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The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu
air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl
Los Angeles Times (March 9) http://articles.latimes.com/2008/mar/09/local/me-market9. 24 Some farm-to-institution programs (such as farm-to-school http://www.farmtoschool.org/) also operate on the same model and can be subjected to the same kind of criticism we raise for CSA initiatives. 25 Patti Ghezzi. 2009. “The Tasty Advantages of Community Supported Agriculture.” Divine Caroline http://www.divinecaroline.com/22145/70730-tasty-advantages-community-supported-agriculture. 26 Lynda Altman. 2001. “Pros and Cons of Community Supported Agriculture. CSAs are not for everyone” Associate Content from Yahoo.com (February 15) http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/7734092/pros_and_cons_of_consumer_supported.html?cat=6 . 27 Adapted from the Tucson Community Supported Agriculture initiative website http://www.tucsoncsa.org/about/why-you-should-join/. 28 Gary Blumenthal. 2011. “Creating False Markets.” World Perspectives, Inc. (February), p. 1. 29 One estimate of the number of different physical products marked by a barcode in the greater New York City area is 10 billion.
Collinsville, Illinois Columbian exchange Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus Commodities boards nonedible agricultural sold in London(table) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Communication technologies Community-supported agriculture (CSA) pitfalls of Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) Condiments(table) Consistency Consumer behavior poor producer-, relationship standards of living and transportation Consumption energy European substitutions during military blockades expenditures local of meat products per capita in Denmark of protein, vitamins, and minerals unsustainable Convenience Conventional produce nutrition Cooke, Morris Llewellyn Cooperatives agricultural service Cork, Ireland Corn Belt Corporate welfare Countermeasures, Agricultural Crago, Linda Critser, Greg Cronon, William Crop diversification failures staple American See also specific crop types Cropland Crunchy Cons (Dreher) CSA. See Community-supported agriculture Danish bacon Davis, Mark Deficiencies Deforestation DEFRA.
As the authors point out, Michael Pollan is a rock star, and Oprah Winfrey spent a lot of time criticizing our present food system. Food Inc. was nominated for an Academy Award and has become part of the curriculum for an untold number of college courses. Everybody that matters advises me to find a farmers’ market and set up a stall. I should concentrate on marketing directly to consumers, including computing the food miles I have to travel to reach that market. Perhaps Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) would be just the thing—I’ll arrive on your front porch once a month, with corn, soybeans, and maybe even a geranium or two. There is a problem with this plan. “Think local” may be what the culture prescribes, but the market is sending a markedly different message. Farm income was up 28% in 2010, topping 100 billion dollars for the first time. There’s no better way to make a farmer mad than to accuse him of making a profit, so please don’t quote me, but many “industrial” farmers are thriving.
The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris
back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review
” — Kirkpatrick Sale Middlebury College 128 chapter 6 : Small is Beautiful What is Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)? C by Robyn Van En SA is a relationship of mutual support and commitment between local farmers and community members who pay the farmer an annual membership fee to cover the production costs of the farm. In turn, members receive a weekly share of the harvest during the local growing season. The arrangement guarantees the farmer ﬁnancial support and enables many small- to moderate-scale organic and/or biointensive family farms to remain in business. Ultimately, CSA programs create “agriculture-supported communities” where members receive a wide variety of foods harvested at their peak of freshness, ripeness, ﬂavor, vitamin and mineral content. The goals of Community Supported Agriculture is to support a sustainable agriculture system which: provides farmers with direct outlets for farm products and ensures fair compensation encourages proper land stewardship by supporting farmers in transition toward low or no chemical inputs and utilization of energy-saving technologies strengthens local economies by keeping food dollars in local communities directly links producers with consumers allowing people to have a personal connection with their food and the land on which it was produced makes nutritious, affordable, wholesome foods accessible and widely available to community members creates an atmosphere for learning about nonconventional agricultural, animal husbandry, and alternative energy systems not only to the farmers and their apprentices, but also to members of the community, to educators from many ﬁelds of study, and to students of all ages.
In 1965 Japanese women initiated a direct, cooperative relationship in which local farmers were supported by consumers on an annual basis. Community Supported Agriculture continues to blossom in North America, and it opens various doors of opportunity everyday for local communities, helping them get back in touch with each other. In a CSA environment, this is possible in many ways: quite simply, the shareholders physically get together at pick-up, socially interact with one another and the farmer(s), and provide economic support for their neighbors, thanks to one thing that every single living person has in common with the next: eating. Resources Robyn Van En, Basic Formula to Create Community Supported Agriculture, CSANA Indian Line Farm, 1988. Steven McFadden, CommUnity of Minds: Working Together, 2004. According to McFadden, both Vander Tuin and Groh studied the works of Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925).
(Bill McKibben) .....................................67 4 : The End of Nature Slow Food Movement Has Global Outreach ......................................81 review of Look Homeward, America (Bill Kaufmann) .....................84 Swami Calls for an Up-Wising (Swami Beyondanada)........................86 Float Like a Butterfly (Julia Butterfly Hill) ..........................................91 5: One-Straw Revolution Clean the Air in your Home with Houseplants (Bill Wolverton) ......103 Too Good to Throw Away (Josh Wachtel) ........................................107 The Rise and Fall of Raw Milk (Ron Schmid)...................................117 6 : Small is Beautiful What is Community Supported Agriculture (Robyn Van En) ...........129 Community Supported Energy 101 (Greg Pahl) ..............................132 Friends Meeting (Dave Smith) .........................................................135 Memoirs of a Moderator (John McClaughry)...................................138 Think Clean,Think Green (Cara Matthews).....................................141 Neighborhood into an Eco-Hood!
Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato
Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons
S. 80 capital 96 see also Five Capitals Framework capitalism 11, 59, 90–92 carbon cycle 98–99 carbon dioxide emissions 98, 110–113, 130, 164, 165 carbon permits 111–112 carbon tax 164 carbon trading 110 Chiemgauer 82 China 128, 141 Chipko movement 189 Christianity 21 Citizens’ Income 181–182 climate change 1, 12, 98, 109–113, 129–130 closed system 48 CLT (Community Land Trust) 195, 196 Club of Rome 39 CO2 emissions 98, 110–113, 130, 164, 165 co-housing 196–197 commodity prices 126 commons, taxation 162–164 community business 68 Community Land Trust (CLT) 195, 196 community-supported agriculture (CSA) 95, 200–202 comparative advantage 124–126 competition 127–128 complementary currencies see local currencies Conable, B. 123 Conaty, P. 195 congestion charge 163 construction sector 107–109 220 GREEN ECONOMICS consumers 63 consumption 10, 96, 174 Contraction and Convergence 111 convivial economy 42, 44, 101 cooperatives 63, 64–65, 94, 95 co-production 80 core economy 80 corporate social responsibility (CSR) 92–93 cowboy perspective 11, 25 CSA (community-supported agriculture) 95, 200–202 CSR (corporate social responsibility) 92–93 Cuba 153, 201 Curtis, F. 145 Daly, H. 9, 25, 40, 115 Dawson, J. 194 debt-based money system 72, 73, 78 democratization, money system 74 demurrage 82 Denmark 167, 197 deskilling 61–64 Diggers 189 direct action 133 disembedding 183, 187 domestic work 114 Douthwaite, R. 27–29, 206 cooperatives 64–65 economic growth 9 economics 43 green growth 40 local self-reliance 145, 153–154 money 77 drug manufacturers 184 dumping, economic 135 early human societies 176 ecofeminism 35, 46 ecological economics 7, 40 ecological footprint 8 ecological modernization 106–109 ecological rucksack 96 ecological virtue 18 ecology 4, 190 economic growth 9–10, 38–39, 83, 174 economic indicators 116–120 see also GDP economics 11, 30–31, 41–45 economic security 120 ecotaxes 164–168 ecovillages 194 ecowelfarism 180 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) 110 see also carbon trading employment 58 empowerment 63 enduring terrors 178–179 energy 26, 92, 95–96 energy return on energy invested (EROI) 100 energy tax credits 166 entropy law 26 environmental catastrophes 114–115 environmental crisis 105, 178 environmental economics 6, 7 environmental justice movement 178 environmental movement 39 environmental taxes see ecotaxes equity 159, 160, 172 EROI (energy return on energy invested) 100 ETS (Emissions Trading Scheme) 110 European Union (EU) 109, 110, 143, 166 externalities 6 fair trade products 95, 128–129 farmers’ markets 95 farming 197–202 financial system, international 74–77 Five Capitals Framework 96 Fleming, D. 44, 112 food 62, 95, 140, 147 food miles 62 food security 143 formal economy 5 France 143 free trade 123, 126–129 Freire, P. 29 Funtowicz, S.
Self-reliant local economies on the ground For many greens, waiting for government policies to support local economies is not an option: they believe that we need secure access to our basic resources and are working to develop local systems of production and distribution. Fred Curtis describes such a system of interrelated but independent local economies as ‘eco-localism’ and argues that it includes: ‘local currency systems, food coops, micro-enterprise, farmers’ markets, permaculture, community-supported agriculture (CSA) farms, car sharing schemes, barter systems, co-housing and eco-villages, mutual aid, home-based production, community corporations and banks, and localist business alliances’.15 According to Richard Douthwaite,16 the four basic steps towards greater local self-reliance are: • setting up an independent currency system so that the economy can still function no matter what happens in the global financial system; 146 GREEN ECONOMICS Figure 9.3 NEF’s image of the ‘leaky bucket’ local economy Source: Thanks to nef (the New Economics Foundation) for permission to reproduce this figure
Having been amended it gained the support of a majority of Scotland’s elected members and now provides support for organic farmers as a sustainable sector. The target for the plan was to have 30 per cent of Scotland’s arable or grassland in organic production by 2007. Linking concerns with ownership and with sharing and reconnecting with the land brings us to a system of farming known as community-supported agriculture (CSA). As in the example of Stroud Community Agriculture (Box 12.5), such schemes change the relationship between farmer and consumer, who now enjoy a much closer link than that typical in the market. Participants in a CSA pay an annual or monthly amount to support the farmer in her/his vital role and then receive a share of the produce. The advantage for the farmer is the removal of anxiety over her/his income and finding an automatic market for the produce; the advantage for the customer is a closer relationship with the land and knowledge about how her/his food is produced.
