pink-collar

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pages: 236 words: 62,158

Marx at the Arcade: Consoles, Controllers, and Class Struggle by Jamie Woodcock

4chan, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, anti-work, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, butterfly effect, call centre, collective bargaining, Columbine, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, John Conway, Kickstarter, Landlord’s Game, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Oculus Rift, pink-collar, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, union organizing, unpaid internship, V2 rocket

Lebowitz, Following Marx: Method, Critique and Crisis (Boston: Brill, 2009), 314. 15Lebowitz, Following Marx, 310, 314. 16Karl Marx, “A Workers’ Inquiry,” New International 4, no. 12 (1938): 379. 17Marx, “A Workers’ Inquiry,” 379. 18Cleaver, Reading Capital Politically, 58. 19Jamie Woodcock, “The Workers’ Inquiry from Trotskyism to Operaismo: A Political Methodology for Investigating the Workplace,” Ephemera 14, no. 3 (2014): 493–513. 20Jamie Woodcock, Working the Phones: Control and Resistance in Call Centres (London: Pluto, 2017). 21“Interview with Vittorio Rieser,” Generation Online, October 3, 2001, www.generation-online.org/t/vittorio.htm. 22Notes from Below editors, “The Workers’ Inquiry and Social Composition,” Notes from Below 1 (January 29, 2018), www.notesfrombelow.org/article/workers-inquiry-and-social-composition. 23Julian Kücklich, “Precarious Playbour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry,” Fibreculture Journal 5, no. 1 (2005). 24Tiziana Terranova, “Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy,” Social Text 18, no. 2 (2000): 32. 25Kücklich, “Precarious Playbour.” 26Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, 27. 27Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, 50. 28Ergin Bulut, “Glamor Above, Precarity Below: Immaterial Labor in the Video Game Industry,” Critical Studies in Media Communication 32, no. 3 (2015): 203. 29Bulut, “Glamor Above, Precarity Below,” 203. 30Ian G. Williams, “Crunched: Has the Games Industry Really Stopped Exploiting Its Workforce?,” Guardian, February 18, 2015, www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/18/crunched-games-industry-exploiting-workforce-ea-spouse-software. 31Jennifer Pan, “Pink Collar,” Jacobin 14 (2014), www.jacobinmag.com/2014/06/pink-collar/. 32Pan, “Pink Collar.” 33Pan, “Pink Collar.” 34Pan, “Pink Collar.” 35Aphra Kerr and John D. Kelleher, “The Recruitment of Passion and Community in the Service of Capital: Community Managers in the Digital Games Industry,” Critical Studies in Media Communication 32, no. 3 (2015): 190. 36Kerr and Kelleher, “The Recruitment of Passion and Community,” 190. 37Kerr and Kelleher, “The Recruitment of Passion and Community,” 190. 38Kerr and Kelleher, “The Recruitment of Passion and Community,” 191. 39Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, 5. 40Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, 77. 41Pun Ngai, Labour in China: Post-Socialist Transformations (Cambridge, MA: Polity, 2016). 42Bernard Girard, The Google Way: How One Company Is Revolutionizing Management as We Know It (San Francisco: No Starch Press, 2009). 43Johanna Weststar, Victoria O’Meara, and Marie-Josée Legault, “Developer Satisfaction Survey 2017 Summary Report,” International Game Developers Association, 2018, 22. 44Weststar, O’Meara, and Legault, “Developer Satisfaction Survey 2017 Summary Report,” 19. 45Weststar, O’Meara, and Legault, “Developer Satisfaction Survey 2017 Summary Report,” 32. 46Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, 27. 47Dyer-Witheford and de Peuter, Games of Empire, xxix. 48Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 17. 49Frederick W.

This was perceived as a requirement and if you had issues with it, you were told “Well, you can go stack shelves at Tesco instead or answer phones at a call centre.” You were treated as disposable.30 Many of these forms of work “below the line” are gendered in various ways. For example, in the increasingly important area of publicity and marketing, in which publishers compete in ever more crowded marketplaces for videogames, the sector is “solidly pink-collar,” with public relations workers over 85 percent female. However, in contrast to how journalists are respected for their creative work, publicists have often become targeted as “spin doctors” that are “an insidious and growing threat to journalism and democracy.”31 The nature of the work involves organizing press releases, managing social media, planning events, and so on, all of which relies on relationship building.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Even if one is an especially skilled and competent nurse, the head nurse on the floor may also be competent, forty years old, and going nowhere. Many pink-collar jobs are disproportionately located in the low-wage service sector of the economy. The jobs themselves are insecure, and those who hold them face higher-than-average risks of irregular employment, involuntary part-time work, and layoffs or firing. These jobs typically carry limited fringe benefits, and some require shift work. Pink-collar jobs and the industries in which they are located are typically not unionized; therefore, workers do not benefit from protections won by the collective power of unions. Change has occurred in a few of the female-dominated professions, such as social work, teaching, and nursing, which have formed more powerful professional associations. But most pink-collar jobs are in the low-wage service sector of the economy, which is grossly unrepresented by either unions or professional associations.

In both the public and private sectors, nearly all of the positions at the top, such as those held by corporate officers, members of boards of directors, top professionals, and high elected officials, are held by males. Men continue to dominate socially, politically, and economically. In short, gender, a factor with no demonstrable independent effect on individual merit, conditions access to opportunity, and women have been denied full participation in the American Dream. Indeed, women’s continued subordinate status is visible in practically every aspect of American life. The Pink-Collar Ghetto Historically and cross-culturally, the degree of male dominance in society is directly related to the kind and extent of female participation in economic production. That is, the more women participate in economic production, and the more equally they participate in economic production, the less the degree of male dominance. Since the 1970s, female labor-force participation has steadily increased.

Men, however, have not been moving as quickly into traditionally female-dominated professions, such as social work, nursing, and elementary school teaching. Likewise, there is very little movement of women into traditionally male-dominated blue-collar trades such as construction, and there has not been much movement of men into the lower-white-collar service jobs such as secretary. Collectively, the jobs in which women remain highly concentrated have come to be called the pink-collar ghetto. Some jobs in which women are concentrated, such as nursing and teaching, pay moderately well and carry moderate prestige. Nevertheless, they are often lower in pay and prestige than “men’s jobs” that require equivalent levels of skill and training. These jobs also tend to be “order-taker” rather than “order-giver” positions and are often located in direct relation to an occupationally defined chain of command: nurses take orders from doctors, secretaries take orders from bosses, and so on.


pages: 350 words: 110,764

The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks

basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The carefully crafted theatricality of style signifies the kind of creativity, risk, and iconoclasm that these Internet industries try to sell to both customers and their own workers, to both their “external” and “internal” clients (see Ross 2003, 3, 32, 50). The workers described in both Freeman’s and Ross’s accounts used clothes and style as a way to distinguish their employment sector from others (as pink-collar rather than blue-collar, or as no-collar in contrast to white-collar) and, by the same token, to display their status as individuals within that setting rather than merely as members of a “collared” class fraction. But as Hochschild notes in her study of flight attendants, another iconic pink-collar labor force, by defending the intensive managerial control over the workers’ appearance through “continuous reference to the need to be ‘professional,’ ” the standardized results may be imbued with honor and the aura of autonomy, but they nonetheless remain highly regulated.24 According to the industry’s standard of professionalism, “the flight attendant who most nearly meets the appearance code ideal is therefore ‘the most professional.’ ” Consequently, she observes, “for them a ‘professional’ flight attendant is one who has completely accepted the rules of standardization” (1983, 103).

