equal pay for equal work

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pages: 324 words: 86,056

The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality by Bhaskar Sunkara

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, inventory management, labor-force participation, land reform, land value tax, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Occupy movement, postindustrial economy, precariat, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Steve Bannon, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, We are the 99%

The agreement doesn’t only apply to your factory, or even Koenigsegg as a whole, but to much of the Swedish automotive sector. Even though Koenigsegg is struggling, other manufacturers are doing well, buoyed by export sales and favorable market conditions. The national trade union federation takes an aggressive stance, basing its demands on the wages of a more efficient car manufacturer, Volvo. Equal pay for equal work is the federation’s principle. Saab and other, even more efficient companies than Volvo are easily able to pay the new wages and use the remaining profits to expand, but the increased labor costs spell disaster for Koenigsegg. You thought you were getting a raise; instead you can’t sleep at night.

They shared the SAP’s desire to promote and influence economic expansion but advocated doing so through centralized labor bargaining rather than direct state intervention. The starting point for the Rehn-Meidner strategy was a commitment to using that sectoral bargaining between the LO and the SAF to help equalize pay levels for all workers. That didn’t mean everyone earned the same, but the gap between higher and lower paid workers was reduced. The “equal pay for equal work” principle also meant that differentiated wages should be determined by the type of work performed, not by a particular employer’s ability to pay or an employee’s power on their shop floor.11 This was done for three reasons. First, because of an ideological commitment to equality: even if wages can’t be equal, at the very least we should lift up the incomes of the worst off and limit the advantages of the best.

Socialists, in general, favored universal suffrage, employment, and other civil rights, but were less proactive in other struggles and were suspicious of cross-class feminist causes.23 Sweden showed just how much sexual oppression could be diminished within capitalism. Child allowances, family leave, child care, even the provision of school meals—all eased the burdens placed on women. Beyond such legislation, “equal pay for equal work” and industry-level bargaining that favored the lowest-paid sectors disproportionately helped women. Still, as late as 1966, two-thirds of Swedish women stayed at home. A popular 1961 pamphlet pointed out that now women had the right to compete with men in the labor market but also had to maintain their household duties, making it difficult to do both in practice.24 Amid debate over this question, the state took steps to facilitate women’s labor force participation.


pages: 98 words: 30,109

Remote: Office Not Required by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson

Broken windows theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Google Hangouts, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, remote working, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Skype, The future is already here

These days few companies offer remote work (though, of course, the point of this book is that remote work is on the rise), and even fewer do so with equal pay for equal work across geographies. The ones that do are at an almost unfair advantage in attracting and keeping the best people in the world. So don’t look at remote work as a way to skimp on salaries; you’ll save on lots of other things. Your star designer out in the sticks is just as valuable (maybe more so) to the team as those working from the big-city home office. Make sure she feels that way. By the same token, as a remote worker, you shouldn’t let employers get away with paying you less just because you live in a cheaper city. “Equal pay for equal work” might be a dusty slogan, but it works for a reason.


pages: 237 words: 72,716

The Inequality Puzzle: European and US Leaders Discuss Rising Income Inequality by Roland Berger, David Grusky, Tobias Raffel, Geoffrey Samuels, Chris Wimer

Bear Stearns, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, financial innovation, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, long term incentive plan, microcredit, Money creation, offshore financial centre, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, rent-seeking, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, time value of money, very high income

When the Polish worker goes to Britain, it’s not because he loves to go to Britain, it’s because he needs to go there for higher earnings, to go back home to buy his house, help his wife, his kids. I’m not saying it’s wrong, I’m only saying how do we do it in a better way to ensure we achieve equal pay for equal work and full respect for collective bargaining agreements. What we need in legislation is the so-called equal pay principle, that no matter where you are, you receive adequate wages, have access to social insurance, pensions, and can benefit from high workers’ protection standards. So when Polish workers go to Germany, they are treated according to the German rules and when German workers go to Denmark, they enjoy Danish standards.

We have to avoid the kind of situation where- 98 P.N. Rasmussen by an employer sends his own team of employees to another member country, to do a job for a certain period of time, but only pays the minimum salary of the country these workers come from and therefore undermines the right of equal pay for equal work. Such behavior not only exploits these posted workers, it also puts pressure on salaries and working conditions in the countries the employees are sent to. The posted workers directive has been interpreted by the European Court of Justice to allow such abuse and therefore it needs to be revised.

Other Suggestions to Strengthen the Disadvantaged Monks, Sweeney, and Rasmussen suggest measures to enhance labor’s ability to negotiate for higher wages. Sweeney calls for passage of the Employee Free Choice Act to give American workers organizing rights widely recognized in Europe, while Rasmussen supports measures to encourage EU labor mobility, notably “equal pay for equal work” when companies hire foreign workers. Jürgen Hambrecht would like to see more EU commitment for the Lisbon Strategy, especially measures to promote innovation and a learning economy. Rasmussen concurs and suggests expanding the brief and use of European-wide funding to promote job creation.


How to Be Successful Without Hurting Men’s Feelings: Non-Threatening Leadership Strategies for Women by Sarah Cooper

equal pay for equal work, glass ceiling, microaggression

Sentiment When it comes to diversity, perception is as important as reality. As such, it is very heartening to us that most people feel like our problems with diversity have been largely solved. Salaries It’s important that each one of our employees receives equal pay for equal work and that commitment is reflected in the wide representation of salaries across our company. Inclusion Our employees enjoy a range of team-building activities to enrich our diverse culture. Sexism Sexism in the technology industry is a huge problem, but it is encouraging to see that the vast majority of people don’t experience it in their day-to-day lives.