The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
Kiva’s average loan is $380 and the repayment rate is 98.9 percent.28 All the loans go to small entrepreneurs whose businesses tend to have a marginal ecological footprint. New collaborative business practices are reaching into every aspect of economic life. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is a good example of the impact that new TIR business models are having on how food is grown and distributed. After a century of petrochemical-based agriculture, which led to the near demise of the family farm and gave birth to giant agrifarm businesses like Cargill and ADM, a new generation of farmers is turning the tables by connecting directly with households to sell their produce. Community supported agriculture began in Europe and Japan in the 1960s and spread to America in the mid-1980s. Shareholders, usually urban households, pledge a fixed amount of money before the growing season to cover the farmer’s yearly expenses.
The farms, for the most part, engage in ecological agriculture practices and utilize natural and organic farming methods. Because community supported agriculture is a joint venture based on shared risks between farmers and consumers, the latter benefit from a robust harvest and suffer the consequences of a bad one. If inclement weather or other misfortunes befall the farmer, the shareholders absorb the loss with diminished weekly deliveries of certain foods. This kind of peer-to-peer sharing of risks and rewards binds all of the shareholders in a common enterprise. The Internet has been instrumental in connecting farmers and consumers in a distributed and collaborative approach to organizing the food supply chain. In just a few years, community supported agriculture has grown from a handful of pilots to nearly three thousand enterprises serving tens of thousands of families.29 The CSA business model particularly appeals to a younger generation that is used to the idea of collaborating on digital social spaces.
Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/cc076c20-0b99-11e0-a313-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1EoWZY7ga. 25.At a Glance, December, 2010. (n.d.). Grameen Shakti. Retrieved from http://www.gshakti.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=140:ataglancedecember,2010&Itemid=78. 26.About Us. (n.d.). Kiva. Retrieved from http://www.kiva.org/about. 27.Ibid. 28.Facts & History. (n.d.). Kiva. Retrieved from http://www.kiva.org/about/facts. 29.Community Supported Agriculture. (n.d.). Local Harvest. Retrieved from http://www.localharvest.org/csa/. 30.Keegan, P. (2009, August 27). Car-Rental, Auto Industry React to Zipcar’s Growing Appeal. CNNMoney. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2009/08/26/news/companies/zipcar_car_rentals.fortune; Green Benefits. (2011). Zipcar. Retrieved from http://www.zipcar.com/is-it/greenbenefits. 31.Ibid. 32.Fenton, C.
What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers
Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar
More and more friends were selling stuff on craigslist and eBay; swapping books, DVDs, and games on sites such as Swaptree and OurSwaps; and giving unwanted items away on Freecycle and ReUseIt. On a trip to Paris, we saw cyclists pedaling around on sleek-looking bikes with the word “Vélib’” (Paris’s bike-sharing scheme) on their crossbars. A friend in London told us about her new favorite Channel 4 TV program called Landshare. And we kept hearing about the number of people joining Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs or local co-ops. We saw stats and stories about online cooperation and the growth in virtual communities. Every day there are more than 3 million Flickr images loaded; 700,000 new members joining Facebook; 5 million “Tweets”; and 900,000 blogs posted. There are twenty hours of YouTube videos loaded every minute, the equivalent of Hollywood releasing more than 90,000 new full-length movies into theaters each week.1 “Collaboration” had become the buzzword of the day with economists, philosophers, business analysts, trend spotters, marketers, and entrepreneurs—and appropriately so.
The company satisfies a range of needs, from one-month packages such as the Cherry, aimed at grandparents, where you pay a onetime fee of 49.95 euros for five toys, to longer-term monthly subscription rates for parents, such as the Maxi, where you pay 25 euros for six toys every month. Different ways of receiving a service are another way to think of diversified access. Consider food networks between farmers and urban dwellers. Some urbanites may choose to get their local food from farmers’ markets or get it delivered via a community-supported agriculture scheme; others may choose to join a land-share or yard-share program; still others might work at a co-op in exchange for discounted prices. Either way, a system of local food production is enhanced. Diversified access creates different degrees of participation for consumers, as with toy rentals, or different kinds of participation, as with local food systems. The fourth ingredient in Manzini’s design thinking is “enhanced communications support.”
What unimaginable things will become shareable? What will become the “Google of exchange”? What will become the American Express of social currencies? In the space of a little more than a decade, we have seen the evolution of traditional banks to social lending marketplaces to completely new forms of peer-to-peer virtual currencies such as VEN. In the food sector, retail food cooperatives have surged in popularity, community-supported agriculture programs have more than tripled, and now through SharedEarth and Landshare, we are seeing people share their own gardens. Even in a specific sector such as car sharing, there has been rapid progress in how we are cooperating. Companies such as Zipcar and Streetcar, where there is a trusted intermediary to orchestrate the sharing of cars we don’t own, have been thriving. Over the past three years, we have seen growth in the number of ride-sharing companies (NuRide, Zimride, Liftshare) and the number of users.
Liz Walker by EcoVillage at Ithaca Pioneering a Sustainable Culture (2005)
I stayed on as chair of the Planning Council, which had oversight of six different subcommittees that continued to research affordability, agriculture, diversity, an education center, energy, natural areas, residential buildings, and water/wastewater. Each subcommittee worked hard to figure out solutions appropriate to the EcoVillage site. For example, the agriculture committee held a forum on agricultural models. They wanted to know if the community would rather participate in a commonly owned farm similar to an Israeli kibbutz or develop a privately owned farm supported by members (community-supported agriculture, or CSA). In another project, the natural areas committee undertook a plant species survey with Chuck Mohler from Cornell. I remember sitting in the middle of a field and counting the number of goldenrod plants in a square yard. Our discussions and decisions as a group during this time seemed charged with electrical energy, and we felt the sheer creative power of invention. Our efforts ultimately bore rich fruit.
W est Haven Farm was the first part of the EcoVillage vision to manifest. Established by Jen and John Bokaer-Smith, the 10acre (4-hectare) farm is certified organic by the Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA). Unlike other farms, it will never feel the pressure of developers eager to create another subdivision, since it is protected by EVI’s permanent conservation easement. The farm is also a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm. A CSA farm creates a web of connection between people and the land. By joining a CSA, people can enjoy organic seasonal food produced close to home at the same time as they help sustainable agriculture to 39 40 E C O V I L L A G E AT I T H A C A flourish. Shareholders pay a portion of the farm’s expenses and in return receive a weekly bounty of freshly picked vegetables, herbs, and flowers all through the growing season (from late May to early November).
CH: The Common House or community center of a cohousing community. CLT: Community Land Trust is an organization that supports land preservation, affordable housing, and organic farming. CRESP: Refers to the Center for Religion, Ethics, and Social Policy, a nonprofit organization affiliated with Cornell University that assists projects working to promote peace, justice, and sustainable communities. EVI started as a project of CRESP. CSA: Community Supported Agriculture, a farm in which consumers buy advance shares in the harvest and share the risks and benefits of the farm’s operation. West Haven Farm is an organic CSA farm. ETC: Refers to the nonprofit organization Educate the Children, founded by Pamela Carson to raise money in the US to support impoverished children in Nepal. The organization later grew to include women’s empowerment programs. EVER Center: Refers to the proposed EcoVillage Education and Research Center.
ECOVILLAGE: 1001 ways to heal the planet by Ecovillage 1001 Ways to Heal the Planet-Triarchy Press Ltd (2015)
Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, land tenure, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, off grid, Ronald Reagan, young professional
With the insurance money we were able to pay for the cost of rebuilding. Nine months later we finished the neighborhood and everyone moved in. Today we have 3 neighborhoods, and each has its own story. In 2015, with 100 homes our neighborhood development is complete. In Co-housing neighorhoods, children always find friends to play with. Community-Supported Agriculture We have 3 organic farms on site, a very important part of our overall vision and mission. We use CSA (Community-Supported Agriculture) in which consumers pay the farmers at the beginning of the growing season, then get a weekly share of the harvest. Our first farm, West Haven Farm, has 11 acres and feeds 1,000 people during the season. Our second farm is 5 acres and is also run by a resident. It’s a U-Pick berry farm, which has delicious strawberries, blackberries, blueberries and more.
In 2005, when we started our own organic agriculture on the land, we produced a lot of broccoli. We tried to take it to the local market to sell. But the price was so low it wasn’t worth it. We then decided to give the broccoli away as gifts, having such abundance. However, this wasn’t a good role-model for local farmers, given that agriculture is their income. In 2006, we started a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme in Ankara. In the first year more than ninety people joined. We collected money to employ a farmer from the village and introduced him to new techniques: raised beds and drip irrigation. The villagers were still using the traditional irrigation method of flooding the fields, which uses a lot of water. We distributed vegetables with a van throughout Ankara. Interest was high and we were happy.
It Doesn't Have to Be Crazy at Work by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson
8-hour work day, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Community Supported Agriculture, David Heinemeier Hansson, Jeff Bezos, market design, remote working, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, web application
Want to learn how to cook? It’s on us. None of these things have anything to do with work at Basecamp—they all have to do with encouraging people to do things they’ve always wanted to do but needed a bit of encouragement and help to actually make happen. $2,000 per year charity match. Donate to a charity of your choice up to $2,000, and we’ll match it up to $2,000. A local monthly CSA (community-supported agriculture) share. This means fresh fruits and vegetables at home for people and their families. One monthly massage at an actual spa, not the office. $100 monthly fitness allowance. We’ll basically pay for people’s health club membership, yoga classes, running shoes, race registrations, or whatever else they do to stay healthy on a regular basis. Not a single benefit aimed at trapping people at the office.
May through September we work 4-day, 32-hour weeks. The idea isn’t to cram more stuff into fewer hours, so we adapt our ambition, too. Winter is when we buckle down and take on larger, more challenging projects. Summer, with its shorter 4-day weeks, is when we tackle simpler, lighter projects. We also celebrate the seasons outside of work at Basecamp by covering the cost of a weekly community-supported agriculture share for each employee. Fresh, local, seasonal fruits and veggies in people’s homes. This is a year-round benefit, but the bounty naturally changes with the seasons. It’s a delicious, healthy way to celebrate change. Be it in hours, degrees of difficulty, or even specific benefits that emphasize seasonality, find ways to melt the monotony of work. People grow dull and stiff if they stay in the same swing for too long.
Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor
Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar
Its ability to get us through prolonged economic and ecological distress is questionable, in part because the economic relations that keep people together are less developed. Sustainability activists are keenly aware of the decline of social connection and are attempting to rebuild it by creating a face-to-face economy. The local-food movement is the best known of these efforts. In urban areas, groups are organizing farmers’ markets, CSAs (community-supported agriculture programs), and community gardens. The Business Alliance for Local Living Economies, a national network with more than seventy-five local chapters, supports local entrepreneurs and promotes the viability of renewed regional and local economies. Efforts to create local currencies are growing. The Berkshires area of Massachusetts has become famous for the successful launch of BerkShares, a parallel currency to the U.S. dollar that aims to create community cohesion and boost local purchasing power.
Plenitude Emerging Many of the elements of plenitude are beginning to take shape as the catalyst of economic collapse has been added to an already expanding sustainability movement. Urban and suburban gardening are burgeoning. Individuals are planting vegetable plots, community gardens are sprouting, and in a number of major cities, efforts to grow healthy organic food for inner-city residents are thriving. Detroit, Milwaukee, and Chicago all have large-scale organizations that are reshaping residents’ food habits. Farmers’ markets, community-supported agriculture, local sourcing by restaurants, Slow Food chapters, school-yard gardens, and related initiatives are on the rise. Practices are expanding from simple vegetable plots to urban homesteading. People are growing mushrooms, keeping bees, and raising livestock. A chicken underground has sprung up in cities with laws against backyard poultry, and urban poultry households stretch from Los Angeles to South Portland, Maine.
Cleveland, Ohio climate change Congress and cost benefit in limiting of deaths and other costs of economic activity and eco-optimism and extinctions and fossil fuels and planetary boundaries and poverty and income inequality and rate of technology and limiting of - see also environment clothing currency function of disposal of environmental impact of fashion cycle and prices of reuse of self-provisioning and Club of Rome coal rebound effect in use of cohousing communities Columbia University community-supported agriculture programs (CSAs) composting computers materials flow and open-source movement and prices of storage and disposal of Congress, U.S.: BEA environmental studies and climate change and consumption, consumerism carbon and product scores and clothing and, see clothing end of life (EOL) and environmental impact of expansion of fashion and material flows and population and storage and disposal issues in symbolic value and well-being and Container Store cooperatives copyrights coral reefs Costa Rica cost-benefit analysis cotton Craigslist Creative Commons creative destruction credit credit unions currency Daily, Gretchen Daly, Herman dams Dasgupta, Partha debt deforestation de Graaf, John Denmark, ecological footprint in Depression, Great desertification DICE (Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy) digital fabricators discount rate-5n diseases droughts Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative durable goods: department store index for prices of weight of dynamic efficiency Earth Institute Earth Restoration Corps Easterlin, Richard eBay ecocide eco-efficiency ecological commons ecological footprint hours worked and ecological modernization ecological optimism economy: aggregate growth and business-as-usual form of, see business-as-usual (BAU) economy climate change and community and energy efficiency and extra-market diversification and financialization and flexible production and human behavior and information exchange and Keynes and materials use and extraction and need for alternative form of physical capital and rebound effect and scale of production and efficiency of self-provisioning and service sector of shifting the conversation on time wealth and “too big to fail” dilemma and U.S., historical profitability of value as measure in world, growth of see also environmental economics ecovillages education efficiency Egypt Ehrlich, Paul electric industry electric vehicles electronics, consumer imports of material flow and multifunctionality and storage and disposal of see also specific products Elpel, Renee Elpel, Tom Empire of Fashion (Lipovetsky) employee-owned companies employment, see labor; unemployment end of life (EOL) energy: housing and price of rebound effect from efficient use of systems dynamics and taxes and use of see also specific energy sources energy economics environment ecological footprint in, see ecological footprint ecological optimism and economic activity and feedback loops and full-cost pricing and integrated assessment models and mainstream economics and planetary boundaries and restoration of UN assessment of (2005) water footprint and see also climate change environmental economics cost-benefit analysis and customization and household production and production possibilities curve and reciprocity and resale and reuse and sharing and trade-off view of -4n working less and see also economy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) -3n Europe: cohousing in ecological footprint in health care in historical carbon emissions of materials consumption in passive solar building in population decline in product life extension policies in European Society for Ecological Economics EV1 electric car extensive growth extinctions extra-market diversification ExxonMobil fabrication laboratories (fab labs) cost of Factor e Farm Farm, The (Tenn.)
The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms
Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial exclusion, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, land reform, light touch regulation, loss aversion, mega-rich, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working-age population
The developing new economics was also informed by a range of successful initiatives to put those ideas into practice, like the pioneering Grameen Bank micro-credit operation, or the massive Seikatsu consumer co-op in Japan.16 Grameen allowed people, mainly women, to borrow very small amounts to underpin small businesses. Seikatsu allowed people to band together and buy healthier, local food wholesale, and in the end produce their own. It also soon became clear that there was a sizeable and growing minority of people who are involved in the emerging new economics paradigm in their everyday lives, and a sector is emerging to support them, providing green energy, ethical investment, community-supported agriculture and organic food. There was some evidence that this was the growing portion of the UK population known to marketers as ‘inner-directed’, or ‘cultural creatives’ in the USA, who sympathized with this even if they were not involved in buying organic themselves. They seem to make up around 40 per cent of the UK population and maybe a quarter of Americans.17 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NEW ECONOMICS 27 But as the new economics developed, the background was also shifting.
Desperate farmers in India have been committing suicide to get out of debt to the seed companies. Food is an absolutely critical component in the new economics, not supported by central grants but by providing effective local markets that are not undercut by subsidized products dumped from the other side of the world. The rise of farmers’ markets is one sign that they may survive after all. So is community-supported agriculture, a Japanese idea that has been taken up in the USA and the UK, whereby people support a local farm with a subscription and receive a guaranteed box of vegetables at their door every week. Take the corporate ownership and control out of the food chain Over 90 per cent of consumers rejected GM food in the last poll in the UK, and many farmers in developing countries are suffering from the heavy cost and poor-to-average yields of GM seeds.
(Gilbert Keith) 18, 20, 21, 81 Chicago (Illinois) 87, 127, 131 chief executives 19, 141, 142 children 4, 46–7, 82, 86, 87 Chile 51 China 28, 50, 60, 82, 100, 116, 154 CHP (combined heat and power) plants 102, 103 cities 3, 61, 75, 80, 105–6, 110, 116 and energy 102, 103 traffic speeds 65–6 citizen’s incomes 45, 58, 73, 91–2, 148 Clarke, Otto 21 classical economics 28–9, 34–5, 44, 67, 89, 123 assumptions 71, 72, 85 Cleveland (Ohio) 6 climate change 3–4, 40, 96, 112, 115 tackling 45, 90, 155, 157 Clinton, Bill 27, 52, 145 co-generation of energy 102, 103 co-production 88–9, 127–31, 132, 158, 159 Cobb, Clifford 39, 40–1 Cobb, John 22, 40–1 collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) 5–6 Colombia 33, 51 Columbus, Christopher 139 combined heat and power see CHP commodities 11, 57, 139 currencies based on 60, 90, 120 commons 79, 82, 113, 148 communications technologies 58, 59, 78, 158 communities 2, 27, 42, 43, 89, 92 assets 57–8, 106 investing in 118 money in 103–5, 107, 124, 151–2 Wal-mart and 124–5 community 32, 33, 54, 89, 158 community banks 26, 145 community land trusts 46, 73, 151 Community Way model 58 community-supported agriculture 26, 119 companies 74–5, 84, 137–8, 142–3 see also corporations comparative advantage 26, 75, 109, 116 competition 90 regulation 85, 113, 125, 126, 133 complementary currencies 26, 57–8, 59, 62, 154 consumerism 20, 44, 132 consumers 44, 67–8 consumption 11, 34, 39–40, 100, 158 ‘defensive’ 37 contributing, need for 128–9 conventional economics 10–12, 82, 97, 127 cooperatives 20, 26, 153 ‘core economy’ 54–5, 88, 89, 127, 158 corporate debt 84, 142–3 corporate power 20, 28, 85 corporate raiders 84, 142 corporate responsibility 26, 153–4 corporations 4, 8, 13, 82, 90, 116, 142, 158 tax gap 52, 137, 157 Costa Rica 99 Country Party 18 crashes 1, 51, 91 2008–9 crash 2, 3, 5, 6–7, 8, 15, 84, 85, 154–5 creativity 38, 46, 75, 79, 91 credit 91, 145–6 see also debt credit cards 84 credit crunch 3, 91, 144, 157 credit unions 26, 144, 145, 146 crime 10, 35, 37, 38, 87, 127, 128 crises, fundamental 3–5 Cuba 95–7, 101, 105 culture 43, 44, 111, 115, 127, 158 INDEX 183 currencies 26, 55, 56–8, 81 barter currencies 58, 59 based on commodities 60, 90, 120 based on emissions rights 90, 148 big 53, 54, 55–6, 58, 59 complementary 26, 57–8, 59, 62, 154 global 56, 61, 120, 147–8 local 26, 27, 56, 57, 58, 60, 151–2, 153 multiple 58, 59–60, 60, 90 regional 58, 59, 60 domestic tradeable quotas (DTQs) 117–18 Douthwaite, Richard 56–7, 148 Downs-Thomson Paradox 66 downshifting 2, 4–5, 11, 35, 69, 73 Drexel Burnham Lambert 142 drugs, generic 113, 116, 117 DTQs (domestic tradeable quotas) 117–18 Dublin (Ireland) 52, 106 DuPont 85 dynamic equilibrium 43, 44 Daly, Herman 22, 23, 40–1, 43, 97 Dawnay, Emma 71 debt 4, 7, 11–12, 81, 83–4 cancellation 137, 148 corporate 84, 142–3 and development 138–43 GM crops and 91, 119, 140 Malawi 135–6 medieval freedom from 79, 80–1 money creation 7, 8, 11, 56, 60, 84, 90, 138 national 49–50, 83, 84, 139, 141 personal 7, 36, 83–4, 91, 140, 141 repayments 90, 137 small-scale 143–4 see also sub-prime loans decentralized energy generation 102–3, 106, 114, 155 decision making 67–8, 71, 158 ‘defensive consumption’ 37 democracy 31, 55, 91, 141, 158 demurrage 57 depression 4, 10, 11, 35, 38, 68, 75, 83 deregulation 8, 12, 22, 28 developing countries 11, 81, 136–8, 143 development 24, 27, 116, 138–43 development projects 82 Dickens, Charles 36 Diggers 18 Disney 141 Distributism 19–21, 29 District of Columbia School of Law 131 diversity 82, 90, 152 Earth, Apollo pictures of 101–2 EBCU (emissions-backed currency unit) 148 ecological debt 113–14 ecological footprints 31, 33, 34, 112 ecological issues 3–4, 12, 25 economic activity 25, 148 economic development 24, 27, 116, 138–43 economic growth see growth economic indicators, alternative 26 economic institutions 29, 82, 153, 154 economic processes 97–8, 99 economic system 2, 11, 21–2, 23, 29, 112, 138 and poverty 13–14, 18, 29, 81–2, 154 economics 10–12, 18, 19, 29, 72–3, 98 assumptions 10, 25, 28, 29, 69, 71, 72, 82, 85, 97, 99, 115 medieval 78–80, 80–1 post-autistic 9–10, 71–2 and psychology 67–8, 71, 72–3 as a science 15, 34–5, 98, 152 and sustainability 24 see also classical economics; conventional economics; new economics economy 12, 26, 84–5, 158 creating poverty 13–14, 18, 29, 81, 154 ecosystems 99, 112, 114 Edison, Thomas 58, 90, 147 education 13, 33, 35, 46, 113 efficiency 4, 13, 99, 100, 123, 126, 131–2 E.F.