As a result of these activities, work plays a significant role in both the production and reproduction of gendered identities and hierarchies: gender is re-created along with value. As in the example of class identities noted earlier, gender identities are coordinated with work identities in ways that can sometimes alienate workers from their job and other times bind them more tightly to it. Whether it is the women informatics workers whose pink-collar status and dress code is, Carla Freeman argues, at once a disciplinary mechanism and a source of individual expression (2000, 2), or the specific model of blue-collar masculinity that made industrial work attractive to the working-class boys of Paul Willis’s famous study (1977, 150), this gendering of labor—doing men’s work or women’s work, doing masculinity or femininity as part of doing the job—can also be a source of pleasure in work and serve to promote workers’ identification with and investments in the job.

Besides once again creating more work for women—in the first approach, by adding a second job to women’s lives; in the second, by raising the standards of domestic work—there were additional drawbacks to each of the strategies: whereas the first risked perpetuating the invisibility and devaluation of unwaged domestic work, the second threatened to reinforce the discourse of separate spheres and with it what Charlotte Perkins Gilman decried as “domestic mythology” (2002, 36).18 Second-wave feminists were particularly interested in this second approach, insisting on revaluing feminized forms of not only domestic labor but pink-collar wage labor as well—including, for example, caring work and sex work. The proponents of the classic gynocentric ethic of care claimed that caring labor was real work and should be recognized and valued as such. Though more interested in finding in caring labor another model of ethical work than in imposing the model of waged work on the practices of care, some of these second-wave authors nonetheless echo aspects of the ethical discourse of waged labor in making the case for caring labor’s significance and worth.


pages: 419 words: 109,241

A World Without Work: Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond by Daniel Susskind

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, precariat, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor, working-age population, Y Combinator

Paul Beaudry, David Green, and Benjamin Sand, “The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks,” Journal of Labor Economics 34:1 (2016): 199–247, quoted in “Special Report on Lifelong Education: Learning and Earning,” Economist, 14 January 2017, p. 2. 20.  “Time to End the Academic Arms Race,” Economist, 3 February 2018. 21.  Chang May Choon, “Dream Jobs Prove Elusive for South Korea’s College Grads,” Straits Times, 11 March 2016. 22.  For “pink-collar” see, for instance, Elise Kalokerinos, Kathleen Kjelsaas, Steven Bennetts, and Courtney von Hippel, “Men in Pink Collars: Stereotype Threat and Disengagement Among Teachers and Child Protection Workers,” European Journal of Social Psychology 47:5 (2017); for the percentages, see the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Household Data: Annual Averages” for 2017 at https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat11.pdf (accessed August 2018). 23.  Gregor Aisch and Robert Gebeloff, “The Changing Nature of Middle-Class Jobs,” New York Times, 22 February 2015.

We can already see that a lot of the tasks that technological progress has left for human beings to do today are the “non-routine” ones clustered in poorly paid roles at the bottom of the labor market, bearing little resemblance to the sorts of fulfilling activities that many imagined as being untouched by automation. There is no reason to think the future will be any different. For adult men in the United States, a similar story is unfolding, where some workers likewise appear to have left the labor market out of choice rather than by necessity—though for a different reason. Displaced from manufacturing roles by new technologies, they prefer not to work at all rather than take up “pink-collar” work—an unfortunate term intended to capture the fact that many of the roles currently out of reach of machines are disproportionately held by women, like teaching (97.7 percent of preschool and kindergarten teachers are women), nursing (92.2 percent), hairdressing (92.6 percent), housekeeping (88 percent), social work (82.5 percent), and table-waiting (69.9 percent).22 While male-dominated roles in production are on the decline, such female-dominated roles are on the rise and expected to create the most jobs in the coming years, as shown in the projections from the US Bureau of Labor in Figure 6.2.23 Figure 6.2: Most New Jobs, US, 2014–2424 Why are people reluctant to take on available work that they are capable of doing?

Displaced from manufacturing roles by new technologies, they prefer not to work at all rather than take up “pink-collar” work—an unfortunate term intended to capture the fact that many of the roles currently out of reach of machines are disproportionately held by women, like teaching (97.7 percent of preschool and kindergarten teachers are women), nursing (92.2 percent), hairdressing (92.6 percent), housekeeping (88 percent), social work (82.5 percent), and table-waiting (69.9 percent).22 While male-dominated roles in production are on the decline, such female-dominated roles are on the rise and expected to create the most jobs in the coming years, as shown in the projections from the US Bureau of Labor in Figure 6.2.23 Figure 6.2: Most New Jobs, US, 2014–2424 Why are people reluctant to take on available work that they are capable of doing? It doesn’t help that the pay for most of these “pink-collar” jobs is significantly below the national average.25 But even more important, it seems, many of the male workers are attached to an identity that is rooted in a particular sort of role—its social status, the nature of the work, the type of people that tend to do it—and are willing to stay unemployed in order to protect that identity.26 THE PLACE MISMATCH The third cause of frictional technological unemployment is that the work that exists may simply be in the wrong geographical area.


pages: 626 words: 167,836

The Technology Trap: Capital, Labor, and Power in the Age of Automation by Carl Benedikt Frey

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, factory automation, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, game design, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Turing test, union organizing, universal basic income, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Large numbers of women were employed in offices as a direct result of the introduction of the typewriter.42 But as we shall see in chapter 8, most of the growth of the clerical workforce happened after 1900, when the proliferation of office machines, the mechanization of in-home production, and the desire to boost family income allowed women to make a great leap forward. In the period 1950–70 in particular, about 11.4 million women newly took up clerical occupations, while only 1.5 million men did so. The term “pink collar,” which became increasingly common in the 1970s, referred to the growth in the female, machine-tending clerical workforce.43 Much of the rise in labor force participation over the twentieth century, in other words, was due to mechanization, not just despite it. The Ride to Modernity As essential a part of this story as the transformation of the home and the factory was the revolution in the movement of goods and people.

