land tenure

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pages: 607 words: 185,487

Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, commoditize, deskilling, facts on the ground, germ theory of disease, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, new economy, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit maximization, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, stochastic process, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

As Chateaubriand remarked, "Whenever you meet a fellow who, instead of talking arpents, toises, and pieds, refers to hectares, meters, and centimeters, rest assured, the man is a prefect."62 Land Tenure: Local Practice and Fiscal Shorthand The revenue of the early modern state came mainly from levies on commerce and land, the major sources of wealth. For commerce, this implied an array of excise taxes, tolls and market duties, licensing fees, and tariffs. For landed wealth, this meant somehow attaching every parcel of taxable property to an individual or an institution responsible for paying the tax on it. As straightforward as this procedure seems in the context of the modern state, its achievement was enormously difficult for at least two reasons. First, the actual practices of customary land tenure were frequently so varied and intricate as to defy any one-to-one equation of taxpayer and taxable property.

Modern freehold tenure is tenure that is mediated through the state and therefore readily decipherable only to those who have sufficient training and a grasp of the state statutes.63 Its relative simplicity is lost on those who cannot break the code, just as the relative clarity of customary tenure is lost on those who live outside the village. The fiscal or administrative goal toward which all modern states aspire is to measure, codify, and simplify land tenure in much the same way as scientific forestry reconceived the forest. Accommodating the luxuriant variety of customary land tenure was simply inconceivable. The historical solution, at least for the liberal state, has typically been the heroic simplification of individual freehold tenure. Land is owned by a legal individual who possesses wide powers of use, inheritance, or sale and whose ownership is represented by a uniform deed of title enforced through the judicial and police institutions of the state.

Paper owners may not be the effective owners.96 Russian peasants, as we saw, might register a "paper" consolidation while continuing to interstrip. Land invasions, squatting, and poaching, if successful, represent the exercise of de facto property rights which are not represented on paper. Certain land taxes and tithes have been evaded or defied to the point where they have become dead letters.97 The gulf between land tenure facts on paper and facts on the ground is probably greatest at moments of social turmoil and revolt. But even in more tranquil times, there will always be a shadow land-tenure system lurking beside and beneath the official account in the land-records office. We must never assume that local practice conforms with state theory. All centralizing states recognized the value of a uniform, comprehensive cadastral map. Carrying out the mapmaking, however, was another matter. As a rule of thumb, cadastral mapping was earlier and more comprehensive where a powerful central state could impose itself on a relatively weak civil society.

The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa by Calestous Juma

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, double helix, energy security, energy transition, global value chain, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land tenure, M-Pesa, microcredit, mobile money, non-tariff barriers, off grid, out of africa, precision agriculture, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, total factor productivity, undersea cable

Begun in 2007, the Alatona Irrigation Project will provide a catalyst for the transformation and commercialization of family farms, supporting Mali’s national development strategy objectives to increase the contribution of the rural sector to economic growth and to help achieve national food security. Specifically, it will increase production and productivity, improve land tenure security, modernize irrigated production systems, and mitigate the uncertainty from subsistence rain-fed agriculture, thereby increasing farmers’ incomes. The Alatona Irrigation Project will introduce innovative agricultural, land tenure, credit, and water management practices, as well as policy and organizational reforms aimed at realizing the Office du Niger’s potential to serve as an engine of rural growth for Mali. This project seeks to develop 16,000 hectares of newly irrigated lands in the Alatona production zone of the Office du Niger, representing an almost 20% increase of “drought-proof” cropland.

See also biotechnology genetically modified (GM) crops, 62, 249 genomes, 81–82, 256 geographic information systems (GIS), 41, 52–54 geography, clusters and, 95–97, 104, 106 German Development Bank (KFW), 6 Ghana: Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) in, 243; Blue Skies AgroProcessing Company in, 197; breadfruit trees in, 213; CAADP and, 28; corporate colleges in, 167; educational videos on agriculture in, 203; education in, 155–57, 167, 203, 238, 241; fish farming and fish consumption in, 24; gender inequality in education in, 148; hydropower in, 125; independent power projects (IPPs) in, 126; infrastructure and, 120–21, 125–27; land tenure system in, 31; mechanization of agriculture in, 25; national 310 Index Ghana (continued) academy of science and technology in, 230; Power Africa initiative in, 127; Rural Roads Project in, 120–21; transgenic crops in, 65–66, 71 Ghana Telecoms University College, 238 Global Financial Crisis, xx, 1, 15, 260 Global Humanitarian Forum, 135 Godilogo Farm, Ltd., 89–90 Google, 50 governments: Cartagena Protocol environmental prerogatives and, 78; clusters and, 42, 95–96, 98–99, 105–8, 110, 112, 115–16; education and, 42, 147, 154, 158, 162, 179, 182; entrepreneurship and, 187–90, 192, 194; future and, 261–63; infrastructure and, 19, 123–24, 126–27, 129, 131, 143; innovation and, xvii, xix, 84, 90, 96, 101, 219, 221, 224, 231, 237, 243, 261–63; land tenure policy and, 31–32; at local level, 106, 115; private sector partnerships with, 7, 19, 27–30, 32, 110, 113, 115–16, 132, 166, 223; technology and, 51, 179 Grain Traders and Processors Association, 9 Grameen Foundation, 50 Grand Square Bakery, 201 Grassroots Innovations Augmentation Network, 210 green beans, 120, 122 greenhouse gases, 16, 25, 39, 57, 74 Green Revolution: Africa’s potential for, xvi; causes of, 39; economic-agricultural linkages and, 12–13, 15; global poverty and hunger reduced by, 68; technology and, xx, 58 Gro Intelligence, 46–47 Grow Africa Partnership, xv, 19, 28–29, 167 Hargeisa, University of, 241 health and health care: biopolymers and, 58; biotechnology and, 64, 72–73, 77–78; climate change and, 257; clusters and, 105–7; economicagricultural linkages and, 13–14; education and, 151, 156; entrepreneurship and, 188, 199, 204, 213; food security and, 1; future and, 265; infrastructure and, 118–19, 123, 128; innovation and, 224, 229, 236, 241–42, 246, 248, 250–51, 256, 258; insecticides’ impact on, 69; nanotechnology and, 56; nutrition and, 23; policy challenges presented by, 21; technology and, 40, 56, 258; transgenic crops and, 72–73, 77–78 Heifer International, 189 High-Level Panel on Science, Technology, and Innovation (AU), xvii–xix high quality cassava flour (HQCF), 4, 198–201 HIV/AIDS, 119 Homegrown Company, Ltd., 196–97 Honey Bee Network, 210 Honeywell Mill (Nigeria), 200 human capacity and human resources.

Of Ethiopia’s 74 million hectares of total arable land, only 15 million hectares are currently cultivated. The three million hectares the government hopes to lease are essentially a modest step in Ethiopia’s effort to foster economic transformation. The Growing Economy 31 Countries that are attracting foreign investment in agriculture are also starting to focus more seriously on reforming their land tenure systems. Recognizing customary land rights and any claims by statutory land laws is a good first step. When national governments take charge of the land policy, they encourage dialogue and consultation between stakeholders and local populations. In Ghana, for example, the government has recently decreed that any lease over 50 hectares (whether the lease holder is foreign or national) must be approved by the national government.

pages: 346 words: 90,371

Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

The Levy Economics Institute Working Paper no. 525, December. Parkinson, Sharon, Beverley A. Searle, Susan J. Smith, Alice Stoakes, and Gavin Wood. 2009. ‘Mortgage Equity Withdrawal in Australia and Britain: Towards a Wealth-Fare State?’ European Journal of Housing Policy 9 (4): 365–89. Patten, Simon N. 1891. ‘Another View of the Ethics of Land-Tenure’. International Journal of Ethics 1 (3): 354–70. Payne, Geoffrey. 2004. ‘Introduction: Habitat International Special Issue on Land Tenure and Property Rights.’ Habitat International 28: 167–79. Pearce, Robert D., and Roger Stearn. 2000. Government and Reform: Britain 1815–1918. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Persaud, Avinash. 2016. ‘Breaking the Link between Housing Cycles, Banking Crises, and Recession’. CIYPERC Working Paper Series 2016/02, 23 March. Perugini, Cristiano, Jens Hölscher, and Simon Collie. 2015.

These securities are repaid as the underlying loans are repaid. Special purpose vehicle (SPV) – An entity set up, usually by a financial institution, for the specific purpose of purchasing the assets and realising their off-balance-sheet treatment for legal and accounting purposes. Tenure – The legal form under which land is owned, occupied and used. Private ownership of land has risen to become the dominant form of land tenure around the world but many alternatives exist that support collective as well as individual ownership of land and resources. Wholesale money markets – Refers to the lending and borrowing of large quantities of liquid assets in a range of currencies, generally between financial institutions such as banks, as well as non-financial companies and the government. FOREWORD John Muellbauer Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing is an important book.

Landowners’ freedom to develop their land, or change its use, is generally restricted by planning and environmental laws, and they have only a partial claim to any treasure or archaeological remains found on their land. Many countries have retained layered forms of landownership, like the English freehold/leasehold system. Around the world a huge range of tenure models, including many collective forms of ownership and use rights, continue to thrive, and remain a key subject of anthropological study and political controversy (Payne, 2004). In all this rich diversity of land tenure, one key fact stands out: the structure of landownership is not natural, but is a matter of law and custom, and hence is inherently political. Compared to owning other assets, such as gold, controlling land over time requires a high degree of social acceptance of that control. Unsurprisingly, a large proportion medieval law concerned land use, tenure, trading, ownership and inheritance – demonstrating both the central importance of land use in the economy, and the legal nature of it.

Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action by Elinor Ostrom

agricultural Revolution, clean water, Gödel, Escher, Bach, land tenure, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, RAND corporation, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs

I had hoped to include an analysis of the persistence of "common lands" in feudal and medieval England. The famous "enclosure acts" of British history have been presented in many history books as the rational elimination of an obviously inefficient institution that had been retained because of an unthink­ ing attachment to the past for an overly long time. Recent economic historians, however, have provided an entirely different picture of English land-tenure systems before the enclosure acts and even of the process of gaining enclosure itself (Dahlman 1980; Fanoaltea 1988; McCloskey 1976; Thirsk 1959, 1967). Many of the manorial institutions share broad similarity with the long-endur­ ing institutions described in this chapter: a clear-cut definition of who is authorized to use common resources; definite limits (stinting) on the uses that can be made; low-cost enforcement mechanisms; local rule-making arenas to change institutions over time in response to environment and economic changes.

Headmen to carry out any work may sound very fine, but, practically, the results are small, unless the Headmen be encouraged and supported by the Assistant Agent taking an active interest in their efforts; if the villagers see this and know that once they agree to any undertaking, everyone must contribute and that no shirking is allowed, all will combine cheerfully to carry out the work. But endless watching and numerous inspections are necessary." 14 Water meetings of this type have occurred in Sri Lanka for centuries (Gun­ asekera 1981). See the discussion of these institutions by Uphoff (1983). 15 The earlier land-tenure system in some parts of Sri Lanka had greatly reduced the level of conflict between head-enders and tail-enders, on the smaller tanks at least. The fields to be irrigated from a tank were laid out and assigned in 239 Notes to pp. 164-9 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 such a way that each farmer was assigned one block of land to farm in the top third of the area to be irrigated, another block in the middle section, and one block in the lower section.

Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure. journal of Financial Eco­ nomics 3:305-60. Jodha, N. S. 1986. Common Property Resources and Rural Poor in Dry Regions of India. Economic and Political Weekly 21:1169-81. Johnson, D., and D. Anderson, eds. 1988. The Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from Northeast African History. London: Crook. Johnson, O. E. G. 1972. Economic Analy~is, the Legal Framework and Land Tenure Systems. journal of Law and Economics 15:259-76. Johnson, R. N., and G. D. Libecap. 1982. Contracting Problems and Regulation: The Case of the Fishery. American Economic Review 72: 1005-22. Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica 47:263-91. Kaitala, V. 1986. Game Theory Models of Fisheries Management-A Survey. In Dynamic Games and Applications in Economics, ed.

pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

,” wrote George McBride, a pioneer of the Green Revolution in Mexico, “you lay bare the very foundations upon which its society is based, and reveal the fundamental character of many of its institutions.” The answer led the Soviet Union to break up privately owned farms and establish collectives on state-owned land in the 1930s, and drove the United States in the 1940s to promote democracy in Japan by forcibly destroying “the undemocratic land tenure system” and redistributing it to owner-occupiers. “We believe in the family-size farm,” President Harry S. Truman declared in 1950. “That is the basis of our agriculture and has strongly influenced our form of government.” Throughout the Cold War, the struggle between capitalism and Communism in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was shaped by the Harringtonian belief that once land was either privately owned or state-owned, the politics would follow suit.

Fearful of seeing the Cuban revolution spread further, however, the United States gave a last declaration of its commitment to Ladejjinsky’s vision of social reform through land redistribution. At a meeting of Latin American states at Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 1961, it called for latifundias to be replaced by “an equitable system of property” and for the introduction of a system of “integral agrarian reform leading to the effective transformation, where required, of unjust structures and systems of land tenure and use.” This declaration not only exhibited the core values of the United States, it incorporated the sense of justice and ownership that, as Guevara himself had recognized, really motivated Latin America’s campesinos. But its implementation faced a crucial obstacle. Land reform could be said to have been the one constant in all the political convulsions of Latin American politics. Whether elected or not, almost every new government repeatedly promised to bring it about.

Marx’s own research was heavily based on the lectures of Henry Sumner Maine, on “The History of Institutions,” delivered in 1875, and influenced by Lewis Morgan’s Ancient Society or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization (New York: Henry Holt, 1877). “In the five previous centuries”: A Guide to Early Irish Law, ed. Fergus Kelly (Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies, 1988), ch 1. W. E. Montgomery, The History of Land Tenure in Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1889), 26–41, “The land shall not be sold for ever”: Leviticius 25:23. The jubilee fell out of favor: Leviticus 25:10, 13. “A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be to you ... in the year of this jubilee you shall return every man to his possession”; the idea of the land as a gift to his chosen people so that Israel could only be realized by returning to cultivate once more permeated nineteenth-century Zionist thought; thus Rabbi Zevi Hirsch Kalischer, writing in 1863: “there will be four redemptions.

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Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

While there were peasant revolts accompanying the increasing commercialization of agriculture in Japan both before and after the Meiji Restoration, they did not reach a level that was sufficient to breed a nationwide uprising.24 Less convincing is Moore’s effort to relate rural land tenure to the rise of the militarist governments of the 1930s. He wants to draw parallels between Japan and Prussia, a country whose military was indeed implicated in the increasingly repressive system of agrarian land tenure from the sixteenth century on. The Prussian officer corps was recruited directly from the class of Junker landlords who in civilian life were busy repressing their own peasants. But in Japan, feudal land tenure was already being replaced by freer forms of tenancy and commercial agriculture by the late nineteenth century. There were large landlords who survived until the American-imposed land reform of the late 1940s, forming part of the conservative parties’ political base.

Mahmood Mamdani has gone further, to charge that the tyrannical postindependence Big Man was largely the product of the “decentralized despotism” created by indirect rule. The British had two long-term economic policy objectives that indirect rule was meant to serve. First, they sought to convert customary land tenure into modern property rights, at the behest of both commercial agricultural interests and white settlers. Modern property rights are formal, freely alienable, and held by individuals or by legal entities operating as individuals. As elaborated in Volume 1, customary land tenure is a complex informal system of private property rights, sometimes mistakenly said to be communal in the sense of a Communist collective farm. Traditional customary property is intimately connected with the kinship system and heavily entailed by kin obligations; individuals usually are not free to alienate their holdings.15 The chief in particular does not have any right to alienate land.

Traditional customary property is intimately connected with the kinship system and heavily entailed by kin obligations; individuals usually are not free to alienate their holdings.15 The chief in particular does not have any right to alienate land. While customary property in this sense once existed in barbarian Europe, the feudal property rights that prevailed in the European Middle Ages were more modern in the sense of being formal, contractual, and individual. Moving from a customary to a modern land tenure system was therefore much more revolutionary than the shift from feudal to modern land tenure in Europe; it involved huge changes within the authority structure of the kin groups involved. When colonial authorities sought to buy land from customary owners, they found no one actually in charge who had the authority to alienate property. One reason to create a subordinate tribal chief under indirect rule was to empower an African equivalent of a European feudal lord who had the authority to alienate communal property into a modern property rights system.16 A second reason for empowering indigenous chiefs was to serve as tax collectors.

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The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, borderless world, business cycle, central bank independence, Corn Laws, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, inflation targeting, joint-stock company, Kula ring, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price mechanism, profit motive, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Cultural degradation can be stopped only by social measures, incommensurable with economic standards of life, such as the restoration of tribal land tenure or the isolation of the community from the influence of capitalistic market methods. “Separation of the Indian from his land was the ONE death blow,” writes John Collier in 1942. The General Allotment Act of 1887 “individualized” the Indian’s land; the disintegration of his culture which resulted lost him some three quarters, or ninety million acres, of this land. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 reintegrated tribal holdings, and saved the Indian community, by revitalizing his culture. The same story comes from Africa. Forms of land tenure occupy the center of interest, because it is on them that social organization most directly depends. What appear as economic conflicts—high taxes and rents, low wages—are almost exclusively veiled forms of pressure to induce the natives to give up their traditional culture and thus compel them to adjust to the methods of market economy, i.e., to work for wages and procure their goods on the market.

The Revolution of 1917–24 was indeed the last of the political upheavals in Europe that followed the pattern of the English Commonwealth and of the French Revolution; the revolution that started with the collectivization of the farms, about 1930, was the first of the great social changes that transformed our world in the thirties. For the first Russian Revolution achieved the destruction of absolutism, feudal land tenure, and racial oppression—a true heir to the ideals of 1789; the second Revolution established a socialist economy. When all is said, the first was merely a Russian event—it fulfilled a long process of Western development on Russian soil—while the second formed part of a simultaneous universal transformation. Seemingly in the 1920s Russia stood apart from Europe and was working out her own salvation.

Though in the nature of things wage differentials must (and should) continue to play an essential part in the economic system, other motives than those directly involved in money incomes may outweigh by far the financial aspect of labor. To remove land from the market is synonymous with the incorporation of land with definite institutions such as the homestead, the cooperative, the factory, the township, the school, the church, parks, wild life preserves, and so on. However widespread individual ownership of farms will continue to be, contracts in respect to land tenure need deal with accessories only, since the essentials are removed from the jurisdiction of the market. The same applies to staple foods and organic raw materials, since the fixing of prices in respect to them is not left to the market. That for an infinite variety of products competitive markets continue to function need not interfere with the constitution of society any more than the fixing of prices outside the market for labor, land, and money interferes with the costing-function of prices in respect to the various products.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

., “Changes in Earnings in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: Disentangling the Forces Behind Pro-Poor Change in Labour Markets” (Brasilia: IPC-IG [UNDP], 2009). 18 Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). 19 A. Durand-Lasserve and L. Royston, Holding Their Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries (London: Earthscan, 2002), 3. 20 Hernando de Soto, The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World (New York: Harper & Row, 1989). 21 de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else (London: Black Swan, 2000), 35. A number of critics have pointed out that this number is unverifiable. 22 L. J. Alston, G. D. Libecap and B. Mueller, Titles, Conflict and Land Use: The Development of Property Rights on the Brazilian Amazon Frontier (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1999). 23 G. Feder and D. Feeny, “Land Tenure and Property Rights: Theory and Implications for Development Policy,” World Bank Economic Review 3 (1991); O.

Razzaz, “Examining Property Rights and Investment in Informal Areas: The Case of Jordan,” Land Economics 69, no. 4 (1993); J. M. L. Kironde, “Understanding Land Markets in African Urban Areas: The Case of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania,” Habitat International 24 (2000). 25 Robert E. Smith, “Land Tenure Reform in Africa: A Shift to the Defensive,” Progress in Development Studies 3, no. 3 (2003). 26 A. Antwi and J. Adams, “Economic Rationality and Informal Urban Land Transactions in Accra, Ghana,” Journal of Property Research 20, no. 1 (2003); M. M. Omirin and A. Antwi, “Informality, Illegality and Market Efficiency: A Case for Land Market Deregulation in Accra and Lagos” (London, 2004). 27 R. Home and H. Lim, Demystifying the Mystery of Capital: Land Tenure and Poverty in Africa and the Caribbean (London: Glasshouse Press, 2004); Bishwapriya Sanyal, “Intention and Outcome: Formalization and Its Consequences,” Regional Development Dialogue 17, no. 1 (1996). 28 Staffan Granér, “Hernando de Soto and the Mystification of Capital,” Eurozine, no. 13 (Jan. 19, 2007): 6. 29 Donald A.

The reason why China has hundreds of millions of people floating rootlessly and inefficiently between arrival city and village, scholars at Oxford and the Chinese Academy of Sciences concluded in a major study, “is because no social assistance, public housing and schooling arrangements have been established for migrants to enable them to settle down on a permanent basis in cities.” For those peasants who have found solid roots, home ownership, and thriving businesses in the arrival city, “the lack of such arrangements makes them unwilling or unable to give up their rural land, which, in turn, makes it difficult for those left in rural areas to expand their scale of agricultural production and secure their land tenure because too little extra land can be released to accommodate rural demographic changes.”11 The “hollow village,” as these rural enclaves of children and grandparents are known in China, has become a global phenomenon, as subsistence farming is forced to serve as a substitute for a proper social safety net. In Romania, hollow villages have become a national issue for related reasons. The millions of working-age peasants who have moved to the arrival cities of Italy and Spain to work have discovered school systems and social-service agencies that are closed to new arrivals (even from within the European Union) settling down or, in the case of Italy, a police and legal system that is actively hostile to arrival-city families.