The Economics Anti-Textbook: A Critical Thinker's Guide to Microeconomics by Rod Hill, Anthony Myatt

American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, different worldview, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, failed state, financial innovation, full employment, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Singer: altruism, positional goods, prediction markets, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, publication bias, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, ultimatum game, union organizing, working-age population, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Discrimination All the mainstream textbooks at least mention discrimination; but there is no consensus on how it is treated. The central story is this: over time a competitive market economy will automatically eliminate discrimination (wage differences not based on differences in productivity), provided the forces of competition are not short-circuited by equal pay for equal work legislation. To see this, suppose black and white workers have identical skills and work ethic, but some firms will employ black workers only if the wage is low enough to overcome their dislike of them. If there are not enough non-discriminating firms, some black workers must accept a lower wage at discriminating firms.

To maximize profits, the monopsonist hires labour until its marginal cost equals its marginal revenue product at point 175 8  |  Marginal productivity theory wage structure persists, then logic dictates that the low wage group is not in fact equally capable. Perhaps they lack education, skills or good work habits. Another possibility is that competitive pressures are being frustrated by equal pay for equal work legislation. This prevents non-discriminating employers from paying lower wages, and so prevents them from reaping more profits and expanding their market share. Prejudiced firms will continue to employ white workers whenever possible without being punished by market forces. The better textbooks point out that competition doesn’t automatically eradicate discrimination when customers are themselves prejudiced and willing to pay more to be served by white workers.

., 34 Dewey, John, 114 differences, principle of compensating, 172 298 Easterlin, Richard, 74, 87–91 Easterlin Paradox, 89–91 Eatwell, John, 166 ecological crisis, 253–4 econometrics, 34, 35–6 economic justice, 5 economics: as art of rhetoric, 32, 36–40, 246; as battleground, 3; as positive science, 3; as science of choice, 9–10, 11; as social science, 14; as value-free science, 1; behavioural, 23–5; definition of, 3, 9–26; diversity of, 7 see also neoclassical economics and normative economics and positive economics economies of scale, 138 efficiency, 5, 10, 27, 69, 92, 135–8, 167, 169, 196, 197, 243, 245–6; costs of taxation, 204, 210; dynamic, 132–5, 210; effect of inequality on, 20–1, 210; of asset markets, 145–9; of market, 18, 118–49; of perfect competition, 121–2, 137; static, 132–5, 210; trade-off with equity, 20–1 see also inefficiency efficiency wage, 58, 174; model, 184, 185 efficient market hypothesis (EMH), 145–6 Einstein, Albert, 3, 27 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 19 enabling myths, 71 Engels, Friedrich, The Condition of the Working Class in England, 161 Enron, 143, 193, 260; collapse of, 70, 114 entrepreneur, attention of, 98 entrepreneurship, as factor of production, 170 environmental movements, 160 equal net benefit, principle of, 172 equal pay for equal work, 174, 175 equilibrium, 67, 121, 134, 142, 181; general, 72; in markets, 64–5; multiple equilibria, 66–8, 72, 181–2; of the firm, 101, 107–8; partial, 72; return to, 73; short and long-run, 119–21, 127–8, 178, 180 equilibrium theory, 182 equity, 16, 131–2, 169, 179, , 196–218, 243, 245–6; cost of monopoly, 124; health, 216–17; role of governments in, 13–14; trade-off with efficiency, 20–1 see also fairness equity–efficiency trade-off, reconsidered, 208–13 equity–growth trade-off: evidence about, 210–11; persistence of notion of, 212–13 ethical values, 17 European Union, 162 eviction protection legislation, 70–1 evidence: need for, 6; selective use of, 4, 246–7 exchange rates, 44 executive compensation, 179, 190–4; trends in, 191–4 experience-goods, 141–2, 250 externalities, 7, 22, 135, 145, 150–68, 196, 204, 217, 224, 241, 250, 254, 256; analysis of, 154–66; and market economy, 167–8; and profit motive, 166–7; consumption externalities, 151, 157–9; in finance industry, 166; missing from textbook accounts, 231–3; problem of, 6; role of, 257–8; systemic, 258 Exxon-Mobil, 156 factors of production, 227; demands for, 170–2 failure of markets, 141, 232 fair trade, 233–4 fairness, 202, 184–5, 189; importance of, 185–6; of distribution, 179–80 false beliefs, choosing of, 162–3 falsificationism, 36 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 257 Federal Housing Administration Act (1934) (USA), 259 Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), 259, 261 299 Index diminishing marginal returns, 102–3; law of, 94–5, 104, 170, 213 distribution and redistribution of income, 5–6, 14, 16, 77, 131–2, 165–95, 196–218, 251; functional, 177; measurement of, 198–200 distribution of wealth, 200–1 diversification of production, 223 division of labour, 94 Dixon, Huw, 107, 108 Dow AgroSciences, suing of Quebec, 237 Dowd, D., 248 Driskill, Robert, 225, 226, 241 Feldstein, Martin, 205, 207 Fields, W.


pages: 74 words: 19,580

The 99.998271% by Simon Wood

banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, equal pay for equal work, Julian Assange, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. 70 ARTICLE 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, the strength of weak ties, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Even among recent college graduates working in the same field, men typically earn more than women (Corbett and Hill 2012). While pay gaps have narrowed and discrimination has been reduced, efforts to eliminate employment discrimination against women have not been entirely successful. The federal Equal Pay Act of 1963, which mandates equal pay for equal work, applies to a relatively small proportion of female workers: those who perform the same job as male workers for the same employer. Although these women’s wages have increased as a result of the Equal Pay Act, as we noted above, many women remain segregated in a small set of occupations in which few or no men work.