Autor, 2011, “Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings,” in Handbook of Labor Economics, ed. David Card and Orley Ashenfelter, 4:1043–171 (Amsterdam: Elsevier). 1992–2017: author’s analysis using data from S. Ruggles et al., 2018, IPUMS USA, version 8.0 (dataset), https://usa.ipums.org/usa/. However, the experience of women has been rather different. As is well known, the great leap forward of the “pink-collar” workforce came to an end in the 2000s, when computers began to take over more clerical work (figure 13). Just a few decades ago, people who called Amtrak to make a train reservation would have heard a woman answering the phone on the other end. Today, they hear a recorded voice saying, “Hi, I’m Julie, Amtrak’s automated agent.” But consistent with what we know from studies in neuroscience pointing out that women perform better in interactive and social settings, women have adjusted much better than men to an increasingly interactive world of work.33 Instead of being pushed back into low-wage service jobs, where women had traditionally been dominant, many have moved up into professional and managerial jobs.

Mokyr, 2000, “Why ‘More Work for Mother?’ Knowledge and Household Behavior, 1870–1945,” Journal of Economic History 60 (1): 1–41. 39. Nye, 1990, Electrifying America, 18. 40. Gordon, 2016, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, 227. 41. Greenwood, Seshadri, and Yorukoglu, 2005, “Engines of Liberation.” 42. V. E. Giuliano, 1982, “The Mechanization of Office Work,” Scientific American 247 (3): 148–65. 43. On the term “pink collar,” see A. J. Cherlin, 2013, Labor’s Love Lost: The Rise and Fall of the Working-Class Family in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation), 119. 44. A. J. Field, 2007, “The Origins of US Total Factor Productivity Growth in the Golden Age,” Cliometrica 1 (1): 89. See also A. J. Field, 2011, A Great Leap Forward: 1930s Depression and U.S. Economic Growth (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press). 45.


A People’s History of Computing in the United States by Joy Lisi Rankin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate social responsibility, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pink-collar, profit motive, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, wikimedia commons

In fact, the fields of computation, mathe­matics, and information pro­cessing had long employed ­women, from the ­women who worked as computers at the Harvard College Observatory and the ­women who worked as telegraphers during the nineteenth ­century to the ­women who computed the Math ­Tables Proj­ect during the ­Great Depression, programmed the ENIAC during World War II, and calculated the astronauts’ trajectories for the moon missions. Historians have also emphasized that ­women ­were often paid less for performing the same work as men, and that their jobs w ­ ere categorized as lower status, less impor­tant pink-­collar jobs only ­because they ­were performed by w ­ omen. In American computing during the 1960s and 1970s, w ­ omen ­were gradually pushed out as the field professionalized, a pro­cess intertwined with the creation of a particularly masculine computing identity.31 Teletype usage at Dartmouth during the 1960s offers a microcosm of the ongoing erasure of ­women’s work in the history of information pro­cessing.

By 1965, the teletypewriter—­t he terminal on which Dartmouth students wrote their BASIC programs—­had a fifty-­year history in American communication. The teletype had been introduced on the telegraph system around 1910 as a way to input messages via typewriter rather than Morse code. In fact, Western Union—­t he telegraphy ­g iant—­opened schools across the United States to train ­women on how to use the teletypes.32 Teletypewriter work quickly became a pink-­collar field—­low-­status clerical work performed by w ­ omen. Despite the fact that the teletype was firmly fixed in the realm of w ­ omen’s work by 1965, it shed t­ hose gendered connotations at Dartmouth. The Dartmouth men embraced the teletypes and time-­sharing as their own, focusing instead on the diffi- Making a Macho Computing Culture 51 culty of pressing the keys, the noise of multiple teletypes in simultaneous use, and the modern architecture of the new computing center.33 Indeed, the use of teletypes with the time-­sharing system at Dartmouth (and the subsequent use of teletypes with minicomputers and personal computers during the 1960s through the 1980s) seems to have rendered invisible that earlier—­and women-focused—history.

He contrasted that frivolous image with the serious “customer who [had] printed out at his terminal news items on topics of par­t ic­u­lar interest to him.”103 The female user of the home terminal was the h ­ ouse­w ife, shopping for shoes, while the male user was the customer, the domestic resident in charge of purchasing, spending, and saving, and he sought news, not shoes.104 When Kemeny tackled how computing would change commuting, he commented, “Another reason why a man goes to his office is ­because that is where his secretary is. But . . . ​before very long dictated letters ­w ill be automatically transcribed by computer.” During the 1960s, secretarial work was pink-­collar; most secretaries w ­ ere ­women, and their l­abor was lower paid and viewed as lower status than male-­dominated blue-­collar or white-­collar work. With his remarks, Kemeny may again have been playing to the audience’s implicit understanding that a man went to work to see his secretary ­because she was young, attractive, and at his beck and call. He certainly declared that her ­labor was easily replaceable by the computer, while si­mul­ta­neously implying that the businessman’s work would only be eased by the computer, never replaced.


pages: 249 words: 80,762

Odd Girl Out: An Autistic Woman in a Neurotypical World by Laura James

cognitive dissonance, Minecraft, neurotypical, pink-collar, Skype, Stephen Hawking

Geoffrey is Mrs Hadar’s sausage dog. He is golden brown and has a nice red collar. I always draw a picture of Geoffrey on Fridays when it is drawing time. I am bad at drawing, so I do not have a nice picture of Geoffrey. This makes me feel sad too. When I grow up I am going to have a sausage dog and I am going to call him Claire and give him a pink collar. Mrs Hadar told me you can’t call a boy dog Claire, but I think maybe you can, if you’re a grown-up and you give him a pink collar. I like things to be pink. At Mrs Hadar’s I was allowed to wear pink ballet shoes. Only they weren’t called ballet shoes, they were called slippers. I think this is because you can’t wear them when you go outside. At school you have indoor shoes and outdoor shoes. The indoor shoes are called plimsolls. I don’t like them because they smell horrible.


pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders

barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

We know from the way the labour market is developing that blue-collar occupations—particularly at the less-skilled end— are likely to come under increased pressure as the economy restructures in ways unfavourable to manufacturing (O’Loughlin and Watson 1997; DEETYA 1997). Downward pressures on wages, particularly in the award-only sector, will also be unfavourable to these occupations. This will be offset to some extent by growth in ‘pink-collar’ service sector jobs (such as waiters and cashiers), but these are low-paying jobs whose future growth will not lead to higher wages. Consequently, the blue-collar reference person with a pink-collar spouse may find little improvement in their household’s earning situation. Blue-collar/blue-collar households face bleak earnings prospects, unless both end up working much longer hours, as has happened in the United States. Only low-wage households with clerical workers can expect to maintain or marginally improve their situation.


pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

In another study the social scientists Robert Lerman and Martin Rein revealed that from 1989 to 1993, the period covering the economic downturn, social service industries (health, education, and welfare) added almost 3 million jobs, while 1.4 million jobs were lost in all other industries. The expanding job market in social services offset the recession-linked job loss in other industries. The movement of lower-educated men into the growth sectors of the economy has been slow. For example, “the fraction of men who have moved into so-called pink-collar jobs like practical nursing or clerical work remains negligible.” The large concentration of women in the expanding social service sector partly accounts for the striking gender differences in job growth. Unlike lower-educated men, lower-educated women are working more, not less, than in previous years. The employment patterns among lower-educated women, like those with higher education and training, reflect the dramatic expansion of social service industries.