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The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

In the early thirteenth century, the argument was put forth that the king exercised jurisdiction over all temporal matters in the realm, and that lesser courts were granted jurisdiction only by delegation. Plaintiffs preferred to have their cases taken to the royal courts, and over time the seigneurial courts lost their jurisdiction over land tenure disputes to them.30 This market-driven preference suggests that the royal courts must have been perceived as being fairer and less biased in favor of the local lords, and better able to enforce their decisions. A similar shift did not occur in other European countries. In France, in particular, seigneurial courts retained their jurisdiction over land tenure issues right up to the French Revolution. This is ironic, in a sense, since it was seventeenth-century French kings such as Louis XIII and Louis XIV who were perceived, in contrast to their English counterparts, as having emasculated the nobility in their assertion of absolute power.

The parliaments of PNG and the Solomons have no coherent political parties; they are full of individual leaders, each striving to bring back as much pork as possible to his or her narrow base of supporters.4 Melanesia’s tribal social system limits economic development because it prevents the emergence of modern property rights. In both Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, upward of 95 percent of all land is held in what is known as customary land tenure. Under customary rules, property is private but held informally (that is, with no legal documentation) by groups of kinfolk, who have both individual and collective rights to different strips of land. Property has not only an economic but also a spiritual significance, since dead relatives are buried in certain spots on the wantok’s land, and their spirits continue to inhabit that place. No one in the wantok, including the Big Man, has the exclusive right to alienate title to the land to an outsider.5 A mining or palm oil company seeking a concession has to negotiate with hundreds or sometimes thousands of landowners, and there is no statute of limitations on land claims under traditional rules.6 From the standpoint of many foreigners, the behavior of Melanesian politicians looks like political corruption.

In an influential article, Garrett Hardin argued that the tragedy of the commons exists with respect to many global resources, such as clean air, fisheries, and the like, and that in the absence of private ownership or strong regulation they would be overexploited and made useless.3 In many contemporary ahistorical discussions of property rights, one often gets the impression that in the absence of modern individual property rights, human beings always faced some version of the tragedy of the commons in which communal ownership undermined incentives to use property efficiently.4 The emergence of modern property rights was then postulated to be a matter of economic rationality, in which individuals bargained among themselves to divide up the communal property, much like Hobbes’s account of the emergence of the Leviathan out of the state of nature. There is a twofold problem with this scenario. The first is that many alternative forms of customary property existed before the emergence of modern property rights. While these forms of land tenure may not have provided the same incentives for their efficient use as do their modern counterparts, very few of them led to anything like the tragedy of the commons. The second problem is that there aren’t very many examples of modern property rights emerging spontaneously and peacefully out of a bargaining process. The way customary property rights yielded to modern ones was much more violent, and power and deceit played a large role.5 KINSHIP AND PRIVATE PROPERTY The earliest forms of private property were held not by individuals but by lineages or other kin groups, and much of their motivation was not simply economic but religious and social as well.

The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly

airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

Congress with little or no input on the proposed draft from congressional committees, the judiciary, the bar, business interests, law schools, or other stakeholders, I would be looking for a new career rather quickly. Based on many current practices, however, that career could easily be found abroad ‘helping’ transition countries with the same process.45 Titling Toward Confusion in Kenya Lord Lugard, the architect of British colonial rule in Africa, said land tenure follows “a steady evolution, side by side with the evolution of social progress.” This “natural evolution” leads to “individual ownership.” The Native Land Tenure Rules of 1956 privatized land in Kenya, advertising it as “a normal step in the evolution of a country,” under which “energetic or rich Africans will be able to acquire more land.” The anthropologist Parker Shipton, one of the few outsiders who bothered studying the region in detail, looked at the consequences of land titling for the Luo tribe in western Kenya in the early 1980s.46 The traditional system among the Luo was a complicated maze of swapping plots among kin and seasonal exchanges of land for labor and livestock.

., p. 201. 15.Mamdani, Citizen and Subject, p. 53. 16.Iliffe, Africans, p. 201. 17.Mamdani, Citizen and Subjects, p. 52. 18.Ibid., pp. 54–56. 19.Iliffe, Africans, p. 200. 20.Ibid., p. 199. 21.Ibid., pp. 251–52. 22.Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, p. 161. 23.Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Systems: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” MIT mimeograph, October 2004; Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, pp. 278–79; and Ravina Daphtary, “Systems of Land Tenure in Bengal: The Unyielding Legacy of the Zamindar,” NYU undergraduate thesis, April 2005. 24.Fieldhouse, Colonial Empires, pp. 280–83. 25.Bergner, Land of Magic Soldiers, p. 29. 26.P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism, 1688–2000, 2d ed., Harlow, UK: Longman, Pearson Education, 2002, p. 83. 27.Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power, New York: Basic Books, 2004, p. 116. 28.Ibid., p. 141. 29.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 291. 30.Ferguson, Empire, p. 22. 31.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 291. 32.James, Rise and Fall, p. 175. 33.Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics,” Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003. 34.Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, p. 308. 35.Iliffe, Africans, p. 204. 36.Ibid., p. 212. 37.Ibid., p. 222. 38.Ibid., pp. 203–4. 39.Maddison, “World Economy.” 40.Mamdani, Citizen and Subject, p. 158. 41.Bergner, Land of Magic Soldiers, p. 97. 42.Scott, Seeing Like a State, pp. 226–28. 43.Thayer Watkins, “The Tanganyikan Groundnuts Scheme,” San José State University Economics Department, at groundnt.htm. 44.Maddison, World Economy.” 45.Ibid.

Ohero’s sons, who blamed their uncle Ogwok Nyayal, who blamed Alloyce Ohero, who, if he had been alive, would have blamed Ocholla Ogweng. Here was a deal with nothing for everyone. What looks like opportunistic behavior could be the mingling of private property with traditional values, which place obligations to kin above those to strangers or banks. By imposing land titling on such complex social customs, “private property rights” may actually increase the insecurity of land tenure rather than decrease it. Perhaps chastened by these experiences, formal land law in Kenya is now moving back toward recognizing customary rights. The government is allowing the paper titles to lapse.47 Reformers who want to increase the security of property rights have to search for what works in each locality. A more likely way forward for formal law would be building on the customary law rather than contradicting it.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

(Most spectacular, perhaps, has been the transformation of the bleak Congolese diamond-trading center of Mbuji-Mayi from a small town of 25,000 in 1960 into a contemporary metropolis of 2 million, with growth occurring mostly in the last decade.23) In Latin America, where primary cities long monopolized growth, secondary cities such as Santa Cruz, Valencia, Tijuana, Curitiba, Temuco, Maracay, Bucaramanga, Salvador, and Belem are now booming, with the most rapid increase in cities of fewer than 500,000 people.24 Moreover, as anthropologist Gregory Guldin has emphasized, urbanization must be conceptualized as structural transformation along, and intensified interaction between, every point of an urban—rural continuum. In Guldin's case study of southern China, he found that the 22 Census 2001, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India; and Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston, "International Trends and Country Contexts," in Alain Durand-Lasserve and Lauren Royston (eds), HoldingT heir Ground: Secure Land Tenure for the Urban Poor in Developing Countries, London 2002, p. 20. 23 Mbuji-Mayi is the center of the "ultimate company state" in the Kaasai region run by the Societe Mini ere de Bakwanga. See Michela Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. KurtLiving on theBrink of Disaster in the Congo, London 2000, pp. 121-23. 24 Miguel Villa and Jorge Rodriguez, "Demographic Trends in Latin America's Metropolises, 1950-1990," in Alan Gilbert (ed.), The Mega-City in Latin America, Tokyo and New York 1996, pp. 33-34.

He speaks of "trillions of dollars, all ready to put to use if only we can unravel the mystery of how assets are transformed into live capital."32 Ironically, de Soto, the Messiah of people's capitalism, proposes little more in practice than what the Latin American Left or the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Kolkata had long fought for: security of tenure for informal settlers. But tiding, as land-tenure expert Geoffrey Payne points out, is a double-edged sword. "For owners it represents their formal incorporation into the official city, and the chance to realize what may be a dramatically increased asset. For tenants, or those unable to pay the additional taxes that usually follow, it may push them off the housing ladder altogether." Titling, in other words, accelerates social differentiation in the slum and does nothing to aid renters, the actual majority of the poor in many cities.

Structural adjustment programs, in turn, channeled domestic savings from manufacture and welfare into land speculation. "The high rate of inflation and the massive scale of devaluation," writes political economist Kwadwo Konadu-Agyemang of Accra, "have discouraged savings and made investment in undeveloped or 43 Ibid. As the authors emphasize, "despite the importance of the topic, data on urban land-ownership are extremely rare. This contrasts sharply with research on land tenure in rural areas." (p. 184) 44 Berner, Defending a Place, p 21. 45 Baken and van der Linden, Land Delivery for Low Income Groups in Third World Cities, p 13. 46 Brennan, "Urban Land and Housing Issues Facing the Third World," p. 78. partially developed land the safest and most profitable way of holding assets that could also be sold in foreign currency."47 The result has been the emergence or persistence of property bubbles amidst otherwise general economic stagnation or even decline.

pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, post-work, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

., The Brenner Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 10-63. 30 On the end of the peasantry in France, see Henri Mendras, Sociétés paysannes: éléments pour une théorie de la paysannerie (Paris: Armand Colin, 1976). For a more general view, see David Goodman and Michael Redclift, From Peasant to Proletarian: Capitalist Development and Agrarian Transitions (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982). 31 See, for example, on the history of pre-peasant land tenure in Vietnam, Ngo Vinh Long, “Communal Property and Peasant Revolutionary Struggles in Vietnam,” Peasant Studies 17, no. 2 (Winter 1990): 121-40. For similar histories of Sub-Saharan Africa, see Enwere Dike, “Changing Land Tenure Systems in Nigeria,” Peasant Studies 17, no. 1 (Fall 1989): 43-54; and J. S. Saul and R. Woods, “African Peasantries,” in Teodor Shanin, ed., Peasants and Peasant Societies , 2nd ed., (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), 80-88. 32 There is considerable debate whether the term peasantry ever did in fact accurately describe such systems of small-holding production, especially in Africa.

The historical tendency of the changes in class composition of the peasantry through the modern era reduces dramatically the numbers of the middle peasantry, corresponding to the centrifugal conceptual tendency in Mao’s analysis. At the top end a few rich peasants manage to gain more land and become indistinguishable from landowners, and at the bottom most poor peasants tend to be excluded from their traditional forms of land tenure (such as sharecropping) and become simple agricultural laborers. Middle peasants all but vanished in the process, being forced to fall one way or the other along the general cleavage of ownership. This centrifugal historical tendency corresponds to the processes of modernization in both its capitalist and socialist forms. When Stalin launched the program of collectivization, the Soviet regime thought the strategy would boost agricultural production through economies of scale and facilitate the use of more advanced equipment and technologies: collectivization, in short, would bring tractors to the farm.24 The cruel process of collectivization was clearly understood from the beginning—not only by the leaders but also by the peasants themselves—as a war not simply against the rich peasants, the kulaks, who were accused of hoarding grain, but against all the peasants who owned property, and really against the entire peasantry as a class.

Land reform, which was a liberal and revolutionary battle cry in Latin America throughout the twentieth century, from Zapata’s ragged troops to guerilla revolutionaries in Nicaragua and El Salvador, held something like the figure of the middle peasant as its goal. Aside from a few brief exceptions, most notably in Mexico and Bolivia, the tendency in Latin America has constantly moved in the opposite direction, exacerbating the polarization of land tenure and ownership.33 Throughout the subordinated capitalist world small-holding agricultural producers are systematically deprived of land rights as property is gradually consolidated into large holdings, controlled either by national landowners or mammoth foreign corporations.34 This process may appear as a haphazard and undirected movement carried out by an extended and disunited series of agents, including national governments, foreign governments, multinational and transnational agribusiness corporations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and many others.

pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Peter Damerow, “Sumerian Beer: The Origins of Brewing Technology in Ancient Mesopotamia”, Cuneiform Digital Library, 2012 32. The Avalon Project, Yale Law School, 33. Steve Kummer and Christian Pauletto, “The History of Derivatives: A Few Milestones”, EFTA Seminar on Regulation of Derivatives Markets, May 3rd 2012, Zurich. A derivative is a contract whose value derives from the price of another asset. 34. John P. Powelson, The Story of Land: A World History of Land Tenure and Agrarian Reform 35. Jursa, The Cambridge History of Capitalism, Volume 1, op. cit. 36. Standage, Edible Humanity, op. cit. 37. John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company: A Short History of a Revolutionary Idea 38. Powelson, The Story of Land, op. cit. 39. Kostas Vlassopoulos, “Greek Slavery: From Domination To Property And Back Again”, Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 131, 2011 40.

Giovanni Federico, Feeding the World: An Economic History of Agriculture, 1800–2000 5. Source: World Bank 6. A hectare is 2.47 acres. 7. Federico, Feeding the World, op. cit. 8. 2012 Census of Agriculture, 9. Shimelles Tenaw, K.M. Zahidul Islam and Tuulikki Parviainen, “Effects of land tenure and property rights on agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, Namibia and Bangladesh”, University of Helsinki, 2009 10. See Frank Dikötter, Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe 1958–1962; or Anne Applebaum, Red Famine: Stalin’s War on Ukraine 11. Radelet, The Great Surge, op. cit. 12. Paul McMahon, Feeding Frenzy: The New Politics of Food 13. Standage, An Edible History of Humanity, op. cit. 14.

On the theory and measurement of financial intermediation”, September 2014, Philipsen, Dirk The Little Big Number: How GDP Came to Rule the World and What to Do about It, Princeton University Press, 2015 Piketty, Thomas Capital in the 21st Century, Harvard University Press, 2014 Pilling, David Bending Adversity: Japan and the Art of Survival, Penguin, 2014 —— The Growth Delusion: The Wealth and Well-Being of Nations, Bloomsbury, 2018 Pinker, Steven The Better Angels of Our Nature: A History of Violence and Humanity, Penguin, 2011 —— Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism and Progress, Viking, 2018 Pollard, Sidney Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760–1970, Oxford University Press, 1981 Pomeranz, Kenneth The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World, Princeton University Press, 2000 Portes, Jonathan “How small is small? The impact of immigration on UK wages”, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, January 17th 2016 Powelson, John P. The Story of Land: A World History of Land Tenure and Agrarian Reform, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1988 Prawdin, Michael The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy, George Allen & Unwin, 1967 Pye, Michael The Edge of the World: How the North Sea Made Us, Pegasus Books, 2016 Radelet, Steven: The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World, Simon & Schuster, 2016 Razzell, Peter, and Spence, Christine “Social capital and the history of mortality in Britain”, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 2, 2005 Read, Charles “British economic policy and Ireland c. 1841–1845”, unpublished University of Cambridge PhD thesis, 2017 Reid, Michael Forgotten Continent: The Battle for Latin America’s Soul, Yale University Press, 2007 Rhodes, Richard Energy: A Human History, Simon & Schuster, 2018 Romer, Paul “Increasing returns and long-term growth”, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 94, no. 5, 1986 Ronson, Jon So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed, Picador, 2015 Rosenberg, Nathan Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics, and History, Cambridge University Press, 1994 Rosling, Hans, Rosling, Ola, and Rosling Rönnlund, Anna Factfulness: Ten Reasons We’re Wrong About the World – And Why Things Are Better Than You Think, Sceptre, 2018 Russell, Andrew L.

pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger

California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

In a nutshell, they cannot produce more, because they cannot afford it, and they cannot afford it because they do not produce more.5 Lack of access to credit coupled with geographic isolation means farmers depend on middlemen to provide them with credit—at exorbitant interest rates—and to bring their product to market. Worse, land tenure systems in many tropical nations are stacked heavily against the rural poor. In those countries that endured colonialism, traditional indigenous land-tenure systems were supplanted by top-down structures that gave land rights to the government or to rich, often absentee—and often foreign—landlords. This state of affairs means that small farmers must pay for the use of their own land or be shut out from working their land entirely and serving instead as laborers for others.

pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This type of program was imposed by the World Bank and the IMF on most African countries starting in the early 1980s, allegedly to spur economic recovery and help the African governments pay for the debts that they had contracted during the previous decade in order to finance development projects. Among the reforms it prescribes are land privatization (starting with the abolition of communal land tenure), trade liberalization (the elimination of tariffs on imported goods), the deregulation of currency transactions, the downsizing of the public sector, the de-funding of social services, and a system of controls that effectively transfers economic planning from the African governments to the World Bank and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).5 This economic restructuring was presumably meant to boost productivity, eliminate inefficiency and increase Africa’s “competitive edge” on the global market.

Two objectives stand out when we consider the prevailing patterns of war in Africa, and the way in which warfare intersects with globalization. First, war forces people off the land, i.e., it separates the producers from the means of production, a condition for the expansion of the global labor market. War also reclaims the land for capitalist use, boosting the production of cash crops and export-oriented agriculture. Particularly in Africa, where communal land tenure is still widespread, this has been a major goal of the World Bank, whose raison d’etre as an institution has been the capitalization of agriculture.12 Thus, it is hard today to see millions of refugees or famine victims fleeing their localities without thinking of the satisfaction this must bring to World Bank officers as well as agribusiness companies, who surely see the hand of progress working through it.

The New Enclosure: The Appropriation of Public Land in Neoliberal Britain by Brett Christophers

Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Corn Laws, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, estate planning, ghettoisation, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, late capitalism, market clearing, Martin Wolf, New Journalism, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, Right to Buy, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, wealth creators

THE NEW ENCLOSURE THE NEW ENCLOSURE The Appropriation of Public Land in Neoliberal Britain Brett Christophers First published by Verso 2018 © Brett Christophers 2018 All rights reserved The moral rights of the author have been asserted 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Verso is the imprint of New Left Books ISBN-13: 978-1-78663-158-9 ISBN-13: 978-1-78663-161-9 (US EBK) ISBN-13: 978-1-78663-160-2 (UK EBK) British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Library of Congress Has Cataloged the Hardback Edition as Follows: Names: Christophers, Brett, 1971- author. Title: The new enclosure : the appropriation of public land in neoliberal Britain / Brett Christophers. Description: London ; Brooklyn, NY : Verso, 2018. | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018029054| ISBN 9781786631589 | ISBN 9781786631602 (United Kingdom e-book) Subjects: LCSH: Public lands--Great Britain. | Land tenure--Great Britain. | Public land sales--Great Britain. Classification: LCC HD596 .C477 2018 | DDC 333.1/30941--dc23 LC record available at Typeset in Adobe Garamond Pro by MJ&N Gavan, Truro, Cornwall Printed in the UK by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY To Cole Harris, and to the memory of Doreen Massey Contents List of Figures List of Abbreviations Acknowledgements Introduction 1.A Special and Finite Commodity: Why Land and Landownership Matter 2.Landownership in Britain: A Brief History 3.Discourses of Surplus and Efficiency: Preparing the Land for Sale 4.Carrots and Sticks: Privatizing the Land 5.False Promises: Land Privatization Outcomes Conclusion: Where Now?

Associated with the land question more intimately than any other leading politician of his era, Lloyd George’s famous Land Campaign of 1913 was stoked by rural depopulation and the continuing tragic social fallout from enclosure; it drew, as Matthew Cragoe and Paul Readman note, on ‘roseate views of the pre-enclosure past’; and it argued, inter alia, for a minimum wage for agricultural workers, further reforms of land tenure laws, and the introduction of land-value taxation.1 After World War I, Lloyd George ‘returned to “the land”’ in order, in Ian Packer’s words, to ‘revivify Liberalism’. Among other things, he introduced legislation to enable local authorities to acquire land more readily to establish smallholdings.2 By 1926, the English council-farming estate already occupied 177,265 hectares – nearly 1.5 per cent of England’s total land area.3 Land was acquired in the countryside for a range of other reasons, too.

., pp. 210, 259–60, 79. 2 Neutze, ‘Tale of Two Cities’, p. 190. 1 Polanyi, Great Transformation, pp. 194–5. 1 Ibid., pp. 138, 191. 2 F. Block, ‘Introduction’ in Polanyi, Great Transformation, pp. xviii–xxxviii, at p. xxvi. 3 Neutze, ‘Tale of Two Cities’, p. 190. Chapter 2: Landownership in Britain: A Brief History 1 ‘Mayor Calls for Power to Unlock London’s Housing Potential’, press release, 14 July 2014, at 2 Speech to the Inaugural Public Meeting of the Land Tenure Reform Association, London, 15 May 1871, at 3 K. Cahill, Who Owns Britain (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2001), p. 27. 4 Ibid. 1 D. Massey and M. Rustin, ‘Whose Economy? Reframing the Debate’, Chapter 7 of S. Hall, D. Massey and M. Rustin, eds, After Neoliberalism? The Kilburn Manifesto (London: Soundings, 2015), p. 2. 1 Land Registration Act 2002, at 1 R. Home, ‘Land Ownership in the United Kingdom: Trends, Preferences and Future Challenges’, Land Use Policy 26 (2009), S103–S108. 2 A.

pages: 261 words: 81,802

The Trouble With Billionaires by Linda McQuaig

"Robert Solow", battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vanguard fund, very high income, wealth creators, women in the workforce

John Stuart Mill, the nineteenth-century British political philosopher best known for his writings in defence of individual liberty, also argued, particularly in his later years, for a recognition of the important role society plays in individual earnings. Mill noted that it was society, not just individual effort or labour, that determined what a person was able to do or create, and that society was morally entitled to receive due compensation for its contribution. In 1870, for instance, Mill was involved in the founding of the Land Tenure Reform Association, considered an important step in the evolution of modern social welfare philosophy. While arguing that private ownership of land might be desirable to achieve optimal production, Mill, in his draft of the association’s programme, insisted that increases in land values caused by the general growth and development of society properly belonged ‌to the community at large.14 Mill extended this approach to increases in values of all sorts of property that are caused by factors having nothing to do with the contributions of the individual property holder.

