 169 Kim Il Sung 83 Király, Major-General Béla 191 Kissinger, Henry 313, 314, 317, 320, 349 KKE (Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas) (Communist Party of Greece) 3, 9 Kohl, Helmut 456, 457 Komsomol (Young Communist League) 247 KOR (Komitet Obrony Robotników) (Workers’ Defence Committee) 405, 409, 410 Korean War 81–97 armistice 86 casualties 85 fear of nuclear weapons 117 US losses 295 Kosygin, Alexei 244, 259 Kryuchkov, Vladimir 477, 492 Lattimore, Owen 108–11 Latvia 32, 475–6, 477, 478, 486 Laur, Reni 462 Lefortovo Prison, Moscow 250 Lefteri Nea (‘Free Young’) 7, 8 Leipzig 136, 455 ‘Lenin’s lessons’ 394 Lenin Shipyard, Gdańsk 406–9 Leopold II, King of Belgium 196, 202 Léopoldville, Congo 196, 202 Levin, Mikhail 247 Ligachev, Yegor 440 Lisboa, Angola (later Huambo) 374 Lithuania 32, 475–6, 477, 478, 486 ‘Little Red Book’ 261 Litvinov, Maxim 246 Lityński, Jan and Krystyna 410 Liu Shaoqi 269 Long March 113 Los Alamos 118, 121, 122 Luanda, Angola 368, 370 Lucky Dragon (Japanese fishing boat) 119, 125–9 Lumumba, Patrice 196, 197–8, 202, 203, 204–7 L’Unità (newspaper) 47 Ly Quy Chung 339 MacArthur, General Douglas 84, 89, 92 Makronisi prison camp 18 Manhattan Project 101 Mao Zedong 67–70, 76, 78, 84, 259, 261 Maoism 263, 332, 368 Márquez, García, ‘Chronicle of a Death Foretold’ 321 Marshall, General George 68 Marshall Island 120 Marshall Plan Czechoslovakian refusal of 22, 23, 25 in Italy 38, 39, 40, 43 Stalin fear of 52 in West Germany 133 Marx-Engels Platz, East Berlin 139, 143 Marxism 111, 229, 314, 367, 369, 387 Marxism–Leninism 211, 259, 260, 370, 422 Masaryk, Jan 23, 25 Masaryk, Tomáš 23 Matlock, Jack 492 McCarran Committee 110 McCarthy, Joseph 101, 102, 103, 104, 108, 109 McCarthyism 99–114 blacklisting 103, 113 entertainment industry 103 US army and 103 Middle East 84, 149 Minh, Duong Van 331 Missing (film) (Costa-Gavras) 326 Mobutu, Colonel Joseph-Désiré (Mobutu Sese Seko) 197, 207, 208, 368 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 150, 151, 152, 154 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact see Nazi–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact MNC (Mouvement National Congolais) see National Congolese Movement Monroe Doctrine 313 Montalva, Eduardo Frei 313 Mosaddegh, Mohammad 149, 150–7 Moscow News (newspaper) 443, 449 Moscow Olympics, US boycott 352, 387 Moscow Protocol 280 Moskva (magazine) 254 Movimento para a Indepêndencia da Angola (Movement for the Independence of Angola) 371 MPLA (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola) (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) 368, 369, 370, 372, 374, 375, 383 mujahidin, Afghan resistance 388, 389–90, 396, 397 Munich agreement 1938 23 Mussolini, Benito 37 ‘Mutually Assured Destruction’ 367 Nagasaki 117, 118 Nagy, Imre 178, 179, 180, 184, 185, 190 Namibia 377, 380 Nanjing 68 Naples, Italy 40, 41 National Congolese Movement (Mouvement National Congolais) (MNC) 196, 201 National Liberation Front see EAM (Ethnikó Apeleftherotikó Métopo) National Security Council, Washington 39 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Able Archer exercise 421 and Congo Crisis 205 formation of 24, 54, 55 Germany and 133, 457 Greek membership of 7 and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 280 Nazarbayev, Nursultan 492 Nazi–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) 476 Neto, Agostinho 368, 370, 380 New Cold War 419–35 first-hand accounts 124–35 Nezavisimaya Gazeta (newspaper) 447 9/11 390 Nitschke, Karl-Heinz 362 Nixon, Richard and Chile 313, 314 and China 260, 349 television debate 163, 252, 253 and Vietnam War 297, 299, 332 NLF (National Liberation Front of South Vietnam) see Vietcong Non Aligned Movement 6 North Atlantic Treaty Organization see NATO North China Daily News (newspaper) 74 Novaya Zemlya 120 Novotný, President Antonín 277, 282 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 349 Ogoniok (newspaper) 449 Operation Ajax 151 Operation Boot 151 Operation Carlotta 379 Organisation of African Unity 368, 370 Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four 248, 260, 478 Osama bin Laden 390 Ostpolitik 350–64 first-hand accounts 352, 353–64 Outer Space Treaty 349 Palach, Jan 280, 290, 291 Partial Test Ban Treaty 349 Pastenak, Boris, Dr Zhivago 174 Pearl Harbor 67 Pentagon Papers 299, 307 ‘percentages agreement’ 6 perestroika 163, 246, 389, 439–51 first-hand accounts 443–51 Pershing II ballistic missiles 422 Phnom Penh, Cambodia 332, 333 PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) (International and State Defence Police) 371 Pienkowska, Alina 416 Pinochet, General Augusto 315, 316, 322, 327 Pinter, Harold 281 Platz der Luftbrücke, Berlin 55 Pleiku, Vietnam 296 Pol Pot 333 Poland Czechoslovakia and 278, 279 invasion in Second World War 476 Khrushchev’s secret speech and 178 martial law 408, 421 Soviet influence in 21 uprising 135, 259 Workers’ Defence Committee 405 see also Solidarity movement Polish United Workers’ Party 407 Pope Paul II 405 Pope Pius XII 45 Portugal 367, 368, 371 Potsdam agreement 39, 51, 52 Poznan, Poland 178, 182 Prague Spring 275–91 first-hand accounts 281–91 Soviet policy reaction 244, 245, 249, 250 Pravda (newspaper) 180 ‘Project Matterhorn,’ Princeton University 118 PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) 309 Pugo, Boris 492 Putin, Vladimir 245, 457 racial segregation 195, 200, 232 Radio Free Europe (Radio Liberty) 181, 182, 248, 409 Radio Londra 41 Radio Moscow 198 RAF (Royal Air Force) 4, 12 RAF Alconbury 425, 428 RAF Molesworth 423, 424, 426, 427, 428, 429, 431 Rathausstrasse, East Berlin 143 Reagan, Ronald and Angola 370 and Gorbachev 440, 444, 445 on shooting down of airliner 421 and Soviet Union 352, 422, 423, 424 ‘Reagan Doctrine’ 422, 423 Red Army 9, 21, 51, 68 Red Guards 261, 262, 263, 265, 266, 270–1 Red Scare see McCarthyism refugees camps 29, 30, 31–2, 33 East German 211, 215, 220, 222, 351 in Korean War 85–6, 91, 92 and Vietnam War 332, 334, 337, 338 Reichsmark 51 reparations 51, 133, 177 Reuter, Ernst 54 Revolution (newspaper) 237 Riesaer Petition 362 Roberto, Holden 368 Robotnik(newspaper) 405, 410 Romania 6, 21, 279, 442 Roosevelt, President F.D. 6, 44, 47, 102 Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel 101 RIAS (Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor) 134 Rusk, Dean 214 ‘Russification’ 475 Rutskoy, Aleksandr 501 Ryzhkov, Nikolai 498 Saigon, fall of 297, 298, 331–45 first-hand accounts 335–45 Sakharov, Dr Andrei 119, 245, 440, 444, 446 SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) I and SALT II 349 Sariwon, Korea 90 Savimbi, Jonas 368, 370, 374, 379 Schabowski, Günter 456 Scobie, General Ronald 3, 4 Scout movement 28 Second World War Baltic republics 475 and Greece 3, 5, 6 and Iran 149 nuclear weapons 117, 118 Sino-Japanese War and 67, 76 and Soviet Union 392 SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) (Socialist Unity Party) 133, 142, 143 Semipalatinsk 117, 120 Seoul 84 Seven Days War, Israel 282 Shanghai, fall of 65–79 first-hand accounts 70, 71–9 Shevardnadze, Eduard 443 Sinatra, Frank 38 Sino-Japanese war 67 Sino-Soviet Treaty 70 Sinyavsky, Andrei (Abram Tertz) 245, 248, 249, 255 Slánský, Rudolf 278 Slovakia 27, 28 Smith, Walter Bedell 111 Smith Act 1940 104, 106 Snow, Edgar 111, 112, 113–14 Journey to the Beginning 113 Socialist Republic of Vietnam 332 Solidarity movement, Poland 135, 403–18 first-hand accounts 408, 409–18 Solovki prison 164 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr 245, 248, 251 One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 163, 164 The First Circle 247 The Gulag Archipelago 440 South Africa 368, 369–70, 371, 372, 374, 375, 377–81 South African Defence Force 372, 381 South West African People’s Organization (SWAPO) 377 Soviet Air Defence Command 421 Soviet Union 159–74, 489–503 and Angola 369, 370 and atomic bomb 48, 83, 117, 121, 149 backing for decolonisation 195 and Berlin Blockade 53–4 building programmes 169 and China 68, 70, 161, 259, 333, 334 and Congo Crisis 197, 206 and Cuba 229, 230 culture in 162, 245, 253–5, 440, 448 and Czechoslovakia 22–8, 278–80 declaration of war on Japan 83 economy 244 expansionism 5, 32, 37, 52 500 Days Plan 497 and Greece 7 H-bomb research 119 housebuilding programme 163 and Italy 39, 41, 47 labour camps 161, 164, 245, 247, 251, 252, 254 ‘Law on the Press and Other Forms of Mass Information’ 446 liberalisation 162, 163 and Middle East 149 ‘perestroika’ reforms 163, 246, 389, 439–51 and Polish strike 407 and post war Germany 52, 53, 135 psychiatric hospitals 245, 249 purges 161 samizdat 245, 247, 248, 249, 440 Union Treaty 492 and Vietnam 333 view of Stalin 134, 161, 162 Yalta agreement 21 and Yugoslavia 6 see also Hungarian Revolution space race 244, 300 SS Meredith Victory 85 Stalin, Josef banishments 164 Berlin Blockade 54 and Cuba 236 cult of 248 and Czechoslovakia 22, 25 death of 161, 164, 165, 166, 168, 247 and Greece 5, 6 and Italian election 39 and Italy 41 and Khrushchev 168 and Korea 83 and post war Germany 51, 133 ‘spheres of influence’ 21 and Tito 6 Yalta agreement 47 Stalin statue 179, 184, 187, 188 Stalingrad 41 ‘Star Wars’ 422 START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) 445 Stasi police 144, 224, 352, 361, 362 Strategic Arms Limitation Talks see SALT Suez Crisis 181 Suslov, Mikhail 388, 408 SWAPO see South West African People’s Organization Syngman Rhee 83 Taiwan 70, 71 Taraki, Nur Mohammad 387, 388 Tehran 150, 151 Teller, Edward 118, 121, 122, 124 Tempelhof Airport, Berlin 53, 55, 60, 62 Tempo (magazine) 25 Tertz, Abram see Sinyavsky, Andrei Tet Offensive 298, 309, 335, 339 Thatcher, Margaret 422, 423, 457 Tito, Marshal Josip 6, 21, 69, 182 Tobadamaru (Japanese cargo ship) 93, 94 Treaty of Friendship 68 Treaty of Varkiza 17 Trieste 44 Trikeri prison camp 18 Truman, President Harry on Communist infiltrators 101 and Czechoslovakia 23 and Iran 150 on Italy 37 and Korea 84, 85 McCarthyism and 102 on Soviet atomic bomb 117 Truman Doctrine 7, 18 Turkey 7, 230, 231 ‘The Two Thousand Words’ 278, 283 Ulam, Stanisław 118, 122 Ulbricht, Walter 133, 134–5, 141, 211, 212, 213, 278, 350 Un-American Activities Committee see HUAC Uncle Sam 74 The Uncounted Enemy (CBS documentary) 309 Union of Czechoslovak Writers 277 UNITA (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) 368, 369, 370, 374–5, 377, 379, 383 United Nations Congo crisis 197, 205 Korean War 84, 85 Vietnamese Boat People 334 US and Afghanistan 390 and Angola 368, 370 anti-war demonstrations 298–9, 306, 309 backing for decolonisation 195 Berlin airlift 53 in Central and Latin America 313 and Chile 313, 314, 317, 327 and China 67, 68, 69 and Congo Crisis 197, 204, 205 covert interventions 38, 39 and Czechoslovakia 23, 24, 280 and Greece 5, 6, 7 H-bomb research 118 and Hungarian revolution 181 increased defence spending 422 and Indochina 295–6 and Iran 149, 150 and Italian election 37–9, 43–4 and NATO 54, 55 nuclear warheads 230 popular culture 103, 136, 177, 359 and post war Germany 52–4, 55 and Sino-Soviet split 259, 260 Yalta agreement 21 see also Cuban Missile crisis; Korean War; Marshall Plan; McCarthyism; Vietnam War USS Maddox 296 Ustinov, Dmitri 388 Vietnam currency 342, 343 New Economic Zone 332, 343 re-education camps 332, 342, 344 Vietnam Veterans Against the War 307, 308–9 Vietnam War 293–310 aftermath 331–45 distraction of détente 349 public opinion in US 298–9 Vietnam–Cambodia war 333–4 Vietnam–China war 334 Vietnamese Boat People 334 Vietcong (National Liberation Front) 298, 331, 335, 339, 340 Viljoen, Major-General 372, 379 Voice of America 198, 247 Volpin, Aleksandr 249, 253 Walentynowicz, Anna 406, 411, 412, 413 ‘war games’ 235, 421 Warsaw Pact 177, 178, 180, 279, 407 Wałęsa, Lech 406–8, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 418 Watergate scandal 299 Die Wende 458 West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) border with East 211 currency 52 economic success 212 relationship with East 350–1, 456, 457, 458 symbolic of West 135 US missile base 422 Westmoreland, Colonel 309 Wheeler, John 121, 124 Wheeler, Lois 113, 114 ‘Winter Soldier Investigation’ 299, 307 Worker (journal) 409 World Festival of Youth and Students Moscow 1957 163 Yakovlev, Aleksandr 498, 499 Yakovlev, Yegor 443 Yalta agreement 1945 6, 21, 39, 47, 51, 478 Yanayev, Gennady 492 Yeltsin, Boris 441, 450, 477, 482, 491, 492, 493–4, 498 Young Pioneers 181, 247 Yugoslavia 6, 9 Zaire see Congo Zervas, Napoleon 11 Zinn, Howard, Vietnam: The Logic of Withdrawal 306 Zuchthaus 146 Acknowledgements This book began as two fifteen-episode series for BBC Radio 4, Cold War: Stories from the Big Freeze, the first of which was broadcast in July 2016, the second in July 2017.

Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

One can’t predict exactly what the crisis will be far down the road, but that there will be one is a fairly safe prediction. That will continue to be the case as long as basic problems of the region are not addressed. Furthermore, the crises will be serious in what President Eisenhower called “the most strategically important area in the world.” In the early post-War years, the United States in effect extended the Monroe Doctrine to the Middle East, barring any interference apart from Britain, assumed to be a loyal dependency and quickly punished when it occasionally got out of hand (as in 1956). The strategic importance of the region lies primarily in its immense petroleum reserves and the global power accorded by control over them; and, crucially, from the huge profits that flow to the Anglo-American rulers, which have been of critical importance for their economies.

The political blocs have differed on West Bank Arab population concentrations, Labor being more concerned than Likud to exclude them from areas scheduled for Israeli takeover. Washington has favored Labor Party rejectionism, more rational than the Likud variety, which has no real provision for the population of the occupied territories except eventual “transfer” (expulsion). After the Gulf war, Europe accepted the U.S. position that the Monroe Doctrine effectively extends over the Middle East; Europeans would henceforth refrain from independent initiatives, limiting themselves to helping implement U.S. rejectionist doctrine, as Norway indeed did in 1993. The Soviet Union was gone from the scene, its remnants now loyal clients of Washington. The UN had become virtually a U.S. agency. Whatever space the superpower conflict had left for nonalignment was gone, and the catastrophe of capitalism that swept the traditional colonial domains of the West in the 1980s left the Third Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Washington’s “Peace Process” 886 World mired in general despair, disciplined by forces of the managed market.

Other informed observers give still higher estimates of the decline.48 In short, the “peace process” follows a rule of very great generality: it Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Washington’s “Peace Process” 928 serves the interests of its architects quite nicely while the interests of others are “an incident, not an end,” to borrow the thoughts of Woodrow Wilson and his Secretary of State on the real meaning of the Monroe Doctrine—to be kept secret, Wilson wisely decided.49 As for the “insignificant people,” the “peace process” has offered the U.S. and Israel new mechanisms to follow the advice of Moshe Dayan, one of the Labor leaders more sympathetic to the Palestinian plight, in the early days of the occupation: Israel should tell the Palestinian refugees in the territories that “we have no solution, you shall continue to live like dogs, and whoever wishes may leave, and we will see where this process leads.”

pages: 829 words: 186,976

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

"Robert Solow", airport security, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory,, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, global pandemic, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Laplace demon, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition,, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Schelling writes of our propensity to mistake the unfamiliar for the improbable: There is a tendency in our planning to confuse the unfamiliar with the improbable. The contingency we have not considered seriously looks strange; what looks strange is thought improbable; what is improbable need not be considered seriously. Because of the United States’ isolation from the European and Asian continents and the relatively good relations we have maintained with the rest of the Americas since the promulgation of the Monroe Doctrine, we have infrequently been the subject of foreign attack. The exceptions (September 11) and near-misses (the Cuban Missile Crisis) have therefore been exceptionally jarring to us. Before Pearl Harbor, the last foreign attack on American soil had been during the War of 1812.19 Americans just do not live among the ruins of wars past, as people in Europe and Asia have throughout their history.