Also see Rifkin (1995). 12 Today, most of the new jobs for workers with limited education: Nasar (1994), Freeman (1994), and Holzer (1995). 13 One study found that the U.S. created: McKinsey & Co. (1994). 14 Robert Lerman and Martin Rein revealed that: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 15 The expanding job market in social services: Social services increased from 17 percent of total employment in 1979 to 21 percent in 1993. Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 16 For example, “the fraction of men who have moved into so-called pink-collar jobs”: Nasar (1994). 17 The large concentration of women in the expanding social service sector: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 18 Between 1989 and 1993, jobs held by women: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 19 Although the wages of low-skilled women … rose slightly: Blank (1994). 20 The wage gap between low-skilled men and women shrank: Blank (1994). 21 The unemployment rates among both low-skilled men and women: Blank (1994). 22 quotation from Freeman and Katz: Freeman and Katz (1994), p. 46. 23 quotation from Rebecca Blank: Blank (1994), p. 17. 24 The workplace has been revolutionized by technological changes: Marshall (1994). 25 Unlike men with lower education, college-educated men are working more, not less: In the decade of the 1980s, 79 percent worked at least eight out of ten months, up from 77 percent during the 1970s.


pages: 206 words: 51,534

Wrap It In A Bit Of Cheese Like You're Tricking The Dog: The fifth collection of essays and emails by New York Times Best Selling author David Thorne by David Thorne

Minecraft, pink-collar, telemarketer

“Nothing we should be worried about then? We haven’t arrived in the middle of a coup or something?” “No. Is normal. Good to have police. When no police, then you worry. Your hotel though, very safe, very nice. Here it is now.” He indicated and slowed the van, turning up a path flanked by white painted concrete and hibiscus in full bloom. Pulling up at a pink and white reception building, a smiling man in white pants and pink collared shirt opened the door for us. “Hola, welcome to Las Brisas.” “Well this is alright,” said Holly, throwing back the last of her complimentary cocktail. We’d been driven to our private guest villas in the back of a pink jeep named Kevin Costner.All of the jeeps were named for celebrities who had stayed at the resort and we’d passed Barbara Streisand and Humberto Zurita on the way. A flower petal path led us through a spacious room to a patio with a private pool overlooking the bay.


pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

She has a passion for fashion, so she decided to start a company that married her skills and her passion. That’s our target demographic—women in their thirties to fifties who have been in the corporate world, have run departments, or have expertise in a given area. There are a lot of women out there with the ability and interest to run billion-dollar companies. Ghaffari: Do you see, among your clientele, that women follow the pink-collar kind of work, staying within the same businesses that women have been in for centuries? Or do you see them branching out of that? Millman: I don’t see those stereotypes these days, but I’m sure there are many women who pursue those careers. I see the engineers, the scientists, the medical doctors, the finance and marketing gurus. Now, I won’t tell you that they don’t have an interest in fashion, health, well-being, and education.

., 63–64 Gold Award, 80–81 hiring people, 79 inspiration, 59 job, 60 at Doheny, 67–68 leader/leadership definition, 80 leadership aspects, 62–63 Luttgens & Associates, 71 mentors, 78–79 merger and acquisition specialist, 69 merger of six area councils, 72 merger of sixe area councils, 73–74 new Girl Scouts, 76–77 Noce, Bill CHLA, 70 influence, 70 moment of truth, 70 succession planning, 70 organization's long-term strategy, 79 planning, 74–75 professional services departments, 65–66 responsible and accountable manner, 64 Ronald McDonald job, 72 thesis, 61–62 transition plan, 71 turning points, 66 UCLA in Southern California, 64 Yale experience, 61 M McElhaney, Kellie advice to women, 220–221 AmeriCorps program, 205 in banking, 203 Calvert, 213–214 co-faculty director, 215 corporate environment, 216 decision-making style, 218 early childhood and family influences, 200 executive education, 215 experience, 204–205 faculty and corporate games, 211 family support, 209, 220 fellowships, 210 first job, 202 founder of Center for Responsible Business at University of California, 199 honors, 200 ING, 216 as leader, 219 master's degree, 202 at Michigan, 206–208 Mike, 210 negative things, dealing, 220 Net Impact, 207 non-tenure teacher, 215 North Carolina University, 201 McElhaney, Kellie (continued) organizational behavior and communication, 202 performance, 213 Sandra Lober's advice, 203 social media, 217 social responsibility committees, 220 Socially Responsible Investment Fund, 212–213 success, 219 supporters, 211 Sustainable Products and Solutions Program, 214 faculty response, 214 traditional media usage, 217 West Coast, 208 Mercer, 43–44 Millman, Amy accomplishments, 129 achievements, 133 brain trust, 133 Carnegie Mellon University, 126–127 Congressional Quarterly, 128 decision-making style, 137, 138 family, 138 entrepreneurs, 126 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 135 graduation, 126 learnt from experience, 127, 130 legislative analyst, OSHA, 126 memorable experience, at Trucking Association, 131 mentors, 130 National Women's Business Council, 131–132 Philip Morris anti-smoking movement, 130 contributions to women organizations, 129–130 lobbyist job, 129 Springboard Enterprises, 134 growth, 135–136 international market, 136 Kauffma Foundation, 135 Oracle Conference Center, 134 president of, 125 Washington, DC, 127 business in, 128 women advice for, 138–139 entrepreneurs, 140 pink-collar kind of work, 140 source of venture capital, 141 Monster Meetings, 23 N, O, P Nelson, Georgia, 56 Net Impact, 207 Q QuakeFinder, 8 R Returns on investment (ROI), 206 and metric concept, 213 Roden, Laura advise to women, 237 advisory board, 231–232 boutique investment bank, 232 competitive challenges, 234 decision-making style, 236 education, 224 enhancing deals and membership, 229–230 family, 232–233 future aspects, 234 Harvard Business School, 225 investment, 231 involvement in 100 Women in Hedge Funds, 236 job, 224–25 Chronicle Publishing, 225 food companies/industry, 225 leader, definition, 236 leading-edge kind of person, 226–227 licenses, 232 mentors, 226 motivation, 231 opportunity for young women professionals, 237 positive/negative responses, 233 PowerTV, 227 private investors, 235 relationship with investors/ partners/colleagues, 234 risk taker, 235 San Francisco Jewish Community Federation, 235 strategy decisions, 233 SVASE Angels' Forum, 228–229 combination of venture capitalists, investors, and entrepreneurs, 228 executive director role, 227–228 position, 227 success key factors, 228 US Media Group, 226 VC Privé, 230, 231 S Starting New Ventures, 246–247 Stellar Solutions Aerospace Ltd.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