The 1964 Civil Rights Act and its enforcement arm, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, address cases of sex discrimination. But neither this nor subsequent federal legislation has removed all employment discrimination against women. Since men and women tend to do different kinds of work, the call for “equal pay for equal work” did not fully address pay equity issues for women. During the 1980s, pay equity, or comparable worth, was proposed as a means to address the tendency for the paid work that women perform in the labor force to be undervalued. Comparable worth calls for equal pay for different types of work that are judged to be comparable in value by measuring such factors as employee knowledge, skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.


Sam Friedman and Daniel Laurison by The Class Ceiling Why it Pays to be Privileged (2019, Policy Press)

affirmative action, Boris Johnson, discrete time, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, equal pay for equal work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Hyperloop, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, microaggression, nudge unit, old-boy network, performance metric, psychological pricing, school choice, Skype, starchitect, The Spirit Level, the strength of weak ties, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile

Specifically, we introduce our case studies – a national television broadcaster, a large multinational accountancy firm, an architecture practice and a set of self-employed actors. In each case we began our fieldwork by collecting and analysing data on the social make-up of the firm (or occupation). This, as we go on to explore, was highly revealing. In particular it indicates that in many elite settings the class pay gap is less an issue of equal pay for equal work and more about the horizontal segregation of the socially mobile into less prestigious departments or functions, and/or their vertical segregation into lower tiers or positions. 69 The Class Ceiling Figure 3.7: The drivers of the class pay gap – what advantages the privileged? terbet g in pations n i rk cu Wo id oc pa Working n in Londo Working bigger fi in rms Mo re p edu resti cat gio ion us ed u e or on M cati CLASS PAY GAP 70 FOUR Inside elite firms “Hear that?”

Understanding the nature of these organisations – what they look like, their structure, their demographic make-up – is key for contextualising the chapters that follow. These organisational x-rays are also highly revealing in their own right. They demonstrate that when it comes to the class pay gap, by far the most powerful issue is not equal pay for equal work. Instead, we find that the socially mobile very often face a class ceiling – they are less likely to enter the most high-paying 72 Inside elite firms departments and, even more significantly, rarely reach the top of the organisational structure. 6TV 6TV does not wear its visual identity lightly.


pages: 435 words: 120,574

Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, Deep Water Horizon, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, full employment, greed is good, guest worker program, invisible hand, knowledge economy, McMansion, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, payday loans, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, working poor, Yogi Berra

Maybe I could also find the key to Lee’s own journey from left to right. For years, back when he worked in a naval shipyard outside Seattle, Washington, he had campaigned for Senator Scoop Jackson, a Cold War–era liberal Democrat who championed civil rights and human rights. Brought up by a working single mother who fought in the shipyards for equal pay for equal work, Lee describes himself as “an ERA baby.” When he came south for work in the 1960s, however, he turned Republican, and after 2009 he joined the Tea Party. We seat ourselves, pour our coffee, and I ask him to tell me about his childhood. Lee speaks slowly, deliberately, as if for posterity.

According to national polls, more men than women are Republican, or Tea Party, and more men (12 percent in 2012) are members or supporters of the Tea Party than women (9 percent). And even within these conservative groups, women are more likely than men to appreciate the government’s role in helping the disadvantaged, in making contraception available, in equal pay for equal work. It was this range of issues—especially the need for parental leave—that had led me, as I note in the preface, on this journey in the first place. The women I spoke to seemed to sense that if we chop away large parts of the government, women stand to lose far more than men, for women outnumber men as government workers and as beneficiaries.


pages: 164 words: 44,947

Socialism Sucks: Two Economists Drink Their Way Through the Unfree World by Robert Lawson, Benjamin Powell

Airbnb, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Kickstarter, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Rather than relaxed women enjoying sex thanks to socialism, as the New York Times describes, she found women who were worn out, often from working in physically demanding jobs while still trying to manage their homes and children. The Bolshevik government declared women’s emancipation and employment as one of its goals and passed laws to enforce equal pay for equal work. The reality, Gray found, was quite different. Women earned only about two-thirds of what men did, despite being better educated. Meanwhile, they performed demanding physical labor, the kind usually done by men in market economies. Ninety-eight percent of the janitors and street cleaners in the Soviet Union were women, as well as one-third of railroad workers, and more than two-thirds of highway construction crews and warehouse workers.21 Gray noted that while American feminists did not want to be “stuck at home” and were “striving for the right to work in coal mines, firefighting units, police brigades,” and other male-dominated occupations, Soviet women were put into these and other arduous jobs, and by the late 1980s, after seventy years of Communism, wanted to be freed from them.22 If anything, Soviet women in the 1980s were overworked, and they had a lower standard of living, worse health care, and far more limited options for contraception than women in capitalist countries.


pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, independent contractor, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, Money creation, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

Most of the differences in pay between men and women, though, derive from the fact that women between the ages of twenty-five and fifty-nine are eleven times more likely than men to voluntarily leave work, and the average woman spends only eight months on a job compared to almost three years for a man.1 Throughout the economy, moreover, men and women alike with college degrees and doctorates, technical fields included, often earn less than plumbers and garbage men and miners and truck drivers who have high school credentials at best. Everyone seems to want indoor work with no heavy lifting, but only women nearly always get it, thus driving down their pay. Equal pay for equal work is a principle that applies nowhere, even among men. Even in identical jobs, work effort varies vastly from worker to worker. What the EEOC implicitly demands is carte blanche powers over the entire job market and thus the destruction of the vital freedom of workers to choose their own jobs from among the competing offers of employers.2 An equal rights effort—even an affirmative action program—was feasible when concentrated on the 10 percent of the American people with real grievances.