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game
By doing so, you’ll be helping preserve the environment, and you’ll be strengthening your community by investing your food dollar close to home. Only eighteen cents of every dollar, when buying at a large supermarket, go to the grower. Eighty-two cents go to various unnecessary middlemen. Cut them out of the picture and buy your food directly from your local farmer. Community Supported Agriculture Thinking about signing up for a CSA but want to learn more about the idea before you commit? Read on. Over the last twenty years, community supported agriculture (CSA) has become a popular way for consumers to buy local, seasonal food directly from a farmer. Here are the basics: A farmer offers a certain number of “shares” to the public. Typically the share consists of a box of vegetables, but other farm products may be included. Interested consumers purchase a share (aka a “membership” or a “subscription”) and in return receive a box (bag, basket) of seasonal produce each week throughout the farming season.
Pushing toxic waste out of one neighborhood forces the dumping corporations to find a new place for it; prices on processing garbage go up, and corporations are encouraged to make less trash in order to preserve their bottom line. While rooftop agriculture may not feed our entire metropolitan population, plenty of other opportunities exist for those seeking a more direct connection with the people and places making their food. Community-supported-agriculture groups, or CSAs, let typical food consumers become members of their local agricultural community. Instead of buying Big Agra produce shipped long distances to the supermarket, people make a commitment to buy a season’s worth of crops from a local farm and then either pay up front or by subscription over the course of a year. Some farms require their members to work a few hours during the growing season, others let members work in lieu of payment.
Corporations can come through with technology and infrastructure that support local business, while thriving local commerce provides an alternative source of employment and stability when corporations fail, as they did in Lansing. Some readers, in less dire straits but just as committed to taking back the world from corporatism, felt daunted by how few specific suggestions I made for taking back the world. Joining a CSA (community supported agriculture) group sounds, well, just too easy to fix any big problem, and too inconvenient to bother with. Or a babysitting club? Like that’s going to take back the world? I believe it can. And more important, you can. In the opening chapter of the book, we looked at how each compromise we make to corporatism leads to further compromises. Choosing to purchase her prescriptions at Wal-Mart over the local pharmacy led one mother to stop attending Parent–Teacher Association meetings, for fear of running into her former druggist’s wife.
Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community by Karen T. Litfin
active transport: walking or cycling, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative consumption, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, corporate social responsibility, glass ceiling, global village, hydraulic fracturing, megacity, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, publish or perish, Silicon Valley, the built environment, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, urban planning, Zipcar
Located on the edge of a small city, EcoVillage at Ithaca illuminates these possibilities nicely. Community-supported agriculture For Joan Bokaer, the woman whose ideas gave birth to EVI, food was at the core from the beginning. A white-haired woman with angular features, Joan describes her vision in practical terms: “A livable city needs a symbiotic relationship with its source of food.” Joan believes that EVI’s primary work is to support urban agriculture. Joan’s daughter, Jen, is helping to make that vision a reality. Jen returned to EVI from college with her future husband, John – both of them having a passion for organic farming and an interest in establishing a community-supported agriculture (CSA) system. The essence of the CSA model is both economic and social: to spread the financial risk of small-scale farming while strengthening the bonds between producers and consumers.
At Jen and John’s ten-acre West Haven Farm, leased from EVI, member households pay US$360 a season and purchase most of the harvest. The rest is sold at the local farmers’ market. All told, Jen and John supply high-quality produce to about a thousand people for six months of the year. Without EVI, it is doubtful that a flourishing farm would exist on this prime real estate at the city’s edge. West Haven Farm gives new meaning to community-supported agriculture: it exists within the community that supports it. Unlike most CSA farmers, Jen and John live side by side with their most committed members. This proximity, both geographic and emotional, bodes well for the farm’s future. But in a world where organic food is mass-produced by industrial farms, the success of West Haven Farm is far from assured. The question of meat Svanholm’s sprawling farm has expanded community agriculture to another level.
In defense of food: an eater's manifesto by Michael Pollan
What you will find are fresh whole foods picked at the peak of their taste and nutritional quality—precisely the kind your great grandmother, or even your Neolithic ancestors, would easily have recognized as food. Indeed, the surest way to escape the Western diet is simply to depart the realms it rules: the supermarket, the convenience store, and the fast-food outlet. It is hard to eat badly from the farmers’ market, from a CSA box ( community-supported agriculture, an increasingly popular scheme in which you subscribe to a farm and receive a weekly box of produce), or from your garden. The number of farmers’ markets has more than doubled in the last ten years, to more than four thousand, making it one of the fastest-growing segments of the food marketplace. It is true that most farmers’ markets operate only seasonally, and you won’t find everything you need there.
refined refined vs. fiber cardiovascular disease carotenes beta- carotenoids carrots cars, eating in case-control studies cell membranes cell metabolism cereals health claims for chewing chicken “free range,” Child, Julia children see also baby formula Children’s Hospital and Research Center China food from China Study, The (Campbell) chocolate, milk ”chocolate cake,” response to cholesterol, blood good vs. bad lowering of cholesterol, dietary heart disease and oxidized vs. ordinary CIA World Factbook, Claiborne, Craig Clinton, Bill Coca-Cola coca leaves coffee cohort studies colon colon cancer colorectal cancer common sense community-supported agriculture (CSA) confounders confusion Congress, U.S. see also Senate, U.S. Conspiracy of Scientific Complexity convenience food cooking corn with beans dominance of corn flour corn oil corn syrup avoiding products with cows feeding of C-reactive protein Crete culture eating and Western diet and see also manners, mores, and habits dairy products omega-3s vs. omega-6s in rationing of see also butter; milk D.A.S.H.
So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love by Cal Newport
Apple II, bounce rate, business cycle, Byte Shop, Cal Newport, capital controls, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, deliberate practice, financial independence, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, job-hopping, knowledge worker, Mason jar, medical residency, new economy, passive income, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, renewable energy credits, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Bolles, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, winner-take-all economy
The land quality in Granby is mixed—it’s too far east from the Connecticut River to guarantee access to the river valley’s best soil—but Ryan still managed to coax a variety of fruits and vegetables out of his plot. He called the fledgling concern Red Fire Farm. When I arrived in May 2011 to spend a day at Red Fire, Ryan, who is now working with his wife, Sarah, had seventy acres of organic produce under cultivation. The bulk of Red Fire’s revenue comes from their Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program, in which subscribers pay for a share of the farm’s output at the beginning of the growing season and then pick up their produce every week at distribution stands throughout the state. In 2011, the program had around 1,300 CSA subscribers and had started to turn people away—there was more demand than they could meet. In other words, Red Fire Farm is a success, but this is not what drew me to Granby.
But once he got going on his farming strategies, explaining the difference between Merrimack sandy loam and Paxton silt loam, for example, or his new weeding strategy for the carrot beds, his shyness gave way to the enthusiasm of a craftsman who knows what he’s doing and has been given the privilege to put this knowledge to work. I noticed a similar enthusiasm in Sarah when she discussed her efforts to manage the farm’s CSA program and public image. When Sarah joined Ryan in Granby in 2007, she was already an advocate for both organic farming and community-supported agriculture. She had studied environmental policy at Vassar, where she’d stumbled on the college’s Poughkeepsie Farm Project CSA. Inspired, she started her own small-scale CSA program after graduating, in nearby Stafford Springs, Connecticut. Coming to Red Fire gave Sarah the opportunity to promote these beliefs on a larger scale—a challenge she clearly relishes. This, I came to realize, is what’s so appealing about the Red Fire lifestyle: control.
The Butcher's Guide to Well-Raised Meat: How to Buy, Cut, and Cook Great Beef, Lamb, Pork, Poultry, and More by Joshua Applestone, Jessica Applestone, Alexandra Zissu
Shake or mix well before using. 300 301 302 303 HERE IS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD MOVEMENT AFOOT, and people are out there doing what we do. We don’t ship, Tother because we prefer that people come to see what we’re about or support their own local industry and farmers. (Not to mention the fact that the carbon footprint of shipping is monumental, and meat doesn’t travel well.) Take the time to nd good, local farmers before you shop. Where you shop is as important as what you shop for. Farmers’ markets, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) meat shares, farm stands, direct sale from farms, and natural food stores are far more likely to have good choices than most supermarkets. Some butcher shops stock pastured meat, but most carry the same boxed stuff supermarkets do. When choosing where to spend your money, it helps to know what you’re looking to buy. Everyone has personal must-haves and limitations. I hope we’ve given you ample information regarding what to consider when buying meat.