This is the argument aimed at service workers, who are on strike because they make so little they cannot afford food or rent. Putting aside that anyone working full-time should be able to survive on their income, and that service workers deserve the same respect as any employee, this argument falls flat because educated professionals whose work offers tremendous benefit to society are also poorly paid. Teaching, nursing, social work, child care, and other “pink collar” professions do not pay poorly because, as Slate’s Hanna Rosin argues, women “flock to less prestigious jobs,” but because jobs are considered less prestigious when they are worked by women. The jobs are not worth less—but the people who work them are supposed to be. Although zero-opportunity employers disproportionately hurt women and minorities, everyone suffers in an economy that does not value workers.


pages: 499 words: 144,278

Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

The men leave that area, looking for new cutting-edge areas where they can reestablish artificial scarcity and a tacit no-girls-allowed culture, or at least one where girls are regarded as foreign interlopers. These days, that appears to be Bitcoin—or blockchain tech in general—and AI, where, whenever I go to events, it’s a sea of men, far more than most other fields of coding. What is actually going on, Posner argues, is the creation of a “pink-collar ghetto” in coding. The world of programmers is willing to admit that, sure, women and minorities may be expert at JavaScript and all the things that go into making a website or mobile app highly functional, and to respond precisely the way a user wants. But that gets denigrated as aesthetic, fuzzy stuff. It’s not real coding. This is a preposterous idea; front-end coding is enormously complex, and changing rapidly, such that most of those doing it are continually learning new techniques at a ferocious rate.

For him, a central glory of coding seemed to lie precisely in its difficulty, that it chased people away, leaving only the monk-like devotees behind, to ponder their ASCII printouts in blissful silence. COBOL and BASIC were the targets back then—but today, that snobbishness is leveled at the web languages so many newbies and underrepresented coders use as their on-ramp: JavaScript, HTML, CSS. As the pink-collar ghetto emerges in the front end, the self-appointed alpha nerds flee it. These days, they’re less and less interested in web or app development and are moving into emerging areas like blockchain—Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies—or machine learning. They’re fields that are newly technically challenging; serious machine-learning work requires some genuinely mathematical thinking (and, if you practice it at a high level, formal computer science education).


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

By contrast, the word processor was imagined from the outset as an instrument of what labor and technology historian Juliet Webster has termed “women’s work.”7 Of course, the typewriter too had been feminized upon its inception by Christopher Latham Sholes with his stated belief that he had done something “important” for women heretofore condemned to menial, domestic labor.8 Numerous critics have documented the typewriter’s prismatic refraction of female identity and imagery ever since, including the popular vogue for novels featuring the eponymous “typewriter girl” as archetype.9 But the stock of cultural imagery around the typewriter has since diverged: on the one hand the hardboiled noir writer, inevitably and inveterately male, the typewriter an extension of his intellectual firmament / fermented intellect as the words get punched out of his fingertips in an urgent rhythm; on the other hand, the secretary, a product of pink-collar office culture, the silent and passive conduit for the words of others. She listens but does not speak, she transcribes but does not compose, and she types but never reads. Or at least she’s not supposed to. Unlike the typewriter, then—which at least had its alternative reservoir of masculine imagery to draw upon—when writers began buying word processors, they were buying a product originally designed for a very specific usage and environment.

Hoffman contends that it was only the widespread advent of graphical user interfaces and “direct manipulation” that finally broke this trend, as prefigured in the Xerox Star and Apple Lisa and finally popularized by the Macintosh. But the entrenched order of things died hard. As late as 1990, an independent vendor produced a menu-based interface called (what else) Perfectly Simple that could be installed as an add-on to WordPerfect. For some literary authors, the allure of a personal computer with all its teeming intricacies may have been enough to offset word processing’s pink-collar associations. Mastering a “microcomputer” was a proposition very different from operating a piece of office equipment by rote instruction. Thus the predilection for tinkering shared by Pournelle, Brodkey, Fallows, Tan, Straub, Clarke (but not Asimov), and many others. Can we recast some of the apprehensions and anxieties about word processing from male and female authors alike as a resistance to being superimposed onto the figure of that Royal typewriter lady?


pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Manifest destiny—with its cast of robber barons, tragically doomed natives, laboring Asians and African Americans, grizzled soldiers, and Lone Rangers—still casts its spell over the boardrooms and universities of America, and so the practitioners of some of the most nerdy professions in history (media-making; software-making; lending and borrowing money) develop codes of masculinity that allow them to “walk smart.” In September 2011, the programmer Rob Spectre gave a presentation at a conference entirely in character as Chad the Brogrammer, wearing the standard fraternity-bro uniform of popped pink collar and dark glasses. A video of the presentation quickly went viral, and Spectre’s lines were suddenly all over the blogosphere: “In the immortal words of Brosef Stalin, ‘Dude, I’m way too faded to build this [difficult low-level] shiz. Imma have some other broheims do the grunge work. Totes magotes.’”62 Spectre was joking, but he had touched on a trend that many had noticed: “Tech’s latest boom,” Businessweek observed in 2012, “has generated a new, more testosterone-fueled breed of coder,” such as Danilo Stern-Sapad, a twenty-five-year-old who doesn’t like being called a geek, who “wears sunglasses and blasts 2Pac while programming,” who proudly reports that “we got invited to a party in Malibu where there were naked women in the hot tub.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

It’s a produce-on-demand method, so it minimizes waste by avoiding overproduction (a chronic problem in mass production). It incorporates desirable consumer features such as the ability to customize. Small-scale and sufficiency production also match the emergent skill set of the population. In the old mass production system, advanced numeracy and literacy were concentrated in managers and designers, and blue- and pink-collar work was deskilled. By contrast, high levels of numeracy and literacy are required more broadly in a technologically advanced economy, and equally so for the high-productivity, low-impact systems of agriculture and manufacture I have been discussing. As these skills are diffused through the population, the efficient scale of production falls. I will return to these issues in the final chapter, where I situate them within the macro context.


pages: 225 words: 71,912

So Close to Being the Sh*t, Y'all Don't Even Know by Retta

centre right, Downton Abbey, McMansion, pink-collar, Skype, Snapchat

., and my mom, Deborah, immigrated to the United States from the African country of Liberia so my mom could go to college. My dad got a job in the Revlon warehouse and my mom worked as an insurance adjuster while in school, but with three kids (my younger brothers, George Jr. and Michen, and me) and a revolving group of cousins living with us, we were always broke. My dad was blue-collar before he retired and my mother would be considered pink-collar. We never had money to spare. A phrase I often heard growing up was “money is tight” and another (not so diplomatic) one was “money doesn’t grow on trees.” My father was a diligent “saver” and once he had enough for a down payment he bought us a beat-up house in Cliffwood Beach, a Jersey suburb less than an hour from New York City. At first I didn’t want to move. I was a freshman in high school and had just made the cheerleading team.