., 396 Mercury, 374 Merrill Lynch, 353 metacognition, 273 methane, 374, 375 Met Office (UK), 394, 408 Mexico, 210, 215–16 Mexico City, 144 middle class, 189 Middle East, 398 Midway Islands, 413 Milledge, Lastings, 89 Millikan, Arikia, 334 mind blindness, 419 minor league system, 92–93 Mississippi, 109, 123–24 MIT, 384 MMR shots, 224 modeling for insights, 229 models: agent-based, 226, 227–29, 230 bugs in, 285–86 of CDO defaults, 13, 22, 26, 27, 29, 42, 45 for chess, 267 of climate system, 371, 380, 384–85, 401–6, 402 crudeness of, 7 of elections, 15 foxlike approach of, 68 FRED, 226 fundamentals-based, 68 language as, 230 naïve trust in, 11 overfitting in, 163–71, 166, 168–71, 185, 191, 452n, 478 for predicting earthquakes, 158–61, 167 regression, 100 signal vs. noise in, 388–89 SIR, 220–21, 221, 223, 225, 389 thought experiments as, 488 use and abuse of, 230 as useful even in failure, 230–31 for weather forecasting, 114–18, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123–25, 225, 226, 388 Model T, 212 Mojave Desert, 159–60 Molina, Yadier, 101 moment magnitude scale, 142n momentum trading, 344–45, 345, 368 Moneyball (Lewis), 9, 10, 77, 86, 87, 92, 93–94, 95, 99, 101, 105, 107, 314, 446 Moneymaker, Chris, 294–95, 296, 327 Mongols, 145n Monroe Doctrine, 419 Moody’s, 19, 24–25, 43, 44, 45, 463 Morgan, Joe, 102 Morris, Dick, 55, 56, 61 mortgage-backed securities, 462 home sales vs., 34–35, 35, 39, 42, 43 nonlinearity of, 119 ratings of, 19, 20, 24, 68 shorting of, 355 mortgages, 24 defaults on, 27–29, 184 subprime, 27, 33, 464 Mount Pinatubo, 392, 399–400 Moussaoui, Zacarias, 422, 444 MRSA, 227, 228 MSM, 222, 222, 487 MSNBC, 51n Müller-Lyer illusion, 366, 367 multiplier effect, 42 mumps, 224 Murphy, Allan, 129 Murphy, Donald, 89 mutual funds, 339–40, 340, 356, 363–64, 498 Nadal, Rafael, 331, 357-58, 496 Naehring, Tim, 77 Nagasaki, Japan, 432 Nagin, Ray, 110, 140–41 Napoleon I, Emperor of France, 262 NASA, 174–75, 370, 379, 393–95 NASDAQ, 346, 346, 348, 365 Nash, John, 419 National Academy of Sciences, 384 National Basketball Association (NBA), 92, 234–40, 255n National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 110, 111, 118 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), 451n national debt, 189, 509 National Economic Council, 37 National Football League (NFL), 92, 185–86, 336, 480 National Hurricane Center, 108, 109–10, 126, 138–41 National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 143 National Journal, 57–58 National League, 79 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 122, 393–95 National Park Service, 267 National Science Foundation, 473 National Weather Service (NWS), 21, 122–23, 125, 126, 127–28, 131, 135, 139, 178–79, 393–94 NATO, 428–29, 429, 430–31, 431, 437, 438, 439 Nature, 13, 254, 409 Nauru, 372 nearest neighbor analysis, 85 negative feedback, 38, 39 neighborhoods, 224–25, 226–27, 230 Netherlands, 31, 210 New Jersey, 391 New Madrid Fault, 154 New Orleans, La., 108–9, 138, 139–40, 387, 388 Newsweek, 399 Newton, Isaac, 112, 114, 118, 241, 249, 448 New York, N.Y., 219n, 391, 391, 396, 432, 474, 514 New Yorker, 103 New York Knicks, 119 New York Stock Exchange, 329, 363, 370 New York Times, 146, 205–6, 276, 281, 356, 433, 484 New York Yankees, 74 New Zealand, 210 9/11 Commission, 444, 445 9/11 Commission Report, 423 Ninety-Five Theses (Luther), 4 Ningirsu, 112 nitrous oxide, 375 Nixon, Richard, 400 No Free Lunch, 361–62 noise, 63, 250 in batting averages, 339 in climatology, 371–73 definitions of, 416 in financial markets, 362–64 increase in, 13 in predictive models, 388–89 signals vs., 8, 13, 17, 60, 81, 133, 145, 154, 162, 163, 173, 185, 196, 285–86, 295, 327, 340, 371–73, 388–89, 390–91, 404, 448, 451, 453 in stock market, 368 “Noise” (Black), 362 no-limit hold ’em, 300–308, 309–11, 315–16, 316, 318, 324n, 495 nonlinear systems, 29, 118–19, 120, 376–77 Nordhaus, William, 398 North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), 423 Norway, 31 NRSROs, see ratings agencies Nuclear Cities Initiative, 512 nuclear weapons, 434, 436, 438 see also weapons of mass destruction null hypothesis, 260 see also statistical significance test Nunn, Sam, 434 Oakland Athletics, 87, 92, 99–100, 106, 471 Obama, Barack, 40, 49, 55, 59, 252, 358, 379, 444, 468, 473 obesity, 372, 373 objective truth, 14 objectivity, 14, 64, 72–73, 100, 252, 253, 255, 258-59, 288, 313, 403, 453 observer effect, 188, 472 Occam’s razor, 389 Odean, Terrance, 359 Oklahoma City bombing, 425, 427 Okun’s law, 189 Omaha, Nebr., 396 O’Meara, Christopher, 36 Omori’s Law, 477 On-base percentage (OBP), 95, 106, 314, 471 O’Neal, Shaquille, 233–34, 235, 236, 237 options traders, 364 order, complexity and, 173 outliers, 65, 425–28, 452 out of sample, 43–44, 420 Overcoming Bias (blog), 201 overconfidence, 179–83, 191, 203, 323–24, 386, 443, 454 in stock market trading, 359–60, 367 overeating, 503 overfitting, 163–68, 166, 191, 452n, 478 earthquake predictions and, 168–71, 185 over-under line, 239–40, 257, 286 ozone, 374 Ozonoff, Alex, 218–19, 223, 231, 483 Pacific countries, 379 Pacific Ocean, 419 Pacific Poker, 296–97 Page, Clarence, 48, 467 PageRank, 291 Pakistan, 434–35 Palin, Sarah, 59 Palm, 361, 362 panics, financial, 38, 195 Papua New Guinea, 228 Pareto principle, 312–13, 314, 315, 316n, 317, 496 Paris, 2 Parkfield, Calif., 158–59, 174 partisanship, 13, 56, 57, 58, 60, 64, 92, 130, 200, 378, 411, 452 Party Poker, 296, 319 patents, 7–8, 8, 411, 411n, 460, 514 pattern detection, 12, 281, 292 Pearl Harbor, 10, 412–13, 414, 415–17, 419–20, 423, 426, 444, 510 Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decisions (Wohlstetter), 415, 416, 418, 419–20 PECOTA, 9, 74–75, 78, 83, 84, 85–86 scouts vs., 88–90, 90, 91, 102, 105, 106–7 Pecota, Bill, 88 Pedroia, Dustin, 74–77, 85, 89, 97, 101–5 penicillin, 119 pensions, 24, 27, 34, 356, 463 P/E (price-to-earnings) ratio, 348, 349, 350–51, 354, 365, 369, 500 Perry, Rick, 59, 217 persistence, 131, 132, 132 personal income, 481 Peru, 210 Petit, Yusemiro, 89 Petty, William, 212 pharmaceuticals, 411 Philadelphia Phillies, 286 Pielke, Roger, Jr., 177n pigs, 209 Pippen, Scottie, 235, 236 pitchers, 88, 90, 92 Pitch f/x, 100–101, 106–7 Pittsburgh, Pa., 207–8, 228, 230 Pittsburgh, University of, 225–26 plate discipline, 96 Plato, 2 pneumonia, 205 Poe, Edgar Allan, 262–64, 282, 289 Poggio, Tomaso, 12, 231 point spread, 239 poker, 10, 16, 59–60, 63, 66, 256, 284, 294–328, 343, 362, 494–95 Bayesian reasoning in, 299, 301, 304, 306, 307, 322–23 boom in, 294, 296, 314–15, 319, 323 competition in, 313 computer’s playing of, 324 fish in, 312, 316, 317–19 inexperience of mid-2000s players in, 315 limit hold ’em, 311, 322, 322 luck vs. skill in, 321–23 no-limit hold ’em, 300–308, 309–11, 315–16, 316, 318, 324n, 495 online, 296–97, 310 plausible win rates in, 323 predictions in, 297–99, 311–15 random play in, 310 results in, 327 river in, 306, 307, 494 signal and noise in, 295 suckers in, 56, 237, 240, 317–18, 320 Texas hold ’em, 298–302 volatility of, 320, 322, 328, 318 PokerStars, 296, 320 Poland, 52 Polgar, Susan, 281 polio vaccine, 206 political partisanship, see partisanship political polls, see polls politics, political science, 11, 14–15, 16, 53, 426 failures of predictions on, 11, 14–15, 47–50, 49, 53, 55–59, 64, 67–68, 157, 162, 183, 249, 314 small amount of data in, 80 polls, 61–63, 62, 68, 70, 426 biases in, 252–53 frequentist approach to, 252 individual vs. consensus, 335 margin of error in, 62, 65, 176, 252, 452 outlier, 65 prediction interval in, 183n Popper, Karl, 14, 15 Population Bomb, The (Ehrlich and Ehrlich), 212–13 pork, 210 Portland Trail Blazers, 234, 235–37, 489 positive feedback, 38, 39, 368 posterior possibility, 244 power-law distribution, 368n, 427, 429–31, 432, 437, 438, 441, 442 precision, accuracy vs., 46, 46, 225 predestination, 112 Predicting the Unpredictable: The Tumultuous Science of Earthquake Prediction (Hough), 157 prediction, 1, 16 computers and, 292 consensus, 66–67, 331–32, 335–36 definition of, 452n Enlightenment debates about, 112 in era of big data, 9, 10, 197, 250 fatalism and, 5 feedback on, 183 forecasting vs., 5, 149 by foxes, see foxes of future returns of stocks, 330–31, 332–33 of global warming, 373–76, 393, 397–99, 401–6, 402, 507 in Google searches, 290–91 by hedgehogs, see hedgehogs human ingenuity and, 292 of Hurricane Katrina, 108–10, 140–41, 388 as hypothesis-testing, 266–67 by IPCC, 373–76, 389, 393, 397–99, 397, 399, 401, 507 in Julius Caesar, 5 lack of demand for accuracy in, 202, 203 long-term progress vs. short-term regress and, 8, 12 Pareto principle of, 312–13, 314 perception and, 453–54, 453 in poker, 297–99, 311–15 probability and, 243 quantifying uncertainty of, 73 results-oriented thinking and, 326–28 scientific progress and, 243 self-canceling, 219–20, 228 self-fulfilling, 216–19, 353 as solutions to problems, 14–16 as thought experiments, 488 as type of information-processing, 266 of weather, see weather forecasting prediction, failures of: in baseball, 75, 101–5 of CDO defaults, 20–21, 22 context ignored in, 43 of earthquakes, 7, 11, 143, 147–49, 158–61, 168–71, 174, 249, 346, 389 in economics, 11, 14, 40–42, 41, 45, 53, 162, 179–84, 182, 198, 200–201, 249, 388, 477, 479 financial crisis as, 11, 16, 20, 30–36, 39–42 of floods, 177–79 of flu, 209–31 of global cooling, 399–400 housing bubble as, 22–23, 24, 25–26, 28–29, 32–33, 42, 45 overconfidence and, 179–83, 191, 203, 368, 443 overfitting and, 185 on politics, 11, 14–15, 47–50, 49, 53, 55–59, 64, 67–68, 157, 162, 183, 249, 314 as rational, 197–99, 200 recessions, 11 September 11, 11 in stock market, 337–38, 342, 343–46, 359, 364–66 suicide bombings and, 424 by television pundits, 11, 47–50, 49, 55 Tetlock’s study of, 11, 51, 52–53, 56–57, 64, 157, 183, 443, 452 of weather, 21–22, 114–18 prediction interval, 181-183, 193 see also margin of error prediction markets, 201–3, 332–33 press, free, 5–6 Price, Richard, 241–42, 490 price discovery, 497 Price Is Right, 362 Principles of Forecasting (Armstrong), 380 printing press, 1–4, 6, 13, 17, 250, 447 prior probability, 244, 245, 246, 252, 255, 258–59, 260, 403, 406–7, 433n, 444, 451, 490, 497 probability, 15, 61–64, 63, 180, 180, 181 calibration and, 134–36, 135, 136, 474 conditional, 240, 300; see also Bayes’s theorem frequentism, 252 and orbit of planets, 243 in poker, 289, 291, 297, 302–4, 302, 306, 307, 322–23 posterior, 244 predictions and, 243 prior, 244, 245, 246, 252, 255, 258–59, 260, 403, 406–7, 433n, 444, 451, 490, 498 rationality and, 242 as waypoint between ignorance and knowledge, 243 weather forecasts and, 195 probability distribution, of GDP growth, 201 probability theory, 113n productivity paradox, 7–8 “Programming a Computer for Playing Chess” (Shannon), 265–66 progress, forecasting and, 1, 4, 5, 7, 112, 243, 406, 410–11, 447 prospect theory, 64 Protestant Reformation, 4 Protestant work ethic, 5 Protestants, worldliness of, 5 psychology, 183 Public Opinion Quarterly, 334 PURPLE, 413 qualitative information, 100 quantitative information, 72–73, 100 Quantum Fund, 356 quantum mechanics, 113–14 Quebec, 52 R0 (basic reproduction number), 214–15, 215, 224, 225, 486 radar, 413 radon, 143, 145 rain, 134–37, 473, 474 RAND database, 511 random walks, 341 Rapoport, David C., 428 Rasskin-Gutman, Diego, 269 ratings agencies, 463 CDOs misrated by, 20–21, 21, 22, 26–30, 36, 42, 43, 45 housing bubble missed by, 22–23, 24, 25–26, 28–29, 42, 45, 327 models of, 13, 22, 26, 27, 29, 42, 45, 68 profits of, 24–25 see also specific agencies rationality, 183–84 biases as, 197–99, 200 of markets, 356–57 as probabilistic, 242 Reagan, Ronald, 50, 68, 160, 433, 466, 390, 409 real disposable income per capita, 67 recessions, 42 double dip, 196 failed predictions of, 177, 187, 194 in Great Moderation, 190 inflation-driven, 191 of 1990, 187, 191 since World War II, 185 of 2000-1, 187, 191 of 2007-9, see Great Recession, 78 Red Cross, 158 Red River of the North, 177–79 regression analysis, 100, 401, 402, 498, 508 regulation, 13, 369 Reinhart, Carmen, 39–40, 43 religion, 13 Industrial Revolution and, 6 religious extremism, 428 religious wars of sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 2, 6 Remote Sensing Systems, 394 Reno, Nev., 156–57, 157, 477 reserve clause, 471 resolution, as measure of forecasts, 474 results-oriented thinking, 326–28 revising predictions, see Bayesian reasoning Ricciardi, J.

pages: 650 words: 204,878

Reminiscences of a Stock Operator by Edwin Lefèvre, William J. O'Neil

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, bank run, British Empire, business process, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Donald Trump, fiat currency, Hernando de Soto, margin call, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, refrigerator car, reserve currency, short selling, technology bubble, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, yellow journalism

The piece captures Keene’s reaction to news that the United States would intervene in an 1895 boundary dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela after the discovery of gold in a remote area between the two countries. Richard Olney, secretary of state under President Grover Cleveland, sent a strongly worded message to his British counterpart, Lord Salisbury, that invoked the Monroe Doctrine barring intervention in the Western Hemisphere by European powers. After being rebuffed by the British government, which contended that the Monroe Doctrine was not international law, Cleveland turned to Congress for authorization to create a boundary commission to settle the dispute. He proposed that its fi ndings be enforced “by every means,” which was taken to mean military force. The measure was passed and talk of war began to circulate in the press. Lefevre wrote:At the time the stock market was bullish.

The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise

To prove that we are menaced is of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and their power on this continent,” making use of “the somewhat elastic concept of the Monroe doctrine” and, of course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands.… Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of post-war occupation … represented the formulation of American security interests in Europe and Asia.” So much for our heritage. As to our interests, the matter is equally simple. Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and strengthen those elements in their respective cultures that elevate and protect the dignity of the individual against the state.”

Stephen Kinzer, New York Times, September 9, 1985. 10. Interview, COHA’s Washington Report on the Hemisphere, July 9, 1985. See Penny Lernoux, The Nation, September 28, 1985, for a reasoned discussion of the current situation. The United States secured British recognition of the sovereignty of Nicaragua over the Miskitos, which the United States regarded as “unquestionable” in 1895; Dexter Perkins, The Monroe Doctrine, 3 vols. (1927, 1933, 1937; reprinted ed., Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965–66), 3:40ff. 11. Human Rights in Nicaragua: Reagan, Rhetoric and Reality, Americas Watch, July 1985; Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides in Nicaragua: 1981–1985, Americas Watch, March 1985. The former is a detailed critique of Reagan administration lies concerning Nicaragua. On administration lies, see also In Contempt of Congress (Institute for Policy Studies, 1985) and the bipartisan congressional report “U.S.