See also Chicken recipes after slaughter breasts, skin-on boneless eggs from home fabrication pastured vs. organic vs. conventional popularity of primal cuts producer cooperative system safe handling of sizes and weights terms used for thighs, boneless skinless washing Chicken recipes Butterflying a Chicken Chicken Liver Pâté Fleisher’s “Secret” Chicken Rub Japanese Fried Chicken (Karaage) Chine bones Choice grade meat Cleaver Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Cooking meat baking beef cuts braising broiling checking for doneness choosing best cooking method lamb cuts offal poaching pork cuts, 6.1, 6.2 roasting 335 sautéing searing stir-frying stovetop to oven method variety meats Cookware Corn, genetically modified Cornish game hen, defined Cow, defined Cutting boards Dairy products, buying Dark cutter, defined Defrosting meat Devon (red and black) breed Dogs, liver treats for Dough scraper Dressing percentage, defined Duck Duck fat E. coli, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 7.1 Ears, cooking Eggs, 9.1, 9.2 Ewe, defined Farm names Fat, rendering Fat, uses for, 3.1, 6.1 Fatback Feet, cooking Flanken Flank steak, names for Fleisher’s Grass-Fed & Organic Meats beef chicken 336 eggs history of lamb pork raw pet food standards for farmers, 1.1, 2.1 what they carry Food labels Animal Welfare Approved (AWA) Biodynamic Cage-Free Certified Humane Raised and Handled Free-Range/Free-Roaming Grass-Fed or 100 Percent Grass-Fed Local Natural, 9.1, 9.2 No Antibiotics Administered No Hormones Administered 100 Percent Vegetarian Feed Pastured/Pasture-Raised/Free-Farmed Sustainable USDA Certified Organic, 2.1, 9.1 USDA-verified Freezer orders Freezing meat, 4.1, 4.2 Frenching meat Fries (offal), cooking Genetically modified corn Gilt, defined Gizzards, cooking Gloucestershire Old Spot pedigree pigs Grades, USDA, 3.1, 7.1 Grandin, Temple Grass, for feed Grinder and hand stuffer 337 Grinder and hand stuffer Growth hormones, 2.1, 2.2, 9.1 Handsaw/bone saw Hand stuffer Hay, about Hearts, 3.1, 3.2 Heifer, defined Hen/stewing fowl, defined Hereford breed Highland breed Hog, defined Home fabrication beef chicken guidelines and tips knife skills for lamb pork Honing a knife Hook, metal Hook breaking Hormones, 2.1, 2.2, 9.1 Intestines, cooking Jaccard meat tenderizer Johnson, Ted Kidneys, 3.1, 3.2 Knives care for how to hold knife skills for meat-cutting sharpening 338 Lamb.
Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities by Diana Leafe Christian
Typically, an ecovillage builds ecologically sustainable housing, grows much of its own organic food, recycles its waste products harmlessly, and, as much as possible, generates its own off-grid power. Sirius Ecovillage near Amherst, Massachusetts, grows a large percentage of its organic food, generates a portion of its own offgrid power, and offers tours and classes on sustainable living. EcoVillage at Ithaca has built the first two of its three planned ecologically oriented cohousing communities on 176 acres near Ithaca, New York, and operates its own organic Community Supported Agriculture farm for members and neighbors. We’ll explore two aspiring ecovillages in the following chapters: Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage in Missouri, and Earthaven Ecovillage in North Carolina. I use the term “communities” in this to mean ecovillages as well as other forms of intentional community. More and more people are yearning for more “community” in their lives; you may be one of them. These are people who feel increasingly isolated and alienated, and want something more satisfying.
In fact, the more “progressive” the area, from Eugene to Boulder to Ann Arbor, the higher the population and the more likely local regulations made one-house/one-lot, stick-frame construction with flush toilets and a leach field the only kind of development possible. For a while the group contemplated settling in the same area as Ecovillage at Ithaca, in New York state, a project of three planned cohousing communities with energy-efficient, passive solar homes and an affiliated Community Supported Agriculture farm. One of the first built-fromscratch ecovillage projects in the country, Ecovillage at Ithaca was a tempting model, and it was near a progressive university town with possible jobs. But back in 1995, composting toilets and strawbale homes were out of the question in that location as well. The third hard reality the Dancing Rabbit founders ran into was trying to find a physically inspiring location with access to alternative culture that wasn’t exorbitantly expensive.
The organization that developed community land trusts in 1967. Offers information and assistance for creating community land trusts through consultation, books, and a revolving loan fund. Website < www.iceclt.org> E.F. Schumacher Society. Information, book publishing, workshops, and consulting on local economic self-reliance, through community land trusts,“shoe box banks,” microlending, local currencies, and community supported agriculture farms. Website <www.schumachersociety.org> Websites Author’s website. More resources for ecovillage and community founders: addditional information on zoning, communication skills, and other relevant topics; additional community success stories and cautionary tales; downloadable Sucessful Ecovillage Assessment Tool; updates on profiled communities; author’s workshop schedule. Website <www.CreatingALifeTogether.org> Community Bookshelf.
Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, Sam Altman, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
You might already be using Earliest Due Date to tackle your workload, in which case you probably don’t need computer science to tell you that it’s a sensible strategy. What you may not have known, though, is that it’s the optimal strategy. More precisely, it is optimal assuming that you’re only interested in one metric in particular: reducing your maximum lateness. If that’s not your goal, however, then another strategy might be more applicable. For instance, consider the refrigerator. If you’re one of the many people who have a community-supported agriculture (CSA) subscription, then every week or two you’ve got a lot of fresh produce coming to your doorstep all at once. Each piece of produce is set to spoil on a different date—so eating them by Earliest Due Date, in order of their spoilage schedule, seems like a reasonable starting point. It’s not, however, the end of the story. Earliest Due Date is optimal for reducing maximum lateness, which means it will minimize the rottenness of the single most rotten thing you’ll have to eat; that may not be the most appetizing metric to eat by.
For example, pages that feel like they have some connection to him—articles about people or places he knows—show up with what seems like surprising frequency. (In a test, he got “Members of the Western Australian Legislative Council, 1962–1965” after just two reloads, and he grew up in Western Australia.) Knowing that these are actually randomly generated makes it possible to become better calibrated for evaluating other “coincidences” in the rest of his life. In the physical world, you can randomize your vegetables by joining a Community-Supported Agriculture farm, which will deliver a box of produce to you every week. As we saw earlier, a CSA subscription does potentially pose a scheduling problem, but being sent fruits and vegetables you wouldn’t normally buy is a great way to get knocked out of a local maximum in your recipe rotation. Likewise, book-, wine-, and chocolate-of-the-month clubs are a way to get exposed to intellectual, oenophilic, and gustatory possibilities that you might never have encountered otherwise.
See also uncertainty charity Cheshire, Stuart chess childhood Chomsky, Noam Churchill, Winston circuit switching clairvoyance clinical trials closet, organizing Cobham, Alan Cobham-Edmonds thesis Cockcroft, George (Luke Rhinehart) coconut water cognitive decline coincidences coins denominations two-headed tosses collators commitment problem communications. See also language; networking; storytelling confirmation priors and community-supported agriculture (CSA) Comparison Counting Sort comparison-shopping websites complexity penalizing computation, defined by Turing computational kindness confidence interval confirmation congestion avoidance of price of anarchy and Connection Machine constant-time (O(1)) constrained optimization problems constrained problem, preferences for Constraint Relaxation construction projects content distribution networks (CDNs) context switching continuous optimization problems Continuous Relaxation control without hierarchy Cooper, Martin cooperation Copernican Principle Copernicus, Nicolaus corporate marketing cost-benefit analysis Cramer, Jim Cravath system creativity crêpe stand queue Cross-Validation cryptography customer service hold times Darwin, Charles data.
Cool Tools in the Kitchen by Kevin Kelly, Steven Leckart
Substitutes: yellow-eyed peas OR black-eyed peas * Jocoque = labin Notes: This is a Mexican product that’s halfway between buttermilk and sour cream. Substitutes: salted buttermilk OR sour cream OR yogurt OR crema CSA Finder LocalHarvest LocalHarvest is a comprehensive one-stop resource for finding locally-grown food in the continental U.S. The site provides a customizable search feature on its homepage, and a simple zip code input provides you with a description and link to your closest Community Supported Agriculture option. Other search options include farmer’s markets, grocery co-ops, and restaurants that serve food made with organic ingredients. — Elon Schoenholz LocalHarvest Sample Excerpts Shared Risk There is an important concept woven into the CSA model that takes the arrangement beyond the usual commercial transaction. That is the notion of shared risk. When originally conceived, the CSA was set up differently than it is now.
Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar
The approach of William McDonough and Michael Braungart around rethinking the economic process as an earth-to-earth closed loop that integrates economics, eco-system science, chemistry, design, and systems thinking is another pioneering example for this line of work.14 The practical challenge in implementing these approaches lies in bringing together interests and players from the entire business ecosystem in order to make them see, think, talk, and work together—a challenge that we will inquire into more later, when we talk about the issue of leadership. SEEING OUR FUTURE: CULTIVATING OUR COMMONS There is a whole landscape of emerging examples that embody these principles: the Slow Food movement; community-supported agriculture (CSA); local food; local living economies; and sustainable sourcing practices.15 Biodynamic (organic) farming is one of these examples and close to our hearts because Otto grew up on a biodynamic farm in Germany.16 A biodynamic farm is based on the principles of zero importing (a closed-loop cycle), zero waste (every output of one sector is an input for another), diversity (crop rotation and diverse eco-systems instead of monoculture), and a symbiotic relationship among all these elements of the larger living system (the idea that each farm has a unique living individuality).
When the Fair Trade Movement began to eliminate the intermediaries between coffee producers in South America and coffee consumers in Europe, fair trade activists started to consciously redesign an economic system based on principles of transparency, inclusiveness, and fairness. Today examples of a 4.0 consumer movement are emerging everywhere: farmers’ markets, slow or local organic food, community-supported agriculture (CSA), organic-fabric clothing, eco-tourism, urban agriculture, car sharing, zero-emission cars, and renewable energy. Instead of just boycotting a product, the 4.0 consumer makes informed and intentional choices to support and co-create economic processes that are more inclusive, sustainable, transparent, and collaborative. Myth 3: Material consumption creates well-being. This statement sounds logical but is empirically questionable, as we know from our discussions in chapter 2.