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, American ideology, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

The long-standing “others” in our society—women and people of color—became a much larger share of the non-college-educated workforce. And their marginalized status in our society carried over into the working class, making it easier to overlook and devalue their work. When working-class women punched the clock in ever greater numbers in the 1980s and 1990s, it was nearly entirely in the absence of a union. Unlike the hard-hat guys, America’s mushrooming “pink collar” workforce lacked the social solidarity that unions had provided for generations of blue-collar workers. And so working-class women toiled on the margins of political and social awareness while preserving their families’ dignity by bringing home a paycheck. That’s now changing, as women are at the forefront of the new movement for better wages and working conditions and are now almost as likely as men to belong to unions, closing the long-standing gap in unionization.


pages: 244 words: 85,379

On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft by Stephen King

Bonfire of the Vanities, fear of failure, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, old-boy network, pink-collar, telemarketer, traveling salesman, War on Poverty

No promises, but … Frank doesn’t need promises; like most beginning writers, all he needs is a little encouragement and an unlimited supply of take-out pizza. He mails the story off with a letter of thanks (and a letter of thanks to the ex-Lodgepine editor, of course). Six months later “Two Kinds of Men” appears in the premiere issue of Jackdaw. The Old Boy Network, which plays as large a part in publishing as it does in many other white-collar/pink-collar businesses, has triumphed again. Frank’s pay for this story is fifteen dollars, ten contributor’s copies, and another all-important credit. In the next year, Frank lands a job teaching high school English. Although he finds it extremely difficult to teach literature and correct student themes in the daytime and then work on his own stuff at night, he continues to do so, writing new short stories and getting them into circulation, collecting rejection slips and occasionally “retiring” stories he’s sent to all the places he can think of.


pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman

American ideology, banking crisis, British Empire, business cycle, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, low earth orbit, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

The very poorest, on the other hand, have lived in a world of dysfunctional families since the industrial revolution began. For them, chaotic patterns of reproduction have always been the norm. However, between the college-educated professional and business classes on the one side and the underclass on the other, there is a large layer of society that has only partially experienced the demographic shifts. Among blue-and pink-collar workers there have been other trends, the most important of which is that they have shorter educations. The result is less of a gap between puberty and reproduction. These groups tend to marry earlier and have children earlier. They are far more dependent on each other economically, and it follows that the financial consequences of divorce can be far more damaging. There are nonemotional elements holding their marriages together, and divorce is seen as more consequential, as are extramarital and premarital sex.


pages: 291 words: 86,705

Hogg by Samuel R. Delany

Kickstarter, pink-collar

The girl pushed herself up on her hands, tried to drag herself away, but she couldn't get her foot loose from under the chair. The wop stepped up, dropped to a squat, and put his other hand on the girl's cheek. He pushed her hair, lighter brown than her mother's, back from her ear, bringing his dirty middle finger down her cheek, under her jaw—she blinked, opened her mouth a little, closed it again, but she must have been scared to turn her head— down her neck, and hooked it in the round, pink collar. He pulled at it, slow, down enough so you could see the top of her bra. She was maybe fourteen; and the bra was just about flat. The woman, half limp in the nigger's grip, was crying now. It wasn't a full sound at all, but a non-stop squeak that went on at the same pitch while she shook her head, with her eyes closed tight. The girl was taking quick breaths, then holding them a long time.


pages: 322 words: 84,580

The Economics of Belonging: A Radical Plan to Win Back the Left Behind and Achieve Prosperity for All by Martin Sandbu

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, collective bargaining, debt deflation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mini-job, mortgage debt, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, pink-collar, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, social intelligence, TaskRabbit, total factor productivity, universal basic income, very high income, winner-take-all economy, working poor

In the United States, for example, one in four new jobs in the next decade is expected to come in health care, social assistance, and education, and we should expect similar developments elsewhere.19 In many places, however, these jobs come with low status and lower pay. This means that to be fully included in the economy of the future, more men, in particular more unskilled men, must be willing not just to take jobs in services but to work in service jobs traditionally occupied by women (sometimes given the slightly sexist label “pink-collar jobs”), and those jobs themselves must offer decent conditions regardless of who works in them. Of course men can do such jobs. But many resist them. If Trump’s “Make America Great Again” means anything, it is a call to bring back the factory- and extraction-based employment of yesteryear and restore the prestige of the male breadwinner to workers who put more stock in a certain idea of manliness than in formal education.


pages: 340 words: 91,745

Duped: Double Lives, False Identities, and the Con Man I Almost Married by Abby Ellin

Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Burning Man, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Donald Trump, double helix, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, forensic accounting, fudge factor, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, telemarketer, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

And the men are impervious to this.”26 WOMEN LIE IN the corporate world, too.27 In 2010, nearly two-thirds of those charged with stealing over $100,000—behavior that involves deception—were women.28 Regardless of the size of their transgressions, women justify their behaviors in different ways than men, and have different motivations for committing crimes.29 The thinking is that men and women “neutralize” feelings differently—meaning they have different ways of shutting off uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and values that would normally prevent them from behaving badly.30 In 1981, Dorothy Zietz interviewed female embezzlers in a California prison and concluded that they had stolen, lied, and cheated for what they considered a higher purpose—say, to provide for their families, or to send their kids to summer camp.31 They were noble thieves. Another study found that men typically stole because they needed money to overcome a problem of their own making, whereas women focused on the needs of their families.32 Kelly Paxton, a certified fraud examiner in Portland, Oregon, believes the reason more women aren’t committing crimes is what’s known as the “pink ghetto.” (The term “pink-collar crime” was coined in the late 1980s by Kathleen Daly, a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia.33) It’s not that women are so honest, it’s just that they haven’t been given the same chances to commit fraud as men have. “They’ve always made ends meet either through prostitution or shoplifting,” she said. “There’s no chromosome that’s the honesty chromosome.


pages: 299 words: 97,378

Home Sweet Anywhere: How We Sold Our House, Created a New Life, and Saw the World by Lynne Martin

connected car, Downton Abbey, East Village, haute cuisine, McMansion, pink-collar, Skype