., p. 249. ‌5 Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000), pp. 81–102. ‌6 Gar Alperovitz & Lew Daly, Unjust Deserts (New York: The New Press, 2008), p. 58. ‌7 Ibid., pp. 59–61. ‌8 Ibid., p. 60. ‌9 Cited in ibid., p. 63. ‌10 Robert M. Solow, ‘Growth Theory and After’, Nobel lecture, 8 December 1987, ‌11 Herbert A. Simon, ‘UBI and the Flat Tax’, Boston Review, October/November 2000. ‌12 Cited in Alperovitz & Daly, Unjust Deserts, p. 36. ‌13 Ibid., p. 96. ‌14 John Stuart Mill, ‘Land Tenure Reform’, Collected Works, vol. 5 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967), p. 691. ‌15 John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy, vol. 2, book 2, chapter 1, section 3, p. 208. ‌16 L. T. Hobhouse, Liberalism and Other Writings, James Meadowcroft (ed.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 91–2. ‌17 Frank E. Manuel & Fritzie P. Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1979), p. 466. ‌18 Bardini, Bootstrapping, pp. 6–14. ‌19 Alperovitz & Daly, Unjust Deserts, p. 144. 6 Why Other Billionaires Are Even Less Deserving ‌1 Quoted in Gregory Zuckerman, The Greatest Trade Ever (New York: Random House, 2009), p. 192. ‌2 Ibid., p. 95. ‌3 Ibid., pp. 3, 8. ‌4 Martin Wolf and Simon Johnson, online interview, Yahoo Originals, 21 April 2010. ‌5 This analogy is an adaptation of one made by Phil Angelides, head of the federally appointed Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, and cited in Dean Baker, ‘Goldman’s Scam #5476, Yes, It Can Get Even Worse’, The Guardian, 19 April 2010. ‌6 Wolf and Johnson interview. ‌7 Henry Paulson is not related to John Paulson. ‌8 In fact, Goldman bought more of this insurance from AIG than any other bank.

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Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones

anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, fixed income, invention of the sewing machine, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave

The age-old ‘village system’ based upon the ‘domestic union of agricultural and manufacturing pursuits’ was being ‘dissolved’, ‘not so much through the brutal interference of the British tax-gatherer and the British soldier, as to the working of English steam and English free trade’. British rule was bringing the advantages of political unity, European science, a European trained army, a free press, British-trained civil servants, the abolition of the old system of common-land tenure and a shorter passage between India and England. If the revolution depended upon the social transformation of Asia, England ‘was the unconscious tool of history in bringing about that revolution’.176 Despite what Dana called ‘the Indian War’, Karl’s thinking was not deeply affected by the Indian Mutiny. The Indian revolt did not begin with the Ryots, who were ‘tortured, dishonoured and stripped naked by the British’, but with ‘the Sepoys, clad, fed, petted, fatted and pampered by them’.

Nor were they – as they were to become in the post-Darwin era – natural beings striving to rise above their simian origins and baser instincts or instinctively herding together in nature’s competitive struggle. But this focus on production had not proved an adequate guide either to a full understanding of the economy, or to the construction of a tenable politics based upon it. Other forms of radicalism and socialism were proving more flexible. In England, more attention was paid to inequalities of distribution, and the political domination of the landed class. The aim of Mill’s Land Tenure Reform Association and of the Land and Labour League, both founded in 1869, was to contest this dominance.77 In France, the Saint-Simonians had contested more broadly the right of inheritance. Among the socialists, the followers of Owen and Proudhon emphasized the defects of circulation, a system based upon ‘buying cheap and selling dear’. They suggested a variety of measures ranging from cooperative production to a currency of labour-notes or, in more moderate and reform-minded versions, the full legalization of trade unions, an expansion of credit or reform of the banks.

As in the Grundrisse, the starting point of Karl’s depiction of circulation in the draft of Volume II was that of the circular or spiral progression of capital, which through its own momentum dissolved previous economic forms and produced workers and capitalists on an ever-increasing scale. The particular aim of the analysis was to connect the emergence of commodity production in Book I with the transition from feudal or other pre-capitalist forms of land tenure to capitalist ground rent in Book III. But how could a necessary connection be established between the abstract depiction of the extended reproduction of capital and the actual historical expansion of capitalist relations? The version of Volume II which Engels published in 1885 presented Karl’s writings on this question as a series of consecutive chapters. But the material itself suggested repeated attempts to draft a satisfactory solution to the same problem.

Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain by John Darwin

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, Kowloon Walled City, land tenure, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing

‘He must make himself acquainted with the languages, dispositions and circumstances of the people; the various descriptions of land tenures; the sources from which the public revenues are drawn’ and the means to enlarge them.37 From 1796 onward, proficiency in one of a province’s main languages became a condition for promotion to collector. Collectors were also expected to tour their districts for up to four months a year, to show the flag and keep an eye on their Indian subordinates. In most of the provinces, there were periodic reassessments of the land tax to be paid. This required a village-by-village, field-by-field survey by a British ‘settlement officer’. These settlement reports, with their mass of information about fertility, crops, land tenures and population, remain a prime source for India’s social history. Sheer bureaucratic persistence was thus a key explanation for the success of British rule in overcoming the barriers of ignorance and foreignness.

Macfarlane (Melbourne, 1991), p. xvii: Bourke to Glenelg, 18 December 1835. Glenelg was Secretary of State for the Colonies. 44. Ibid, p. 36: J. Stephen to Colonization Commissioners, 27 October 1836. 45. J. Hall-Jones, John Turnbull Thomson: First Surveyor-General of New Zealand (Dunedin, 1992), p. 30. 46. E. Liebenberg, ‘The Mapping of South Africa 1813–1912’, in T. R. H. Davenport (ed.), History of Surveying and Land Tenure: Collected Papers, vol. 2 (Cape Town, 2004), p. 75. 47. For an excellent study based on New Zealand, G. Byrnes, Boundary Markers: Land Surveying and the Colonisation of New Zealand (Wellington, 2001). 48. Quoted in ibid., p. 24. 49. For a description of the technique, A. E. J. Andrews, Major Mitchell’s Map, 1834: The Saga of the Survey of the Nineteen Counties (Hobart, 1992), p. 9. 50. Wood, Making Ontario, pp. 93–6. 51.

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Empire of Cotton: A Global History by Sven Beckert

agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, imperial preference, industrial cluster, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, women in the workforce

Eventually they decided that wage labor did not work, with one of the planters stating categorically that “cultivation by paid labor could, under no circumstances, be profitably applied to Cotton in that part of the country.”57 The experiences in India indeed seemed to confirm cotton’s dependence on coercion. Yet slavery, manufacturers began to understand, could not be completely trusted. And since manufacturers’ own capital and their own institutions were insufficient to create alternative systems, they turned to the state: They demanded new laws regarding land tenure to secure investments in cotton. They demanded even more investment in experimental farms and the accumulation of agricultural knowledge, more state investment in infrastructure, and a tax on the cultivators that would not discourage cotton growers from investing and improving the quantity and quality of their crops. Cotton capitalists in Britain and India understood that capital had to be infused in the countryside, but they found the conditions there too risky.

Along the same lines, the Manchester Chamber of Commerce called a special meeting in July 1862 regarding the supply of cotton from India, demanding “that public aid be given for this object by forwarding such public works as will facilitate the production and transport of cotton to the port of shipment, such as works of irrigation, roads, or railways, and by amending and perfecting the Laws of Contract and Land Tenure.” Manufacturers and colonial bureaucrats, faced with the cotton famine, became increasingly impatient with the workings of the market. As the superintendent of the Cotton Gin Factory in the Dharwar Collectorate reported in May 1862, while “we are strongly impressed with the belief, that, as a general rule, it is not judicious to interfere by legislative enactments in matters connected with trade, but looking to the circumstances of the present case,…to the immense importance of the questions at the present time affecting not only local, but national, interests, and to the apparent inefficiency of the present law, we are forced to the conviction that exceptional and more stringent legislation is necessary.”

As an anonymous British writer on Indian cotton explained, “Where there is no intelligent population to lead the way, a Government must do what in more civilized countries can safely be left to private enterprise.”49 The creation of private property in land became yet another state-led project, in India and elsewhere. British cotton manufactures, demanding that the colonial government “set its colonial house in order,” called for new forms of land tenure, as they perceived the old system of communal ownership as “obstructive to the rights of individual ownership, and to its effective cultivation.” They saw private property in land as a precondition for increasing production of cotton. Individuals were to gain clear title in land that then could be bought, sold, rented, or mortgaged. These new property rights were quite a departure: In precolonial Berar, for example, relations between various social groups had been characterized by a “master-servant relationship of social status in the caste hierarchy” in which “the produce of the soil…was divided according to social ranking.”

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Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India by Shashi Tharoor

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate raider, deindustrialization, European colonialism, global village, informal economy, joint-stock company, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Parkinson's law, trade route

At the high noon of early twenty-first-century imperial hubris, with America poised to invade Iraq, Russia in retreat, the Taliban in disarray and Bin Laden in hiding, and the currents of globalization flowing strongly (and seemingly irresistibly) around the world, the controversial Scottish historian Niall Ferguson published Empire: How Britain Made the World, which saw in the past all the virtues he wished to celebrate in the present. The British, Ferguson wrote, combined commerce, conquest, and some ‘evangelical imperialism’ in an early form of globalization—or, in a particularly infelicitous word, ‘Anglobalization’—and in so doing Britain bequeathed to a large part of the world nine of its most distinctive and admirable features, the very ones that had made Britain great: the English language, English forms of land tenure, Scottish and English banking, the common law, Protestantism, team sports, the ‘night watchman’ state, representative assemblies, and the idea of liberty. The last of these, he tells us, is ‘the most distinctive feature of the Empire’ since ‘whenever the British were behaving despotically, there was always a liberal critique of that behaviour from within British society’. We shall return to the broader elements of Ferguson’s analysis (and that of other apologists for Empire like Lawrence James) in Chapter 7, but it is the claims to liberal democracy that detain us now.

.), Competitive Elections in Developing Countries, Durham, NC: Duke University, 1987, pp. 3–34. ‘In India,’ wrote an eminent English civil servant: H. Fielding-Hall, Passing of the Empire, London: Hurst & Blackett, 1913, p. 134. ‘a society of little societies’: Wilson, India Conquered, p. 14. ‘Areas in which proprietary rights in land’: See, for instance, Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, ‘History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India’, The American Economic Review, Vol. 95, No. 4, 2005, pp. 1190–1213. ‘We may be regarded as the spring which’: Forrest, 1918, p. 296. William Bolts, a Dutch trader…wrote in 1772: Bolts, 1772, p. vi. ‘Of all human conditions, perhaps the most brilliant’: Dalrymple, ‘The East India Company’. The British charges against the rulers they overthrew: Hyndman: Report on India, 1907, Ruin of India by British, pp. 513–533.

pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game

And here the fingerprints of empire seem more readily discernible and less easy to expunge. When the British governed a country – even when they only influenced its government by flexing their military and financial muscles – there were certain distinctive features of their own society that they tended to disseminate. A list of the more important of these would run: The English language English forms of land tenure Scottish and English banking The Common Law Protestantism Team sports The limited or ‘night watchman’ state Representative assemblies The idea of liberty The last of these is perhaps the most important because it remains the most distinctive feature of the Empire, the thing that sets it apart from its continental European rivals. I do not mean to claim that all British imperialists were liberals: some were very far from it.

Nowadays we tend to think of this as the start of Ireland’s troubles. But colonization was intended as the answer to the country’s chronic instability. Since Henry VIII’s proclamation of himself as King of Ireland in 1541, English power had been limited to the so-called ‘Pale’ of earlier English settlement around Dublin and the beleaguered Scottish fort of Carrickfergus. In language, religion, land tenure and social structure, the rest of Ireland was another world. There was, however, a danger: Roman Catholic Ireland might be used by Spain as a back door into Protestant England. Systematic colonization was adopted as the remedy. In 1556 Mary allocated confiscated estates in Leix and Offaly in Leinster to settlers who established Philips-town and Maryborough there, but these were little more than military outposts.

Year 501 by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

“Instead of building from existing democratic institutions which, on paper, were quite impressive and had long incorporated the liberal democratic philosophy and governmental machinery associated with the French Revolution, the United States blatantly overrode them and illegally forced through its own authoritarian, antidemocratic system.” “The establishment of foreign-dominated plantation agriculture necessitated destruction of the existing minifundia land-tenure system with its myriad peasant freeholders,” who were forced into peonage. The US supported “a minority of collaborators” from the local elite who admired European fascism but lacked the mass appeal of their fascist models. “In effect,” Schmidt observes, “the Occupation embodied all the progressive attitudes of contemporary Italian fascism, but was crippled by failures in human relationships” (lack of popular support).

It was soon to be answered, in just the way she anticipated. Again, the advanced civilization of the Indians stood in the way of civilization, properly conceived. What followed is described by Angie Debo in her classic study And Still the Waters Run. In the independent Indian Territory, land was held collectively and life was contented and prosperous. The Federal Indian Office opposed communal land tenure by ideological dogma, as well as for its practical effect: preventing takeover by white intruders. In 1883, a group of self-styled philanthropists and humanitarians began to meet to consider problems of the Indians. Their third meeting was addressed by Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, considered a “distinguished Indian theorist,” who had just concluded a visit of inspection to the Indian Territory.

China: A History by John Keay

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Deng Xiaoping, imperial preference, invention of movable type, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, Pax Mongolica, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, éminence grise

Especially marked in the north, where emigration continued to take a heavy toll, depopulation induced victorious regimes ‘to place greater value on the control of persons than the control of territory’ and to treat cultivators as the spoils of war.31 Large numbers were indeed resettled, usually within reach of the capital; but many decamped at the slightest provocation, and as the pace of conquest slowed, so did the supply of new settlers. To increase the agricultural yield, the Northern Wei would have to devise inducements and incentives for the cultivator, including a permanent and equitable system of land tenure. Vouchsafed a longer dominion than any of their post-Han predecessors, the Northern Wei had ample time to acclimatise politically and to experiment. As under previous regimes, Buddhism served as a source of legitimisation and as a bridge over the ethnic divide between non-Chinese and Chinese. But it was also harnessed more directly to the interests of the state. A branch of the bureaucracy took over the regulation of Buddhist affairs; and the difficulty of Buddhist clergy owing obedience to their monastic superiors rather than to the imperial authorities was overcome by elevating the emperor above the clergy as a titular Bodhisattva.

The Zhouli, it may be recalled, was also the text so slavishly adopted by Wang Mang in the early first century AD. Once again the long-forgotten nomenclature of Zhou times was resurrected; edicts were issued in the archaic Chinese of that period and all officials compelled to learn it; a handy catechism comprising the Six Articles of the new dispensation had also to be memorised by heart; and the ‘equal-fields system’ of land tenure, though introduced by the Northern Wei, was retained as a fair approximation to the ancient ‘well-field’ grid of equal peasant holdings. Naturally Buddhism and Daoism were frowned on and both were eventually proscribed. Whether such affectations endeared the foreign elite to their Chinese subjects is, however, doubtful; for when the duke of Sui, a member of that elite, rose against the Northern Zhou in 581, one of his first moves would be to reject the whole exercise.

Additionally, there were now scholarships for students to pursue further education overseas. Japan proved especially popular; it was not just nearer than Europe or America but, thanks to its Confucian heritage and Chinese script, intellectually more accessible. The Japanese model of modernisation also had much to recommend it. There the monarchy continued to be revered but had been reduced to constitutional status by the introduction of a parliamentary structure. Land tenure had been reformed, education redirected and heavy industries developed. ‘Rich Country, Strong Army’ being the slogan, a centralised government had forged national solidarity by giving the highest priority to the economy and the military. It had paid off in the Sino-Japanese war over Korea in 1894, and it was vindicated again when in 1904–5 a Russo-Japanese war broke out over concessions in both Korea and Manchuria.

Investment: A History by Norton Reamer, Jesse Downing

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, backtesting, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, colonial rule, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, equity premium, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, land tenure, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, margin call, means of production, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, statistical arbitrage, survivorship bias, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Vanguard fund, working poor, yield curve

McIntosh, Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 3, 62–65, and 349–350; Van De Mieroop, Ancient Mesopotamian City, 146–147. 3. Benjamin Foster, “A New Look at the Sumerian Temple State,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 24, no. 3 (October 1981): 226–227. 4. Maria deJ Ellis, Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Introduction to the Problems of Land Tenure, Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 1 (Philadelphia: University Museum, 1976), 10. 5. Foster, “Sumerian Temple State,” 226. 6. W. F. Leemans, “The Role of Landlease in Mesopotamia in the Early Second Millennium b.c.,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 18, no. 2 (June 1975): 136. 7. Foster, “Sumerian Temple State,” 226. 8. G. van Driel, “Capital Formation and Investment in an Institutional Context in Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Trade and Finance in Ancient Mesopotamia, ed.

Capital: The Story of Long-Term Investment Excellence. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004. Ellis, Charles D., and James R. Vertin. True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance. Vol. 2 of Wall Street People. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003. Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Knopf, 2004. Ellis, Maria deJ. Agriculture and the State in Ancient Mesopotamia: An Introduction to the Problems of Land Tenure. Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 1. Philadelphia: University Museum, 1976. Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage.” Accessed January 2015. -Olivia-Slocum-Sage. ——. “Married Women’s Property Acts.” Accessed January 2015. http:// w w w. b r i t a n n i c a . c o m / E B c h e c k e d / t o p i c / 3 6 6 3 0 5 / M a r r i e d -Womens-Property-Acts. ——.

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Scots and Catalans: Union and Disunion by J. H. Elliott

active measures, agricultural Revolution, banking crisis, British Empire, centre right, land tenure, mass immigration, mobile money, new economy, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, sharing economy, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban renewal

Many Highland gentry had served in wars on the continent, and their horizons had been broadened by foreign travel. It is not, therefore, surprising to find improving landlords among them. 55 Yet improvement, for all its potential agrarian benefits, also meant social dislocation, as developments on the Argyll estates were to show. The second duke, an enthusiastic improving landlord, was always in need of money, and enthusiastically set about revolutionizing the system of land tenure on his properties. When ‘tacks’, or leases, fell vacant they no longer went automatically to clan followers, but were auctioned off to the highest bidder, who would pay a substantially raised rent. The old tacksmen found themselves displaced, to the detriment of old-style clanship and vassalage. By the time of the second duke’s death in 1743 the social disruption caused by his treatment of his tenants was so serious that his brother and successor, the Earl of Ilay, took immediate steps to reverse it and restore Campbells to their holdings.