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

China is emerging as the world’s most important oil customer, while Venezuela’s heavy oil reserves are the largest in the world. It’s a logical fit that’s now a growing concern for the United States. The proposed pipeline to the Pacific coast represents a significant challenge to America’s traditional sphere of influence in the western hemisphere. For nearly two hundred years, US foreign policy in South America has been guided by the Monroe Doctrine, which essentially means that America doesn’t take kindly to foreign nations playing in its backyard. The United States boasts a long and often dubious track record of intervention, with a list of notable hits that include a CIA-sponsored coup in Guatemala in the 1950s, the attempted Bay of Pigs invasion in Cuba during the 1960s, the Iran-Contra affair in Nicaragua, and the 1983 invasion of Grenada.

pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman

American ideology, banking crisis, British Empire, business cycle, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, low earth orbit, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

When you look at a map of South America, leaving out impassable terrain, you see that there can be no transcontinental power: the continent is sliced in two (see map, page 43). So there is no chance of a native threat to the United States emerging from South America. The major threats in the hemisphere came from European powers with naval bases in South and Central America and the Caribbean, as well as land forces in Mexico. That is what the Monroe Doctrine was about—long before the United States had the ability to stop the Europeans from having bases there, it made blocking the Europeans a strategic imperative. The only time the United States really worries about Latin America is when a foreign power has bases there. 3: COMPLETE CONTROL OF THE MARITIME APPROACHES TO THE UNITED STATES BY THE NAVY IN ORDER TO PRECLUDE ANY POSSIBILITY OF INVASION In 1812, the British navy sailed up the Chesapeake and burned Washington.

pages: 681 words: 214,967

A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East by David Fromkin

anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, trade route

In Constantinople, the band of Young Turk adventurers who had seized power and who ruled the empire as the Sultan's ministers, feared that their domains were in mortal danger and that the European predators were closing in for the kill. Only a short time before, the nations of Europe had divided up the African continent among themselves. Some of them were now hungry for new conquests. There were not many directions in which they could look. Much of the surface of the globe was already taken: a quarter by the British Empire and a sixth by the Russian Empire. The western hemisphere fell within the ambit of the Monroe Doctrine and thus was shielded by the United States. The Middle East was the only vulnerable region left. There were rumors of French ambitions in Syria; of Italian and Russian designs further north; and of rival Greek, Bulgarian, and Austrian claims to the west. Beyond the campfires, the C.U.P. leaders could sense the animals in the dark moving in for the attack. ii The C.U.P. leadership was convinced that its program of freeing the empire from European control—a program that British states-men, among others, either did not know about or did not under-stand—would precipitate the attack.

10 This represented yet a further enlargement of the vast section of the globe that Amery regarded as properly falling under British hegemony. Like Milner's other associates, his essential focus was on "the whole of the great semi-circle which runs from Cape Town to Cairo, thence through Palestine, Mesopotamia and Persia to India and so through Singapore to Australia and New Zealand." Within that area, he wrote to the Prime Minister of Australia in late 1917, "What we want ... is a British Monroe Doctrine which should keep that portion of the world free from future interference of ambitious powers . .. "/p> By June of 1918 Amery had come to feel (and to advise Lloyd George) that, if German expansion in Asia were not stopped, this "Southern British World" could not "go about its peaceful business without constant fear of German aggression." He wrote that "as soon as this 'little side show' in the West is over ... we shall have to take the war for the mastery of Asia in hand seriously."12 This harked back to his view that British foreign policy was flawed by giving Britain's interests in Europe priority over her interests elsewhere.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

It wasn’t about fear of losing oil. It wasn’t about international law, or principled opposition to aggression or anything like that. It wasn’t that they didn’t like Saddam Hussein—they didn’t care about Saddam Hussein one way or the other. It was that after the Gulf War was over, the U.S. was in a perfect position to ram through its rejectionist program and fully extend the Monroe Doctrine to the Middle East [the Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed by the U.S. in 1823 and stated that Latin America was the exclusive domain of the United States, not the European colonial powers]. It was our way of saying: “Look, this is our turf, we’ll do what we feel like here.” As George Bush in fact put it: “What we say goes.” 105 Now the world understands that; the Gulf War helped them understand it. Bosnia: Intervention Questions MAN: Noam, do you recall any major issues on which your views have totally flip-flopped at some point, perhaps by thinking them out more or something like that?

pages: 767 words: 208,933

Liberalism at Large: The World According to the Economist by Alex Zevin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, Columbine, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, desegregation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, hiring and firing, imperial preference, income inequality, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norman Macrae, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War, young professional

‘English Opinion as Distinguished from English Action on American Questions’, 31 October 1863. 137.Marx cited the Economist frequently in his journalism, criticizing it in 1861 and 1862 for back-pedalling on the Emancipation Proclamation (‘all cant’) and stoking patriotic hysteria in Britain over the Trent Affair. He also relied on it for facts and figures on US cotton and wheat imports, and for glimpses of ideological clarity (‘the cloven foot peeps out’). Karl Marx, The Civil War in the United States, New York 1961, pp. 5, 12–13, 42–43, 128, 145–46. 138.‘The Monroe Doctrine in 1823 and 1863’, 14 November 1863. 139.‘Negotiations for Peace’, 18 February 1865. 140.‘Abandonment of Transportation’, 25 February 1865. 141.‘Mr. Gladstone on Home Rule for Ireland’, 30 September 1871. 142.‘The Conservative Majority’, 7 February 1874. 143.‘The Irish Viceroyalty’, 21 October 1876. David Clinton paints a misleading picture of Bagehot as ‘anticolonial’, in part by ignoring Ireland, but also because he focuses so exclusively on Bagehot’s opposition to British intervention in the ‘Eastern Question’ in the last two years of his life.

‘If that were true of negroes at home’, it was even more so of ‘half-breeds and of degraded people like those who mostly make up the population of the Philippines thousands of miles beyond the sea.’ While they ‘theoretically share the “rights” of American citizens’, they were ‘ludicrously unfit’ for them. ‘A policy of annexation introduces a conflict of principle into the Republic.’ Other consequences included a ‘practical renunciation of the Monroe Doctrine, on the intelligible ground that one cannot eat one’s cake and have it’. It also meant greater taxation, and centralization of power, to support a large standing army and navy. ‘The Parting of the Ways in America’, 9 July 1898. 63.T. G. Otte, The China Question: Great Power Rivalry and British Isolation, 1894–1905, Oxford 2007, pp. 2, 17. ‘If the corpse, so rotten and so vast, does not infect the whole world, the world will be unusually fortunate.’

pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round,, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

At the time, the prime minister, William Gladstone, had a sizable chunk of his wealth invested in Egyptian obligations so in this case the link between financial globalization and military power was particularly transparent.24 Britain eventually ended up governing Egypt directly, even though its early intentions had been much more limited. The United States itself had a checkered history of honoring debts, with many of the states having defaulted throughout the nineteenth century, so it is ironic that the Americans eventually became the debt enforcers in the western hemisphere. Theodore Roosevelt made it clear in 1904 (in the so-called “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine) that the United States would ensure that Latin American countries honored their international debt. He showed that he meant business by sending gunboats to Santa Domingo in 1905 and taking over customs revenue collection after the Dominican Republic defaulted on its debts—an action that signaled his determination to protect foreign creditors’ interests and sent the prices of Latin American sovereign bonds soaring.25 The question before the U.S. gunboats appeared was not whether the debts would be collected, but whether it was the Europeans or the Americans who would do it.

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

Mossadegh had been elected to his position by a large majority of parliament, but he had made the fateful mistake of spearheading the movement to nationalize a British-owned oil company, the sole oil company operating in Iran. The coup restored the Shah to absolute power, initiating a period of 25 years of repression and torture, while the oil industry was restored to foreign ownership, with the US and Britain each getting 40 percent. Guatemala, 1953-1990s Humorist Dave Barry boils the Monroe Doctrine down to three simple precepts: 1) Other nations are not allowed to mess around with the internal affairs of nations in this hemisphere. 2) But we are. 3) Ha ha ha. A CIA-organized coup overthrew the democratically-elected and progressive government of Jacobo Arbenz, initiating 40 years of military-government death squads, torture, disappearances, mass executions and unimaginable cruelty, totaling more than 200,000 victims—indisputably one of the most inhumane chapters of the 20th century.

Rogue States by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus

That meant taking Cuba, controlling the Caribbean, stealing what was called Panama from Colombia (another one of Theodore Roosevelt’s achievements), building the canal, taking over Hawaii, taking over the Philippines as another base for trade with China, and in fact effectively turning those two seas, the Caribbean and the Pacific, into American lakes, as they remain today. Every one of these 1898 actions and what followed was connected in some fashion or another, usually quite explicitly, to this long-term objective. This includes the so-called Theodore Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which formally established the US right to rule the Caribbean. The repeated invasions of Nicaragua, Woodrow Wilson’s very bloody invasions of the Dominican Republic and Haiti—particularly ugly in Haiti because it was also suffused by extreme racism (Haiti will never recover from that and in fact may not be habitable in a couple of decades)—and many other actions in that region were all part of the new humanism, which we’re now reviving.

pages: 323 words: 100,772

Prisoner's Dilemma: John Von Neumann, Game Theory, and the Puzzle of the Bomb by William Poundstone

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, Douglas Hofstadter, Frank Gehry, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Jacquard loom, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, statistical model, the market place, zero-sum game

The first was the commander of the American Legion, George N. Craig. The American Legion has little to do with American foreign policy, but Craig was speaking at a meeting in Washington the night after Matthews’s speech. The press was eager for a follow-up story on preventive war, and Craig’s remarks got more media attention than they would have under almost any other circumstances. Craig suggested that the United States extend the Monroe Doctrine to the entire world. The United States should outlaw communism and institute universal military training. “If Russia is going to bring on World War III, let us have it on our own terms. If Russian puppets start trouble anywhere … that will be the signal for our bombers to wing toward Moscow.” Craig, unlike Matthews, specifically mentioned atomic bombs and the Soviet Union. “America must now take a resolute stand for world peace by compulsion.

pages: 796 words: 242,660

This Sceptred Isle by Christopher Lee

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, failed state, financial independence, glass ceiling, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, urban decay

Canning wanted the Americans to help Britain oppose European intervention. This was in the American interest: it didn’t want wars on its continent, no matter how far south they were fought. But the then President, James Monroe, was persuaded not to involve America in unworkable alliances. On 2 December 1823, the fifth President of the United States addressed Congress. His speech has become known as the Monroe Doctrine and remains the basis of American foreign policy. A summary of what he said might be that the United States would see any European attempt to influence politically the ‘Western hemisphere’ as ‘dangerous to our peace and safety’. In 1917, it was President Wilson who, during the First World War, declared, ‘I am proposing that the nations should adopt the doctrine of President Monroe as the doctrine of the world: that no nation should seek to extend its policy over any other nation or people, but that every people should be left free to determine its own policy, its own way.’

John ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Smith, William ref 1 Smith-Stanley, Edward ref 1 Smollett, Tobias ref 1, ref 2 Smuts, Jan ref 1 Smythe, Thomas ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Solway Moss, Battle of ref 1 Somers, George ref 1, ref 2 Sophia of Hanover ref 1 Soult, Marshal Nicholas ref 1 South Africa ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 South America ref 1, ref 2 South Sea Company ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Spain ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10 and Bermuda ref 1 Britain’s wars with ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10 and Convention of Prado ref 1 Empire of ref 1 and Huguenots ref 1 James I/VI’s peace with ref 1 in Napoleonic Wars, see main entry and Treaty of Vienna ref 1 Spanish Armada ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Spanish Succession, War of ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 spinning-jenny ref 1 Spurs, Battle of ref 1 Stainmore, Battle of ref 1 Stalin, Iosif ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Stamp Act ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Stamp Tax ref 1 Statute of Marlborough ref 1 Stephen, King ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Stephen, William fitz ref 1, ref 2 Stephens, James ref 1 Sterne, Laurence ref 1 Stigand, Archbishop ref 1, ref 2 Stirling Bridge, Battle of ref 1 Stockmar, Baron ref 1 Strabo ref 1 Strachey, William ref 1 Stuart, Charles Edward (Bonnie Prince Charlie) ref 1 Stuart, James Edward (Old Pretender) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5; see also Jacobites Stukeley, Thomas ref 1 Sudan ref 1, ref 2 Sudetendland ref 1 Suetonius ref 1 Suez Canal ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Sunday Schools ref 1 Sunderland, Earl of ref 1, ref 2 Sutton Hoo ref 1 Sweden ref 1, ref 2 Sweyn I (Forkbeard) ref 1, ref 2 Swift, Jonathan ref 1 Switzerland ref 1 Symeon of Durham ref 1 Tacitus ref 1, ref 2 Tahiti ref 1 Tasmania ref 1 taxation ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11, ref 12, ref 13; see also Britain: income tax in Taylor, Jeremy ref 1 tenant farming ref 1 Territorial Army ref 1 Test Acts ref 1, ref 2 Tewdwr, Rhys ap ref 1 textile industry ref 1 Textus Roffensis ref 1 Thackeray, William ref 1 Thatcher, Margaret ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Theobald, Archbishop ref 1 Thirty Years War ref 1 Thirty-Nine Articles ref 1 Thistlewood, Arthur ref 1 Thomas, Earl of Lancaster of ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester ref 1, ref 2 Times, first edition of ref 1 Tinchebrai, Battle of ref 1 Tirel, Walter ref 1 tobacco ref 1 Tobago ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Togodumnus ref 1 Tokig of Walligford ref 1 Toleration Acts ref 1 toll roads ref 1 Tolpuddle Martyrs ref 1, ref 2 Tone, Wolfe ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Tories ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10 associations of ref 1 beginnings of ref 1 and Corn Laws ref 1 and Emancipation ref 1, ref 2 thought of as Conservatives ref 1 Torrington, Lord ref 1 Tostig ref 1 Townshend, Charles ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Towton, Battle of ref 1 trade unionism ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Trafalgar, Battle of ref 1, ref 2 Transvaal ref 1, ref 2 Treaty of Versailles/Paris (1783) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Treaty of Versailles (1919) ref 1, ref 2 Trevelyan, Charles ref 1 Trinidad ref 1 Troy, Thomas ref 1 Trueman, Harry ref 1 Tudor, Margaret ref 1 Tull, Jethro ref 1 Turkey ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Tyler, Wat ref 1, ref 2 Tyrell, James ref 1 Tyrwhitt, Thomas ref 1 Ulster ref 1, ref 2 see also Ireland; Northern Ireland Ulster experiment ref 1 United Irishmen ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 United States of America: Declaration of Independence of ref 1 first president of ref 1 Irish migration to ref 1 and Monroe Doctrine ref 1 New Deal of ref 1 and War of 1812 ref 1 and World Wars, see First World War; Second World War see also North America USSR ref 1 Utrecht, Treaties of ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Valentinian ref 1 Vaughan, Henry ref 1 Vere, Robert de ref 1 Vesey-FitzGerald, William ref 1 Vetch, Col. Samuel ref 1 Victoria, Queen ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11, ref 12, ref 13, ref 14, ref 15, ref 16, ref 17 Vietnam ref 1 Vikings ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 passim return of (980) ref 1 Villeneuve, Rear Admiral Pierre-Charles ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Villiers, George, Duke of Buckingham ref 1, ref 2 Villiers, George, Lord Clarenden ref 1, ref 2 Virginia Company ref 1 Voltaire ref 1 Vortigern ref 1 Wakefield, Battle of ref 1 Wakefield, Edward Gibbon ref 1 Waldegrave, 3rd Earl ref 1 Wales ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11, ref 12, ref 13 and Act of Union ref 1 Act for the Government of ref 1 Church in ref 1 Danes pillage ref 1 England’s union with ref 1, ref 2 first Eisteddfod in ref 1 Glyndŵr begins war for independence of ref 1 Monmouth uprising in ref 1, ref 2 Wallace, William ref 1, ref 2 Walpole, Catherine ref 1, ref 2 Walpole, Horace ref 1, ref 2 Walpole, Robert ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 Walsingham, Francis ref 1 Walter, Archbishop Hubert ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Walter, John ref 1 Walworth, William ref 1 War of Austrian Succession ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 War of 1812 ref 1 War of Jenkins’s Ear ref 1 Warbeck, Perkin ref 1 Wars of the Roses ref 1, ref 2 Warwick, Earl of ref 1 Warwick and Salisbury, Earl of ref 1, ref 2 Washington, George ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Waterloo, Battle of ref 1, ref 2 Watson-Wentworth, Charles, Marquess of Rockingham ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5 Watt, James ref 1 Wedgwood, Josiah ref 1 weights and measures, standardization of ref 1 Wellesley, Arthur, Duke of Wellington ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11 Wentworth, Thomas, Earl of Strafford ref 1, ref 2 Wesley, Charles ref 1 Wesley, John ref 1 West Indies ref 1, ref 2 enormous wealth from ref 1 lucrative sugar crops in ref 1 tobacco from ref 1 West, Thomas ref 1 Whigs ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11, ref 12, ref 13, ref 14, ref 15, ref 16, ref 17, ref 18 beginnings of ref 1 breaking of reign of ref 1 and Corn Laws ref 1 and Emancipation ref 1 last PM among ref 1 Old and New ref 1 and unions ref 1 Wilberforce, William ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Wilkes, John ref 1, ref 2 Wilkinson, Ellen ref 1 William I (the Conqueror) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 William I of Prussia ref 1 William I of Scotland ref 1 William II (Rufus) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 William II of Prussia ref 1, ref 2 William III ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7, ref 8, ref 9, ref 10, ref 11 William IV ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 William of Malmesbury ref 1, ref 2 William the Marshal ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Wilson, Woodrow ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Winstanley, Gerrard ref 1 Wishart, George ref 1 witchcraft ref 1 woad ref 1 Wolfe, Gen.

George Marshall: Defender of the Republic by David L. Roll

anti-communist, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, David Brooks, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Trump, European colonialism, fear of failure, invisible hand, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, one-China policy, one-state solution, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

It boosted the president’s confidence and elevated his spirits. Plus, his popularity edged back up to 48 percent in the polls. Speaking of Marshall, Truman remarked, “[h]e was a man you could count on to be truthful in every way, and when you find somebody like that you have to hang on to them [sic].”2 Hang on to him he did. With bipartisan support the two of them would launch the most significant American foreign policy initiatives since the Monroe Doctrine. After lunch in the soon to be renovated White House, Marshall walked with Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson across to the old State, War, and Navy Building. Knowing that Acheson expected to return to his law practice, Marshall asked, “Will you stay?” Acheson answered, “Certainly, as long as you need me, though before too long I ought to get back to my profession if I’m to have one.” They agreed that he would stay on for another six months.

Reluctantly, Marshall and the president had come to the conclusion that in order for the Marshall Plan to achieve its vision of a new Europe, the U.S. would have to commit to a military alliance, an alliance that became known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.102 In memory and myth the Marshall Plan endures as America’s most successful foreign policy initiative in history, rivaling that of the Monroe Doctrine or the Louisiana Purchase. Perhaps it endures because it speaks to a moment in the American story when it was the right and honorable thing to do. Or maybe it endures because it was such a monumental and risky undertaking, an act of unprecedented altruism, yet equally motivated by intelligent self-interest. Understandably, the collective memory of the man whose name will forever be linked with the plan has faded.

pages: 422 words: 113,830

Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism by Kevin Phillips

algorithmic trading, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency peg, diversification, Doha Development Round, energy security, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, mobile money, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Renaissance Technologies, reserve currency, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route

National Intelligence Council report “Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World” sees Wall Street’s failure speeding up the reordering of the international economy to the disadvantage of the United States. In economic terms, Asia is moving to the forefront, and the Shanghai Conference Organization, which conjoins Russia, China, and central Asia, may be emerging as a military counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. To our south, Latin America no longer seems to be the U.S. sphere of interest proclaimed in the Monroe Doctrine. And the increasingly relevant precedents of previous leading world economic powers do nothing to ease the chill. WALL STREET AGONISTES Official measurement of the shrinkage of the financial sector must await publication of its back-to-back shares of gross domestic product for the years 2008, 2009, and 2010. By then, the bulk of the deepest Wall Street upheaval and home-price collapse since the Great Depression will have echoed through the U.S. economy.

pages: 637 words: 117,453

Empire Lost: Britain, the Dominions and the Second World War by Andrew Stewart

British Empire, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, Monroe Doctrine, union organizing

The strategies developed by successive governments at Westminster whose intention was to improve this position formed slowly and had doubtful results. There were those on both sides of the Atlantic who tried to understand why the two countries could not reconcile lingering differences on such issues, but they ran the risk of themselves being derided. Prominent among this group was the New York Times. Its position was typified by a question posed by one of its writers in November 1921 about the Monroe Doctrine. First announced by the president of the same name in December 1823, this was surely an imperial document if ever there was one in so much as, in formalizing a policy of resistance to European encroachment of the American continent, it carried a hidden message; the fledgling Republic would not let its continental neighbours threaten its security. As the newspaper now asked was this not also an important principle of British foreign policy, in effect constituting an Anglo-American Doctrine?

pages: 380 words: 116,919

Britain's Europe: A Thousand Years of Conflict and Cooperation by Brendan Simms

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Corn Laws, credit crunch, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, imperial preference, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, oil shock, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, South Sea Bubble, trade route, éminence grise

Unlike all the other victor powers, the United Kingdom made no territorial gains in Europe, though she did retain her colonial booty (including Ceylon and the Cape Colony) and a number of bases, including Malta. In North America, Britain effectively began to acknowledge the hemispheric supremacy of the United States at the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war between the two powers in 1815, and later confirmed it through acceptance of the Monroe Doctrine, continued tensions over the border with Oregon and Maine notwithstanding. She supported Washington’s demand that European powers should not establish new colonies in the Americas and generally accepted the US’s claim to exercise an international police power in the western hemisphere. George Canning, who saw the United States as an ideological ally against European conservatism, celebrated all this as ‘calling a new world into being in order to redress the balance of the old’.

pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent

Its share of global economic output has collapsed from a quarter in 1991 to less than a fifth today. China is a rapidly expanding competitor, along with other booming economies such as India and Brazil. The 2008 financial collapse has helped to speed up a global shift in economic power to the East. The US once enjoyed near-hegemony over Latin America, a position initially enshrined by the 1823 Monroe Doctrine and, in modern times, the so-called ‘Washington Consensus’. But a wave of left-leaning administrations swept to power across Latin America in the noughties, asserting an independent course. The disastrous Iraq War undermined US military prestige and possible domestic support for military interventions, and perversely boosted the influence of its arch-enemy Iran across the Middle East. With US power declining, the Establishment dogma behind the ‘special relationship’ may be weakening too, as an abortive build-up to military action would illustrate.

pages: 950 words: 297,713

Crucible: The Long End of the Great War and the Birth of a New World, 1917-1924 by Charles Emmerson

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Etonian, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Solar eclipse in 1919, strikebreaker, trade route

He is fighting on two fronts at once–in Europe and in America–for the same glorious cause: his peace, his League. The Republicans do not like the covenant he has brought back from Paris and are coming out against it. It would turn the United States into a sub-state of a new world state, some say. It would force America to enter any future war, others warn. There seem plenty of reasons to dislike it, whatever the high motives that may have inspired it. It would spell the end of the Monroe Doctrine–a venerable American foreign policy ordinance which declares that Europeans should play no role in the affairs of Latin America–by potentially giving the League of Nations a role in America’s back yard. Far from freeing subject peoples in the British Empire, it would commit all states to respect the existing borders of the United Kingdom–thus sidestepping the question of self-determination for the island of Ireland–and give an international imprimatur to London’s role around the globe.