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K
Thanks to the new interest in taste and freshness that Baer mentions, along with concern about fuel costs, and the kind of bioregionalism that my friends and I have been pushing for forty years, we’re seeing the growth of the slow-food and locavore movements, more roadside produce stands, food co-ops, and community gardens, and the creation of subscription farms—a practice adopted from Germany, Switzerland, and Japan in which people buy shares in the costs (and risks) of a farm and in return get weekly delivery or pickup of great food. By eliminating middlemen, the subscription approach, also known as community-supported agriculture, means more money and better cash flow for the farmer and better prices for the consumer. • To anticipate how biotech plus organic might play out in the world, especially the developing world, the precedent to examine is what went right and wrong with the green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. In 1969, just when Paul Ehrlich was making his predictions in The Population Bomb about the death of millions in 1970s and 1980s from famine, the yields from new strains of wheat, rice, and maize were taking off in India and Pakistan, and the Philippines had already flipped from rice importer to rice exporter.
“Butterflies and Plants” (Raven and Ehrlich) Byers, Eben C4 rice Caldeira, Ken California biodiversity and genetic engineering and pre-Columbian agriculture in California Invasive Plant Council California Native Plant Society California Water Atlas Calthorpe, Peter Canada fisheries of nuclear power and cancer cap-and-trade markets carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) algae and carbon dioxide carbon sinks carbon taxes Carlson, Rob Carson, Rachel Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (2000) Caruso, Denise Cascio, Jamais cattle cellphones cellulose Center for Biosafety, South African Challenge of Slums, The (UN-HABITAT) Chapela, Ignacio charcoal Charles, Prince of Wales chemical mutagenesis Chernobyl disaster (1986) Chesser, Ronald children, disease and China genetic engineering and green engineering and Green Revolution and nuclear power and urbanization and Chinese Academy of Forestry Chipchase, Jan Chu, Steven Church, George cities agriculture and ecological footprint of economic growth and infrastructure of innovation and New Urbanism and population growth and slums and, see slums warfare and see also urbanization Citizendium clathrates Clean Air Act (1970) Clean and Safe Energy Coalition Clean Water Act (1972) climate change agriculture and algae and biodiversity and forests and, see forests genetic engineering and nuclear power and population growth and satellite monitoring of Climate Crash (Cox) Climatic Change Closing Circle, The (Commoner) coal coccolithophores Cochran, Gregory coevolution CoEvolution Quarterly cogeneration Cohen, Joel Collapse (Diamond) combined heat and power (CHP) Commoner, Barry Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian community-supported agriculture confirmation bias Congress, U.S. nuclear power and Conservation Conservation Foundation Conservation Pledge Constant Battles (LeBlanc and Register) Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research contract farming Conway, Gordon Cook, Jim corn Costa Rica Cotter, Janet cotton Counterculture Green (Kirk) Cousteau, Jacques Yves Cox, John Cox, Peter Cravens, Gwyneth Crook, Clive Crop Residue Oceanic Permanent Sequestration (CROPS) Crutzen, Paul Cultures of Habitat (Nabhan) cyclones Damrosch, David Darwin, Charles Data-Intensive Scalable Computer systems Davis, Mike DDT Decline of the West (Spengler) Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Degrees of Disaster (Wheelwright) Delmer, Deborah Delta & Pine Land Company Denning, Scott desalination deserts de Soto, Hernando Dhaka, Bangladesh diabetes Diamond, Jared Dicamba direct seeding Discover Discovery of Global Warming (Weart) diseases DMZ Forum DNA synthesizing of Doctorow, Cory dogs Donlan, Josh Doubly Green Revolution, The (Conway) Douglas, Mary Dow AgroSciences Drange, Helge drought Duany, Andrés Dubock, Adrian Ducks Unlimited DuPont-Pioneer Dyson, Freeman Earle, Sylvia Earth in the Balance (Gore) Earth Day Earth First!
City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast
big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
A few blocks away (until it moved to Ashview Heights in west Atlanta in 2016) the six-acre Truly Living Well Wheat Street Gardens in the Old Fourth Ward held raised-bed gardens that grew abundant vegetables on the site of a former public housing project. Truly Living Well grows produce in several other Atlanta locations, educates gardeners and consumers, and sells vegetables through a CSA (community-supported agriculture) partnership. It also runs summer camps for children, combining farming with swimming, arts and nature crafts, skits, music, and games—directly fighting childhood obesity through education, nutritious foods, and activities.* Other neighborhood gardening initiatives in south and west Atlanta connect people directly to their food sources while making these devastated areas more attractive and secure.
., 40 Carstarphen, Meria, 164–165 Carter, Cherine Pierce (Benny), 212–214 Carter, Edward Randolph, 69 Carter, Jimmy, 183–184 Carter Center and Presidential Library, 174, 184 Cascade Heights neighborhood, 124 CAUTION (Citizens Against Unnecessary Thoroughfares in Older Neighborhoods), 184 Centennial Park, 125, 264 Center for Hard to Recycle Materials (CHaRM), 145 Center for Civic Innovation, 264 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 137 Central Atlanta Progress, 117, 263 Chandley, Lynn and David, 186 Chang, Michael, 146–147 charter schools, 29, 131, 194–196, 198, 210 Chattahoochee Brick Company, 34, 67 Chattahoochee NOW, 260 Chattahoochee River, 7, 31, 51, 100, 142–144, 223–224, 260, 286 churches, black, 67, 69, 83, 218–220 Circle Line, 16 City Lights building, 180–181 City of Refuge, 114–115, 271 Civic Center, 162, 164, 176, 270, 277 civil rights movement, 63, 83, 130, 176, 181–182, 190–191, 208, 259, 272 Civil War, 33–35, 64, 100, 189, 259 The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan (Dixon), 72, 76 Clark University, 74, 192 Clarkston, 254–257, 262 Clayton County, 250–254 Clean Air Act, 45, 146 Clean Water Act, 28 Clear Creek, 10, 35, 231–234, 238 Cleveland, Grover, 70 C-Loop, 25–26 Coca-Cola ads in KKK newspaper, 76 Boulevard revitalization, 180 cocaine in, 34, 72 donations from, 52, 123, 279 invention of, 34, 66 Robert Woodruff and, 79, 81 Coca-Cola Anarchist (Wardlaw), 116 Cohen, Richard and Dianne Harnell, 261 colleges, black, 67 Collier, Andrew Jackson, 228 Collier, George Washington, 238 Collier, Meredith and Elizabeth, 228 Collier Hills neighborhood, 8, 100–101, 228–231 Columbians, 79 Committe, Tim, 47–48, 52 Community Grounds, 189, 192, 196 Community Power Structure: A Study of Decision Makers (Hunter), 79 commuter rail, 52, 101–103 Complete Streets concept, 140, 227, 286 congestion, 18, 21, 37, 40, 42, 132, 140, 243, 245, 263 Continental Wingate, 178, 180 convict-lease system, 67 Conway, Butch, 249 Cook, Rodney Mims, Jr., 271 Cotton States and International Exposition, 69 Cousins, Tom, 195 Covenant House, 116 Cox Enterprises, 17, 52, 126 Creative Loafing, 117, 264–265 Creech, Dennis, 144–145 Creek Indians, 31, 142, 228 crime, 147–148, 158–159, 161, 176, 181, 193, 229–230, 250 CSA (community-supported agriculture), 151 CSX, 3, 6, 8–9, 11, 14, 50, 230–231 C-Tran, 250 Cultural Ring project, 14–15, 18, 23 Cyclorama, 35, 193–194 D. H. Stanton Park, 6, 29, 48, 126, 198 Darktown, 71, 74, 78 Darlington apartment building, 234, 243 Davis, Erroll, 164, 198 Davis, Murphy, 119 Deal, Nathan, 124 Deel, Bruce, 114–115 Delp, Jeff and Katie, 195–197 desegregation, 80–81, 200 Designing Healthy Communities (Jackson), 137–139 Desmond, Matthew, 206–207 detention pond, 90, 143 Dickens, Andre, 273–274 Dirty Truth Campaign, 98 Dixon, Thomas, 72, 76 Dobbins, Mike, 22, 59–60, 132, 158, 227, 281–282 Dobbs, John Wesley, 79, 82, 176, 182 Dodd, Benita, 167 Donnelly, Mike, 286 Downtown Connector, 41, 43, 147 downtown “donut hole,” 173, 243, 262–265 Drip Coffeehouse, 5, 160 Du Bois, W.
The Simple Living Guide by Janet Luhrs
air freight, Albert Einstein, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Community Supported Agriculture, compound rate of return, financial independence, follow your passion, Golden Gate Park, job satisfaction, late fees, money market fund, music of the spheres, passive income, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, telemarketer, the rule of 72, urban decay, urban renewal, Whole Earth Review
“I feel really good that we’re intervening in some young people’s lives. They learn a sense of ownership and belonging that is so important.” Edible Gardening Don’t Garden, but Still Eat Garden Produce For people who don’t like to garden but like to eat (me, for example), this is a favorite. No digging, no planting. Sit on your rear and reap the harvest. Here’s how: Join a Community Supported Agriculture Program (CSA). CSAs are based on a concept called teikei from Japan, which translated literally means “partnership.” The philosophical translation is “food with the farmer’s face on it.” Teikei clubs in Japan serve thousands of people sharing the harvest of hundreds of farmers. CSAs are partnerships between consumers and farmers. They are one of the highest forms of symbiotic relationship—one hand literally feeds the other.
After a while, you’ll feel revitalized and filled with ideas on what you can create. MAKING A LIVING ON AN ORGANIC FARM Up at dawn, picking strawberries, broccoli, lettuce, and the rest. Still picking, tilling, and farming until the sun goes down. The work is hard and the heat relentless. They will sell some of the bounty at local farmer’s markets, when Thurston returns home from another long day at 9:00 P.M.. Some is sold to CSAs (community supported agriculture programs) and some they will store in the cold room until the next market, when they will try again. After the markets, they count their money. Are they making it? Is their try at organic farming worth the incredible amount of time they spend, and the life they lead, which is so much harder than the city one they left behind? Annelle Durham and Thurston Williams say yes, definitely, it is worth it.