., abbot of Montserrat, (i) España, Carlos, Count of, (i) Espartero, General Baldomero, (i) , (ii) Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Estates: Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalonia, (i) , (ii) Estatut, (i) ; see also Autonomy, Statutes of ETA (Basque movement), (i) European Commission: bars unilateral secession, (i) European Union ( formerly Community): promotes liberal democracy, (i) ; Spain joins, (i) ; Scottish policy on, (i) ; attitude to breakaway states, (i) ; and British referendum, (i) ; Britain votes to leave, (i) ; danger of independent Catalonia losing membership, (i) ; member states fear internal separatist movements, (i) ; Puigdemont supporters denounce, (i) Ewing, Winifred, (i) Exclusion Crisis (England, 1679–81), (i) ‘exempt provinces’, (i) , (ii) , (iii) exhibitions: Barcelona, (i) , (ii) ; Glasgow, (i) ; Paris (1937), (i) Faculty of Advocates (Scottish), (i) , (ii) fadristerns , (i) , (ii) ; see also mas (farmstead) fascism, (i) , (ii) federalism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) felipistas , (i) , (ii) Feliu de la Peña, Narciso, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Fénix de Cataluña , (i) Ferdinand of Antequera, (i) Ferdinand (the Catholic), King of Aragon and of Spain: marriage and rule, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; death, (i) , (ii) ; as king of Aragon after Isabella’s death, (i) ; and Sentence of Guadalupe, (i) ; captures Granada, (i) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain ( earlier Prince of Asturias), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Ferguson, Adam, (i) Feria, Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, 2nd Duke of, (i) Ferrer i Guárdia, Francesc, (i) Ferro, Víctor, (i) feudalism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) First World War see Great War (1914–18) fiscal-military state, (i) , (ii) flags: Scottish, (i) ; British (union flag), (i) , (ii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) Flanders, (i) Fletcher, Andrew, of Saltoun, (i) Flodden Field, battle of (1513), (i) foral law (Catalonia), (i) , (ii) Forcadell, Carme, (i) France: ‘auld alliance’ with Scotland, (i) ; rescues and supports Mary Queen of Scots, (i) ; wars with England, (i) ; Catalonia becomes protectorate of, (i) , (ii) ; war with Spain (1635–59), (i) , (ii) ; Franco-Spanish frontier redrawn (1659), (i) ; French immigrants in Catalonia, (i) ; French invasion (1695–7), (i) ; Catalan hostility to, (i) , (ii) ; supports Stuart pretender to English throne, (i) ; war with Spain (1793–5), (i) ; French invasion and Spanish resistance (1808), (i) , (ii) ; occupies Catalonia in Napoleonic Wars, (i) Francis II, King of France, (i) Franco, General Francisco, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Franks, (i) , (ii) Free Church of Scotland, (i) , (ii) French Revolution (1789), (i) , (ii) fueros (Aragonese and Valencian): Aragon’s revolt over defence of, (i) ; abolished by Philip V, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; ‘exempt provinces’, (i) , (ii) ; desire for recovery, (i) ; see also Constitutions, Catalan Gaelic see language Galicia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Galileo Galilei, (i) Ganivet, Ángel: Idearium español , (i) Garbett, Samuel, (i) Gaudí, Antoni, (i) Gaythelos (Greek prince), (i) Generalitat: role and function, (i) ; revived (1931), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; re-established (1977), (i) , (ii) ; Pujol’s presidency, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Constitutional Tribunal discusses, (i) ; educational and cultural programmes, (i) ; anger at Supreme Constitutional Tribunal’s ruling, (i) ; policy on independence, (i) , (ii) ; overspending, (i) ; economic management, (i) ; see also Diputació; Govern Genoa, Treaty of (1705), (i) Geoffrey of Monmouth: History of the Kings of England , (i) , (ii) George I, King of Great Britain, (i) , (ii) George II, King of Great Britain, (i) George III, King of Great Britain, (i) George IV, King of Great Britain, (i) Gibbs, James, (i) Gibraltar: captured by Allies (1704), (i) Gil, Pere, (i) Gil Robles, José María, (i) Gilmour, Sir John, (i) Girona: established as province, (i) ; under French occupation, (i) ; sieges of (1684), (i) ; (1808), (i) Gladstone, William Ewart, (i) , (ii) n.4 Glasgow: riots over proposed union (1706), (i) ; Malt Tax riots (1725), (i) ; population increase, (i) ; and Atlantic trade, (i) ; Literary Society, (i) ; compared with Barcelona, (i) ; mercantile elite, (i) ; university, (i) , (ii) n. 130; unrest and riots (1819), (i) ; (1848), (i) ; industrial growth and dominance, (i) , (ii) ; Kelvingrove Park exhibitions (1880 and 1901), (i) ; contribution to Great War, (i) ; rent strike, (i) ; see also Clydeside Glasgow General Assembly (1638), (i) Glencairn, William Cunningham, 9th Earl of, (i) Glencoe, Massacre of (1692), (i) Glendower, Owen, (i) , (ii) Glenfinnan, (i) globalization, (i) Glorious Revolution (1688–9), (i) , (ii) Gloucester, William, Duke of: death (1700), (i) ‘God Save the King’: as British national anthem, (i) , (ii) Goded, General Manuel, (i) Godoy, Manuel, (i) Good Friday Agreement (Ireland, 1998), (i) Goschen, George, 1st Viscount, (i) Goths, (i) Govern, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Goya, Francisco, (i) Granada: as Moorish kingdom, (i) ; captured by Ferdinand and Isabella, (i) Grant, Alexander, (i) Great Britain: and Scottish independence movement, (i) ; formed by James VI/I’s joint monarchy, (i) ; mythical origins, (i) ; and dynastic union (1603), (i) ; as term, (i) , (ii) ; and nationality, (i) ; formally created (1707), (i) , (ii) ; reordered after Union, (i) ; victories in Seven Years War, (i) ; as fiscal-military state, (i) ; impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, (i) , (ii) ; Spain sees as enemy, (i) ; wars with Spain (1796–1802, 1804–8), (i) ; growing power, (i) ; patriotism, (i) ; as united nation-state, (i) ; union by association and imitation, (i) ; 19th-century stability and prosperity, (i) ; proposed federalism, (i) ; regional aspirations, (i) ; patriotism in Great War, (i) ; sense of unity in Second World War, (i) ; welfare state established, (i) , (ii) ; post-war GDP, (i) ; votes to leave EU, (i) ; see also England Great Depression (1929–1930s), (i) Great Reform Bill (and Act, 1832), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Great War (1914–18): and collapse of Austro-Hungarian Empire, (i) ; suspends British home rule movements, (i) , (ii) ; and social-political change, (i) ; Spain’s neutrality in, (i) , (ii) ; effect on British sense of community, (i) Guadalupe, Sentence of, (i) Guardia Civil: created (1844), (i) Güell family, (i) Guipúzcoa, (i) Habsburg dynasty: and Spanish royal succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Haig, Douglas, 1st Earl, (i) Hamilton, James, 3rd Marquis ( later 1st Duke) of, (i) Hamilton, James Douglas, 4th Duke of (and Duke of Brandon), (i) , (ii) Hamilton, James, 7th Duke of, (i) Hamilton by-election (1967), (i) Hampden, John, (i) Hanover, House of: and succession to British throne, (i) , (ii) harvest: failures in Scotland (1695–9), (i) ; in Spain (1790s), (i) Hastings, Warren, (i) Heath, Ted, (i) Hebrides, (i) Henry II, King of England, (i) Henry VII, King of England, (i) , (ii) Henry VIII, King of England, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Henry II, King of France, (i) heraldry: Catalan, (i) Heritable Jurisdictions Act (1747), (i) , (ii) Hesse-Darmstadt, George, Prince of, (i) Highlands (Scottish): character, (i) ; lawlessness and banditry in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Glencairn’s rising (1653), (i) ; Monck subdues, (i) ; as recruiting ground for Jacobites, (i) ; Anglicization, (i) , (ii) ; land tenure, (i) ; Wade’s road-building programme, (i) ; and Jacobite rebellion (1745), (i) ; farming difficulties, (i) ; provides troops for British Army, (i) ; migration to America, (i) ; and national identity, (i) ; in romanticized history, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; clearances, (i) , (ii) Hispania: as myth, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; as term, (i) historiography, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also myths Holland, Henry Richard Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron, (i) Holyroodhouse, Palace of, (i) home rule: Catalan, (i) , (ii) ; Spain and, (i) ; Irish, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; devolution accepted by major British political parties, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; critics of, (i) , (ii) ; see also independence Horne, Sir Robert, (i) Huguenots: persecuted in France, (i) Hume, David, (i) Hundred Thousand Sons of St Louis, (i) Hutcheson, Francis, (i) ‘Hymn of the Grenadiers’ (Spanish national anthem), (i) Iberian Peninsula: union of regions, (i) , (ii) ; localism, (i) ; see also federalism; Hispania; Spain Ilay, Archibald Campbell, Earl of ( later 3rd Duke of Argyll), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ‘improvement’: English origins, (i) , (ii) ; in Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) independence movements: Catalan, (i) , (ii) ; independent republic (1641) (i) ; (1713), (i) ; criticized by Balmes, (i) ; (1934) (i) ; (since 2010), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; overseas imperial territories, (i) , (ii) ; Cuba, (i) , (ii) ; see also home rule; secession and separatism India: Scots in, (i) Indies see empires, Spanish industrialization: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; European, (i) , (ii) ; see also ‘improvement’; textiles Innes, Thomas, (i) Inquisition, Spanish, (i) Institute of San Isidro, (i) intermarriage: Scots-English, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Spanish Monarchy, (i) Ireland: treaty with Britain (1921) and creation of Irish Free State (1922), (i) , (ii) ; conquered by English, (i) , (ii) ; Henry VIII proclaimed King of (1541) and English rule, (i) , (ii) ; relations with western Scotland and Scottish settlers in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Ulster plantation, (i) ; rebellion (1641), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; support for James II and reconquered by William III, (i) ; keeps parliament, (i) ; manpower resources, (i) ; 1798 rebellion, (i) , (ii) ; incorporating union (1801) and inclusion in British parliament, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Church disestablished (1869), (i) ; nationalism and Home Rule movement, (i) , (ii) ; Easter Rising (1916), (i) , (ii) ; Irish immigrants in Scotland, (i) ; see also Northern Ireland; Ulster Isabel II, Queen of Spain, (i) Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Italy: fascism in, (i) ; see also Mazzini Jacobites and Jacobitism: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; rebellions (1715), (i) , (ii) ; (1745), (i) , (ii) ; Jacobitism and Scottish history, (i) ; see also Charles Edward Stuart; James Francis Edward Stuart Jamància (pastry-cooks’ revolt, 1842), (i) James II, King of Great Britain ( earlier Duke of York): proposed as viceroy in Scotland, (i) ; Edinburgh court (1679–82), (i) ; accession (1685) and religious policy, (i) ; flight to France and exile, (i) ; death (1701), (i) James III, King of Scotland, (i) James IV, King of Scotland, (i) , (ii) James V, King of Scotland, (i) James VI, King of Scotland (James I of England): succeeds to English throne (1603), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; as ruler of composite monarchy, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; crowned king of Scotland, (i) ; adopts style ‘Great Britain’, (i) ; compatriots follow to English court, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; advocates perfect union, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) ; and nationality question, (i) ; on intermarriage of nobility, (i) ; attempts to pacify Borders, (i) ; death (1625), (i) James Francis Edward Stuart, Prince (‘the Old Pretender’; ‘James III/VIII’): and succession, (i) ; rising (1715), (i) , (ii) ; exile and plotting, (i) ; see also Jacobites Jaume I, Count-King (‘the Conqueror’), (i) Jefferson, Thomas, (i) Jeffreys, George, 1st Baron, (i) Jenkins’s Ear, War of (1739–48), (i) Jesuits, (i) , (ii) Jocs Florals , (i) , (ii) John of Fordun, (i) John II, King of Aragon, (i) John II, King of Catalonia, (i) John IV, King of Portugal ( formerly Duke of Braganza), (i) Johnson, Samuel, (i) Johnston, Tom, (i) Johnstone family, (i) Johnstone, George, (i) Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, (i) Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Juan Carlos, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Juan José de Austria, Don, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Junqueras, Oriol, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Junta de Comercio (Barcelona), (i) Junta Superior (Catalonia, 1808), (i) , (ii) Junts per Catalunya (JpC), (i) , (ii) Justices of the Peace: in Scotland, (i) Kames, Henry Home, Lord, (i) Killiecrankie, battle of (1689), (i) Kirk: General Assembly, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; unease at James VI/I’s religious policies, (i) ; gifts of property revoked, (i) ; Charles I’s liturgical reforms resisted, (i) ; fails to extend church government to England, (i) ; vulnerability after 1707 settlement, (i) ; welcomes Hanoverian succession, (i) ; opposes Gaelic language, (i) ; Moderates acquire control, (i) ; and national sentiment, (i) ; diminishing influence, (i) ; see also Church of Scotland; Disruptionists; Presbyterianism Kirk o’ Field, Edinburgh, (i) Knox, John, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also Covenant Labour Party (British), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Labour Party (Scottish), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) labour (workers): in Scotland and Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; and industrial unrest, (i) ; organized, (i) , (ii) ; indifference to Catalan autonomy, (i) ; see also anarchism; trade unions lairds, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) language: Castilian, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; nineteenth-century revival, (i) , (ii) ; prohibitions under Franco, (i) ; official status in 1978 Constitution, (i) ; Generalitat’s promotion of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; English, (i) ; Gaelic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Laud, William, Archbishop of Canterbury, (i) Lauderdale, John Maitland, 1st Duke of, (i) , (ii) law: English–Scottish differences, (i) ; English Common, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) León: united with Castile, (i) ; foundation myth, (i) Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, (i) Leovigild, Visigothic king, (i) Lérida see Lleida Lerroux, Alejandro, (i) , (ii) Leslie, General Alexander, 1st Earl of Leven, (i) Liberal Democrats (Britain): coalition with Conservatives (2010), (i) ; decline in Scotland, (i) Liberal Party (British), (i) , (ii) Liberal Party (Spanish), (i) ; factional divisions, (i) Liberal Unionists (Scottish), (i) , (ii) liberalism: ideology, (i) , (ii) ; in Cortes of Cadiz, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; liberal triennium (1820–3) (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; in Scotland, (i) Lithuania: union with Poland, (i) Lleida (Lérida), (i) , (ii) Lliga Regionalista ( later Catalana), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Llivia, (i) Llorens i Barba, Xavier, (i) Lloyd George, David, (i) London Corresponding Society, (i) Lord Advocate (Scotland), (i) , (ii) Lords of the Articles (Scotland), (i) , (ii) Lords, House of: Scottish peers in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; as ultimate court of appeal, (i) ; Irish peers in, (i) Lothian, William Kerr, 3rd Earl of, (i) Louis I (the Pious), Carolingian Emperor, (i) Louis XIII, King of France, (i) , (ii) Louis XIV, King of France, (i) , (ii) ; and Spanish succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Louis XVI, King of France, (i) Lublin, Union of (1569), (i) McCormick, John, (i) McCrone, David: Understanding Scotland , (i) MacDiarmid, Hugh, (i) MacDonald, Ramsay, (i) Macià, Colonel Francesc, (i) , (ii) Macmillan, Harold, (i) Macpherson, James, (i) Madrid: Archduke Charles captures, (i) , (ii) ; population increase, (i) ; uprising against French invaders ( dos de mayo , 1808), (i) ; urban elite, (i) ; lacks manufacturing, (i) ; political and administrative power, (i) , (ii) ; as national capital, (i) , (ii) ; University, (i) ; see also Castile; Spain Magna Carta (1215), (i) Mair, John: Historia Maioris Britanniae , (i) Major, John, (i) , (ii) Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (i) Malcontents , (i) Mallorca: Jaume I captures from Moors, (i) ; and Indies, (i) ; language, (i) , (ii) ; and Nueva Planta, (i) Malt Tax, (i) ; riots (Glasgow, 1725), (i) Man, Isle of, (i) Mancomunitat, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Manresa, (i) , (ii) Mar, John Erskine, 22nd or 6th Earl of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Maragall, Pasqual, (i) , (ii) Margaret (‘Maid of Norway’): death, (i) , (ii) Margaret, Queen of Alexander III of Scotland, (i) Margaret, St, Queen of Malcolm III of Scotland, (i) Margaret Tudor, Queen of James IV of Scotland, (i) Margarit i Pau, Joan, Cardinal, (i) María Cristina de Borbón, Queen of Ferdinand VII, (i) María Cristina de Austria, Queen of Alfonso XII, (i) Martin the Humane, Count of Barcelona, (i) Martínez Marina, Francisco, (i) ; Theory of the Cortes , (i) Mary of Guise, Queen of James V of Scotland, (i) , (ii) Mary I (Tudor), Queen of England, (i) Mary II (Stuart), Queen of Great Britain, (i) Mary Queen of Scots, (i) , (ii) Mas, Artur, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) mas (farmstead), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also fadristerns Mataró, (i) Maura, Antonio, (i) , (ii) May, Theresa, (i) Mazzini, Giuseppe, (i) ‘Memorandum of Grievances’ ( Memorial de Greuges ), (i) Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino, (i) Menorca, (i) Millar, John, (i) miquelets , (i) , (ii) Miralles, Enric, (i) Miró, Joan: Segador (mural), (i) modernista movement, (i) Mon, Alejandro, (i) monarchy: as unifying force, (i) ; ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’, (i) , (ii) ; restored in Spain (1874), (i) ; ceremonial activities in Europe, (i) ; as centre of stability in Spain, (i) ; styling in Britain, (i) monarquia española (Spanish Monarchy), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also empires, Spanish Monck, General George (1st Duke of Albemarle), (i) , (ii) Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of: rebellion (1685), (i) Montjuïc, battle of (1641), (i) ; World Fair site (1929), (i) Montrose, James Graham, 5th Earl and 1st Marquis of, (i) , (ii) Montserrat: Santa Maria abbey, (i) , (ii) Moors (Muslims): invade and settle southern Spain, (i) ; conflict with Christians, (i) ; Barcelona recaptured from, (i) Morocco: Spain’s wars in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Mossos d’Esquadra, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Muir, Edwin, (i) Muirhead, Roland, (i) Muntañola, Pere, (i) Murat, General Joachim, (i) Mussolini, Benito, (i) myths: and national identity, (i) , (ii) ; and foundation of Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and foundation of Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; see also historiography; Romantic movement Nairn, Tom, (i) Naples: Alfonso V conquers, (i) ; and composite monarchy, (i) Napoleon I (Bonaparte), Emperor of the French, (i) , (ii) Napoleonic Wars: impact on Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) Narváez, General Ramón Maria, 1st Duke of Valencia, (i) Naseby, battle of (1645), (i) nation: concept and meaning, (i) , (ii) ‘nation-state’: as political formation, (i) ; (i) ; (i) ; Pi i Margall on, (i) ; Prat de la Riba on, (i) national anthems, (i) , (ii) National Assembly of Catalonia (ANC), (i) National Party of Scotland, (i) nationalism: rise of, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; linguistic, (i) ; English, (i) , (ii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) ; British, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; in post–Great War Europe, (i) ; resurgence, (i) , (ii) ; changes with circumstances, (i) ; see also patria , patriotism; unionist nationalism nationality, (i) ; difficulties over definition, (i) nationalization, (i) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), (i) Navarre, kingdom of: status in Spain, (i) ; Castilian conquest and incorporation (1515), (i) ; under Bourbon administration, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also ‘exempt provinces’ Navigation Acts (English), (i) , (ii) Negrín, Juan, (i) Netherlands see Dutch Republic, Flanders New Lanark, (i) New Model Army (English), (i) Newcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of, (i) newspapers, (i) , (ii) Newton, Sir Isaac: Principia Mathematica , (i) Nifo, Francisco Mariano, (i) Nine Years War (1688–97), (i) , (ii) nobility: Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; intermarriage in Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also Lords, House of Normans: expansion in Britain, (i) North America Act (Britain, 1867), (i) North Sea oil, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Northern Ireland: Good Friday Agreement (1998), (i) ; see also Ulster Norway: contends for dominion over Scotland, (i) Nottingham, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of, (i) Nueva Planta: as incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; and system of government and administration, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Numancia, (i) , (ii) Núria Statute, (i) ‘October Revolution’ (1934), (i) O’Donnell, General Leopoldo, (i) Olivares, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of: administration and reforms, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and war with France (1635), (i) ; and Catalans, (i) , (ii) ; opposition and downfall, (i) ; see also Union of Arms Oliver, Frederick Scott, (i) , (ii) Omnium Cultural (organization), (i) Organic Laws (1978 Constitution), (i) , (ii) n. 41 Orkney, (i) Ortega y Gasset, José, (i) Orwell, George, (i) Ossian, (i) Oswald, Richard, (i) Oxford, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of, (i) , (ii) Paisley: riots (1819), (i) Paris International Exhibition (1937), (i) Parliament British: composition, (i) ; and peripheral countries’ representation, (i) ; sovereignty, (i) ; see also Great Reform Bill (1832); Lords, House of Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) English: and union with Scotland, (i) ; Short (1640), (i) ; Long (1640–60), (i) ; Rump (1648), (i) ; as counterpart to Scottish parliament, (i) ; Convention (1689), (i) ; historical legacy, (i) Irish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Scottish: devolved, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; defers to monarch, (i) ; ratifies National Covenant, (i) ; and Triennial Act, (i) , (ii) ; and rebellion (1640s), (i) ; Covenanter, (i) ; dissolved, (i) ; post-Restoration status, (i) ; relations with English parliament, (i) ; activities, (i) ; passes Succession Act favouring James II, (i) ; revival under William III, (i) ; history of, (i) Spanish see Cortes; Corts parliamentary democracy: European disillusionment with, (i) Partido Popular (PP), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) Paterson, William, (i) Patiño, José, (i) , (ii) patria , patriotism: Catalan image of, (i) ; and Scottish and Catalan rebellions, (i) ; dual patriotism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; in Cortes of Cadiz, (i) ; and struggle for liberty, (i) ; and a federal Spain, (i) ; and state, (i) ; Primo de Rivera and Spanish, (i) Patronage Act (British, 1712), (i) peasantry, Catalan: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) peers (Scottish): in House of Lords, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; apply for English titles, (i) Pelayo, Don (legendary figure), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Penedès region, (i) Peninsular War, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Perpinyà (Perpignan), (i) Perth, Five Articles of (1618–21), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Peterborough, Admiral Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of, (i) Peterloo Massacre (Manchester, 1819), (i) Petronilla, wife of Ramon Berenguer, (i) Philip II, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) Philip III, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Philip IV, King of Spain: accession (1621), (i) ; early encounters with Catalans, (i) ; and Olivares’s administration, (i) , see also Olivares; and Catalan rebellion (1640–52), (i) , (ii) ; rule without minister-favourite, (i) Philip V, King of Spain ( earlier Duke of Anjou): contends for succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; and Catalan Corts (1702), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Nueva Planta, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; aims to recover lost Italian territories, (i) ; war with Charles VI ends, (i) Philip VI, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Philippines, (i) , (ii) Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, (i) Pi i Margall, Francesc, (i) , (ii) ; Las nacionalidades , (i) Picasso, Pablo: Guernica (painting), (i) Picts, (i) Pitt, William the Younger, (i) PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco, Basque Nationalist Party), (i) Poland: union with Lithuania, (i) political culture: English, (i) , (ii) ; Catalan, (i) ; Spanish, (i) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) population: Castile, (i) ; Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Crown of Aragon, (i) ; Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; England and Wales, (i) , (ii) Popular Front, (i) Porteous Riots (Edinburgh, 1736), (i) Portugal, kingdom of: (i) ; dynastic marriages, (i) ; and Ferdinand and Isabella’s title, (i) ; union with Spain (1580), (i) ; citizens declared foreigners in Castile, (i) ; customs barriers with Castile, (i) ; recovers independence (1640), (i) , (ii) ; in War of Spanish Succession, (i) ; French invade (1807), (i) ; and proposed federation with Spain, (i) , (ii) POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), (i) Prat de la Riba, Enric, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Compendium of Catalanist Doctrines (with Muntañola), (i) ; La nacionalitat catalana , (i) prayer book: in Scotland, (i) Presbyterianism: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; restored (1690), (i) , (ii) ; and Scottish national identity, (i) ; internal dissent, (i) ; relations with state, (i) ; see also Church of Scotland; Covenant; Kirk; Knox, John Preston, battle of (1648), (i) Prim, General Joan, (i) prime ministers (British): Scottish origins of, (i) , (ii) n. 4 Primo de Rivera, General Miguel, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Privy Council, British (post-Union), (i) , (ii) Privy Council, English, (i) , (ii) Privy Council, Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) pronunciamientos , (i) , (ii) proportional representation: in Scotland, (i) , (ii) protectionism, (i) Protestantism: adopted in England and Scotland, (i) ; and Scottish working-class culture, (i) ‘province’: differing interpretations, (i) PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; Socialist Party), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Puerto Rico, (i) , (ii) Puig, Tomàs, (i) Puigdemont, Carles, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Pujol, Jordi, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Pyrenees, Peace of the (1659), (i) Quadruple Alliance (Britain–France–Austria–Netherlands), (i) Quebec, (i) rabassaires , (i) , (ii) ; see also viticulture Radical Republican Party, (i) radicalism, (i) Rajoy, Mariano, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Ramon Berenguer IV, Count, (i) rauxa , (i) rebellions: Aragon (1590–1), (i) , (ii) barretines (1687), (i) Carlist, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Catalonia: (1640), (i) , (ii) ; (1705), (i) ; (1719), (i) ; (1822), (i) Ireland: (1641), (i) , (ii) ; (1798), (i) , (ii) Jacobite: (1715), (i) , (ii) ; (1745), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Madrid (1808), (i) Monmouth’s (1685), (i) Riego’s (1820), (i) , (ii) Scotland: (1638), (i) ; (1640s), (i) see also wars, civil Recaredo, Visigothic king, (i) , (ii) referendums Canada (1980, 1995), (i) Catalan (2017), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Scotland: (1979), (i) ; (1997), (i) ; (2014), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Spain (1978), (i) Wales (1979), (i) Reformation (Protestant): effect on Anglo-Scottish relations, (i) , (ii) ; exacerbates religious differences, (i) regidores , (i) , (ii) regionalism: in Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) , (x) , (xi) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also Home Rule; Lliga regionalista religion: resurgence, (i) ; see also Church of England; Church of Rome; Church of Scotland Renaixença , (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) resistance, right of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Revocation, Act of (1625), (i) revolutions of 1848, (i) , (ii) Richard III, King of England, (i) Richelieu, Cardinal Armand du Plessis, Duc de, (i) , (ii) Riego, Colonel Rafael de, (i) , (ii) rights (civil): and independence movements, (i) Ripon, Treaty of (1640), (i) Rius i Taulet, Francesc, (i) Rivera, Albert, (i) Robertson, William, (i) ; The History of America , (i) Robres, Agustín López de Mendoza y Pons, Count of, (i) Roebuck, John, (i) Romanones, Alvaro de Figueroa, Count of, (i) Romantic movement: influence, (i) , (ii) ; and historiography, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and revival of Catalan language, (i) Rome: Fascist march on (1922), (i) Ross, Willie, (i) Rosselló ( comtat ), (i) ‘rough wooing’ (Henry VIII’s), (i) Royal Academy of History, Madrid, (i) Royal Commission on the Constitution (1969), (i) Royal Company of Barcelona, (i) Rubió i Ors, Joaquim, (i) Ryswick, Treaty of (1697), (i) Sabadell, (i) Sagasta, Práxades, (i) Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Salmond, Alex, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) San Sebastián, Pact of (1930), (i) Sànchez, Jordi, (i) Sanjurjo, General José, (i) Sanpere i Miquel, Salvador, (i) Santa Coloma, Dalmau de Queralt, Count of, (i) , (ii) Sardana (dance form), (i) Scone, Scotland: as site of royal enthronement, (i) , (ii) ; stone of, (i) , (ii) Scota (mythical Scottish queen), (i) Scotia: as term, (i) Scotland: recent independence movement, (i) ; as nation without state, (i) ; devolved parliament (Assembly), (i) , (ii) ; dynastic union with England (1603), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Edward I invades and subdues, (i) ; geographical character, (i) ; colonised and settled, (i) ; influence of sea on, (i) ; Scots dominate, (i) ; early claims to sovereignty, (i) , (ii) ; land ownership and transfers, (i) ; close relations with Ireland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; local powers and chieftains, (i) ; territorial consolidation and expansion, (i) , (ii) ; slow state-building, (i) ; Wars of Independence, (i) , (ii) ; ‘auld alliance’ with France (1295), (i) ; population changes, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; foundation myth, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Protestantism, (i) , (ii) ; union settlement debated, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; administrative system after union, (i) ; intermarriage with English, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and nationality question, (i) ; customs barriers with England, (i) ; transatlantic trade and colonization (i) , (ii) ; incorporating union with England, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; innovation and reform under Charles I, (i) ; revenue raising under Charles I, (i) ; Estates, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; rebellion against England (1640s), (i) ; defeated by Cromwell (1650), (i) ; army threat to England, (i) ; army strength, (i) ; seeks confederal union with England, (i) ; role and fortunes in English Civil War, (i) , (ii) ; rift with England over execution of Charles I, (i) ; improvement in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) ; post–Civil War settlement and government reforms, (i) ; Episcopacy reimposed (1661), (i) ; rejects office of viceroy, (i) ; clan conflict, (i) ; church government (Presbyterian) in, (i) , (ii) ; and succession question (to Charles II), (i) ; divisions in, (i) ; cross-border trade, (i) , (ii) ; economic hardship and population loss, (i) , (ii) ; migration to America, (i) , (ii) ; William III’s indifference to, (i) ; and succession to William III and Anne, (i) ; opposes Catholic monarch, (i) ; as prospective province of Dutch Republic, (i) ; government and constitution under Union, (i) ; fear of anglicization after Treaty of Union, (i) ; constituencies reduced, (i) ; post-Union administrative and political part-autonomy, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; coinage, (i) ; sacrifices sovereignty, (i) ; shares economy with England, (i) ; delayed economic development, (i) ; Secretary of State for Scotland office revived under Oxford, (i) ; unable to participate in overseas trade, (i) ; administrative reforms under Walpole, (i) ; riots against English government, (i) ; resents English governance, (i) ; feudal jurisdictions abolished (1748), (i) ; social and economic changes (18th century), (i) , (ii) ; commercial networks disrupted by wars, (i) ; surplus food production and exports, (i) ; access to British market and overseas trade, (i) ; industrialization, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; textile and weaving industry, (i) , (ii) ; gains access to overseas trade, (i) , (ii) ; military service abroad, (i) ; shipbuilding, (i) ; manpower resources, (i) ; taxation levels, (i) ; administrators in India and colonies, (i) ; rise of English hostility to (1760s), (i) ; national identity and culture, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Enlightenment, (i) ; dual patriotism in, (i) ; and romanticized history, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; dissent and riots in, (i) ; Lords Lieutenant introduced, (i) ; national militia question, (i) ; representation in British parliament, (i) ; national debt, (i) ; ‘radical war’ (1820), (i) ; contribution to British Empire, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; agricultural revolution, (i) ; employment and labour, (i) ; landed aristocracy, (i) ; cotton spinners’ strike (1837), (i) ; parliamentary reform, (i) ; laissez-faire government in mid-19th century, (i) ; peripheral role in British economic development, (i) ; semi-independence, (i) ; feudalism survives, (i) ; historiography, (i) ; nineteenth-century renaissance, (i) ; grievances, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; provides British prime ministers, (i) , (ii) n. 4; education, (i) ; demands separate Department of State, (i) ; home rule movement, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; close ties with England, (i) ; in Great War, (i) ; effect of Irish developments in, (i) ; Labour party ascendancy in, (i) ; political parties established in British system, (i) ; Unionism, (i) , (ii) ; devolution proposals, (i) ; in Great Depression, (i) ; ‘Renaissance’ (1930s), (i) ; contribution to Second World War, (i) ; state intervention in, (i) ; heavy industries decline, (i) , (ii) ; post–Second World War nationalism, (i) ; referendum on devolution (1979), (i) ; Poll Tax (Community Charge) proposed, (i) ; recession (1980s), (i) ; campaign for legislative assembly, (i) ; parliament opened (July 1999), (i) ; proportional representation in 1999 poll, (i) ; referendum (September 1997), (i) ; economic resources and revival, (i) , (ii) ; renaissance of history as academic subject, (i) ; referendum campaign and vote on independence (2014), (i) , (ii) ; plans second referendum on independence, (i) ; and end of empire, (i) ; sense of Britishness, (i) ; and inadequate dialogue with London government, (i) ; see also Treaty of Union Scotland Act (1998), (i) Scots (people): arrival in Scotland, (i) ; unpopularity in England after union, (i) ; settle in Ulster, (i) Scott, Sir Walter: on Darien scheme, (i) , (ii) ; on development of Scotland, (i) ; popularity in Europe, (i) ; romanticizes Scottish past, (i) ; on Scottish emotionalism, (i) ; The Antiquary , (i) ; Waverley , (i) Scottish Assembly: proposed, (i) Scottish Council: established in London, (i) ; disbanded, (i) Scottish Education Act (1872), (i) Scottish Executive, (i) , (ii) ; title changed to Scottish Government, (i) Scottish Home Rule Association, (i) , (ii) Scottish Militia Act (1796), (i) Scottish National Party (SNP): founded, (i) ; weakness, (i) ; Hamilton by-election victory (1967), (i) ; growing strength, (i) , (ii) ; aims for independence, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; claims North Sea oil, (i) ; European policy, (i) , (ii) ; and new economy, (i) ; in government, (i) ; success in 2011 election, (i) , (ii) ; gains seats in 2015 general election, (i) ; membership increases after referendum, (i) ; members move to Barcelona to support independence, (i) ; popular appeal, (i) ; efficient rule, (i) Scottish Office: transferred to Edinburgh, (i) Scottish Reform Act (1832), (i) Scottish Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, (i) secession and separatism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Catalonia and Portugal (1640), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalonia (2010–17), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Scotland (2014), (i) ; see also Cuba; independence movements Second World War (1939–45): and nationalism, (i) ; outbreak, (i) ; effect on British unity, (i) Security, Act of (1703), (i) seny , (i) , (ii) separatism see secession Serrano Suñer, Ramón, (i) Sert, Josep María, (i) Settlement, Act of (1701), (i) Seven Years War (1756–63), (i) , (ii) Sharp, James, Archbishop of St Andrews, (i) Shetland, (i) shipbuilding, (i) , (ii) Sidney, Algernon, (i) Silvela, Francisco, (i) Sinn Fein (Irish party), (i) slave trade, (i) Smith, Adam, (i) , (ii) ; Wealth of Nations , (i) Smith, John, (i) Socialist Party (Catalonia) see PSOE socialists: in Barcelona, (i) , (ii) Societies of Friends of the Country (Amigos del País), (i) Societies of the Friends of the People (Scotland), (i) Society of Barcelona Weavers, (i) Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture (Scotland), (i) Solemn League and Covenant (1643), (i) , (ii) Solidaritat Catalana, (i) Sophia, Electress of Hanover, (i) sovereignty: national, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Edward I claims over Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Bodin on indivisibility, (i) , (ii) ; embodied in English/British parliament, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalan claims, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Basque claims, (i) Soviet Union: collapse (1989), (i) Spain: and Catalan independence movement, (i) ; dynastic union (Ferdinand and Isabella), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; mythological origins, (i) ; union with Portugal (1580), (i) ; in Low Countries, (i) ; internal customs, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; war with France (1635–40), (i) ; post-Olivares government, (i) ; frontier with France defined, (i) ; and the Austrian connection, (i) ; Bourbon administrative intentions, (i) ; sends invasion fleet against Britain (1719), (i) ; population, (i) ; as fiscal-military state, (i) ; migration to Americas, (i) ; taxation, (i) , (ii) ; national identity, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; resistance to Enlightenment ideas, (i) ; Britain perceived as enemy and rival, (i) ; impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars on, (i) ; allies with France against Britain (1796–1802), (i) ; uprisings against French in Napoleonic wars, (i) , (ii) ; Cortes of Cadiz and constitutional monarchy, (i) , (ii) ; liberal reform, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; new regional divisions (1833), (i) ; economic development (19th century), (i) ; political instability in 19th century, (i) , (ii) ; tensions with Catalonia over government, (i) ; developed and undeveloped regions, (i) ; civil code, (i) ; Moderates and Progressives, (i) ; centralization, (i) ; Revolutionary Sexennium (1868–74), (i) ; First Republic (1873), (i) , (ii) ; monarchy restored (1874), (i) ; considers home rule for regions and overseas territories, (i) ; varied historic regions and communities, (i) ; proposed federalism, (i) , (ii) ; defeat in war with USA (1898), (i) ; anarchist attacks in, (i) ; war in Morocco, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; loss of Empire and decline, (i) , (ii) ; regionalism, (i) , (ii) ; neutrality in Great War, (i) , (ii) ; provoked by increasing Catalan nationalism, (i) ; and Primo de Rivera’s nationalism, (i) , (ii) ; Second Republic (1931), (i) , (ii) ; under Franco’s dictatorship, (i) , (ii) ; monarchy restored (1975), (i) ; decentralization under 1978 Constitution, (i) ; membership of European Community and NATO, (i) ; failure to counter Catalan independence propaganda, (i) ; illegality of unilateral secession under Constitution, (i) ; reaction to Catalan referendum and declaration on independence, (i) ; and consequences of Catalan independence decision, (i) ; see also Castile Spanish Civil War see wars, civil Spanish Succession, War of (1700–14), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Spanish-American War (1898), (i) , (ii) ‘Squadrone Volante’ (Scotland), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Stair, Sir James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount, (i) ; Institutions of the Laws of Scotland , (i) state, the: and surrender of overseas empires, (i) ; changing meaning, (i) ; fiscal-military, (i) ; and sense of nationality, (i) ; and bureaucracy, (i) ; and pàtria , (i) ; Catalonia as a ‘complete’ state, (i) ; see also ‘nation-state’; nationalism Stevenson, Robert Louis, (i) Stewart see Stuart Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of, (i) ‘Strategy for Catalanization’ (document), (i) Stuart dynasty, (i) , (ii) Sturgeon, Nicola, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Suárez, Adolfo, (i) , (ii) Supreme Constitutional Tribunal (Spain), (i) , (ii) , (iii) syndicalists, (i) , (ii) ; see also anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism; trade unions tacks (Highland land leases), (i) Tarradellas, Josep, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Tarragona, (i) taxation: in Catalonia (1716), (i) , (ii) ; (2015) (i) ; in Scotland (18th century), (i) ; (since 1888), (i) ; in Spain, (i) , (ii) Terrassa, (i) textiles: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) Thatcher, Margaret, (i) , (ii) Thirty Years War (1618–48), (i) Three Commons, the see Conferència dels Tres Comuns Times, The , (i) , (ii) tobacco: trade, (i) , (ii) Toleration Acts (England, 1689), (i) , (ii) ; (British, 1712), (i) , (ii) Tories: election victory (1710), (i) , (ii) ; see also Conservative Party Townsend, Joseph, (i) , (ii) Townshend, Charles, (i) trade: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; see also Darien project Spanish Atlantic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) trade unions: Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism trading companies, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also individual companies Trastámaras, (i) , (ii) Treaty of Union (Anglo-Scottish, 1707): and Scottish parliament, (i) ; negotiated and ratified, (i) ; as incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; and Scottish and English law, (i) ; and Scottish religious fears, (i) ; and Scottish representation in British parliament, (i) ; on relations between state and Presbyterian Church, (i) ; see also Anglo-Scottish Union Trevor-Roper, Hugh, (i) Triennial Act (Scotland, 1641), (i) , (ii) Tubal, son of Japhet, (i) , (ii) Tweeddale, John Hay, 4th Marquis of, (i) Tyrconnel, Rory O’Donnell, 1st Earl of, (i) Tyrone, Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of, (i) UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores), (i) , (ii) Ulster: plantation established, (i) ; see also Northern Ireland Ulster Unionists, (i) Union, Anglo-Scottish see Treaty of Union (Anglo-Scottish, 1707) Union Commissioners (English and Scottish), (i) union (forms of): dynastic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) ; aeque principaliter , (i) , (ii) ; incorporating, (i) , (ii) ; see also Nueva Planta Union of Rabassaires , (i) , (ii) ; see also viticulture Union of Arms, (i) , (ii) unionist nationalism (‘banal’ nationalism), (i) , (ii) n. 93 Unionist Party (Scotland), (i) , (ii) ; see also Conservative Party United Irishmen, (i) United Kingdom see Great Britain United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), (i) United Scotsmen, (i) United States of America: war with Spain (1898), (i) , (ii) Universal Male Suffrage Law (Spain, 1890), (i) , (ii) universities: Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Spain, (i) urbanization: Catalonia, (i) ; Scotland, (i) Utrecht, Treaty of (1713), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Vairement, Richard (Veremundus): Gesta Annalia (attrib.), (i) Valencia, kingdom of: Jaume I reconquers, (i) ; economic strength, (i) ; and internal relationships of Crown of Aragon, (i) ; in War of Spanish Succession, (i) ; imposition of Nueva Planta (i) , (ii) , (iii) Vatican Council, Second (1962–5), (i) Velasco, Don Francisco Antonio Fernández de, (i) Versailles: peace settlement and treaties (1919), (i) Vicens Vives, Jaume, (i) ; Noticia de Cataluña , (i) viceroys: title rejected by Scots, (i) , (ii) ; of Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; of Peru, (i) Villahermosa, Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea de Borja, 9th Duke of, (i) , (ii) Visigoths, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) viticulture, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also rabassaires Vizcaya, (i) ; see also Basque provinces Wade, General George, (i) Wales: English conquest, (i) ; incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; referendum on devolved assembly, (i) Wallace, William, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Walpole, Sir Robert, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) War of Spanish Succession see Spanish Succession, War of wars, civil: English (1642–50), (i) ; Spanish (1936–9), (i) ; see also rebellions Wars of the Congregation (Scotland, 1550s), (i) Waterloo, battle of (1815), (i) Watt, James, (i) West Indies (Caribbean): trade with Spain, (i) ; immigration and settlement, (i) West Lothian question, (i) Western Isles: purchased by Alexander III from Norway, (i) Weyler, Valeriano, (i) Whigs: Junto falls (1710), (i) ; return to power under George I, (i) ; and Jacobite rebellion (1715), (i) ; supported by 2nd Duke of Argyll, (i) Whitelaw, Archibald, (i) Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, (i) Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany, (i) William III (of Orange), King of Great Britain, (i) , (ii) Wilson, Harold, (i) Wilson, Woodrow, (i) wine production (Catalonia) see viticulture woollen industry (Scotland), (i) ; see also textiles workers see labour Young Scots Society, (i) Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez, (i) , (ii) Zapatero, General Juan, (i) Zaragoza: rising (1591–2), (i) ; resists French invasion, (i)