Despite all the rage and fury from Republicans in America, Woodrow thought at least he left the League covenant in good shape in Paris. Yet it turns out that there remain two major obstacles to its completion, both rather trickier than he had anticipated. The Japanese demand that a clause on racial equality be inserted into the text (something the white powers are unwilling to concede). Meanwhile, Woodrow is enraged to find opposition to his polite request that the covenant should explicitly recognise America’s Monroe Doctrine. The French see the American desire to exclude Europeans from Latin America as something of a one-way street given America’s intention to dictate what happens in France’s back yard in Europe. Russian affairs remain a quagmire. The young man sent to Moscow on a fact-finding mission just before Woodrow left for America has now returned with what he believes is the outline of a grand deal with the Bolsheviks.

pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

The Cold War had begun about a year earlier with the March 12, 1947, announcement of the Truman Doctrine, a commitment to defend Greece and Turkey against Soviet attempts at communist revolutions. Both the United States and the Soviets were scrambling to line up allies on their respective sides of the Cold War. The United States feared Soviet-supported communist takeovers would happen in its traditional sphere of influence in the Americas, the area that the Monroe Doctrine had long forbidden to European interference. On November 1, 1947, a CIA agent wrote a secret memo describing “Soviet objectives in Latin America,” mentioning Colombia among a number of Latin American countries thought to be vulnerable to communist penetration. Shortly after the OAS founding summit in Bogotá in April 1948, the Cold War would heat up with the June 25, 1948, Soviet blockade of Berlin.

Shoot for the Moon: The Space Race and the Extraordinary Voyage of Apollo 11 by James Donovan

Charles Lindbergh, Hans Lippershey, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, white flight

After several days of carefully weighing the available options, on the evening of October 22, Kennedy delivered a televised address to the nation. He announced the discovery of the missiles and their range of up to two thousand miles, which put most of the United States within reach, and blamed it all on the Soviet Union. He vowed that the U.S. would not hesitate to use military action. He invoked the Monroe Doctrine—the policy stating that if any nation fired a missile in the Western Hemisphere, it would be considered an act of war against the United States—in his decision to blockade any and all offensive military equipment on any ship bound for Cuba. He euphemistically called the naval blockade a “quarantine.” Sixteen months before, in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy had met in Vienna to discuss ways to solve some of the world’s problems.

pages: 487 words: 151,810

The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement by David Brooks

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, business process, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Emanuel Derman,, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial independence, Flynn Effect, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, impulse control, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, loss aversion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, six sigma, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, young professional

Rob was made to understand, in phrases—interrupted by long glacial pauses—of the sort one uses when trying to explain something to a particularly stupid preschooler … that life from now on was going to involve a different level of commitment and joint planning and that a certain sort of carefree, what-do-I-want-for-myself-at-this-moment thinking would have to go. Once this unconscious paradigm shift occurred in Rob’s head, the relationship progressed relatively smoothly. Both issued their own domestic Monroe Doctrines, parts of their lives that they considered sacred, and where external meddling would be regarded as an act of war. Both were pleased by the loving acts of compromise each made on behalf of the other. Rob admired his own selfless nobility every time he remembered to put the toilet seat down. Julia silently compared herself to Mother Teresa every time she pretended to enjoy action movies. And so commenced the division of marital labor.

Killing Hope: Us Military and Cia Interventions Since World War 2 by William Blum

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, kremlinology, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, union organizing

Kennedy was in the White House, he met with British Prime Minister Macmillan and the two leaders agreed, according to a CIA report, on "Penetration and cultivation of disruptive elements in the Syrian armed forces, particularly in the Syrian army, so that Syria can be guided by the West."17 Decades later, Washington was still worried, though Syria had still not "gone communist". 13. The Middle East 1957-1958 The Eisenhower Doctrine claims another backyard for America On 9 March 1957, the United States Congress approved a presidential resolution which came to be known as the Eisenhower Doctrine. This was a piece of paper, like the Truman Doctrine and the Monroe Doctrine before it, whereby the US government conferred upon the US government the remarkable and enviable right to intervene militarily in other countries. With the stroke of a pen, the Middle East was added to Europe and the Western hemisphere as America's field of play. The resolution stated that "the United States regards as vital to the national interest and world peace the preservation of the independence and integrity of the nations of the Middle East."

pages: 482 words: 149,807

A History of France by John Julius Norwich

centre right, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, Monroe Doctrine, Peace of Westphalia

In September 1861 a certain José Manuel Hidalgo, a Spanish-Mexican childhood friend of Eugénie, had proposed to Napoleon that he should be the founding father of a great Catholic empire, to be established first in Mexico but with the possible prospect of spreading over much of Latin America. The emperor was intrigued, for three reasons. First, because the idea naturally appealed to his ambitious and adventurous spirit; second, because it would prevent the predominantly Protestant United States from becoming too powerful in the region. Normally President Lincoln would have done all he could to prevent the enterprise, citing the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 whereby any attempt by the European powers to extend their influence in the Americas would be regarded as a threat to his nation’s security and dealt with accordingly; but Lincoln was now involved in a hideous civil war of his own, and had more than enough on his hands. The third reason was unrelated to the other two; it concerned the most obvious candidate for the new empire, the Austrian emperor’s brother Maximilian.

pages: 535 words: 151,217

Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment

They know also that “might is right,” and with stealth and determination, they can keep away those who are not welcome, and thus protect themselves, creating, as Shakespeare remarked of Richard II’s England, a “fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war.” The Americans dislike the way the South China Sea is currently being carved up, with so much to China’s unilateral benefit. They dispute the argument that the Chinese are doing no more in the western Pacific today than America, armed with the Monroe Doctrine of the 1820s, spent the last century doing in the rest of the world. Yet the Americans, the only other force with the military power to keep the sea-lanes secure and the international rules obeyed and adhered to, do little more than splutter their outrage. Not one country that claims territory in the sea has received anything more than lip-service support from Washington. The White House does not want to alienate the Chinese any more than is necessary.

pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

The secretaries of war and navy, the chief of staff of the army, and the chief of naval operations all concurred that Britain was holding positions vital to American defense, and that the only acceptable alternative to fortifying the British was to send American forces to occupy the positions. In the words of Roosevelt biographer Robert Sherwood, FDR “knew that with Britain and her Navy gone all of our traditional concepts of security in the Atlantic Ocean—the Monroe Doctrine, the principle of freedom of the seas, the solidarity of the Western Hemisphere—would become mere memories, and the American people would be living constantly ‘at the point of a Nazi gun.’”2 A negotiated peace would equally have been a disaster, as it would have given Hitler valuable time and resources to consolidate his position and to rearm, while enhancing the influence of those against preparation for war in Britain, France, and, most importantly, the United States.

pages: 568 words: 174,089

The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills, Alan Wolfe

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Asilomar, collective bargaining, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, full employment, Joseph Schumpeter, long peace, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, one-China policy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Thorstein Veblen, Vilfredo Pareto

A young country whose nationalist revolution was fought against mercenary soldiers, employed by the British and quartered in American homes, would not be likely to love professional soldiers. Being a wide, open land surrounded by weak neighbors, Indians and wide oceans, the sovereign United States for the long decades of the nineteenth century did not have to carry the burden of a permanent and large military overhead. Moreover, from the time of the Monroe Doctrine until it was applied to Britain in the later part of the nineteenth century, the British fleet, in order to protect British markets in the western hemisphere, stood between the United States and the continental states of Europe. Even after World War I, until the rise of Nazi Germany, the America that had become creditor to the bankrupt nations of Europe had little military threat to fear.3 All this has also meant that, as in the islands of Britain, a navy rather than an army was historically the prime military instrument; and navies have much less influence upon national social structures than armies often have, for they are not very useful as a means of repressing popular revolt.

pages: 549 words: 170,495

Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, traveling salesman

They knew that isolationism, interventionism, anti-colonialism, free-trade imperialism were related to the domestic characteristics of American political life described by Richard Hofstadter as “anti-intellectual” and “paranoid”: these produced the inconsistencies, advances, and retreats of United States foreign policy before the end of World War Two. Yet the idea of American leadership and exceptionalism is never absent; no matter what the United States does, these authorities often do not want it to be an imperial power like the others it followed, preferring instead the notion of “world responsibility” as a rationale for what it does. Earlier rationales—the Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny, and so forth—lead to “world responsibility,” which exactly corresponds to the growth in the United States’ global interests after World War Two and to the conception of its enormous power as formulated by the foreign policy and intellectual elite. In a persuasively clear account of what damage this has done, Richard Barnet notes that a United States military intervention in the Third World had occurred every year between 1945 and 1967 (when he stopped counting).

pages: 699 words: 192,704

Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

In the 1830s most of the British possessions could be considered invulnerable. The Royal Navy made them so. There was a long land frontier, it was true, between Canada and the United States, but 10 million Americans with their minds on other things did not then pose any serious threat to the stability of the Empire: on the contrary, the Royal Navy was their own first line of defence, and the only real guarantor of their Monroe Doctrine. As for the scattered islands and remoter settlements of the Empire, they were either so awful as to be scarcely worth coveting, or accessible only by courtesy of the British fleet. The one exception was India, where during the past half century British power had been extending steadily towards the north. Here the British must defend a land frontier 2,000 miles long. No foreseeable threat arose from the decadent Chinese Empire in the north-cast.1 To the north-west, however, stood Russia, whose strength was uncertain, whose intentions were always mysterious, and whose empire in Asia had grown as fast as Britain’s.

A Terrible Glory by James Donovan

California gold rush, Hernando de Soto, joint-stock company, Monroe Doctrine, transcontinental railway

After Custer’s death, one soldier who had been shot in the leg and helped off the field by the Boy General summed up the admiration his men felt for their commander when he said, “I would have given my right arm to save his life — aye, I would have died in his place!”30 Custer spent much of the next year in Texas and other parts of the South with a cavalry division assigned to Reconstruction duty — and the not-so-hidden job of ostentatiously displaying America’s martial might for the edification of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, whose French puppet masters had violated the Monroe Doctrine by putting him in power. Custer’s troopers were Northerners, volunteer remnants of the great Army of the Republic, and they could not have cared less for the idea of another campaign, however justified it might be. They had done their jobs and saved the Union, and now they just wanted to go home, as most of their fellow soldiers had. And they wanted no part of the harsh West Point disciplinary tactics that Custer believed in, including floggings, which had been abolished by the army in 1861, and even the execution of deserters, whose numbers were sky-high.

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, do-ocracy, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

In May 1903, the Secretary, Lord Lansdowne, had risen in the House of Lords to make a historic statement: The British government would "regard the establishment of a naval base or of a fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other power as a very grave menace to British interests, and we should certainly resist it with all the means at our disposal." This declaration, said a delighted Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India, was "our Monroe Doctrine in the Middle East." For the Admiralty, the issue was more specific: the possibility of obtaining a source of secure supplies of fuel oil for the British fleet. The battleships, the heart of the Royal Navy, were committed to coal for their fuel. Oil was being used, however, to propel smaller ships. Even that reliance aroused fear about whether there were sufficient quantities of oil in the world on which to base a significant element of British strength.