See Great Britain entrepreneurial accelerator entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship adverse conditions and spirit of central role of, in capitalism class and giving impulse in capitalism and ideal of perfect competition and inexhaustibility of inheritance and job creation by Keynes’ view of politicians and risk-taking and taxation and entropy environmental movement Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency equal economic opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) equal pay for equal work equal rights agencies Estonia Europe Evans, Michael exports extension services Facebook The Failure of Capitalism (Richard A. Posner) Fairchild Faith false abstraction family biological differences in disruption of extended female-headed integration and poverty and two-income Family Assistance Plan Fannie Mae Fanon, Frantz FDA.


pages: 193 words: 56,895

The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment by Stephanie Donaldson-Pressman, Robert M. Pressman

delayed gratification, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, impulse control

Lack of Entitlement The locus of difficulty, on which boundary setting, intimacy concerns, and virtually every other survivor issue is centered, has to do with emotional entitlement. In order to set boundaries with another person (whether it means saying no to sex, refusing to take an adolescent to the convenience store late at night to pick up a notebook for school because he "forgot" to ask earlier, or insisting on equal pay for equal work), one must know that one has the right to feel as one does: that one has the right to set the boundary, feel the feeling, or make the demand. In narcissistic families, be they covert or overt, the children are not entitled to have, express, or experience feelings that are unacceptable to the parents.


Logically Fallacious: The Ultimate Collection of Over 300 Logical Fallacies (Academic Edition) by Bo Bennett

Black Swan, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, Richard Feynman, side project, statistical model, sunk-cost fallacy, the scientific method

Ad Hominem (Guilt by Association) argumentum ad hominem (also known as: association fallacy, bad company fallacy, company that you keep fallacy, they’re not like us fallacy, transfer fallacy) Description: When the source is viewed negatively because of its association with another person or group who is already viewed negatively. Logical Form: Person 1 states that Y is true. Person 2 also states that Y is true, and person 2 is a moron. Therefore, person 1 must be a moron too. Example #1: Delores is a big supporter for equal pay for equal work. This is the same policy that all those extreme feminist groups support. Extremists like Delores should not be taken seriously – at least politically. Explanation: Making the assumption that Delores is an extreme feminist simply because she supports a policy that virtually every man and woman also support, is fallacious.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, Ida Tarbell, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, two and twenty, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

It reached out to skilled and unskilled workers, blacks, and women as well as the mainstream white male laborer. The only groups officially excluded were doctors, bankers, lawyers, producers of liquor, and gamblers. Its agenda included an eight-hour workday, prohibition of child labor, a graduated income tax, nationalizing of public utilities and railroads, equal pay for equal work, and the establishment of cooperatives to offer an alternative to manufacturing with wage labor. Although it originally eschewed strikes, the Knights got involved in the Haymarket Square riot, which pretty much ended its upward trajectory. This ugly incident began when someone among the Chicago marchers threw a bomb toward the police.

When Sandra Day O’Connor, the first female member of the Supreme Court, left Stanford Law School, the only job offered her was as secretary in a law firm. She had graduated second in her class. (Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist was the first.) Once women moved into the professions in large numbers in the 1960s, clerical salaries went up. Soon there was a full-blown movement to secure “equal pay for equal work,” a term that originated in the labor movement in the 1930s but came to refer exclusively to pay discrimination against women. In 1963 President John Kennedy signed into law the Equal Pay Act, and the venerable gap between male and female salaries began to close. Since then it has narrowed from fifty-nine cents to every dollar earned by men to seventy-seven cents.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

I encouraged them to watch the video, and I was quick to point out that I had answered the question completely wrong. “Without a doubt I wholeheartedly support programs at Microsoft and in the industry that bring more women into technology and close the pay gap. I believe men and women should get equal pay for equal work. And when it comes to career advice on getting a raise when you think it’s deserved, Maria’s advice was the right advice. If you think you deserve a raise, you should just ask.” A few days later, in my regular all-employee Q&A, I apologized, and explained that I had received this advice from my mentors and had followed it.


pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Herbert Marcuse, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, you are the product

In the midst of this stew of anger and self-pity he came to the conclusion that his plight was all the fault of the women’s movement. So he set out to write a book called Sexual Suicide, which would wake the country up to the poison in its midst. A review of the book in Kirkus Reviews states his theme: Women’s Lib and its goals—abortion on demand, child-care centers, equal pay for equal work—will be the ruination of us all. Anything that takes the woman out of the home will add to the male sense of redundancy, impotence and rootlessness; take away his age-old role as protector and provider and he will turn to drugs, pornography, marauding, rape and killing. To Gilder it was simple.


pages: 213 words: 67,993

Embracing Your Inner Critic: Turning Self-Criticism Into a Creative Asset by Hal Stone

equal pay for equal work, fear of failure

Traditionally in our society, a woman was considered the property of her husband (or her father or her brother) and was not allowed to own property or in any way to act independently. It was only in this century that women were granted the right to vote. In America, we still cannot pass an equal rights amendment that would entitle women to little more than equal pay for equal work. The Inner Patriarch is a powerful archetypal ally of the Inner Critic in women. The synergy of these two voices makes the average woman’s Inner Critic more powerful than the average man’s. The voice of the Inner Patriarch is so familiar that, much like station KRAZY, it played constantly and was not even noticed until the feminists started their writings about thirty years ago.


pages: 235 words: 74,200

We're Going to Need More Wine: Stories That Are Funny, Complicated, and True by Gabrielle Union

double helix, equal pay for equal work, jitney, old-boy network, period drama, pre–internet, Snapchat, women in the workforce

Younger women are literally dangled in front of their older peers as a you-better-act-right stick to keep older, more experienced women in line. Because we’ve all seen a pal replaced for a younger, cheaper model with lower expectations and more free time for overtime or courting clients. Modern business is set up to squeeze out women who “want it all”—which is mostly just code for demanding equal pay for equal work. But the more empowered women in the workforce, the better. The more that women mentor women, the stronger our answer is to the old-boys’ network that we’ve been left out of. We can’t afford to leave any woman behind. We need every woman on the front lines lifting each other up . . . for the good of all of us and the women who come behind us.