For instance, it would be unthinkable to not say good morning or good afternoon to a shopkeeper, or fail to say “gracias” when departing the store, whether or not there was a transaction. All conversations must begin with inquiries about the health of family, and gentlemen still open doors for ladies and rise when one enters the room. It’s all part of the slower pace. We have to relearn that cadence every time we arrive in San Miguel, but we are grateful for it. Tim wheeled into the parking lot, where a large black Labrador with a neon pink collar was deep in the uninterrupted nap he seemed to enjoy every time we came here. An enormous, garish, four-foot glazed pottery chicken sat atop the rudimentary carport. It’s a colorful town. We struck out at a brisk pace, a dangerous thing to do on four-hundred-year-old uneven stone streets with foot-high flagstone curbs that dip and rise without warning. I have been among the casualties of San Miguel’s curbs, spending half my vacation limping around town with an ugly bright blue brace, the kneecap cut out.


pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, Corrections Corporation of America, deindustrialization, desegregation, different worldview, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

A study of urban black fathers found that only 28 percent had access to an automobile. The rate fell to 18 percent for those living in ghetto areas.79 Women fared somewhat better during this period because the social-service sector in urban areas—which employs primarily women—was expanding at the same time manufacturing jobs were evaporating. The fraction of black men who moved into so called pink-collar jobs like nursing or clerical work was negligible.80 The decline in legitimate employment opportunities among inner-city residents increased incentives to sell drugs—most notably crack cocaine. Crack is pharmacologically almost identical to powder cocaine, but it has been converted into a form that can be vaporized and inhaled for a faster, more intense (though shorter) high using less of the drug—making it possible to sell small doses at more affordable prices.


pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

A disproportionate number of jobs that are out of the reach of automation are those traditionally done by women. But if the past is a guide to the future, a big move by men into nursing and other traditionally female occupations seems unlikely; one UK survey found that 85 percent of men would not consider a career in social care.52 And Daniel Susskind, in his book A World Without Work, reports that most adult men in the US displaced from manufacturing roles prefer not to work at all than take up “pink collar” work. In recent years the care sector has become more female, not less, as women have moved into medical roles. (A majority of GPs in the UK are now women.) The gender imbalance in adult care is less extreme than in nursing—about 18 percent of staff are men53—and there are some corners of care, such as mental health nurses and paramedics and ambulance staff, that are mainly male. And if men can increase their share of labor in the home relatively swiftly, the same might be possible in the public care economy.


pages: 457 words: 125,224

The Lie of the Land by Amanda Craig

financial independence, glass ceiling, Google Earth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, pink-collar

No doubt he had broken their hearts, too, though how can one romantic disappointment measure up to the destruction of a family? All things considered, Lottie would really prefer to see her mother in private, but Marta insists on a brisk constitutional walk across the Heath every morning with her white terrier. ‘Darling!’ she says, bestowing a kiss redolent of Revlon. Her glasses match Heidi’s bright pink collar, and her thick white hair is immaculately styled. ‘Breakfast?’ Lottie shakes her head. Marta orders a double macchiato for herself, a poached egg with toast, and a smoothie. ‘How are you?’ Lottie asks, to forestall further enquiries. ‘I am in mint condition. So, you are upside-downing?’ ‘Downsizing. Yes,’ Lottie says. Her mother had rescued her once before, when she had Xan, but it’s out of the question she could do so again.


pages: 400 words: 124,678

The Investment Checklist: The Art of In-Depth Research by Michael Shearn

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business cycle, call centre, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, commoditize, compound rate of return, Credit Default Swap, estate planning, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, Network effects, pink-collar, risk tolerance, shareholder value, six sigma, Skype, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, technology bubble, time value of money, transaction costs, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

As part of his due diligence, Silberman visited Strayer’s campuses in Washington, D.C., and he wandered into classrooms, where he pretended to be a student. As he saw professors and working adult students interact, he sensed how intense the students’ desire was to complete their degrees. He could see that the educational experience was life-changing. Silberman explains, “Take a 35 year old, with only a high-school degree, who has been working either as a pink-collar, blue-collar, or underutilized white-collar [employee] for 15 years. Their earning power and ability to maintain a middle class lifestyle has become more difficult. When they attend college, it is an absolute game changer.” Silberman remembers flying in to Washington, D.C., for a Monday evening class. It was fall, and the Washington Redskins were playing that night. Having grown up in the D.C. area, he understood how important it was to watch the Redskins play.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

Claudia Goldin, who calls it the “Quiet Revolution,” describes this period after 1970: “With more accurate expectations, they could better prepare by investing in formal education and they could assume positions that involved advancement. That is, they could plan for careers rather than jobs.”18 Women began to become accepted as career-track professionals whose progress went far beyond the traditional pink-collar occupations. In 1960, 94 percent of doctors were white men, as were 96 percent of lawyers and 86 percent of managers. By 2008 these numbers had fallen to 63 percent, 61 percent, and 57 percent respectively.19 The new environment was described in the early 1990s by Shirley Bigley, then a vice president of Citibank: It was right in my vintage when the numbers of women dramatically started to change.

In consequence, the residual portion of the gap rose relative to the explained portion.”25 Goldin’s analysis of the residual gap distinguishes two different sources of gender-related wage differences, those between occupations and those within occupations. Despite the increased professionalization of female occupational choices, the occupational composition of women is still quite different than men, particularly when skilled pink-collar occupations are compared with skilled blue-collar occupations. For instance, virtually all midwives are female, and virtually all cement contractors are male. Goldin concludes that these occupational choices explain only about a third of the residual gender wage gap, leaving the remaining two-thirds to be explained within occupations. Goldin’s analysis of within-occupation wage differences centers on the age profile, which shows that “something happens that decreases women’s earnings relative to those of men as they age.”


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

According to a study conducted by Paine Webber, upwards of 18 percent of the workforce in the steel industry is now made up of employees working for subcontractors.38 Typical is the case of a former pipe fitter employed by U.S. Steel at the Gary Works. He earned $13 an hour and enjoyed a generous company benefits package. After being laid off, he was only able to find a job for a small subcontractor at $ 5.00 an hour with no benefits. His new job was making parts for his former employer. 39 Although the public perception of temp workers is still the Kelly girl-part-time receptionists, secretaries, and other pink collar clerical workers-the reality is that temps are being used as a substitute for permanent workers in virtually every industry and sector. In 1993 temporary agencies leased more than 348,000 temporary workers a day to the nation's manufacturing companies, up from 224,000 in 1992 .40 Professional employment is also becoming temporary. The Executive Recruiter News reports that more than 125,000 professionals work as temps every day.


Class Acts: Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels by Rachel Sherman

deskilling, income inequality, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, knowledge worker, means of production, new economy, pink-collar, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, yield management

Contemporary Sociology 31 (2): 122–24. Fantasia, Rick, and Kim Voss. 2004. Hard Work. Berkeley: University of California Press. Fisher, William P. 1998. “Managing Your Boss.” Lodging Magazine (December): 37. Frank, Robert. 1999. Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Freeman, Carla. 2000. High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy: Women, Work, and Pink-Collar Identities in the Caribbean. Durham: Duke University Press. Fuller, Linda, and Vicki Smith. 1996. “Consumers’ Reports: Management by Customers in a Changing Economy.” In Working in the Service Society, ed. Cameron Lynne Macdonald and Carmen Sirianni. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. UC_Sherman (O).qxd 10/3/2006 2:01 PM Page 329 References 329 Gilbert, Robert. 2001. “Marketing: High-Yield Strategies: Horst Schulze on How to Keep Guests—and Employees Happy.”