[5] Hardinge, Diplomatist, pp. 281, 273-74 ("Shiahs"), 306-11; Ferrier, British Petroleum, pp. 57 ("expedite"), 65 ("heat," "Mohamedan Kitchen" and "Mullahs"). [6] Ferrier, British Petroleum, pp. 59-62 ("Every purse" and "keep the bank quiet"); Jones, State and British Oil, pp. 97-99 ("eminence grise"), 133; Corley, Burmah Oil, pp. 98-103 ("Glorious news"). [7] Kazemzadeh, Russia and Britain in Persia, pp. 442-44 ("menace" and "Monroe Doctrine"). Lansdowne to Curzon, December 7, 1903, FO 60/731 ("danger"); Cargill to Redwood, October 6, 1904, ADM 116/3807, PRO. Corley, Burmah Oil, pp. 99-102 ("imperial," "patriots" and "coincided exactly"); Jones, State and British Oil, pp. 133-34 ("British hands"). [8] R. C. Cooper, "A Visit to the Anglo-Persian Oil-Fields," Journal of the Central Asian Society, 13 (1926), pp. 154-56 ("thousand pities"); Kazemzadeh, Russia and Britain in Persia, pp. 444445; Ferrier, British Petroleum, pp. 67,86 ("beer and skittles"), 79 ("dung" and "teeth"); Arnold Wilson, S.

The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward E. Baptist

banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, creative destruction, desegregation, double helix, financial innovation, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

Learned, A View of the Policy of Permitting Slaves in the States West of the Mississippi (Baltimore, 1820); William Plumer, quoted in Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (New York, 2005), 231. 23. JQA, February 11, 1820, 4:524, July 5, 1819, 4:398. 24. JQA, February 24, 1820, 4:530–531. 25. Wilentz, Rise of American Democracy, 232–234; Matthew Mason, “The Maine and Missouri Crisis: Competing Priorities and Northern Slavery Politics in the Early Republic,” JER 33, no. 4 (2013): 675–700. 26. Matthew Crocker, “The Missouri Compromise, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Southern Strategy,” Journal of the West 43 (2004): 45–52. The crisis was not over. Missouri passed a state constitution banning free people of African descent—violating, said free-state congressmen, the US Constitution’s “rights and privileges” clause. 27. Francis Fedric, Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky, Or, Fifty Years of Slavery . . . (London, 1853), 47–51; Harry Smith, Fifty Years of Slavery in the United States of America (Grand Rapids, MI, 1891), 37–38; cf.

pages: 913 words: 219,078

The Marshall Plan: Dawn of the Cold War by Benn Steil

Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, imperial preference, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, open economy, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, Transnistria, Winter of Discontent, Works Progress Administration, éminence grise

President Truman [has] called for action which will launch the United States on a new and positive foreign policy of world-wide responsibility for the maintenance of peace and order.”115 “President Truman’s latest address to Congress was, beyond question, one of the most momentous [congressional addresses] ever made by an American Chief Executive,” enthused Barnet Nover of The Washington Post.116 “President Truman’s message . . . is a corollary of the Monroe Doctrine,” opined William Philip Simms in the Washington Daily News. “[T]he implications of the ‘Truman Doctrine’ are as grave as any the people of the United States ever were called upon to face.”117 “The decision that Congress, acting for the American people, must [now] make is whether we will join issue with the already undeclared ideological war, by actively assisting those countries menaced by Russian communism,” The Augusta Chronicle concluded, “or whether we shall continue a feeble diplomacy, based on appeasement and half-hearted opposition, while the totalitarian ideology of Russia nibbles away at the freedom of the peoples of the world.”118 Despite the president’s speech containing a single reference to communists (Greek ones),119 and no references to the Soviet Union, the American press had judged the speech consequential, even if oblique as to the precise target of the call to action.

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

A final factor inhibiting Latin American state building was powerful external actors—the United States, Britain, France, and other European powers—who sought to influence developments there. The United States in particular upheld a conservative political and social order in the region, intervening to help topple left-wing leaders such as Jacobo Árbenz in Guatemala and Salvador Allende in Chile. The United States under the Monroe Doctrine also sought to prevent outside powers like Britain and France in the nineteenth century and the Soviet Union in the twentieth from forming alliances with Latin American countries that might have helped both in institution building. As a result of their own experience in a country with historical social mobility, American policy makers are often blind to deeply embedded social stratifications that characterize other societies.

Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss

anti-communist, British Empire, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Shortly before his death in 1943 at Claridge’s Hotel in London, the mortally ill Sir Reginald showed he had not lost his sense of humor: when someone came to fix the plumbing in his suite, he said, “If you’re the undertaker, my man, you’re too early.” *16 In London, Winston Churchill scoffed that no League could “substitute for the British fleet.” *17 The President also prevailed in demanding that the covenant respect the Monroe Doctrine, which warned European powers against trying to subvert the independent nations of North and South America. He knew that this provision would please Senators who would have to ratify his treaty. *18 Dr. Grayson informed the press a week later that his patient had been afflicted by “dysentery.” *19 Although willing to relax the separation of powers doctrine, Wilson rejected the Senators’ appeal for secret documents related to the Paris talks, citing executive privilege

Cuba Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, cuban missile crisis, G4S, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Kickstarter, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, urban planning

In response, the Spanish start building a huge network of forts. 1607 Havana is declared capital of Cuba and becomes the annual congregation point for Spain’s Caribbean treasure fleet, loaded up with silver from Peru and gold from Mexico. 1741 A British Navy contingent under the command of Admiral Edward Vernon briefly captures Guantánamo Bay during the War of Jenkin’s Ear, but is sent packing after a yellow fever epidemic. 1762 Spain joins France in the Seven Years’ War, provoking the British to attack and take Havana. They occupy Cuba for 11 months before exchanging it for Florida in 1763. 1791 A bloody slave rebellion in Haiti causes thousands of white French planters to flee west to Cuba, where they set up the earliest coffee plantations in the New World. 1808 Pre-empting the Monroe Doctrine, US president Thomas Jefferson proclaims Cuba ‘the most interesting addition which could be made to our system of states,’ thus beginning a 200-year US fixation. 1850 Venezuelan filibuster Narciso López raises the Cuban flag for the first time in Cárdenas during an abortive attempt to ‘liberate’ the colony from Spain. 1868 Céspedes frees his slaves in Manzanillo and proclaims the Grito de Yara, Cuba’s first independence cry and the beginning of a 10-year war against the Spanish. 1878 The Pact of El Zanjón ends the First War of Independence.

The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970 by John Darwin

anti-communist, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive bias, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, labour mobility, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, railway mania, reserve currency, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Scientific racism, South China Sea, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable

For Tirpitz believed that common antagonism to British supremacy was the natural policy of all sea states.35 The reality was very different. The British were certainly at pains to conciliate American opinion. Soon after 1900, they had tacitly acknowledged that a war with the United States was militarily unwinnable and politically unthinkable. America's new status in the Caribbean was recognised in the Hay-Pauncefote treaty of 1901 when Britain disclaimed any interest in the Isthmus of Panama. Britain was no enemy of the Monroe Doctrine, declared Arthur Balfour in the House of Commons.36 When the puppet state of Panama was carved out of Colombia with American help in 1903, and a canal zone leased in perpetuity to Washington, the way was open for an American-owned ‘path between the seas’.37 The balance of power had shifted abruptly in the Western Atlantic – or so it seemed.38 Meanwhile, the inexorable rise of the American economy was a source of commercial unease in London.

pages: 1,335 words: 336,772

The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance by Ron Chernow

always be closing, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bolshevik threat, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Etonian, financial deregulation, fixed income, German hyperinflation, index arbitrage, interest rate swap, margin call, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, paper trading, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, strikebreaker, the market place, the payments system, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, undersea cable, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Such was the nature of Morgan involvement in Mexico, with Tom Lamont serving as chairman of the International Committee of Bankers on Mexico—the splendidly initialed ICBM. Formed in 1918 with the approval of the State Department and the British Foreign Office, the ICBM negotiated for two hundred thousand small bondholders. In the nineteenth century, Mexican debt talks had been handled by Barings. But citing the Monroe Doctrine, the State Department demanded that the United States have the controlling hand on the committee. With over $1 billion invested in Mexico, the United States behaved like a jealous landlord. Mexico was a resource-rich country that always held out a seductive promise of prosperity, which it never quite fulfilled. And it had a weak political system, always making debt repayment problematic. Lamont spent so much time wrestling with Mexican debt that a slightly paternal tone crept into his comments, as if Mexico were the backward child of the Morgan brood.

Costa Rica by Matthew Firestone, Carolina Miranda, César G. Soriano

airport security, Berlin Wall, centre right, desegregation, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Pepto Bismol, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the payments system, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional

TIMELINE 11,000 BC The first humans occupy Costa Rica and populations quickly flourish due to the rich land and marine resources found along both coastlines. 1000 BC The Huetar power base in the Central Valley is solidified following the construction and habitation of the ancient city of Guayabo, which is continuously inhabited until its mysterious abandonment in AD 1400. 100 BC Costa Rica becomes part of an extensive trade network that moves gold and other goods and extends from present-day Mexico down though to the Andean empires. 1522 Spanish settlement develops in Costa Rica, though it will be several decades before the colonists can get a sturdy foothold on the land. 1540 The Kingdom of Guatemala is established by the Spanish, and includes much of Central America – Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas. 1562 Spanish conquistador Juan Vásquez de Coronado arrives in Costa Rica under the title of governor, determined to move the fringe communities of Spanish settlers to the more hospitable Central Valley. 1563 The first permanent Spanish colonial settlement in Costa Rica is established in Cartago by Juan Vásquez de Coronado, who chooses the site based on its rich and fertile volcanic soils. 1737 The future capital of San José is established, sparking a rivalry with neighboring Cartago that will eventually culminate in a civil war between the two dominant cities. 1821 Following a unanimous declaration by Mexico on behalf of all of Central America, Costa Rica finally gains its independence from Spain after centuries of colonial occupation. April 1823 The Costa Rican capital officially moves to San José after intense skirmishes with the conservative residents of Cartago, who take issue with the more liberal longings of the power-hungry josefinos. December 1823 The Monroe Doctrine formerly declares the intentions of the USA to be the dominant imperial power in the Western Hemisphere despite protests from European powers. 1824 The Nicoya-Guanacaste region votes to secede from Nicaragua and become a part of Costa Rica, though the region’s longing for independence from both countries continues to this day. 1856 Costa Rica puts a damper on the expansionist aims of the war hawks in the USA by defeating William Walker and his invading army at the epic Battle of Santa Rosa. 1889 Costa Rica’s first democratic elections are held, a monumental event given the long history of colonial occupation, though unfortunately blacks and women were prohibited by law to vote. 1890 The construction of the railroad between San José and Puerto Limón is finally completed despite years of hardships and countless deaths due to accidents, and diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. 1900 The population of Costa Rica reaches 50,000 as the country begins to develop and prosper due to the increasingly lucrative international coffee and banana trades. 1914 Costa Rica is given an economic boost following the opening of the Panama Canal.

pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, American ideology, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog

Nixon, everyone knew, was the partisan on the team. He was blamed for the congressional losses. In the spring of 1958 the second-term VP received another travel opportunity. They called them “goodwill tours,” these Eisenhower administration junkets to shore up Cold War alliances. As regarded South and Central America, a semi-imperialist American sphere of influence since the imposition of the Monroe Doctrine, the naïveté of a hegemon lay behind the conceit. Europe, after World War II, had been rewarded with the Marshall Plan: its free nations would contribute to U.S. economic health as a prosperous market for U.S. goods. South America’s reward was NSC 144/1: instead of direct economic aid, its leaders were to be patronizingly instructed “that their own self-interest requires the creation of a climate which will attract investment.”