The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival by Dr. Stephen R Palumbi Phd, Ms. Carolyn Sotka M. A.

California gold rush, clean water, glass ceiling, land tenure, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

The old mission system was largely gone, decayed into adobe ruin when the Spanish Empire fell and Mexico won its 1821 independence. But war between the former colonies of the United States and Mexico was coming and would shift the ownership of land out of Mexican hands. By 1848, California left the Mexican republic and was incorporated into the United States. Such a period of upheaval left many land tenure records shattered and lost, with disastrous consequences to the Ohlone and to the former Spanish citizens who had settled in California. It was a time of transformation from the old to the new. Far-Reaching Effects The hunters went off to other trades, and the Chinese lost their taste for otter fur. The ships no longer came to California to trade for furs, and the native culture was slipping away.

The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, business climate, colonial rule, declining real wages, deliberate practice, European colonialism, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, new economy, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, union organizing

The actual policies pursued, while benefiting a traditional and foreign elite, are not only destroying the Indians but are severely damaging the Brazilian peasant small-holders and agricultural workers and have, in fact “worsened the already severe pattern of hunger and malnourishment that characterizes the majority of the population of Brazil” (pp. 126, 132). According to Davis: One of the major results of this new settlement pattern has been the uprooting of large numbers of poor Brazilian peasants who previously formed the pioneer element in central Brazil. It must be stated categorically that the land-tenure situation of these peasant small-holders is no less precarious than that of Indian groups in the Amazon basin. In addition, all attempts to seek legal protection for the land claims of these peasant populations, on the part of such institutions as the Brazilian Catholic Church, have been met by severe repression on the part of local, state, and national officials in Brazil.78 As a result, over the past decade, agrarian protest and violence have reached epidemic proportions in several areas of Mato Grosso and central Brazil.

He estimates per capita income at $240—three times that of Haiti but half that of Cuba... Most of the 370 young women who work at La Romana earn 30 cents to 40 cents an hour last year...Malnutrition is widespread. Says George B. Mathues, director of CARE in the Dominican Republic: “You see kids with swollen bellies all over the country, even here in Santo Domingo.” Food production is hampered by semi-feudal land tenure. At last count, less than 1% of the farmers owned 47.5% of the land, while 82% farmed fewer than 10 acres... Land reform has moved with glacial speed...Most Dominican children don’t go beyond the third grade; only one in five reaches the sixth grade.174 G&W acknowledged in 1978 that cane cutter money wages had not kept up with inflation in the years since 1966,175 and there is other evidence to the same effect,176 which suggests a probable further absolute fall in the real income of the majority and a further shift toward inequality in income shares.

pages: 510 words: 163,449

How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World and Everything in It by Arthur Herman

British Empire, California gold rush, creative destruction, do-ocracy, financial independence, global village, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, Republic of Letters, Robert Mercer, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

The poet William Hamilton described him this way: While crowned with radiant charms divine, Unnumbered beauties round thee shine. . . . As he admitted to James Boswell years later, “I got into pretty riotous and expensive society.” When he found himself swamped with bills and over three hundred pounds in debt, he put the brakes on his social life and concentrated on the work. His time in Dickson’s office had given him a firm grasp of the intricacies of the law regarding land tenure, inheritance, and estates in Scotland. Combined with his immersion in civil jurisprudence, he now had the best of all possible intellectual backgrounds: a mind broadened by rigorous understanding of theory, but also steeped in the nuances of actual practice. He also turned out to be a brilliant advocate in court, summarizing cases without fanfare but with the full force of reasoned persuasion.

The Canadian Pacific was his proudest achievement. It united the country geographically much as MacDonald had united it politically. It was a Scottish governor-general, Lord Elgin,36 who first opened the door to the independence of British North America, as Canada was then called. Governor-General Elgin carried out reforms similar to those of other Scottish colonial administrators. He abolished the remnants of feudal land tenure left over from the French and built up Canada’s education system. He signed a reciprocity agreement with the United States in 1854, putting an end to the enmity and tension between the two halves of North America, which extended back to the American Revolution. He also warned his superiors that if London did not consider granting Canadians some form of self-government, they might throw in their lot with the Americans.