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

It seems to me now, more than ever, that if the women’s movement is to regain its momentum and not be reduced to another pillar of a hierarchical system, it must confront the material condition of women’s lives. Today our choices are more defined because we can measure what we have achieved and see more clearly the limits and possibilities of the strategies adopted in the past. For example, can we still campaign for “equal pay for equal work” when wage differentials are being introduced even in what have traditionally been the strongholds of male working class power? Or can we afford to be confused as to “who is the enemy,” when the attack on male workers, by technological unemployment and wage cuts, is used to contain our demands as well?


pages: 716 words: 192,143

The Enlightened Capitalists by James O'Toole

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, collective bargaining, compensation consultant, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, desegregation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, end world poverty, equal pay for equal work, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, means of production, Menlo Park, North Sea oil, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, Vanguard fund, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

As the company grew ever more profitable, Lever reduced the workday from eight to six hours—while paternalistically introducing two hours of compulsory education. Perhaps Lever’s most radical, and farsighted, employment practice was gender equality. The women who constituted a high percentage of his workforce were given equal pay for equal work and promoted to management alongside men. They also were provided with safe and sanitary working conditions, and secure separate housing was available for unmarried women. As early as 1903, Lever was a vocal supporter of women’s suffrage, and thirteen years later—a dozen years before all British women over twenty-one were enfranchised—he was publicly backing the cause, saying “The old idea of woman has to go . . . and it can only be done if she receives an equal education in every way and an equal equipment with man.”12 Then there was the dancing!

Eagan explicitly directed the board to use dividends from his shares in three ways: as profit sharing; as income to workers if the plant shut down for any reason; and as support to the widows and children of deceased workers.48 In ACIPCO’s constitution Eagan articulated the company’s basic ethical values and principles—honesty, justice, a square deal, and “doing right,” illustrating each with a practical example (such as equal pay for equal work for black employees). Those who knew Eagan well recalled that his prime interest in writing the constitution was to ensure the future character development of the company’s workforce.49 His intention to use the workplace as the locus of human development thus parallels the efforts of Owen, Penney, and Lever.


Affluence Without Abundance: The Disappearing World of the Bushmen by James Suzman

access to a mobile phone, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, clean water, discovery of the americas, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, full employment, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, means of production, Occupy movement, open borders, out of africa, post-work, quantitative easing, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, We are the 99%

There are no obvious analogues among other peoples for what happened in Nyae Nyae, where—following the recruitment of almost every able-bodied male Ju/’hoan between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five into the South African army—in a little over than six months Tsumkwe went from being largely moneyless to being swamped with cash. By the time the first Ju/’hoan recruits donned their khaki military fatigues, South African military authorities had already accepted the principle of equal pay for equal work for all its recruits, although it would take several years before it was rolled out. Previously military pay was rationed according to race. White soldiers earned more than Indian and mixed-race soldiers of the same rank, who in turn earned more than black soldiers. But prosecuting an escalating war against an “enemy” that was fighting for racial equality, among other things, risked turning manpower the South Africans depended on into a mutinous liability and persuaded them that “de-racializing” military salaries was a priority.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, independent contractor, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

While commercial sex work will always have harm attached to it, so do legal sweatshops. In fact, the subordinate position of women in our economy and culture is the real harm left unaddressed by prohibition. Despite the lofty goals of abolitionists, as long as they are denied equal economic and political rights and equal pay for equal work, women will be forced into marginal forms of employment. As long as women and LGBTQ people are poor, socially isolated, and lack social and political power; as long as runaway and “throw away” kids have no place to turn but the streets, they will be at risk of trafficking and coercion. Neither the police nor the “rescuers” seem keen to address these social and economic realities.


pages: 298 words: 89,287

Who Are We—And Should It Matter in the 21st Century? by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, David Brooks, equal pay for equal work, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, feminist movement, financial independence, glass ceiling, global village, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, Steven Levy, upwardly mobile, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey

It has managed to silence many who believe in progressive change by branding them as unworthy, pedantic and controlling. Many liberals will start sentences with “I’m not politically correct but ...” and then go on to make a compelling case for equality or cultural sensitivity, in the same way that many young women today say, “I’m not a feminist but ...” before arguing why women should get equal pay for equal work. In short, it has managed to stigmatize both civility and equality. In the end, the judicial committee voted 13–6 to confirm Sotomayor. Only one Republican, Lindsey Graham, voted for her. “This radical empathy standard stands in stark opposition to what most of us understand to be the proper role of the judiciary,” said Senator Chuck Grassley.