See Holiday season Christmas Craft, The (Berger) Circle of Simplicity, Return to the Good Life (Andrews) Clothing, 2.1, 2.2 Clutter cleaning/organizing neurosis rule drawer-by-drawer, shelf-by-shelf rule getting rid of keeping free of layer-by-layer rule one-year rule organizing what’s left the rental storage unit taped-and-dated-box rule three-pile rule Clutter’s Last Stand (Aslett), 12.1, 12.2 Cob houses College costs Community Community gardens, 13.1, 13.2 Community Supported Agricultural Program (CSAP) Contentment Cooking. See Food and nutrition Couple’s Comfort Book, The, 5.1, 5.2 Covey, Stephen Cox, Connie Creative Work—Karma Yoga: A Western Interpretation (Szekely) Creativity Credit cards debt Curtis family, 9.1, 11.1, 13.1 Dacyczyn, Amy Dating David, Bruce Decks Ditzler, Sally and Mark Dlugozima, Hope Dominguez, Joe, itr.1, 2.1, 12.1 Donette, Barbara Douillard, John, 10.1, 10.2 Dow, Dr.
The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, liberation theology, McMansion, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
To figure out where to plug in, I recommend that you take an inventory of your interests, passions, and skills and then look out in the world and see which organizations are a good match. If toxics in consumer products worry you, join or form a national campaign for chemical policy reform like the Safer States coalition in the Unites States. If healthy food systems are your passion, you might get involved with community-supported agriculture (CSA). My daughter’s school is a drop off site for a local organic farm’s CSA. Would that work where you live? If you’re sick of hearing your friends in Europe talk about their month-long vacations and leisure time, get involved in a national campaign for a shorter workweek and mandatory vacation law. A great place to find organizations in your region or interest area is a huge online database called WiserEarth, created by the sustainable business guru Paul Hawken.
See individual chemicals Cheney, Dick, 247 Chevron, 30, 33–34 Child labor, 22, 49 Chile, 66 China, 5, 45, 49, 114, 142, 164, 180, 204, 243 Chlor-alkali plants, 54, 68, 75 Chlordane, 79 Chlorine, 48, 53–54, 56, 213 Chlorine dioxide, 54 Chromium, 44, 59, 73, 77 Chromium trioxide, 60 Chrysler Corporation, 164 Chungong Ayafor, Martin, 26–27 Chuquicamata copper mine, Chile, 21 Clark, Dana, 226 Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1963, 97 Clean Production Action, 60, 63 Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972, 97 Clear-cutting, 7, 10–12 Climate change, 2, 12–13, 36, 50, 98, 246, 258 Clinton, Bill, 88 Closed-loop factories, 19 Coal, 20, 21, 35–36, 102, 207 Cobalt, 59 Coca-Cola Company, 196 Coffee, 14, 17, 169, 170, 172 Colborn, Theo, 45 Collapse (Diamond), 39–40 Coltan (tantalum), 27–29, 35, 246 Commercial Alert, 256 Community/citizen self, 173–177 Community forestry initiatives, 10, 41 Community-supported agriculture (CSA), 241 Composting, 198, 209–211, 233, 257, 261 Composting toilets, 12, 19 Comprehensive Chemicals Policies for the Future (Geiser), 101 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, 97, 98 Computer TakeBack Campaign, 60 Computers, 57–64, 203, 206, 256 Computers and the Environment (Williams), 60 Conflict minerals, 25–29 Confronting Consumption (Maniates), 159 Connett, Ellen, 214 Connett, Paul, 183, 184, 214, 217, 232 Construction and demolition waste (C&D), 185, 199–201 Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole (Barber), 169, 172 Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972, 96 Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, 96 Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), 96 Consumerism, defined, 145 Consumption, 144–181, 256 Container Recycling Institute, 67 Container ships, 113–114 Cook, Ken, 83 Copper, 20, 21, 59, 204 Corporate accountability, 257–258 Correa, Rafael, 30, 31 Cosmetics, 76–77 Costa Rica, 152, 244 Costner, Pat, 11–12 Cotton, 14, 17, 45–51 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), 95–96 Cradle to Cradle (McDonough), 52 Credit cards, 148, 151, 160 Cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride), 65 Curare, 2 Cyanide, 15, 24 Davis, Mike, 26 DDT, 73, 79 Deca-BDE, 79–80 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 38 DeClerq, John, 169 Deconstruction, 200 Defoliants, 48 Deforestation, 2–9, 52–53 Dell, Michael, 58, 110 Dell Computers, 58, 59, 62, 205, 206, 256 Democratic Republic of the Congo, 26–28, 35, 134, 152, 246 Depreciation, 182–183 Depression, 150 Dharma Bums, The (Kerouac), 6 DHL, 115 Diamond, Jared, 39–40 Diamonds, 20, 25–27, 35 Digital TV conversion, 202 Dioxin, 54, 69, 73, 79, 171, 209, 213 Disney, 49–50 Disposable goods, 162 Disposal, 182–236, 256–257 Distribution, 106–143, 255–256 Do Not Mail Registry, 9 Dora the Explorer, 166 Dow Chemical, 91 Downcycling, 231–232 Downshifting, 158–159 Droughts, 2, 16 Duales System Deutschland (DSD), 197 Dublin Principles, 18 Dumanoski, Dianne, 45 Durning, Alan, 181 Dyes, 48, 51 e-Stewards program, 206 Earth Economics, 242 Earth Overshoot Day, 153–154 Earthlife Africa, 222 EarthRights International, 33, 258 Earthworks, 21, 29, 253 Earthworms, 51 Ecological Footprint, 152 Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, The, 5 Economist, The, 16 EcoPrint, 56 Ecuador, 30–31 EDC (ethylene dichloride) Ehrenreich, Barbara, 142 Eisner, Michael, 50 Electricity, 35 Electronic waste (e-waste), 58, 185, 202–206 Electronics, 27–29, 57–64, 120 Electronics TakeBack Coalition, 58, 63, 202, 206 Elemental chlorine free (ECF) process, 54 Elgin, Duane, 158–159, 181 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 93, 98 Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, 98 Ending the Depression through Planned Obsolescence (London), 161–162 Envirogenetics, 75 Environmental Health News, 260 Environmental justice (EJ) movement, 87–88 Environmental Justice Networking Forum, 222 Environmental Paper Network (EPN), 9, 56 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 36, 54, 79, 88, 95–98, 115, 185, 190–192, 208, 215, 219–220, 225, 229 Environmental racism, 87–89 Environmental Working Group (EWG), 81–83, 95 Erosion, 7 Essential Action, 31 Etienne, Yannick, 49, 50 European Union, 5, 29, 72, 82, 133, 211, 234 Executive pay, 126, 258 Extended producer responsibility (EPR), 197–199, 233–234, 256 Extraction, 1–43, 253–255 Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), 39 Factor 10 Club, 41 Fair trade logo, 51 Farmers markets, 140–141 Federal Express, 115 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, 96 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1947, 97 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 231 Fence-line communities, 87–94 Fertilizers, 46 Financial crisis (2008–09), 5, 179, 184, 194 Fish, mercury in, 74–75, 95 Flame retardants, 60–62, 73, 79–80, 82–83, 169, 203, 261 Floods, 2, 4, 7, 12 Fluoride, 60 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 77, 95, 96, 99 Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, 97 Ford, Henry, 159–160 Ford Motor Company, 164 Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 10, 40, 253 ForestEthics, 9 Forests, 2–10 Formaldehyde, 48 Fox, Peter, 174 Frank, Robert, 179 Freecycle, 120 Friedman, Thomas, 126 Fungicides, 46–47 Gallagher, Kevin, 136 Gandhi, Mahatma, 22 Gap, The, 108, 109 Geiser, Ken, 99, 101 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 128, 132 General Mining Act of 1872, 22, 254 General Motors Corporation, 164 Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), 242 Germany, 31, 71, 197, 234, 256, 257 Global Anti-Incinerator Alliance (GAIA), 215, 216, 235, 257 Global Footprint Network (GFN), 152–153 Global Forest Coalition, 8 Global Mercury Partnership, 75 Global Trade Watch, 136 Global warming, 36 Global Witness, 25–27 Gold, 21, 23–25, 35, 75 Gold Rush of 1849, 24–25, 27 Golden Rules, 25, 34 Gone Tomorrow (Rogers), 228, 232 Good Electronics, 63 Good Jobs First, 122, 123 Goodell, Jeff, 36 GoodGuide, 62, 111–112, 140, 175, 184, 260 Government laws and agencies, 95–99 GRAVIS, 22 Great Depression, 128, 194 Green chemistry, 84, 105 Green Dot program, 197, 234, 256, 257 Green Press Initiative, 56 Greenhouse gases, 53, 65, 180, 186, 188, 235, 254 Greenpeace, 31, 62, 63, 91, 113, 222, 224, 225 Greenwashing, 187 Greider, William, 109 Greige goods, 116–117 Grey-water system, 17–18 Grossman, Elizabeth, 59–60 Grove, Andy, 58 Guernica Chemicals, 223 Guide to Green Electronics (Greenpeace), 62 H&M, 116–117, 118, 120 Haiti, 4, 49–50, 51, 132, 137–139, 178–179, 224–227 Halogens, 48 Hanger Network, 165 Happiness/unhappiness, 149–155 Happy Planet Index, 151–152, 242, 244, 251 Hardrock Mining and Reclamation Act of 2, 22 Hawken, Paul, 241, 245, 250 Hazard Ranking System, 98 Hazardous waste, 201, 208 Health care, 122, 247 Health Care Without Harm, 202 Heap leaching, 24 Helfand, Judith, 175–176 Heptachlor epoxide, 79 Herbicides, 46 Hewlett-Packard (HP), 59, 206, 256 Hexachlorobenzene, 79 Hexavalent chromium, 30 High Tech Trash (Grossman), 59–60 Hoekstra, Arjen, 17 Hollender, Jeffrey, 234 Home Depot, 9 Human Rights Watch, 258 Humus, 11 Hunger, 178–180 Hydrochloric acid, 61, 69 Hydrofluoric acid, 60 Hydrogen chloride, 69 Hydrogen fluoride, 61 Hydrologic cycle, 2 Hydroxide, 60 Hydroxyl monoethanolamine, 60 IBM Corporation, 59 Iceland, 66 Incineration, 212–217, 224, 235, 257 Index of Sustainable Welfare, 242 India, 4, 5, 21, 22, 45, 47, 86–87, 90–93, 129, 134–135, 153, 165, 180, 193, 202, 236 Indigenous communities, 4, 37–38, 245 Individual actions, 239–241, 260–264 Industrial Revolution, 101, 102, 156 Industrial waste, 185–189 Infertility, 45 Inglewood, California, 126–127 Inkworks Press, 56 Insecticides, 46–47 Institute, West Virginia, 93 Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 34, 229 Integrity in Science Project, 99 Inter-American Development Bank, 132 Interface, 19, 185, 187–189 International Agency for Research on Cancer, 54 International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, 92, 259 International Chamber of Commerce, 228 International Conference on Water and the Environment, 18 International Council on Mining and Metals, 227 International Energy Agency (IEA), 29–30 International financial institutions (IFIs), 127–136, 139–140 International Labour Organization, 8, 21–22 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 38, 39, 128–131, 140 International waste dumping, 219–227 International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs, 38 Inventory, elimination of, 110 Ipecac, 2 Iraq, 243, 244 Iron, 20, 44, 59 Irrigation, 46 Isopropyl alcohol, 60 Jensen, Rhonda, 194 Jewelry, 23–25 Jones, Van, 6, 207 Jubilee debt campaign, 130, 131–132 Junk mail, 9 Just-in-time (JIT) model, 110 Kasser, Tim, 151 Katzen, Mollie, 158 Keep America Beautiful (KAB), 196 Kenya, 130 Kerouac, Jack, 6 Khian Sea (cargo ship), 224 Kid-Safe Chemicals Act (KSCA), 82, 83, 255 Kimberley Process, 26–28, 34, 253 King, Oona, 28 Knapp, Dan, 190 Knight, Phil, 109 Korten, David, 109 Kovalam, India, 236 Kyoto Protocol, 66 Lambrecht, Bill, 222 Landfills, 69, 207–209, 211–213, 235 Lane, Eric, 173 Lawns, 14 Layard, Richard, 176 Leachate, 207–209 Leaching (off-gassing), 69, 70 Lead, 15, 24, 34–35, 42, 59, 61, 69, 72, 73–74, 76–77, 79, 86, 91, 203, 205, 219 Lean manufacturing, 108–110, 116 Lean retail, 110–111, 117 Lebow, Victor, 160 Lerner, Steve, 89 Light-weighting, 41 Lightolier, 218 Lignin, 53 Lipsticks, 76–77 Lithium, 61 Local food movement, 140–141 Logging, 7–8 London, Bernard, 161–162 Lovera, Simone, 8 Lustgarten, Rita, 174 Luxury Fever (Frank), 179 MacKinnon, J.