The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, different worldview, facts on the ground, friendly fire, industrial cluster, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, source of truth, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

He concluded that the "macroparasitism" of landowners drained 30 percent of the production capacity from peasants in the form of rents, while the "microparasitism" of malaria accounted for a reduction of less than 10 percent in their gross production. And here we shouldn't expect a vaccine to do any better than bed nets; here the goal-creating wealth-cannot be captured and internalized by a particular technology. In fact, if creating wealth is your goal, there may be much better routes to progress than curing malaria-for example, changing patterns of land tenure, or improving levels of education. But of course these goals are themselves very hard to make progress on. Understanding a technology is not just a process of observing something "out there"; it is an integrated result of a query, a set of artifacts, and elements of social, economic, psychological, and cultural context, called forth as a whole. Each query implicitly identifies certain elements of the underlying system as relevant and ignores others-a process that is perfectly le- . gitimate until one extends one's judgment or analysis beyond the boundaries that are also implicit in the query, when it might 54 Chapter 3 break down.

pages: 265 words: 71,143

Empires of the Weak: The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order by Jason Sharman

British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, European colonialism, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land tenure, offshore financial centre, passive investing, Peace of Westphalia, performance metric, profit maximization, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs

These successor polities tended to build armies by assembling coalitions of warlords, drawing on the local military labor market, and supplementing these forces with European mercenaries.145 Although this enabled the creation of large armies capable of fighting European-led forces on equal terms, this fiscal-military arrangement was also brittle.146 For one thing, allies, warlords, and mercenaries could be bought off either to sit out battles, or to change sides, again following the Mughal precedent, a tactic that the EIC used to great effect on several crucial occasions including Plassey in 1757.147 Even apart from direct inducements, forces comprised of different elements owing loyalty to their particular warlord were more difficult to command, and could disintegrate into their component parts if the tide of battle turned against them.148 “The sirdars [warlords] were not bureaucrats whom the central government could transfer at will. They were military entrepreneurs who held hereditary land tenures with the right to maintain armed followers.”149 Another problem was that enlarging territories and armies by ceding revenue rights left central rulers with less and less money, making it difficult to continue to supply troops and pay mercenaries consistently.150 While these potential weaknesses were manageable in the short term, the tendency to fight repeated campaigns and sequences of wars over decades made these problems acute.

pages: 206 words: 67,030

Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches: The Riddles of Culture by Marvin Harris

colonial exploitation, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, stakhanovite, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, zero-sum game

Older animals are simply tethered on short ropes and allowed to starve—a process that does not take too long if the animal is already weak and diseased. Finally, unknown numbers of decrepit cows are surreptitiously sold through a chain of Moslem and Christian middlemen and end up in the urban slaughterhouses. If we want to account for the observed proportions of cows to oxen, we must study rain, wind, water, and land-tenure patterns, not cow love. The proof of this is that the proportion of cows to oxen varies with the relative importance of different components of the agricultural system in different regions of India. The most important variable is the amount of irrigation water available for the cultivation of rice. Wherever there are extensive wet rice paddies, the water buffalo tends to be the preferred traction animal, and the female water buffalo is then substituted for the zebu cow as a source of milk.

ECOVILLAGE: 1001 ways to heal the planet by Ecovillage 1001 Ways to Heal the Planet-Triarchy Press Ltd (2015)

Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, land tenure, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, off grid, Ronald Reagan, young professional

The whole community participated in what is called ‘minga’ (community solidarity in action) by our indigenous communities; some were cooking, others were building… Our political organisation, which used to be a Communal Action Board (Junta de Acción Comunal), was transformed into the Community Council of Islas del Rosario (Consejo Comunitario de las Islas del Rosario), which I’m currently representing. We had a beautiful process of reconstructing the history of the community with the support of numerous organisations and people who believed in our struggle. With these maps, in 2006 we officially requested the Collective Title (Land Tenure) of the two islands, Isla Grande and Isleta. Several legal complications arose and our application was denied twice. Many people advised us to accept what the government was offering; individual contracts for the use of the land for a given time period. Some government representatives threatened that the community would be evicted by force if we did not accept this offer. After facing several threats, I received a call to inform us that the army was coming to evacuate members of the community.

pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Merchants and other gentlemen hoarded the best land near the coast or along the commercial rivers, and poorer men were forced to possess remote, less desirable land. South Carolina was a poor white family’s worst nightmare.57 Oglethorpe left the colony in 1743, never to return. Three years earlier, a soldier had attempted to murder him, the musket ball tearing through his wig. He survived, but his dream for Georgia died. Over the next decade, land tenure policies were lifted, rum was allowed to flow freely, and slaves were sold surreptitiously. In 1750, settlers were formally granted the right to own slaves.58 A planter elite quickly formed, principally among transplants from the West Indies and South Carolina. By 1788, Carolinian Jonathan Bryan was the most powerful man in Georgia, with thirty-two thousand acres and 250 slaves. He set up shop there in 1750, the very year slavery was made legal, and his numerous slaves entitled him to large tracts of lands.

Baine, “Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 418–24. On debtors and economic vulnerability, see Oglethorpe, Some Account of the Design, 11–12; Oglethorpe, A New and Accurate Account, 30–33; and Rodney M. Baine, “New Perspectives on Debtors in Colonial Georgia,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 77, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 1–19, esp. 4. 53. See Milton L. Ready, “Land Tenure in Trusteeship Georgia,” Agricultural History 48, no. 3 (July 1974): 353–68, esp. 353–57, 359. 54. See Translation of Reverend Mr. Dumont’s Letter to Mr. Benjamin Martyn, May 21, 1734, Egmont Papers, vol. 14207. Dumont wrote from Rotterdam, and represented a community of French Vaudois. 55. See Oglethorpe, A New and Accurate Account, 73–75. In his other promotional tract, he used a similar argument about the Roman colonies, noting that only men with land married and had children; see Oglethorpe, Some Account of the Design, 6, 9–10, 40. 56.

The Handbook of Personal Wealth Management by Reuvid, Jonathan.

asset allocation, banking crisis, BRICs, business cycle, buy and hold, collapse of Lehman Brothers, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, financial deregulation, fixed income, high net worth, income per capita, index fund, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, market bubble, merger arbitrage, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, short selling, side project, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, systematic trading, transaction costs, yield curve

Damage by the combined vectors of insects and disease has become more significant in recent years on all continents, probably resulting from tree stress and habitat changes brought about by global warming effects; for example Mountain Pie Beetle has destroyed approximately 1 million hectares of pine forestry over the last 10 years in Alberta and British Columbia. This makes it even more important that investors obtain a risk spread across several geographies and species. Political and country risk A potential risk to forestry is political or regulatory change, such as restrictive environmental laws that limit or control timber harvesting practices. Further risks concern the legal framework, in particular regarding land tenure, in specific countries. In certain countries, northern Brazil for example, there is a significant risk arising from historical land ownership claims made by indigenous peoples. Global timber demand Globally, the dual impact of competition for scarce land between food, fibre and fuel uses and a continuing and increasing excess of demand over supply of wood fibre, at least for the next 20 years, is expected to result in a steady increase in timberland and timber prices.1 In recent years, technological changes and increasing personal wealth have increased utilization of wood globally, adding value to forestry.

pages: 238 words: 73,121

Does Capitalism Have a Future? by Immanuel Wallerstein, Randall Collins, Michael Mann, Georgi Derluguian, Craig Calhoun, Stephen Hoye, Audible Studios

affirmative action, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Isaac Newton, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, loose coupling, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

When the leaders of social movements reach state power, they can prevail only by curbing the local powers of provincial notables along with their paramilitary forces, including the drug cartels. One way of doing this is through the imposition of democratic civilian supervision over the armies and police. Another and related way for the consolidation of new democracies is through integrating their citizenry in the centrally sponsored institutions providing for the defense of human rights, social welfare, land tenure, and jobs. Perhaps this is not socialism. It is rather a new and decidedly better variety of capitalism. In the twenty-first century Latin America could at last catch up with social democratic and corporatist state transformations resembling earlier Western patterns, thus also laying foundations for a new wave of industrial development. A lasting recession in the West, Japan, and the former Soviet bloc, unless things get truly disastrous, might yet boost the industrial ascendance of the former Third World zone.

pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Their intention was to re-create the Old World in the New World.69 In contrast to Europe, however, where capitalism was shaped by its feudal antecedents, the settlers were not constrained by pre-existing social structures or customs. In effect, they could start afresh, unencumbered by the past. This, of course, entailed the destruction of the native population of Amerindians in what we would now describe as a most brutal act of ethnic cleansing.70 While Europe was mired in time-worn patterns of land tenure, the American settlers faced no such constraints and, with the decimation of the native population, enjoyed constantly expanding territory as the mythical frontier moved ever westwards. Where Europeans possessed a strong sense of place and territory, the Americans, in contrast, formed no such attachment because they had no need of it. The fact that the United States started as a blank piece of paper enabled it to write its own rules and design its own institutions: from the outset, steeped in Protestant doctrine, Americans were attracted to the idea of abstract principles, which was to find expression in the Constitution and, subsequently, in a strong sense of a universalizing and global mission.

There was the failure of the imperial state to modernize, culminating in its demise in the 1911 Revolution; the failure of the nationalist government to modernize China, unify the country, or defeat the occupying powers (notably Japan), leading to its overthrow in the 1949 Revolution; the Maoist period, which sought to sweep away much of imperial China, from Confucius and traditional dress to the old patterns of land tenure and the established social hierarchies; followed by the reform period, the rapid decline of agriculture, the rise of industry and the growing assertion of capitalist social relations. Each of these periods represents a major disjuncture in Chinese history. Yet much of what previously characterized China remains strikingly true and evident today. The country still has almost the same borders that it acquired at the maximum extent of the Qing empire in the late eighteenth century.

pages: 775 words: 208,604

The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality From the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cosmological principle, crony capitalism, dark matter, declining real wages, demographic transition, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, mega-rich, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population, zero-sum game

Faced with stiffened tenant resistance, and for once expected to pay their full share of taxes topped up by special levies, landlords saw their incomes come under downward pressure. But all this fell far short of any systematic leveling as envisioned in the utopian schemes that were never put into practice—or may not even have been intended to be. The latter might be signaled by the fact that on top of generally maintaining traditional land tenure arrangements, the Taiping leadership eagerly embraced hierarchical stratification by claiming a lavish lifestyle replete with harems and palaces. The Qing’s violent destruction of the Taiping in the 1860s, which cost millions of lives from combat and famine, did not suppress an egalitarian experiment, for there was none. Neither communitarian doctrine nor extensive military mobilization of the peasantry appear to have produced significant leveling, nor could it have been sustained had it indeed been attempted.

Paper for the 2011 Economic History Society Annual Conference, Cambridge. Postles, Dave. 2014. Microcynicon: aspects of early-modern England. Loughborough, UK: self-published. Powell, Benjamin, Ford, Ryan, and Nowrasteh, Alex. 2008. “Somalia after state collapse: chaos or improvement?” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 67: 657–670. Powelson, John P. 1988. The story of land: a world history of land tenure and agrarian reform. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Poznik, G. David, et al. 2013. “Sequencing Y chromosomes resolves discrepancy in time to common ancestor of males versus females.” Science 341: 562–565. Pozzi, Luca, et al. 2014. “Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75: 165–183.

pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu

air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 74 (1–2): 137–147. 46 We visited the site in 2010. The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site’s website can be found at . 47 Because our aim in the following paragraphs is limited to the importance of transportation and economic development as they relate to food security, we limit ourselves to generally agreed upon facts rather than more controversial political debates (e.g., the impact of the land tenure system on peasant behavior, British trade policy and the nature and the actual scope and impact of public relief efforts). Concise discussions and further references on the subject can be found in Ellen Messer. 2000. “Potatoes (White).” In Kenneth F. Kipple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press; and Cormac Ó Gráda. 2009.

pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

/Keynesianism 56 China 132, 141, 142, 152 freedom concept 8, 10, 11, 13, 20–4 passim, 29 freedom’s prospect 186, 187, 188 paradox 152 uneven development 88, 93 Khanna, T. 216 King, D. 222 King, R. 83 Kirchner, N. 106 Kirkpatrick, D. 210 Kissinger, H. 7 Klein, N. 207 Koolhaas, R. 47 Korea see South Korea Kraev, E. 218 Krasner, S. 208 Kristol, I. 50 Krugman, P. 186, 221 Kuwait 27 Labour Party (UK) 55, 58, 61 labour/employment/working class 70 China 123, 130, 138, 141, 148–50 as commodity 70, 153, 157, 164, 167–71 consent, construction of 47–8, 50 as disposable commodity 153, 157, 164, 167–71 flexible/casual 100, 112 full 10 see also income/wages; unemployment; unions Laffer, A. 54 Lambert, J. 211 land tenure 101, 103, 159 Landler, M. 217 Lange, O. 21 Lardy, N. 215 Latin America 199 uneven development 88, 108, 109 see also Central America; South America law/regulation 159 coercive legislation 77 judiciary 78 legitimacy 80, 180–1 rolled back 161 rule of 64, 66–7 Lay, K. 77 Lebretton, J. 216 Lee, C.K. 219–20 Lee Kuan Yew 213 Lee, S. K. 148, 218 left see socialism/communism legislation see law Leigh, General G. 8 Lenovo 146 LETS (local economic trading systems) 186, 201 Lévy, D.

pages: 267 words: 85,265

That Wild Country: An Epic Journey Through the Past, Present, and Future of America's Public Lands by Mark Kenyon

American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, clean water, Donald Trump, land tenure, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan

“America today stands poised on a pinnacle of wealth and power,” he said. “Yet we live in a land of vanishing beauty, of increasing ugliness, of shrinking open space, and of an overall environment that is diminished daily by pollution and noise and blight. This, in brief, is the quiet conservation crisis of the 1960s.” Udall proved to be up for the challenge—as his time in office would eventually be seen as one of the most pro-public-land tenures in American history. As just one example of this, Udall is now credited with shepherding more national park units into existence than any other head of the US Department of the Interior. He added sixty-four new units to the system during his time in office. His support of the Wilderness Act was also crucial. The secretary of the interior, along with the rest of the bill’s advocates, continued to push the proposed legislation through President Kennedy’s tenure and into President Lyndon B.

pages: 297 words: 95,518

Ten Technologies to Save the Planet: Energy Options for a Low-Carbon Future by Chris Goodall

barriers to entry, carbon footprint, congestion charging, decarbonisation, energy security, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land tenure, load shedding, New Urbanism, oil shock, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, undersea cable

By stressing that an active program of reforestation is a vital ingredient in combating climate change, I don’t want to give an impression that I think we can simply let the Amazonian and Indonesian logging continue. Deforestation in these areas looks like an intractable problem. Some forest clearing is occurring as a result of large commercial farmers wanting to add to their estates. But it also happens partly as a result of the decisions of millions of people trying to create new land on which to grow food. In many countries, land tenure law does not give clear ownership rights over these trees, making protecting the forest very difficult. States such as Brazil may be able to restrict the loss of land to soy crops and beef ranching, but telling the landless poor that they should not try to feed themselves by growing crops on cleared land is a policy that is unlikely to succeed anywhere in the world. However, the longer-term effect of widespread woodland loss is to increase soil erosion and cut fertility.

pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In the short run, 40,000 African Americans received land grants of almost 40,000 acres.1 Promising experiments ended due to lack of wider support in Washington for confiscation and redistribution, lest such policies make people dependent on charity.2 By 1866, white plantation owners were allowed to re-enter their former lands and then to claim back lands that had been distributed to black families. Due to bureaucratic snafus, many black people had never received titles, which made their land tenure very easy to contest. Many who were deprived of their land grants despaired of being able to raise a crop without seed money and began to work for white planters under labor contracts; others were directly dispossessed. Historians differ about whether land reform was likely to have been successful. Roger Ransom argues that, given the shortage of credit and failure of infrastructure in the postwar South, freed blacks were very unlikely to have been successful commercial farmers even had they been granted land.3 Moreover, black landowners with substantial land generally opposed confiscation and redistribution, instead emphasizing that all freed people had the opportunity to save their earned wages in order to buy land.

The rough guide to walks in London and southeast England by Helena Smith, Judith Bamber

Alfred Russel Wallace, Isaac Newton, land tenure, the market place, trade route, urban sprawl

.#4 #6$,4 46''0-, )&354 (-06$4 LN &44&9 09'03%4)*3& #&3,4)*3& 8*-54)*3& )".14)*3& 4633&: 8&45 4644&9 &"45 4644&9 ,&/5 %034&5 *4-&0'8*()5 The Eden Valley The High Weald Walk Penshurst to Chiddingstone Tunbridge Wells to Groombridge and back........................................ 101 and back........................................ 112 The Greensand Way Bayham Abbey Borough Green to Knole via Wadhurst to Bayham Abbey and Ightham Mote................................ 107 Hook Green.................................... 119 T he quintessential image of the Weald – the low but undulating stretch of wood and farmland between the North and South Downs – is of orchards, country cottages, oast houses and hop gardens. The system of medieval land tenure used in the area meant that estates were divided rather than inherited wholesale, with the result that this fertile land was split into smaller and smaller plots, creating a patchwork quilt of little fields and orchards enclosed by impenetrable hedgerows. A correspondingly modest architectural style predominates, with tile-hung and timberframed cottages the norm, giving the landscape a domestic appeal that is hard to resist.

pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

In 2003 an influential UN report, The Challenge of Slums, signalled a shift away from the old slum-clearance policies and recognized that slums make a positive contribution to economic development: they house new migrants; being dense, they use land efficiently; they’re culturally diverse and harbour numerous opportunities for ragged-trousered entrepreneurs.2 ‘Even ten years ago we used to dream that cities would become slum-free,’ Mohammed Khadim of UN-Habitat had told me at the organization’s Cairo office. ‘Now the approach has changed; people see the positives. The approach now is not to clear them but improve them gradually; regularize land tenure.’ Cameron Sinclair, who runs the non-profit design firm Architecture For Humanity, goes further: A slum is a resilient urban animal, you cannot pry it away. It’s like a good parasite—there are some parasites that attack the body and you have to get rid of them. But within the city, the informal settlement is a parasite that acts in harmony with the city; keeps it in check. Sinclair, whose organization has upgraded slums in Brazil, Kenya and South Africa, believes modern city design should not only tolerate slums but learn from them—and even emulate them.

pages: 346 words: 102,666

Infomocracy: A Novel by Malka Older

corporate governance, game design, land tenure, young professional

“It’s more of a hunch than anything else,” but Mishima is pretty sure. She knows these bastards. “Look.” She projects the comparison sheets and highlights the Liberty line. Tabby picks up on it almost immediately. “Restoration, retribution … that’s not the usual rhetoric for a corporate.” “And look at this one,” Mishima says, highlighting. “Not under the IF ELECTED TO SUPERMAJORITY line, under WITHIN CENTENALS THAT SELECT. ‘Aggressive land tenure reform.’” Tabby enlarges the explanation provided by the Information worker who glossed this: WILL WORK TO CLARIFY AND/OR REALIGN LAND OWNERSHIP. “They took it at face value,” she says, pushing the tail of her sari back off her shoulder. “But you’re right. That doesn’t make any sense in the context of the positions Liberty’s been putting out for the past two years. They’re all about protecting private property, especially land.”

pages: 370 words: 112,602

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning

., Peter Thomas Bauer, Dissent on Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). 2 Ritva Reinikka and Jakob Svensson, “The Power of Information: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign to Reduce Capture,” working paper, IIES, Stockholm University (2004). 3 See, for example, Easterly’s post on randomized control trials, available at 4 See, for example, Jeffrey Sachs, “Who Beats Corruption,” available at 5 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). 6 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail (forthcoming, Crown, 2012). 7 See, for example,Tim Besley and Torsten Persson, “Fragile States and Development Policy” (manuscript, November 2010), which argues that fragile states are a key symptom of underdevelopment in the world and that such states are incapable of delivering basic services to their citizens. 8 Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review 91 (5) (2001): 1369—1401. 9 Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” American Economic Review 95 (4) (2005): 1190—1213. 10 Dwyer Gunn, “Can ‘Charter Cities’ Change the World? A Q&A with Paul Romer,” New York Times, September 29, 2009; and see “Charter Cities,” available at 11 Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); and Paul Collier, Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places (New York: HarperCollins, 2009). 12 William Easterly, “The Burden of Proof Should Be on Interventionists—Doubt Is a Superb Reason for Inaction,” Boston Review (July–August 2009). 13 See Rajiv Chandrasekaram, Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone (New York: Knopf, 2006), as well as Easterly’s insightful critique of the army operation manual, available at 14 William Easterly, “Institutions: Top Down or Botton Up,” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 98 (2) (2008): 95–99. 15 See The White Man’s Burden, p. 133. 16 Ibid., p. 72. 17 William Easterly, “Trust the Development Experts—All 7 Billion,” Financial Times, May 28, 2008. 18 The White Man’s Burden, p. 73. 19 Marianne Bertrand, Simeon Djankov, Rema Hanna, and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Obtaining a Driving License in India: An Experimental Approach to Studying Corruption,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 2007): 1639–1676. 20 See his presentation on the subject, available at 21 Rohini Pande and Christopher Udry, “Institutions and Development: A View from Below,” Yale Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper 928 (2005). 22 Monica Martinez-Bravo, Gerard Padro-i-Miquel, Nancy Qian, and Yang Yao, “Accountability in an Authoritarian Regime: The Impact of Local Electoral Reforms in Rural China,” Yale University (2010), manuscript. 23 Benjamin Olken, “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia,” Journal of Political Economy 115 (2) (April 2007): 200–249. 24 Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, Daniel Keniston, and Nina Singh, “Making Police Reform Real: The Rajasthan Experiment,” draft paper, MIT (2010). 25 Thomas Fujiwara, “Voting Technology, Political Responsiveness, and Infant Health: Evidence from Brazil,” University of British Columbia, mimeo (2010). 26 World Bank, World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People (2003). 27 Raghabendra Chattopadhyay and Esther Duflo, “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,” Econometrica 72 (5) (2004): 1409–1443. 28 Leonard Wantchekon, “Clientelism and Voting Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Benin,” World Politics 55 (3) (2003): 399–422. 29 Abhijit Banerjee and Rohini Pande, “Ethnic Preferences and Politician Corruption,” KSG Working Paper RWP07-031 (2007). 30 Nicholas Van de Walle, “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems,” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2) (June 2003): 297–321. 31 Abhijit Banerjee, Donald Green, Jennifer Green, and Rohini Pande, “Can Voters Be Primed to Choose Better Legislators?

pages: 382 words: 107,150

We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck

airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

Her father went abroad to work in Japan, one of more than ten million Filipinos forced to emigrate by lack of opportunity at home. Her mother did the best she could.1 Coronacion’s experiences left her with a visceral sense that the fight for workers’ rights is inseparable from struggles for women’s rights. “You can’t dismantle capitalism without dismantling patriarchy,” she says. “We have a lot of work to do.” Sister Nice Coronacion credits her mother with politicizing her. “She was a community leader who fought for land tenure for squatters. Growing up, I called where I lived a home because, if there is love it is a home, but . . .” She pauses. “Still, I know we were lucky. We never lived in the danger zone, near the rivers where it floods.” We visit the Manila danger zone. Small children squat in the dirt, diligently sweeping makeshift drains so that no water seeps into the rooms, lean-tos, and shacks where millions of families live, eat, and sleep.

pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, different worldview, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

In the country’s immediate postcolonial period, French and American mapping officials used triangulation to tie the country to the Blue Nile Datum. The country was later resurveyed based on the WGS, and in 2012 the government established a series of continuously operating GPS receivers linked to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), the ultra-accurate frame used by geophysicists to monitor plate movement. The Burkina Faso government’s embrace of this highest of high-tech physical reckoning is an attempt to modernize a land tenure and management system rife with instability and inaccuracy. A World Bank report predicts that the system will help “avoid land ownership overlapping . . . and enhance social equity and peace.” The ITRF is considered the ultimate mathematic representation of the earth: its size and the exact location of its center. It is acknowledged as the ultimate datum. WGS 84 is the United States Department of Defense’s “realization” of that frame, an attempt to wrap a grid around the skeleton as tightly as possible, so that, today, WGS 84 is accurate to the ITRF to within a centimeter.