pages: 318 words: 93,502

The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Women with children are more likely to lose their homes and more likely to be late on their bills. And single women with children are now three times more likely to go bankrupt than men without children.108 The notion that women should fight for economic reform is hardly new. From the early days of the struggle for “Equal Pay for Equal Work,” women’s groups have protested for financial justice. But the issue of economic reform for middle-class women is often shunted aside by other priorities. For example, the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund vigorously opposed the credit industry-backed bankruptcy bill, doing the painstaking legwork to convince nearly thirty other women’s groups as disparate as Church Women United, Hadassah, and the YWCA to join the fight.109 Yet NOW Legal Defense also offered its very public support to Senator Joseph Biden, featuring him as women’s strongest ally in the Senate because he supported the Violence Against Women Act.110 Apparently, his support of this bill trumped any concerns the group might have had over the fact that Senator Biden is “the leading Democratic proponent” and “one of the . . . strongest supporters” of the very bankruptcy bill against which NOW Legal Defense had fought so hard.111 Women’s groups have too few dollars and too little (wo)man power to fight every injustice.


pages: 291 words: 88,879

Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone by Eric Klinenberg

big-box store, carbon footprint, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Richard Florida, San Francisco homelessness, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

From an economic perspective, the cause of the change looks obvious. Today more women have received advanced education and established themselves in successful careers than ever before. In 1970, for instance, 36 percent of all college graduates were women, compared to 54 percent today. Women’s income still lags behind men’s, and there’s not yet equal pay for equal work, but the pay gap is narrowing. In the 1970s, the median income of full-time female workers was about 52 percent of what full-time male workers earned. By 2007, it was up to 71 percent. Single women have made even greater gains, particularly compared to single men. According to the Pew Research Center, “Among U.S.


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Money creation, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, sharing economy, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

Indeed, in the US in the 1950s and 1960s, labour organisations sought to curb competition in labour markets by imposing exclusions based on race and gender. The ability to preserve such distinctions is illustrated by the fact that even after nearly a half century of campaigning for the principle of ‘equal pay for equal work’, the wage gap between men and women has not disappeared even in the United States where the pressures have probably been strongest. Elsewhere, for example in east Asia, the gender disparities are far worse and it is there, of course, that the bulk of the newly proletarianised populations are made up of women.


Alpha Girls: The Women Upstarts Who Took on Silicon Valley's Male Culture and Made the Deals of a Lifetime by Julian Guthrie

Airbnb, Apple II, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, blockchain, Bob Noyce, call centre, cloud computing, credit crunch, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, new economy, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, phenotype, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, web application, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

When she was punched in the eye that day in her office, she wanted to reply just as Spock had done when the Enterprise hit turbulence and tossed crew members around the cabin. Asked what had happened to him, Spock replied, “The occipital area of my head seems to have impacted with the arm of my chair.” At the same time, though, she drew the line on the topic of equal pay for equal work. Not long after the off-site meeting in Monterey, Magdalena, who had been working under the title of “venture partner,” was invited to become a “general partner,” which gave her more authority, responsibility, and “carry,” or “incentive allocation” based on profits. General partners shared in the upside of profits on investments.


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, longitudinal study, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

The government’s change came about, probably, because the Conservatives were anxious to hold the votes of middle class women, whom they had attracted in large numbers in the 1951 election.11 Also, there was a shortage of recruits to a number of traditionally female public sector jobs, such as teaching, due both to the expansion of education services and of the public sector generally after the war, and to the early retirement from full-time work of younger women due to marriage and childbirth. There were also international influences. The United Nations Commission on the Status of Women adopted a resolution in 1948 calling upon the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to take action on the issue of equal pay for equal work. Three years later, this principle was enshrined in Convention 100 of the ILO. Throughout the late 1950s and 1960s, an array of groups, most with roots in the pre-war period, cooperated to keep the gender equality agenda alive. Two victories were won in the sphere of politics. The first came in 1958, when the Life Peers Act allowed the creation of both male and female life peers, admitting women to the House of Lords for the first time, for which there had been a campaign since women were admitted to the House of Commons in 1918.


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, independent contractor, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator, Yochai Benkler

They are often trying to figure out who they are working with and whether those team members make more money than they do. The realities of LeadGenius’s pricing and its dependency on lowering prices through labor arbitrage mean that workers can be left feeling undervalued because they find out what other countries’ workers can earn doing the same work. The logic that one deserves equal pay for equal work is even tougher to refute in places where workers see little difference in the costs of living when they compare, say, India with the Philippines—as some of our interview participants did—making discrepancies in pay hard to accept. Add to this the persistent message of community and the value of teamwork and the importance of each person’s contribution, and it becomes hard for a company to quell the frustrations of workers who feel they are told they are equal but do not receive the same pay.


pages: 519 words: 104,396

Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone

availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, market bubble, McDonald's hot coffee lawsuit, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, social intelligence, starchitect, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor

Overall, the male proposers in Solnick’s study made about 14 percent more money than female proposers did. That is close to reported figures for the gender gap in real-world wages. Salaries are negotiated, Solnick noted, and “women may end up with a smaller share of the portion of wages that is up for grabs.” These are disturbing findings for our would-be egalitarian society. “Equal pay for equal work” can be a tricky concept when individuals negotiate their salaries. What is to be done if employers, male and female, unconsciously quote lower salaries to women—and women accept them? Solnick has found that many employers are remarkably unconcerned. One common reaction to her research from employers is: “If women take our first offer, too bad for them.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

I’m supposed to be in this industry where everyone is open and accepting but as a woman the punishment is so much more unknown.” Crawford can’t even count the number of men who’ve told her how lucky she is to have so many eligible men to date in the male-dominated tech scene. “Of all the privileges in the world, that is not the one I would choose,” she says fiercely. “I’d choose equal pay for equal work. I’d choose having better access to capital and power. I’d choose not being passed over for promotions. I’d choose not having to worry about being in the 23.1 percent of undergraduate college women who get sexually assaulted. I’d choose not being slut-shamed if I do opt to explore my sexuality.”