The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

But Shimp’s vision for representation was rooted in her experience as part of a labor union—at the very heart, in fact, of what Ruth Milkman has described as the “fourth wave” of union organizing in the pink- and white-collar telecommunications, secretarial, and airline sectors.48 “The majority of employees trapped in the ‘ghettoes’ of the workforce (secretarial pools, clerical areas, etc.) are women,” Shimp wrote.49 “Ghetto” was a revealing choice of words. During the 1970s, feminist observers of the American workplace spoke increasingly of the “secretarial ghetto” or the “pink-collar ghetto”—the poorly paid, low-status, dead-end service and clerical jobs that were feminizing the labor force.50 The right to breathe smoke-free air was, for Shimp, a question of workplace rights. And given the rising tide of female office workers—who smoked less relative to their male colleagues—Shimp conceived of women as a laboring group in need of specific protection from ambient tobacco smoke.


The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.

affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

From 1950 through 1970, black women remained concentrated in operative positions relative to whites; but the 1960s marked a narrowing of the gap between black and white women employed as service workers and laborers. Still, despite gains, black women were two times as likely to be found in service and labor positions than white women. The period from 1940 to 1970 saw some significant advances for black women relative to white women. The representation of black women in white- and pink-collar jobs moved toward convergence with that of whites, especially in the professions, managerial, clerical and crafts. To overemphasize gains, however, would be to misrepresent trends. The index of occupational representation makes clear the enormous chasm which separated the occupational structure of whites and blacks in Detroit, even as late as 1970. All blacks in Detroit remained disproportionately represented in service jobs and as unskilled laborers, areas in which they had traditionally found employment.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Supposing a 50 percent jump in passengers following its current expansion (a decidedly optimistic assumption), the corresponding 5 percent rise in employment would yield about 185,000 jobs—more than the population of Little Rock or Salt Lake City. Working backward, he estimated that O’Hare creates twenty-two jobs for every thousand passengers it adds, and it doesn’t matter whether they’re going to Toledo or Tokyo. Interestingly, all appear to be the white- or pink-collar kind. They range from CEOs and insurance salesmen to real estate agents and teenagers manning fast-food counters. What sets Las Colinas apart from Chicago and every other city in America is that its boosters won’t settle for anything less than luring a headquarters here. They woo executives at the apex of the org chart, the ones whose time is worth whatever the stock price closes at that day.


pages: 781 words: 226,928

Commodore: A Company on the Edge by Brian Bagnall

Apple II, belly landing, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Firefox, game design, index card, inventory management, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson

The ad agency was responsible for many high-profile brands including Arm & Hammer baking soda (with the boxes wearing scarves and earmuffs and chatting with each other inside the freezer), Head & Shoulders (the man with two different dandruff shampoos on each side of his head saying, ‘This side tingles’), and Black Flag insecticide. The agency would film the commercials and shoot the photographs in New York. In the early eighties, most computer companies had a spokesman named Bill. Radio Shack had Bill Bixby and later Bill Gates in a stunning pink-collared shirt and white sweater. Texas Instruments had Bill Cosby. Commodore would also have a Bill. The ad agency made an inspired choice for company spokesman. Almost every computer nerd in the 1980s was a Star Trek fanatic. A sure sign of this was the number of early computer games that focused on Star Trek. The characters from Star Trek even routinely appeared on the cover of early Byte magazines.


pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

A woman’s work was still never done, but by 1960 she could jump in the car (almost every American family had one), drive to the supermarket (where two-thirds of the country’s food was sold), store her purchases in the refrigerator (98 percent of houses had them), and put the laundry on before the two or three kids got back from school and settled in front of the TV. The changes freed women for work outside the home in an economy rapidly shifting from manufacturing toward services, shedding blue-collar labor but crying out for pink-collar workers. In the richest countries the proportion of women in paid jobs and higher education rose steadily after 1960, and, like every era before it, this age got the thought it needed. Books such as The Feminine Mystique and Sexual Politics urged middle-class American women to seek fulfillment outside their traditional roles. In 1968 a hundred protestors broke up the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City.


The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process, zero-sum game

True, this was a distinctly unmathematician-like interest on Wiener's part: most other members of his tribe were contemptuous of computation, argu- ing that a real mathematician gained insight by abstract reasoning, not by reck- oning. Slide rules were acceptable for scientists and engineers, but brute number crunching was just arithmetic, a task for desktop adding machines-women's work (the word computer was still a job description in the 1920s, carrying much the same pink-collar connotation as typist). The building of computing machinery was, by extension, a job for mere tinkerers. The greatest apparatus man in America: Vannevar Bush contemplates the Differential Analyzer THE LAST TRANSITION 25 Wiener, however, was among the few great mathematicians who had actually worked as computers, and his patriotic stint calculating artillery trajectories dur- ing World War I had taught him all too well that numerical calculation was not just a matter of punching numbers into an adding machine.


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

Anyway, persuasion is big.11 Not all the half of American workers who are white-collar do sweet talk for a living, but many do, and more do as office work gets less physical. Office work in the age of word processing has moved far from physical typing and filing and copying done by women, not to speak of the earlier transition from Bartleby the Scrivener or Bob Cratchit on a high stool. So, for that matter, have many blue-collar jobs come to involve sweet talk, such as warehousemen persuading each other to handle the cargo just so, as have pink-collar jobs, such as waitresses dealing all day with talking people. Debra Ginsberg in her memoir Waiting: The True Confessions of a Waitress (2000) shows that the first minute of contact with the customers is a little stage show, and determines the tip. It’s not “mere” talk. A good percentage of such talkers are persuaders. The secretary shepherding a document through the company bureaucracy is often called upon to exercise sweet talk and veiled threats.


pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor

bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

Some of course must have made their way into the hands of children, and some of those sold in Britain—emblazoned with John Player Special insignia, for example—came with instructions cautioning that “modeling skills” were helpful “if under 10 years of age.”50 That of course was the whole point: to keep the brand in the public eye. It didn’t really matter what sport was being sponsored, or even whether it really was a sport, so long as cigarettes entered the hearts and hands of the right kinds of people. Which increasingly in the 1970s and 1980s meant the young and your average blue- and pink-collar working stiff. We don’t normally think of auto shows as a sport, for example, but R. J. Reynolds in 1982 started sponsoring Winston Championship Auto Shows, which it took over and renamed from the International Championship Auto Shows. Three million people were expected to attend these two hundred annual events, where 730,000 free packs of cigarettes were to be handed out by “attractive sampling girls.”