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

They include (to quote a Gates-funded National Research Council report):controlled grazing, mulching with organic matter, applying manure and biosolids, use of cover crops in the rotation cycle, agroforestry, contour farming, hedgerows, terracing, plastic mulch for erosion control, no-till or conservation tillage, retention of crop residue, appropriate use of water and irrigation, and the use of integrated nutrient management, including the judicious use of chemical fertilizers. Land-use planning and land-tenure reform are policy tools to accompany those techniques. Africa has particularly horrendous pests. Tsetse flies torture the livestock, parasitic weeds such as Striga (witchweed) attack everything that grows, a new version of wheat rust from Uganda now threatens wheat crops worldwide, and flocks of millions of the red-billed quelea devour entire harvests of sorghum, keeping generations of children out of school to chase the birds from the fields.

pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

activist lawyer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave,, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, undersea cable, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

Post-independence African states either expunged the customary rights or overrode them by nationalizing the common pastures and forests in the name of socialism. Socialism is out of favor today. So the great sell-off has begun—in the name of economic development. Parcel it all out and all will be well. Alden Wily wants neither state control nor privatization. Instead she wants a renaissance for customary land tenure, by enshrining it in national laws. That is no panacea. As we saw in Ghana, tribal chiefs can be as venal as government ministers when a foreigner comes calling with a checkbook. But without some change to vest land rights in the community, she believes that most of the commons are doomed. “Half a billion Africans will remain tenants of a state that can perfectly legally sell or lease their farms and commons from beneath their feet.”

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

As soon as the Revolutionary War was over, companies like the Geor­ giana, the Wabash, the Vandalia, the Loyal, the Ohio, and the Indiana were organized to speculate in vast tracts of interior land that had been claimed by the seaboard states. Leading citizens engaged in speculation. For instance, George Washington owned land in Virginia, Pennsylva­ nia, and the Ohio country. Banker Robert Morris, who almost single­ handedly financed the war, acquired enormous tracts in western New York. The Revolution swept away the prerogatives of the Crown associated with English land tenure in America. In America, ownership meant freedom from the meddling of nobles, the right to freely dispose of land by sale at a profit, the ability to move from one place to another without hindrance, to enjoy the social respect of other small holders, and to have a voice in matters of community interest. The Revolution also got rid of such obnoxious English traditions of inheritance as primogeniture, the law that awarded all of a man's estate to his eldest son, and the right of entail, which allowed a landowner to forbid by will the future sale of his property by his descendants.

Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew

agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade

Jan Smuts, “Speech to the De Beers Consolidated Political and Debating As­ sociation in Kimberley,” October 30, 1895, in SSP, 1: 80–­100, 93. 58. Ibid. 59. Ibid., 94. 60. Ibid., 95. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid., 93, 95. Changes to the Cape Colony franchise in 1892 raised the salary and property requirements for exercising the vote. Though not explicitly racial, it disenfranchised most Africans. This was followed in 1894 with the Glen Grey Act, which instituted individual (rather than communal) land tenure as well as a labor tax directed at natives, particularly the Xhosa. Crucially, land ownership through this act could not be used to fulfill the property qualifications for the parliamentary franchise. 63. Ibid., 94–­95. 64. Jan Smuts, “Native Policy in Africa,” in Africa and Some World Problems (Oxford: Clarendon, 1930), 77. 65. Smuts, “Speech to the De Beers Consolidated Political and Debating Association in Kimberley,” 96. 66.

pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

Trapped on the Kola Peninsula—the militarized, industrialized heart of the Russian North—they are mostly unemployed with no parliament. What few reindeer herders remain complain of grazing lands privatized and closed, and horrid environmental pollution from mining, smelting, and leaking radiation from old nuclear reactors. Russian soldiers sometimes shoot their animals to eat or for fun.477 Snared in poverty, lacking land tenure, and with no political voice, they are quickly losing their aboriginal language. Of Sápmi’s four fragmented pieces, Russia’s has the most uncertain future. The Mi-8 Time Machine We thudded over the taiga in an orange Soviet-era Mi-8 helicopter, crammed against one of its little porthole windows. Below us was an endless plain of mossy lakes, cottongrass sedge, and hunched conifers stretching to infinity.

pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman

British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

But they then consolidated their position by creating a (whites-only) legislature which passed laws imposing hut taxes and banning others from growing coffee. Similar things were happening in Rhodesia, but to a rather different class of white settler. While Kenya was for the upper classes, Cecil Rhodes’s creation offered to many of the servicemen demobilized at the end of the Second World War land and wealth they could never have found at home, with vast swathes of the best land reserved for them. To give a sense of what this meant, the Land Tenure Act of 1969, a statute which purported to offer a fairer division of the spoils between whites and blacks, meant that Rhodesia’s 250,000 white people could now own only as much land as five million black citizens. This promotion of white settlement in the twentieth century might have been comprehensible at the height of the empire, for it offered agricultural development and the creation of a cadre of imperial loyalists.

Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Unless otherwise noted, all figures are in U.S. dollars and are Geary-Khamis (G-K) index 1990 purchasing power parity dollars. While this is the most comprehensive income series available, Maddison’s figures are not universally accepted by historians. Indeed, at times they constitute only rough guesses. Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 2002, p. 1. When, in 1969, Kuznets posed the question of whether Europe was wealthier than the rest of the world in 1750, his estimate was that the ratio of the lowest to the highest per capita income in the world was 1:2, perhaps even 1:2.5. Newer Does Politics Explain the Economic Gap?

The Regency Revolution: Jane Austen, Napoleon, Lord Byron and the Making of the Modern World by Robert Morrison

British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, financial independence, full employment, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, New Urbanism, railway mania, stem cell, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, wage slave

He also launched sweeping economic reforms, saw to it that local people were trained to administer the smallpox vaccine, and introduced measures designed to ameliorate the plight of the island’s slave population. The government of Java, he believed, “should consider the inhabitants without reference to bare mercantile profits.” 38 Such views on what we would now call “corporate social responsibility” were far ahead of their time and put Raffles decidedly at odds with a trading company fixated on making money. He compounded his problems by pushing so hard to implement his radical reforms of the land tenure system that he lost important sources of government revenue. When the island’s paper currency began to depreciate, Raffles resorted to selling public lands without the proper authorization. By 1816 the directors of the East India Company had had enough, and they recalled him. Broken in health and shattered by the death of his beloved wife Olivia, Raffles returned to England, where he threw himself into the task of writing a two-volume History of Java.

pages: 316 words: 117,228

The Code of Capital: How the Law Creates Wealth and Inequality by Katharina Pistor

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Glaeser, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, intangible asset, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, means of production, money market fund, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, profit maximization, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Wolfgang Streeck

Swamy, “The Hazards of Piecemeal Reform: British Civil Courts and the Credit Market in Colonial India,” Journal of Development Economics 58 (1999):1–24 offer a succinct summary of these reforms and their economic and political effects. For an analysis of the long-term effects of land reforms undertaken by British colonizers on the productivity of the land, see also Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” American Economic Review 95, no. 4 (2005):1190–1213, showing that land that was given to landlords continued to have lower productivity rates even in post-independence India. 65. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johson, and James A. Robinson, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review 91, no. 5 (2001):1369–1401. 66. Luis Angeles, “Income Inequality and Colonialism,” European Economic Review 51 (2007):1155–1176. 67.

pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Every individual has an interest in trees, both as owner and utilizer, and it is in everyone's interest to ensure that the crucial renewable resource does indeed renew itself. The same principle of private interest applies to the land. With the exception of springs, river and pond water, communal buildings, and the main trackways between villages, every square metre of the island is privately owned. Even the rocky outcrops and the bushes around them belong to known individuals. Traditional systems of land tenure among indigenous farmers throughout Africa granted only rights of use – rights that could be revoked, or were forfeited if the land was left uncultivated. Africa's indigenous farmers were more concerned about using land than owning it.25 By contrast, all the land on Ukara belonged to individual families and could be sold or even left uncultivated with impunity. Ownership was vested in the oldest male in the family, who divided the property among his sons when they established families of their own.

They wrote down names and addresses and dates of birth, and set in print the laws by which people must conduct their lives. In this way literacy transformed the flexibility of customary practice into hard, immutable, prescriptive law. Customary law had always taken contemporary assessments into account when making its judgements, but once a particular set of interpretations was codified in colonial law it became rigid and unable to reflect change in the future. In land-tenure disputes, for instance, ‘colonial officers expected the courts to enforce long-established custom rather than current opinion’.15 Common official stereotypes about African customary land law thus came to be used by colonial officials in assessing the legality of current decisions, and so came to be incorporated in ‘customary’ systems of tenure. The most far-reaching inventions of tradition in colonial Africa probably occurred precisely when European administrators believed they were respecting age-old African custom, whereas ‘What were called customary law, customary land-rights, customary political structure and so on, were in fact all invented by colonial codification’.16 The colonizers claimed that they were merely confirming the significance of existing traditions, but traditions in Africa (and everywhere else for that matter) are merely accepted modes of behaviour that currently function to the benefit of society as a whole.

To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland's Global Diaspora, 1750-2010 by T M Devine

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, deindustrialization, deskilling, full employment, ghettoisation, housing crisis, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land tenure, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, railway mania, Red Clydeside, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce

Between 1809 and 1850, after which Irish numbers did increase, the Irish-born made up only 5 per cent of new recruits.53 It was partly because of this extensive Scottish presence in the governance of the subcontinent that Scottish philosophical ideas, framed and developed within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, left such a deep impression on Indian administrative history, as Scottish officials such as Sir John Malcolm, Sir Thomas Munro and Mountstuart Elphinstone applied a whole range of ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment to issues of land tenure, administration and judicial systems.54 3 In accounting for Scottish over-representation in the management of the eighteenth-century British Empire, the focus has traditionally been on the Anglo-Scottish Union of 1707, the legal foundation for engagement with the Empire. Comparison with the Irish commercial relationship with the Empire does confirm the Scottish advantages gained in 1707.

pages: 448 words: 142,946

Sacred Economics: Money, Gift, and Society in the Age of Transition by Charles Eisenstein

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate raider, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, disintermediation, diversification, fiat currency, financial independence, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global supply chain, God and Mammon, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, land value tax, Lao Tzu, liquidity trap, McMansion, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Scramble for Africa, special drawing rights, spinning jenny, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail

In England, free alienation of land was generally not possible until the fifteenth century.9 Thereafter, the vast communal lands of England rapidly came under private ownership thanks to the Enclosure Acts, a process paralleled across the continent, for example through the “emancipation” of the serfs. Lewis Hyde writes, Whereas before a man could fish in any stream and hunt in any forest, now he found there were individuals who claimed to be the owners of these commons. The basis of land tenure had shifted. The medieval serf had been almost the opposite of a property owner: the land had owned him. He could not move freely from place to place, and yet he had inalienable rights to the piece of land to which he was attached. Now men claimed to own the land and offered to rent it out at a fee. While a serf could not be removed from his land, a tenant could be evicted not only through failure to pay the rent but merely at the whim of the landlord.10 As with so many social reforms, the freeing of the serfs was another step in the consolidation of economic and political power in the hands of the already powerful.

pages: 487 words: 139,297

Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa by Jason Stearns

Berlin Wall, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, technology bubble, transfer pricing, unemployed young men, working-age population, éminence grise

It is amazing to what extent the ethnic stereotypes and conflicts that were born in Rwanda have contaminated the rest of the region. No other image plagues the Congolese imagination as much as that of the Tutsi aggressor. No other sentiment has justified as much violence in the Congo as anti-Tutsi ideology. Again and again, in the various waves of conflict in the Congo, the Tutsi community has taken center stage, as victims and killers. This antagonism is fueled by struggles over land tenure, citizenship, and access to resources, but also and most directly by popular prejudice and a vicious circle of revenge. The wars that began in the eastern Congo in 1993 acted as a vector to these prejudices, as Tutsi soldiers and politicians took lead roles in every Rwandan-backed insurgency since then. Whereas previously anti-Tutsi resentment was a phenomenon limited to small areas of North and South Kivu, it has now spread across the region.

pages: 505 words: 133,661

Who Owns England?: How We Lost Our Green and Pleasant Land, and How to Take It Back by Guy Shrubsole

back-to-the-land, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, congestion charging, deindustrialization, digital map, do-ocracy, Downton Abbey, financial deregulation, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, housing crisis, James Dyson, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, linked data, loadsamoney, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, openstreetmap, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, web of trust, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

But what is lost on modern audiences is that Shakespeare likely intended the character of Kent to symbolise an older, wiser way of apportioning inherited land. By speaking up on behalf of Cordelia, Lear’s youngest, Kent is defending the Kentish custom of gavelkind, which saw inheritances carved up equally between heirs regardless of age. For centuries, the county of Kent has practised this ancient, egalitarian system of land tenure, a survival from a time before the Norman Conquest. A monument in a churchyard on the outskirts of the Kentish village of Swanscombe commemorates this tradition. Amid old graves and beneath the dark branches of a gnarled yew tree lies a stone memorial, portraying Norman soldiers in chainmail being confronted by Kentish warriors. Beneath the carving is an epigraph: NEAR THIS SPOT IN THE YEAR 1067, BY ANCIENT TRADITION THE MEN OF KENT AND KENTISH MEN, CARRYING BOUGHS ON THEIR SHOULDERS AND SWORDS IN THEIR HANDS, MET THE INVADER, WILLIAM, DUKE OF NORMANDY.

Apocalypse Never: Why Environmental Alarmism Hurts Us All by Michael Shellenberger

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, Corn Laws, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy transition, failed state, Gary Taubes, global value chain, Google Earth, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, land tenure, Live Aid, LNG terminal, long peace, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, renewable energy transition, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Y2K

It is home to 1,757 terrestrial vertebrate species, half of all of Africa’s birds, and 40 percent of its mammals.37 Mountain gorillas today can be found in Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park, Congo’s Virunga Park, and Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. But creating those parks involved the eviction of local communities, which has led to disputes and violence. “Virunga Park was created during colonial times,” noted Helga Rainer, a conservationist with the Great Ape Program. “Land is the resource at the heart of the conflict, and it was European colonialists who changed or confused land tenure systems.”38 Scientists estimate that between five and “tens of millions” of people have been displaced from their homes by conservationists since the creation of Yosemite National Park in California in 1864. A Cornell University sociologist estimated that Europeans created at least fourteen million conservation refugees in Africa alone.39 Displacing people from their lands wasn’t incidental to conservation but rather central to it.

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

A civilization, as the etymology of the word suggests, revolves around its cities, and in many ways it is cities that are the heroes of this book.3 But a city’s laws (civil or otherwise) are as important as its walls; its constitution and customs – its inhabitants’ manners (civil or otherwise) – as important as its palaces.4 Civilization is as much about scientists’ laboratories as it is about artists’ garrets. It is as much about forms of land tenure as it is about landscapes. The success of a civilization is measured not just in its aesthetic achievements but also, and surely more importantly, in the duration and quality of life of its citizens. And that quality of life has many dimensions, not all easily quantified. We may be able to estimate the per-capita income of people around the world in the fifteenth century, or their average life expectancy at birth.

pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott

addicted to oil, agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, liberation theology, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

HAWAII BECOMES “KING OF THE SUGAR WORLD” The story of Hawaiian sugar’s Asian indentured laborers (Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Filipino) begins with its American plantocracy’s rise to power. In the early nineteenth century, Polynesian Hawaii was evangelized by missionaries sent by the American Board of Foreign Missions. Until then, as the U.S. government acknowledged in 1993 in its official apology to the Hawaiian people, “the Native Hawaiian people lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, subsistent social system based on communal land tenure with a sophisticated language, culture, and religion.”564 In 1835, American Ladd and Company leased land on Kauai to grow and mill sugarcane, which became Hawaii’s major crop. Many missionaries founded plantations: the Alexanders, Baldwins, Castles, Cookes, Rices and Wilcoxes. “A plantation is a means of civilization,” the Planters’ Monthly proselytized. “It has come in very many instances like a mission of progress into a barbarous region and stamped its character on the neighbourhood for miles around.”565 Hawaii’s haole, or foreign, sugar interests depended on land-leases for enormous holdings, cheap labor governed by planter-biased laws, interconnected and intermarried factors and merchants, and centralized mills.

Lonely Planet Panama (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn McCarthy

California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, land tenure, low cost airline, Panamax, post-Panamax, Ronald Reagan, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, women in the workforce

Over the years, outlandish proposals have ranged from the government creating an 80-hotel resort complex known as ‘New Cancun’ to earlier plans to put Damani beach in the hands of US developers. Opposition of most Ngöbe peoples to all these proposals from outsiders has been crucial in stopping the projects. Large-scale tourist development would have irreversible effects on this fragile coastal ecosystem, home to critically endangered species. Ngöbe peoples’ land tenure, access to resources, community cohesion and traditional culture would also certainly be endangered. Environmental groups and Ngöbe communities are beginning to organize small-scale ecological tourism alternatives. But the hot debate about big development is unlikely to ebb in the coming years. Daniel Suman is a professor of environmental and coastal law at the University of Miami. Top of Chapter Bosque Protector de Palo Seco Set high in the Talamanca range, the 1600- sq-km Bosque Protector de Palo Seco (BPPS; admission US$5) is a lush cloud forest, home to monkeys, sloths, armadillos and butterflies.

pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell

affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, liberal capitalism, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

.), The East Asian Development Experience: The Miracle, the Crisis, and the Future (London: Zed Books, 2006). Ha-Joon Chang, Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies and the Threat to the Developing World (London: Random House, 2007). Ha-Joon Chang and Gabriel Palma (eds.) Financial Liberalisation and the Asian Crisis (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001). Ching Peng, My Side of History (Singapore: Media Masters 2003). Mark Cleary and Peter Eaton, Tradition and Reform: Land Tenure and Rural Development in South-east Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). R. H Coase, ‘The Institutional Structure of Production’, American Economic Review 82, no. 4 (September 1992). Klaus W. Deininger, Land Policies and Land Reform (Washington DC: World Bank Publications, 2004). Klaus W. Deininger, Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction (Washington DC: World Bank Publications, 2003).

pages: 517 words: 155,209

Kingdom of Olives and Ash: Writers Confront the Occupation by Michael Chabon

airport security, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, clean water, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Fellow of the Royal Society, glass ceiling, land tenure, mental accounting, Nelson Mandela, off grid, Right to Buy, Skype, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

* A World Bank report found that potential revenue from Area C for Palestinians would be at least USD 2.2 billion per year, or 23 percent of the Palestinian GDP; the total potential value added would be USD 3.4 billion, or 35 percent of the GDP. See “West Bank and Gaza—Area C and the Future of the Palestinian Economy,” World Bank, 2 October 2013. * “State land,” a term taken from the Ottoman land-tenure system. * B’Tselem is the Israeli Information Centre for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories; Ta’ayush is the Arab-Jewish Partnership, Israelis and Palestinians striving together to end the Israeli occupation and to achieve full civil equality through daily nonviolent direct action. * A sampling of the July 2015 international media: Diaa Hadid, “How a Palestinian Hamlet of 340 Drew Global Attention,” New York Times, 23 July 2015; Erin McLaughlin, Kareem Khadder, and Bryony Jones, “Life in Susiya, the Palestinian Village Under Threat from Israeli Bulldozers,” CNN, 24 July 2015,; Peter Beaumont, “EU Protests against Israeli Plans to Demolish Palestinian Village,” The Guardian, 21 July 2015

pages: 535 words: 151,217

Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment

Though the French were as imperially oppressive as any, they are generally seen today as having been more benign and cultured than such philistine ruffians as the Dutch and the British, and the legacy of their sovereignty—a local fondness for wine; the number of surviving boulangeries; the pidgin French still heard there in the cities from Hanoi to Luang Prabang, from Kompong Som to Hue—is still well thought of, and offers to yesterday’s “Indochine” a veneer of exotic and erotic Eastern chic. Even so, all empires, benign or brutal, inevitably fade, and the drawing down of French influence in South East Asia would get under way swiftly, soon after the Second World War. It is conventional to see France’s humiliating defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in far northern Vietnam in 1954 as the beginning of the end of France’s land tenure in the western Pacific. But one other episode, half-forgotten now, marks the ultimate cause of the whole unlovely mess, of which Dien Bien Phu was but one part. It occurred in 1945, and it concerns a much-decorated British Indian Army officer named Douglas David Gracey. The strange events that briefly enfolded him offer invaluable context for what would occur in the years following. For Major General Gracey had been handed the unusual, unprecedented appointment, at the Pacific War’s end, of commander in chief, Allied Land Forces French Indochina.