pages: 378 words: 107,957

Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody by Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, desegregation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, late capitalism, meta-analysis, microaggression, moral panic, neurotypical, phenotype, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade, white flight, women in the workforce

As Pinker argues in Enlightenment Now, “The data show that more liberal countries are also, on average, better educated, more urban, less fecund, less inbred (with fewer marriages among cousins), more peaceful, more democratic, less corrupt, and less crime-and coup-ridden.”14 It is simply astonishing that over the same twenty year period (1960–1980) during which women gained access to contraception and equal pay for equal work, racial and sexual discrimination in employment and other areas became illegal, and homosexuality was decriminalized, the postmodernists emerged and declared that it was time to stop believing in liberalism, science, reason, and the myth of progress. The only charitable explanation for this is that, in their nihilism and despair (not least at the failure of communism), they failed to understand what progress is and how it is achieved.


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, functional programming, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, independent contractor, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, Post-Keynesian economics, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

One might argue that BDSM practice, from a submissive woman’s perspective, encodes the possibility of this transformation as part of the structure of the event and under her own ultimate control. 12. Article 23 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, for example, states: “Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.” It also guarantees equal pay for equal work, compensation adequate to support a family, and the right to form labor unions. It says nothing about the purpose of the work itself. 13. The office was also “rife with bullying and deeply, deeply strange office politics”—the usual sadomasochistic dynamics one can expect to ensue in hierarchical environments, as usual, too, exacerbated by the shared guilty knowledge that there’s nothing really at stake. 14.


Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution by Emma Griffin

agricultural Revolution, Corn Laws, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, full employment, informal economy, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, labour mobility, spinning jenny, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor

For women in industrial employment, see Carol E. Morgan, Women Workers and Gender Identities, 1835–1913: the Cotton and Metal Industries in England (London, 2002); idem, ‘Women, work and consciousness in the mid nineteenth-­century English cotton industry’, Social History, 17 (1992), pp. 23–41; Janet Greenlees, ‘Equal pay for equal work?: a new look at gender and wages in the Lancashire cotton industry, 1790–1855’, in Margaret Walsh, ed., Working out Gender: Perspectives from Labour History (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 167–90; Robert Gray, ‘Factory legislation and the gendering of jobs in the north of England, 1830–1860’, Gender & History, 5 (1993), pp. 56–80. 21.


pages: 504 words: 147,722

Doing Harm: The Truth About How Bad Medicine and Lazy Science Leave Women Dismissed, Misdiagnosed, and Sick by Maya Dusenbery

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, gender pay gap, Joan Didion, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, microaggression, obamacare, phenotype, pre–internet, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, stem cell, women in the workforce

Though these women had received their medical education during a time when women made up nearly half of all medical students, their experiences were disturbingly similar to those of their pioneering foremothers: 70 percent of the women perceived gender bias, and two-thirds said they had experienced it firsthand. A third reported that they’d been sexually harassed. We should all care about the sexism that women continue to face within medicine for its own sake, of course. Working women in every profession deserve equal pay for equal work, freedom from sexual harassment and discrimination, and supportive workplaces that allow them to reach their full potential. We would also do well to support gender equality within medicine simply because women tend to be better doctors—to all patients. A 2013 Canadian study of 870 doctors treating patients for diabetes found that the women outperformed the men on every standard of quality care.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, Ida Tarbell, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, McDonald's hot coffee lawsuit, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The National Labor Relations Act, or Wagner Act, of 1935 placed tight limits on what firms could do against unions, but few limits on what unions could do against firms: unions had the right to organize while employers had an obligation to deal with “duly recognized union representatives.” The act also imposed a policy of “equal pay for equal work,” which made it all but impossible for companies to pay people according to their seniority, let alone their individual merit.49 The unions immediately capitalized on the combination of constitutional power and economic recovery to press home their advantage, mounting successful membership drives and shifting the locus of popular protest from hunger marches to trade union halls.


pages: 585 words: 165,304

Trust: The Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mittelstand, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, union organizing

All of this stands in sharp contrast to the United States, where it has always been possible, even at an advanced age, to start over again after failure. Workers are compensated in what would appear to be a totally irrational way from the standpoint of neoclassical economics.5 There is no such thing as a principle of equal pay for equal work; rather, compensation is broadly based on seniority or other factors unrelated to the worker’s performance, such as whether he has a large family to support.6 Japanese companies pay a relatively larger share of total compensation to their workers in the form of bonuses. Some bonuses are granted as a reward for individual effort, but more often they are paid to larger groups—say, a section within a company or the company as a whole—in return for its collective efforts.


pages: 1,015 words: 170,908

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, disinformation, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, Herbert Marcuse, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

The social wage extends well beyond the family to the entire multitude, even those who are unemployed, because the entire multitude produces, and its production is necessary from the standpoint oftotal social capital. In the passage to postmodernity and biopolitical production, labor power has become increasingly collective and social. It is not even possible to support the old slogan ‘‘equal pay for equal work’’ when labor cannot be individualized and measured. The demand for a social wage extends to the entire population the demand that all activity necessary for the production ofcapital be recognized with an equal compensation such that a social wage is really a guaranteed income. Once citizenship is ex- tended to all, we could call this guaranteed income a citizenship income, due each as a member ofsociety.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Economic inequality expanded greatly during Boomer tenure—helped along by bipartisan cuts to capital gains and estate taxes, and the strangulation of quality public schooling. Gaps, however, were not limited to those between rich and poor. Although women have been a significant part of the workforce for decades, they still do not receive equal pay for equal work. The Equal Rights Amendment would have provided a foundation for redress. ERA even had Republican champions in the White House through the 1970s, and nearly achieved ratification. The amendment’s momentum evaporated just as the Boomers were rising to power. While the ERA is dead, the imbalances it sought to eliminate live on.