Central America by Carolyn McCarthy, Greg Benchwick, Joshua Samuel Brown, Alex Egerton, Matthew Firestone, Kevin Raub, Tom Spurling, Lucas Vidgen

airport security, Bartolomé de las Casas, California gold rush, call centre, centre right, clean water, cognitive dissonance, currency manipulation / currency intervention, digital map, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, land reform, liberation theology, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

The federation of five states – Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica – had a brief, shaky existence (though they did manage to abolish slavery decades before the USA did). Arce became the first president, but succumbed to dictatorial tendencies and was overthrown. In 1837 a largely indigenous mob marched on Guatemala City and the federation dissolved in 1838, with the republics setting out on their own. See the History sections in individual country chapters for details on how they panned out. An Era of Intervention Starting in 1823 with the Monroe Doctrine (a policy of ‘America for the Americas’), the USA has butted in on many of Central America’s affairs. William Walker notoriously tried to take over the region in the mid-19th century and spurred on the era of ‘banana republics,’ the unfortunate tag for some of the region’s more bendable governments. As bananas started bringing in big money, the US-funded United Fruit Company took control in 1899.

Wealth and Poverty of Nations by David S. Landes

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, business cycle, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, computer age, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, land tenure, lateral thinking, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

The same for Persia, never a colony, but like the Ottoman empire more independent in memory than in reality. One could say the same of European dominion in Latin America. Here an entire continent, once largely divided between Spain and Por­ tugal, became formally independent by the 1820s except for a few minor gores and islands in the Caribbean. What's more, the very pos­ sibility of new territorial grabs in the western hemisphere was largely excluded by the Monroe doctrine.* N o t that European powers were absolutely cowed by this unilateral declaration o f the president of the American republic. One could perhaps get around it by using strawmen, as the French tried with Maximilian in Mexico.* But the threat of American intervention now entered the calculus, a deterrent to impe­ rialist ambitions. N o matter. More money could be made by trade: 9 10 * T h e f o r m a l d e c l a r a t i o n w a s m a d e b y P r e s i d e n t J a m e s M o n r o e in 1 8 2 3 , b u t w a s in fact w r i t t e n b y J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s a n d w a s f o r e s h a d o w e d b y earlier s t a t e m e n t s o f G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n a n d T h o m a s J e f f e r s o n .

Executive Orders by Tom Clancy

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, card file, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, experimental subject, financial independence, friendly fire, lateral thinking, Monroe Doctrine, one-China policy, out of africa, Own Your Own Home, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rolodex, South China Sea, trade route

Presidents liked to call it the People's House, to use the political voice of false modesty to describe a place for which some of them would have willingly run over the bodies of their own children, then say that it wasn't really all that big a thing. If lies could stain the walls, Jack reflected, then this building would have a very different name. But there was greatness here, too, and that was more intimidating than the pettiness of politics. Here James Monroe had promulgated the Monroe Doctrine and propelled his country into the strategic world for the first time. Here Lincoln had held his country together through the sheer force of his own will. Here Teddy Roosevelt had made America a real global player, and sent his Great White Fleet around the world to announce America. Here Teddy's distant cousin had saved his country from internal chaos and despair, with little more than a nasal voice and an up-angled cigarette holder.

Reaganland: America's Right Turn 1976-1980 by Rick Perlstein

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, affirmative action, airline deregulation, Alistair Cooke, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, death of newspapers, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, energy security, equal pay for equal work, facts on the ground, feminist movement, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, oil shock, open borders, Potemkin village, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, traveling salesman, unemployed young men, union organizing, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, wages for housework, walking around money, War on Poverty, white flight, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

President Carter marched to the pressroom on September 7 to offer a typically ambiguous statement: the brigade was not a threat, but its purpose was “not clear”; Americans should not worry because the troops had been there “for some time, perhaps for quite a few years,” but “this status quo is not acceptable.” No such equivocation from Church. He told reporters there was “no likelihood whatsoever” of ratifying SALT until the brigade was removed. Doonesbury soon imagined Church convening new hearings called “Operation Manhood.” In the comic, Scoop Jackson waved a parchment copy of the Monroe Doctrine, demanding Jimmy Carter face down the Soviets “eyeball to eyeball, like a real man.” A beribboned general reported surveillance footage of a requisition form “for nearly 1500 Czech staple guns” and warned of an imminent invasion of Florida, Alabama, and “parts of Mississippi,” then profusely thanked Frank Church: “By refusing to fan the flames of moderation, a calm, negotiated solution has been narrowly averted!

Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

W. 688, 1211 ‘Twelfth Century Renaissance’ 348–50, 361 Tyler, Wat 417 U2-incident (1960) 1111, 1112 Ukraine 1315 famine 965 German occupation in World War II 1013, 1015 Hetman State 655 independence (1991) 1126 national question 831, 833 nationalism 828 origins 54–5, 334 religion 505 Russian Civil War and 928–9, 932 russification 655 taken by Muscovy 555–6, 558 Terror-Famine 964 (see also Kievan Rus’) Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army 1032, 1034–5 Ulbricht, Walter 1061 Ulster 503, 549, 551, 636–7, 822, 831, 943, 1075, 1088 Uniate (Greek Catholic) Church 505 Unigenitus Dei filius, Papal Bull, 593, 621 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, 1923–91) agriculture 961, 964, 1097 archives 1014–15 armed forces 1095 August coup (1991) 1225–6 Baltic States incorporated 1009 Bukovina and Bessarabia incorporated 1009–10 cinema 918–19 collectivization 961, 965 Communist Party (CPSU) 1093–4, 1321 culture 1098 de-Stalinization 1091–2 dissolution of 1125–6 economy 1096–7 environment 1097 expansion 1314 Five Year Plans 961, 1096 formation 932 ‘Glasnost’ 1121, 1122 Gulag 962, 963, 1330 inter-war foreign policy 986, 992 inter-war period 959–62, 964–5 ‘Kulaks’ 964 New Economic Policy (NEP) 937, 960 nuclear programme 1091, 1097 ‘Perestroika’ 1106, 1108, 1121, 1126 political system 1093–5, 1321 post-war foreign policy 1062, 1067 re-armament 961, 1111 religion 1098–9 reparations demands to Germany 1060 science 1091 security forces 962, 1095 society 1095–6 Stalinism 961–2, 964–5, 1090–1 Terror 962, 964 War Communism 937 (see also Communism, KGB, Lenin, NKVD, Stalin, World War II) United Kingdom and Europe 13 British Commonwealth 1069 Clearances 632 Congress System and 763 de-colonization 1068–9 early modern society 632 foundation 628–9, 631–2, 1285 French Revolutionary Wars 721, 724–5, 726–7, 728 Hanoverian dynasty 637–8 Imperial policy 851 inter-war politics 976–7 July Crisis and 877, 879–88 liberalism 802–3, 807, 810 Luddite rebellion 737 Napoleonic Era 737 nineteenth century 807, 810 post-1945 1074–5 Regency period 737, 754 State Nationalism 813 Suffrage movement 958 war with U.S.A. 739, 742 Vienna Congress gains 762 (see also England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) United Nations 1030, 1081, 1112 United Provinces of The Netherlands, see Netherlands United States of America ‘Containment’ 1063 Declaration of Independence 637 historiography 29–31 inter-war period 927, 942–3, 965–6 Monroe Doctrine 763 post-1945 1059, 1062–4, 1070–1, 1077, 1080–1, 1109–17 War of Independence 637–8, 678–9, 689, 690 World War I 910–11, 914, 921 World War II 1008–9, 1028, 1030–1, 1036–48 Universities 361, 1248 Uralian-Finnic Group 219 Urban II, Pope 345 Utopianism 444, 491, 836–7, 945–6 Utrecht, Union of (1579) 538 Uzhgorod, Union of (1646) 505 Vagrancy 535–6 Valentinian, Byzantine Emperor 240 Valla, Lorenzo 477 Valmy, battle of (1792) 697, 719, 721 Valois, House of 408, 420, 421, 426, 539 Valtellina 537–8, 1219 Vandals 215, 222, 229, 242 Vasiliev, Alexei 1011 Vatican City 944, 1089 Vauban (see Le Preste) Velazquez, P. 1210 Venice, Republic Crusades and 359–60 demise of 345, 715 empire 1255 middle ages 344–5, 419 Verdun battle of 905 Treaty of (843) 306, 313 Vergniaud, Pierre 702 Verlaine, Paul 862 Versailles, Treaty of (1919) 927, 941, 942, 949, 986 Vespasian, Roman Emperor 189 Vespucci, Amerigo 511 Vico, Giambattista 603, 611, 683, 686 Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy 638 Victor Emmanuele II, King of Italy 824 Victoria, Queen of Great Britain 1300–1 Vidal de la Blache, Paul 47,955–6 Vienna Congress of (1814–15) 738, 761, 762 in 1900 849–50 Jewish community 849–50 School 483 siege of (1683) 641, 643, 657 University of 646 Vikings 293–4, 306, 308, 309 (see also Normans) Vilnius (Wilno) 660–1, 739 Virgil (Virgilius Maro) 177–8 Visegrád Group 1128 Visigoths 215, 224, 229, 232, 234 Vlachs 244, 389 Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia 449 Vladimir, Prince of Kiev 326 Vlasov, Andrei, General 1016, 1045 Volga Basin 63, 65 Voltaire, François-Marie Arouet 601, 605–6, 611, 664, 1210 Vorkuta 49, 963 Vyshinsky, Andrei 1053, 1055 WafFen S.S. 1016, 1017, 1059, 1326–7 Wagner, Richard 230–1 Wagram, battle of (1809) 728 Wales early middle ages 310 Eisteddfod 817, 829 English annexation of 310, 408, 425, 549 medieval 309, 425 Methodism 595 national revival 595 Wałęsa, Lech 1108, 1122, 1124 Walewska, Maria 726 Wallace, William 408–9 Wallachia, Principality of 644 Wallenberg, Ralph 1021 Wallenstein, Albrecht von 564 Wallerstein, Immanuel 583–4 Wannsee Conference (1942) 1016, 1018 War 172, 345–8, 440, 521, 661, 715, 780, 865–75, 1212, 1266–7, 1282–3 (see also Military History) War of Devolution 624 Wars of the Roses 425–6 Warsaw, Grand Duchy of 729, 736–7, 754 Warsaw Ghetto Rising (1943) 1018 Warsaw Pact 1095, 1100, 1102, 1106, 1123 Warsaw Rising (1944) 1041–2 Washington Naval Agreement (1921) 941 Waterloo, battle of (1815) 761 Watt, James 680 Weber, Carl Maria von 688 Weber, Max 507, 518 Weimar 786, 941 Wellington, Duke, Arthur Wellesley 728, 736, 744, 754, 761,762 Wells, H.

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Power is balanced between the presidency, Congress and judiciary. 1791 Bill of Rights adopted as constitutional amendments outlining citizens’ rights, including free speech, assembly, religion and the press; the right to bear arms; and prohibition of ‘cruel and unusual punishments.’ 1803 France’s Napoleon sells the Louisiana Territory to the US for just $15 million, thereby extending the boundaries of the new nation from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. 1803-6 President Thomas Jefferson sends Meriwether Lewis and William Clark west. Guided by the Shoshone tribeswoman Sacajawea, they trailblaze from St Louis, Missouri, to the Pacific Ocean and back. 1812 The War of 1812 begins with battles against the British and Native Americans in the Great Lakes region. Even after the 1815 Treaty of Ghent, fighting continues along Gulf Coast. 1823 President Monroe articulates the Monroe Doctrine, seeking to end European military interventions in America. Roosevelt later extends it to justify US interventions in Latin America. 1841 Wagon trains follow the Oregon Trail, which extends the route Lewis and Clark followed. By 1847, over 6500 emigrants a year are heading West, to Oregon, California and Mormon-dominated Utah. 1849 After the 1848 discovery of gold near Sacramento, an epic cross-country gold rush sees 60,000 ‘forty-niners’ flock to California’s Mother Lode.