The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

William Nicholls, Price Policies in the Cigarette Industry, 207. 89. Ibid., 214; Report of the Federal Trade Commission, 120; Reavis Cox, Competition in the American Tobacco Industry, 1911–1932 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1933), 146. 90. Woofter, Plight of Cigarette Tobacco, 48. 91. “The True Inwardness of the Tobacco Situation,” Progressive Farmer, September 25, 1920, 16. 92. The literature on land tenure and credit markets in the rural South is vast. See Gavin Wright Old South–New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy since the Civil War (New York: Basic Books, 1986); Harold D. Woodman, New South–New Law: The Legal Foundations of Credit and Labor Relations in the Postbellum Agricultural South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995). Scholars have demonstrated that a lack of rural credit facilities exacerbated tenancy rates across the South.

pages: 668 words: 159,523

Coffeeland: One Man's Dark Empire and the Making of Our Favorite Drug by Augustine Sedgewick

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, European colonialism, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, Food sovereignty, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Honoré de Balzac, imperial preference, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Philip Mirowski, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Even under the best conditions, coffee trees yield mature harvests only after four to seven years of attentive cultivation.29 And on top of all this, in El Salvador more than anywhere else in Latin America, the liberal hope for economic development through exports, and particularly through coffee, ran into the additional problem of scarce land.30 The country was small—about the size of Massachusetts—and perhaps a quarter or more of its arable land was already under the control of Indian and peasant subsistence farmers, the legacy of a system of communal land tenure held over from the colonial period.31 In many cases, it simply wasn’t clear who owned a particular plot of land, and this ambiguity discouraged investment in risky commercial crops. If coffee was going to transform El Salvador, it would have to take over. * * * — THE SALVADORAN GOVERNMENT first backed coffee in 1846, offering tax breaks to anyone who planted more than 5,000 trees and exempting workers employed on coffee plantations from national military service.32 These early incentives produced scant results, but in 1859, under President Gerardo Barrios, whose travels in Europe as a young man had inspired him to “regenerate” his home country through economic development, the government began to distribute parcels of land to those who agreed to cultivate coffee there.33 Later, the state also gave tens of thousands of coffee seedlings to large landowners and peasants alike.34 Thanks to such subsidies, the area of land planted in coffee increased steadily, and a wide swath of Salvadoran society got in on it: merchants, artisans, teachers, professionals, commercial farmers—in the beginning, “even the poorest people had their plantings.”35 The state-led campaign for coffee centered in the western highlands around the Santa Ana Volcano.

From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

When Romanian peasants revolted in 1784 against arbitrary lord-subject relations, their animus focused on Catholic and foreign Hungarian “tyrants.”47 In the Serb lands, Muslims constituted the landowners as well as urban populations, and to be a peasant became synonymous with being a Serb.48 Orthodox Serbs saw Slav Muslims as “neither Serbs, nor Turks, neither water nor wine, but as odious renegades.” Churches dating back centuries featured images of severed Turk heads, and “warrior-saints” stabbing Turkish-looking soldiers.49 People in border areas denoted wickedness in terms of Muslims: “worse than a Turk.”50 In Bohemia, the land tenure system was more equitable, but travelers had no doubt that the Czech speakers constituted an underclass. The Prussian writer and adventurer Baron von Pöllnitz noted two things from his visit of the 1730s: first, there was no upper class on the planet more addicted to expensive living than that of Prague, and second, their noblesse obliged nothing at all. Bohemian noblemen rarely pursued careers in state service because “they are so used to be[ing] absolute masters at their estates where their peasants are their slaves, and to be paid homage like petty sovereigns by the burghers at Prague, that they don’t care to reside at Vienna, and to be obliged like other subjects to pay their court to the sovereign and the ministers.”51 Bohemia was a land of spas and comforts, a playground for the wealthy.

The existential threat of the wars of succession of the 1740s convinced the Habsburg rulers that if their realm was to survive, it had to be guided by a strong centralizing state. Maria Theresa and later Joseph saw that other powers of the time—England, France, and Russia—were relatively uniform, in contrast to their own hodgepodge of territories, some gained by conquest, some through inheritance and marriage, hopelessly fragmented by multiple legal codes, systems of land tenure, and rights of local estates, including those of the church. The jumble of varying and competing competences meant that authorities in Vienna could not fully tap the mineral, agricultural, or human riches of their holdings. Land was tilled inefficiently because it was under the control of a gentry caste that had little incentive to improve it and was mostly protected from sale (and thus from markets and the pressures of competition from more rational farming).

pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

The program was a resounding success that strongly influenced many other governments around Latin America—though those who implemented similar policies often thankfully did so in tandem with political liberalization as well. 24. Thinking the Unthinkable, Cockett, 306. 25. Ibid., 307. 26. The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy, Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, 219. 27. Ibid., 233. 28. Ibid., 258. 29. Margaret Thatcher, Campbell, 2:625. 30. National Review, Congdon, 1993. CHAPTER 24: SOCIALISM WITH CHINESE CHARACTERISTICS 1. “Crossing the River While Feeling the Rocks: Land-Tenure Reform in China,” John W. Bruce and Zongmin Li, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2009, 2. Fujian was also home to the Xiamen Special Economic Zone, the only SEZ created in 1979 that was outside of Guangdong Province. 3. “The Course of China’s Rural Reform,” Du Runsheng, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2006, 6, 4.

Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud

autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser,, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

If a plan of action to remove a potential supply bottleneck is implemented quickly, it could prevent a further large increase in housing prices and a future affordability crisis that would have serious consequences for the welfare of the population and city productivity. The presence of blinking indicators by themselves does not suggest an automatic diagnosis, and they need to be interpreted in the local context. For instance, a rapid increase in housing prices could be caused by poorly formulated regulations, by land tenure issues, or by a lack of investment in primary infrastructure and transport. Or in a more benign way, by a large increase in households’ income and in housing quality. Only after planners and urban economists have been able to establish a correct diagnosis will it be possible to design a strategy that will bring back the indicators to a value that would predict a return to smooth sailing. The role of planners in monitoring databases could then be divided into three series of tasks shown schematically in figure 8.1.

pages: 687 words: 189,243

A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy by Joel Mokyr

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Deng Xiaoping, Edmond Halley, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, framing effect, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, hindsight bias, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land tenure, law of one price, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, new economy, phenotype, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, ultimatum game, World Values Survey, Wunderkammern

Many scholars have shown that while the Chinese relied on different institutional forms of contract enforcement and dispute resolution, these were strong enough to create a well-functioning market economy.7 Furthermore, the Chinese state administration served far more as a third-party enforcement mechanism of property right’s than had been previously believed. Local officials resolved property disputes over water, land tenure, and contracts even in the absence of a formal civil code (Rowe, 2009, p. 58). While there were craft guilds (hang) in China, there is no evidence that they played a serious role at excluding others from their trade, as they often did in Europe, thus leading to local cartels generating rents for the incumbents before the late nineteenth century (Pomeranz, 2013, pp. 106–8). Using the traditional definitions of what “good” institutions do, namely underpinning and supporting well-functioning markets, it is hard to see much daylight between China and the most advanced parts of Europe.

pages: 699 words: 192,704

Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

They constituted from the start, as Wakefield wished, a working cross-section of the English community—‘a complete slice of England’, so The Times said, ‘cut from top to bottom’. The original intention to supply a nobleman and a bishop as spiritual and temporal heads of the colony unfortunately languished when no nobleman could be persuaded to emigrate and the bishop changed his mind after a month in the settlement: but they made a start with the church, the school and the library, they painfully worked out details of land tenure, grazing rights, Church endowments and squatting privileges, and they presently settled into a reasonably ordered and prosperous routine. It was all very English. Transplanted oaks and plane trees flourished, and in their branches chirped and procreated the skylarks, blackbirds, sparrows, greenfinches, yellow-hammers, magpies, plovers and starlings misguidedly brought from home. It was not, however, much like the society Wakefield had envisaged.

pages: 692 words: 189,065

The Human Swarm: How Our Societies Arise, Thrive, and Fall by Mark W. Moffett

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, California gold rush, delayed gratification, demographic transition, eurozone crisis, George Santayana, glass ceiling, Howard Rheingold, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, Kevin Kelly, labour mobility, land tenure, long peace, Milgram experiment, out of africa, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, World Values Survey

., Allen & Jones (2014); Gat (2015); Keeley (1997); LeBlanc & Register (2004); Otterbein (2004); DL Smith (2009). 14 Moffett (2011). 15 Gat (1999); Wrangham & Glowacki (2012). 16 This cycle is often driven by spur-of-the-moment gut responses, although some societies, Bedouin tribes for example, codify it (Cole 1975). 17 Genetic analysis indicates Aborigines have stuck to the general regions they first occupied upon settling Australia despite environmental changes since that time (Tobler et al. 2017), although that obviously doesn’t mean the individual societies didn’t move around within an area. Still, many accounts suggest that land tenure by band societies was ancient and respected (LeBlanc 2014). 18 Burch (2005), 59. 19 de Sade (1990), 332. 20 Guibernau (2007); van der Dennen (1999). 21 Bender (2006), 171. 22 Sumner (1906), 12. 23 Johnson (1997). 24 Bar-Tal (2000), 123. 25 This bias is reflected even in the behavior of small groups of children (Dunham et al. 2011). 26 For general descriptions of our ineptitude with risk, see Gigerenzer (2010); Slovic (2000). 27 Fabio Sani, pers. comm.; Hogg & Abrams (1988). 28 e.g., “War is conditioned by human symbol systems,” Huxley (1959), 59. 29 e.g., Wittemyer et al. (2007). 30 At least in captivity (Tan & Hare 2013). 31 Furuichi (2011). 32 Wrangham (2014 & 2019). 33 Hrdy (2009), 3. 34 Hare et al. (2012); Hohmann & Fruth (2011). 35 The closest thing to friendship between units can be detected after one unit splits in two.

Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society by Nicholas A. Christakis

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, iterative process, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, joint-stock company, land tenure, Laplace demon, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, out of africa, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

Similar natural experiments have taken advantage of people winning monetary lotteries to evaluate the link between wealth and health, trying to sort out whether wealthy people become healthy, or healthy people become wealthy (it’s both). J. Gardner and A. J. Oswald, “Money and Mental Wellbeing: A Longitudinal Study of Medium-Sized Lottery Wins,” Journal of Health Economics 26 (2007): 49–60. 12. A. Banerjee and L. Iyer, “Colonial Land Tenure, Electoral Competition, and Public Goods in India,” in J. Diamond and J. A. Robinson, eds., Natural Experiments of History (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2010), pp. 185–220. 13. D. Acemoglu, D. Cantoni, S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, “From Ancien Régime to Capitalism: The Spread of the French Revolution as a Natural Experiment,” in J. Diamond and J. A. Robinson, eds., Natural Experiments of History (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2010), pp. 221–256. 14.

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Consider the 3-2-1 Service in Madagascar, founded by David McAfee, CEO of Human Network International. He explained: At a moment of need, callers use their own simple mobile phones to proactively retrieve information across a range of topics. Callers dial a toll-free number anytime, anywhere and listen to a menu of options: “Would you like to know about: Health? Press one. Agriculture? Press two. Environment? Press three. Water and sanitation? Press four. Land tenure? Press five. Micro finance? Press six. Family planning? Press seven.” We use the same out-of-the-box software that every 1-800 number uses—“Press one to continue in English. Press two to switch to Spanish.” But we repurpose it so illiterate audiences can use their telephone keypad to select and listen to prerecorded messages free of charge and on demand. The innovation here is the “pull” aspect.

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, low cost airline, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

Daily 9am–5pm. Qasr Ethnographic Museum This museum is located in an old mud-brick building on the edge of the ruins of the old town of Qasr, and the exhibits ramble through a series of rooms to the back of the building. Some of them are a bit cheesy, such as the mocked-up traditional oven, but there’s quite a lot here that can give you insight to life in the oasis. My particular favorites are the land-tenure deeds. You don’t have to be able to follow the complex swirl of the handwritten Arabic script to see how sophisticated the system of land usage is in the oasis, and, taken together with the toothed sluice board exhibit in the Ethnographic Museum in Mut, they begin to give 13_259290-ch10.qxp 282 7/22/08 12:40 AM Page 282 CHAPTER 10 . THE WESTERN DESERT a context for the complex interweaving of irrigation channels that you’ll see on any excursion into the countryside.

The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Steven Kinzer, “Salvador activist Gómez Finds It Pays to Stay One Step Ahead,” Boston Globe, February 25, 1981, a lengthy interview with Gómez. 41. Daniel Southerland, “New Allegations Against Rightists in El Salvador,” Christian Science Monitor, March 4, 1981. 42. Kinzer, op.cit. 43. Latin America Weekly Report, February 13, 1981. 44. Leonel Gómez and Bruce Cameron, “El Salvador: The Current Danger: American Myths,” Foreign Policy, Summer 1981. 45. Simon and Stephens, op.cit. (see note 1). See also Mac Chapin, “A Few Comments on Land Tenure and the Course of Agrarian Reform in El Salvador,” June 1980 (Chapin is an AID official). On the role of the U.S. labor movement’s AIFLD, see Carolyn Forché and Philip Wheaton, History and Motivations of U.S. Involvement in the Control of the Peasant Movement in El Salvador (Ecumenical Program for Interamerican Communication and Action [EPICA], n.d.). 46. Correspondingly the media too began to decide that there might be reason for a diagnosis of the El Salvador affair that differs from the standard government line that a centrist regime is being attacked from the left and is unable to control the right.

Wealth and Poverty of Nations by David S. Landes

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, business cycle, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, computer age, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, land tenure, lateral thinking, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

One could, then, argue, as numerous economists have, that Ameri­ can priority in development was predetermined by nature—the luck o f the draw. Recendy, however, scholars have advanced a more complex 296 T H E W E A L T H AND POVERTY OF NATIONS geographical explanation, one that links natural circumstances to cul­ ture and institutions. The argument here is that geography dictates crops and the mode of cultivation, hence the nature of land tenure and the distribution of wealth; while these in turn are critical to the pace and character of development. Where society is divided between a priv­ ileged few landowners and a large mass o f poor, dependent, perhaps unfree laborers—in effect, between a school for laziness (or selfindulgence) over against a slough o f despond—what the incentive to change and improve? At the top, a lofty indifference; below, the resig­ nation o f despair.

And so, during those frontier days of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the technological possibilities were almost endless, and American industry went on from one success to another. Other coun- 306 T H E WEALTH AND POVERTY OF NATIONS tries could copy; some indeed made forays along similar lines. But these older societies did not have the tabula rasa and the optimistic, open culture that eased the task o f the American farmer and manufac­ turer. They had to work with cramped systems of land tenure, peasants (no peasants in the United States) who scrimped on equipment to add to their holdings, great landlords who saw land more as the foundation o f status and style than as capital;* and with craftsmen who saw mech­ anization as a personal diminution, an offense to status, a threat to jobs. The older countries had their machine-breakers; America did not. European countries also had a consumption problem.

pages: 762 words: 246,045

The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson

Admiral Zheng, fixed income, Khyber Pass, land tenure, Malacca Straits, post scarcity, South China Sea, trade route

Just as the geologists had been greatly helped in their labours by the construction of a framework of understanding based on the movement of the broken eggshell plates of the crust, so the bureaucrats and technocrats and scientists and diplomats at the League of All Peoples were helped in their endeavours by Zhu's theoretical considerations. It helps to have a plan! as Zhu had often remarked. And so Bao criss crossed the world, meeting and talking to people, helping to put certain strands into place, thickening the warp and weft of treaties and agreements by which all the peoples on the planet were tied together. He worked variously on land tenure reform, forest management, animal protection, water resources, panchayat support and divestiture of accumulated wealth, chipping away at the obdurate blocks of privilege left in the wake of the Long War and all that had happened in the centuries before it. Everything went very slowly, and progress was always in small increments, but what Bao noticed from time to time was that improvements in one part of the world situation often helped elsewhere, so that, for instance, the institution of panchayat governments at the local level in China and the Islamic states led to increased power for more and more people, especially where they adopted the Travancori law of requiring at least two of every five panchayat members to be women; and this in turn mitigated many land problems.

pages: 824 words: 268,880

Blue Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson

anthropic principle, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, dark matter, different worldview, epigenetics, gravity well, James Watt: steam engine, land tenure, new economy, phenotype, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

So once again the system had worked; they had warm bodies filling the whole polyarchic array, the neighborhood boards, the ag board, the water board, the architectural review board, the project review council, the economic coordination group, the crater council to coordinate all these smaller bodies, the global delegates’ advisory board— all that network of small management bodies that progressive political theorists had been suggesting in one variation or another for centuries, incorporating aspects of the almost-forgotten guild socialism of Great Britain, Yugoslavian worker management, Mondragon ownership, Kerala land tenure, and so on. An experiment in synthesis. And so far it seemed to be working, in the sense that the Da Vinci techs seemed about as self-determined and happy as they had been during the ad hoc underground years, when everything had been done (apparently) by instinct, or, to be more precise, by the general consensus of the (much smaller) population in Da Vinci at that time. They certainly seemed as happy; out on the terraces they were lining up at big pots of kavajava and Irish coffee, or kegs of beer, clumped in talkative groups so that the clatter of voices was like the sound of waves, as at any cocktail party: an amazing sound, those voices all together.

pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal, WikiLeaks

The Visigothic kings were given to taking hostages and to punishing disloyal subjects, but they did not indulge in gratuitous violence. Numerous Romans entered their service, notably the military general Nepotanius, the admiral Namatius of Saintes, and Victorius, the dux super septem civitates, or ‘commander of Septimania’.10 The Visigoths did not legislate separately for the Gallo-Romans, suggesting a willingness to assimilate; a new system of land tenure did not involve significant confiscations; and in religious matters, the Arian practices of the Visigothic clergy proceeded in parallel to the well-established network of Roman bishoprics and rural churches. The fact that the General Church Council of Agde could take place in Visigothic territory in 506 suggests that the non-Arians had no special fear for their safety.11 The Roman city of Tolosa, built on the plain beneath an ancient Celtic hill fort, had been given the epithet Palladia by the Emperor Domitian in honour of the goddess Pallas Athena, patroness of the arts.

The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970 by John Darwin

anti-communist, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive bias, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, labour mobility, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, railway mania, reserve currency, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Scientific racism, South China Sea, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable

The British for their part seemed less sure than they had been before 1914 about what their Raj was to do. The social problems of India had always seemed daunting, but now they were more conscious than ever that they had only makeshift solutions. The Royal Commission on Indian Agriculture (1928) was set up to inquire into the causes of low productivity. But it pointedly ignored the key issue of land tenure so as not to enrage the Raj's key allies among the landholding classes. As the Congress pushed deeper into rural society, the old British claim that they were the guardians of peasants and cultivators looked more and more threadbare. Indeed, the reforms of 1918–19 were meant to shift the burden of social questions towards the ‘transferred’ departments in provincial governments under the charge of elected Indian ministers.

Thomas Cromwell: A Life by Diarmaid MacCulloch

active measures, distributed generation, failed state, land tenure, wikimedia commons

His contemporary Lord Herbert of Chirbury considered that that same royal instinct was on display in 1540, and that the unpopularity of the taxation was yet another consideration to throw on the scales when Henry allowed Cromwell to be destroyed.47 Besides the tax grant was a huge volume of legislation both public and private: so much that Geoffrey Elton commented it was almost as though Cromwell knew this would be his last Parliament.48 It certainly demonstrated the minister’s frantic energy in trying to cope with the continuing pile of legislative needs built up over three years: the volume of demands itself witnessing how both King and people now saw Parliament as the forum for securing change. Among government bills, the most important concerned land tenure, principally a new right for the King’s subjects to use their wills to make decisions on leaving land to whom they pleased. This was a necessary royal retreat from the great kingdom-wide groundswell of fury against the Statute of Uses of 1536, which, as we observed, swept aside a century and more of legal evasions of feudal inheritance law. The Statute of Wills was a lasting and sensible modification of the King’s reasserted feudal rights, drawing the sting from the previous legislation; the mark of its success was how little it needed supplementing in later centuries.49 All this had to be accomplished alongside Cromwell’s two main challenges: to counter the King’s profound sense of disappointment in his chief minister over the Cleves marriage, and to defeat the build-up of pressure from his enemies.

pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, different worldview, do-ocracy, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

The oldest debate in Chinese political thought was between the Taoists, who advocated a simple life in harmony with nature, and the Legalists and Confucians, who stressed the need for a strong centralized State and bureaucracy.1 Modern anarchism not only advocated the Taoist rural idyll, but also echoed the peasant longing embedded in Chinese culture for a frugal and egalitarian millennium which has expressed itself in peasant rebellions throughout Chinese history. It further struck a chord with two traditional concepts, Ta-t’ung, a legendary golden age of social equality and harmony, and Ching-t’ien, a system of communal land tenure which was probably practised locally at different periods during the first millennium.2 At the turn of the century, China was almost completely dependent on Japan for its knowledge of the West. It is not therefore surprising mat the formative stage of Chinese radicalism was closely linked to Japan’s. A Chinese group of students in Tokyo came under the influence of the Japanese anarchist thinker Kōtoku Shūsui.