pages: 678 words: 160,676

The Upswing: How America Came Together a Century Ago and How We Can Do It Again by Robert D. Putnam

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, financial deregulation, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, Ida Tarbell, immigration reform, income inequality, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, mega-rich, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, MITM: man-in-the-middle, obamacare, occupational segregation, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, trade liberalization, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974, The Oxford History of the United States, vol. 10 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 33. 47 Blau and Winkler, The Economics of Women, Men, and Work, 30. 48 Emilie Stoltzfus, Citizen, Mother, Worker: Debating Public Responsibility for Child Care after the Second World War, Gender & American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003). 49 However, working-class black women were much more supportive of “equal pay for equal work,” because they more often found themselves in the “heavier, dirty” jobs that were more “equal” to men’s. See Dorothy Sue Cobble, The Other Women’s Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America, Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), 98–101. 50 David M.


pages: 741 words: 199,502

Human Diversity: The Biology of Gender, Race, and Class by Charles Murray

23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, basic income, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, domesticated silver fox, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, out of africa, p-value, phenotype, publication bias, quantitative hedge fund, randomized controlled trial, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, school vouchers, Scientific racism, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies, universal basic income, working-age population

It may be hard for readers not old enough to remember for themselves how long—50 years now—the upper-middle-class milieu has been overwhelmingly feminist, so perhaps a few reminders are in order. First, consider the timeline of legal reforms: 1963: John Kennedy’s Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its strongly pro-feminist report, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963 mandated equal pay for equal work. 1964: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbade employer discrimination on the basis of sex. Griswold v. Connecticut invalidated legal restrictions on access to birth control. 1967: A presidential executive order extended affirmative action in employment and education to include women. 1968: Sexual harassment was added to federal antidiscrimination law as a basis for bringing actions against employers. 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments mandated nondiscrimination in any school receiving government aid (effectively all of them) and included broad enforcement powers.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Garrett Hardin, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

A great deal of contemporary politics revolves around demands for recognition, particularly on the part of groups that have historical reasons for believing their worth has not been adequately acknowledged: racial minorities, women, gays, indigenous peoples, and the like. While these demands may have an economic component, like equal pay for equal work, economic resources are often seen more as markers of dignity rather than ends in themselves.35 Today we label demands for recognition “identity politics.” This is a modern phenomenon that arises primarily in fluid, pluralistic societies where people are able to take on multiple identities.36 But even before the rise of the modern world, recognition was a crucial driver of collective behavior.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The eradication of slums housing millions is complex far beyond integrating buses and lunch counters.”8 And though often forgotten, the more radical wing of the second-wave feminist movement also argued for fundamental challenges to the free market economic order. It wanted women not only to get equal pay for equal work in traditional jobs but to have their work in the home caring for children and the elderly recognized and compensated as a massive unacknowledged market subsidy—essentially a demand for wealth redistribution on a scale greater than the New Deal. But as we know, while these movements won huge battles against institutional discrimination, the victories that remained elusive were those that, in King’s words, could not be purchased “at bargain rates.”


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

The Universal Declaration similarly asserts: Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. Article 23 proceeds: Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, Ida Tarbell, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Savings and loan crisis, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

It demanded: that property qualifications be abolished for members of juries. that Grand Jurors be chosen from the lower-class as well as from the upperclass, which dominated Grand Juries. that the police not interfere with peaceful meetings. that the sanitary inspection of buildings be enforced. that contract labor be abolished in public works. that there be equal pay for equal work for women. that the streetcars be owned by the municipal government. The Democrats nominated an iron manufacturer, Abram Hewitt, and the Republicans nominated Theodore Roosevelt, at a convention presided over by Elihu Root, a corporation lawyer, with the nominating speech given by Chauncey Depew, a railroad director.


Reaganland: America's Right Turn 1976-1980 by Rick Perlstein

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, affirmative action, airline deregulation, Alistair Cooke, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, death of newspapers, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, energy security, equal pay for equal work, facts on the ground, feminist movement, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, oil shock, open borders, Potemkin village, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, traveling salesman, unemployed young men, union organizing, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, wages for housework, walking around money, War on Poverty, white flight, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Conservatives refused it on principle. Eddie Moore explained that the International Women’s Year program was part of “a plan started back in 1972 in the United Nations to bring about the destruction of the American family and home as we know it.” The only resolutions both sides agreed to were for equal pay for equal work and better public education (once the resolution was amended to omit an endorsement for kindergarten in all public schools). Resolutions supporting affirmative action, gender equality in schools and the military, and international cooperation to promote world peace were shouted down. Another passed affirming that “the IWY extends our moral support to our allies and friends of the Free World.”


Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, disinformation, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

It was provided for the children of working parents who would otherwise abandon them on the streets during the daytime. It was called La Casa dei Bambini, ‘the Children’s House’. The founder of the school, Dr Maria Montessori (1870–1952), was a woman well in advance of her time. She was a feminist who advocated equal pay for equal work, a qualified doctor, and director of an institute for retarded infants. Secretly, she was also the mother of an illegitimate boy, Mario Montessori, who was later to run the Association Montessori Internationale in Amsterdam. The Montessori Method, published in 1910, preached the principles of child-centred education.