Organized Simplicity by Tsh Oxenreider
In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto by Michael Pollan, published by Penguin. Food, Inc. distributed by Magnolia Home Entertainment. A compelling documentary about the modern-day food industry. Slightly graphic for young children. How to Cook Everything: 2,000 Simple Recipes for Great Food by Mark Bittman, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Local Harvest, www.localharvest.org. A database of farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture (CSA), and local farms. Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook That Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats by Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, published by NewTrends. Real Food Media, www.realfoodmedia.com. A network of bloggers who promote slow food, whole ingredients, and traditional cooking methods. Simple Bites, www.simplebites.net. A collaborative site with cooking tips and recipes for families using whole foods.
The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar
He hopes that such efforts will encourage a trend away from vertically scaled centralized farming, with produce shipped over long distances, to distributed, laterally scaled regional farming for local consumption—with the efficiency gains that go with it. Dell adds that “we are a free service. We have no business model!” A correction: SharedEarth does have a business model—it’s called the Commons.52 While gardeners are beginning to share harvests on microplots, a younger generation of farmers is sharing harvests on an agricultural scale with urban consumers. Community supported agriculture (CSA) began inauspiciously in Europe and Japan in the 1960s and accelerated rapidly in the United States and other countries in the 1990s with the rise of the Internet. Urban consumers pledge a fixed amount of money to local farmers in advance of the growing season to pay for the up-front cost of growing the crops. The consumers become, in effect, shareholders. In return, the consumers are provided with the bounty from the harvest delivered to their door or to nearby distribution centers throughout the growing season.
., 34 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), 292 Cha, Ariana Eunjung, 169 Chakrabarty, Ananda, 165 Chandler, Alfred, 44, 46 Chronicle of Higher Education (Carey), 118–119 Church, George, 86 Cisco, 14–15, 73, 149 clean IT. see Cleanweb Movement Cleanweb Movement, 145–147, 172 Clemens, Eric, 250–251 climate change, 286–291 Clinton, President Bill, 7, 164, 188 Coase, Ronald, 137, 150–151, 207–208, 211 collaborative age, 76–77, 86, 107–110, 131, 151, 217, 230, 302, 311 classrooms. see massive open online courses (MOOCs) consumption, 234–238, 253, 282 etymology of, 18–19 freedom, 226 rise in collaborative innovation, 21 Collaborative Commons, 153–222 collaboratists prepare for battle, 173–192 and comedy of the commons, 155–172 and the communications commons, 195–205 and the cooperatives’ renaissance, 211–217 definition of, 16 and healthcare. see healthcare historical background of, 16–17 importance of, 17–18 and logistics commons, 217–221 and managing temporal resources, 221–222 the medium is the domain, 177–181 and a new commons narrative, 181–187 and the new deal’s greatest success, 206–211 and protests to reclaim the public, 187–188 rise of the, 16–25 as a self-managing economic enterprise, 16 shift from exchange value to sharable value, 19–20 and the struggle to define and control the intelligent infrastructure, 193–222 as technological soul mate of the IoT, 18 see also the comedy of the commons; social capital and the sharing economy the comedy of the commons, 155–172 design principles of effective commons, 161–162 rediscovering, 156–165 and Törbel Commons covenant agreement of 1483, 160–161 see also Hardin, Garrett; Rose, Carol “Commons affliction,” 187 Community supported agriculture (CSA), 239–240 computer-aided design (CAD), 124 computer(s), cost(s) of, 80 concentration patterns, 54–55 conservation easement(s), 186 consumer(s) and access over ownership, 20 society, 22, 208, 233, 247, 299 contour crafting, 96 contradiction between intellectual-property rights and open-source access, 100–101 copyright(s), 175, 178–181, 188 and “copyleft,” 175, 179, 253 see also patent(s) Couchsurfing, 235, 237, 258 Coursera, 115–118 currencies, alternative, 259–262 Craigslist, 249 Crane, David, 83 Creative Common licenses, 94, 179–180, 186 crowdfunding, 19, 146, 256–257, 269 crowdsourcing approach to research, 116, 242–243 cyber attacks/cyberterrorism, 286, 291–296 cyber thieves, 76 Darwin, Charles, 63–64, 183 data security and privacy, associated with IoT,14 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 125 Dell, Adam, 239 DeLong, J.
The Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook & Action Plan: A Practical Guide to Easing Your Autoimmune Disease Symptoms With Nourishing Food by Michelle Anderson
Since you are doing the labor, they will usually be a much cheaper price. 9 Buy high-quality frozen vegetables and fruit. Flash-frozen vegetables lose very few nutrients in the freezing process, and since they are usually frozen when they’re ripe, you get quality produce. Frozen vegetables are less expensive than fresh, and you can use exactly what you need and put the rest back in the freezer, which cuts down on waste. 10 Join community-supported agriculture (CSA) programs or farm shares. A CSA is a plan in which you buy a share of a local farmers’ produce. After that expense, you will enjoy farm-fresh produce delivered right to your door or to a convenient drop-off location all season long. This arrangement means you get seasonal fruits and vegetables at a much lower price than you would pay in the store. You can even buy a share in a grass-fed cow or pig.
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
UNSER Land was solidarity in action, uniting local producers, retailers and consumers – not forgetting the animal kingdom, with dog food made from local beef and chicken, untouched by genetic technology.42 The Bavarian UNSER Land network, which originated in Fürstenfeldbruck in 1994, is just one of a large number of regional and local food initiatives that have sprouted across the West since the late twentieth century. ‘Slow food’ has radiated outwards from its original home in Northern Italy to over a hundred countries. From New Mexico to New England, America is now peppered with community-supported agriculture (CSA) groups. Unknown in England before 1997, today, over five hundred farmers’ markets set up their stalls, week after week. Urban gardens in Paris and New York, food-box deliveries in Bristol, award-winning restaurants in Copenhagen that serve locally foraged mushrooms – the quest for authenticity in local food appears unstoppable. Those who really want to know where their salami comes from can adopt their own suino nero (black pig) in Puglia’s Monti Dauni for a modest €100.43 We know a fair bit about these concerned foodies.
‘I’m quite keen on supporting smaller local producers,’ one English woman explained, ‘because I think that way you get diversity, more competition and different qualities . . . it is a way of making sure we maintain choice.’ 65 This is a far cry from the dull and repetitive diet that ruled when food was really local. Tellingly, the regional market of Carpentras today offers greater variety in winter than in summer.66 Commentators like to stress the potential of local food networks. It is equally important to recognize the limits of people’s commitment. In the United States, Community Supported Agriculture initiatives have found it difficult to survive once the enthusiasm of the first harvest is over. For many members, a CSA is little more than a food-buying club. In New Mexico, they lose half their members every year.67 ON THE MOVE Fernando Sánchez left his native Mexico for Los Angeles in the 1920s. Across the border, he found a new material civilization where homes had hot baths and electrical lights and people listened to the radio and drove to the local movie palace in a private car.
Schramm, Konsum und regionale Identität in Sachsen, 1880–2000: Die Regionalisierung von Konsumgütern im Spannungsfeld von Nationalisierung und Globalisierung (Stuttgart, 2002); and La Repubblica, 13 Feb. 2013, 29–31. 63. http://instoresnow.walmart.com/Food-Center-locally-grown.aspx. 64. Susanne Freidberg, Fresh: A Perishable History (Cambridge, MA, 2009). 65. Quoted in Kirwan, ‘Reconfiguration of Producer–Consumer Relations’, at 155. 66. De la Pradelle, Market Day in Provence, 111–13. 67. Lois Stanford, ‘The Role of Ideology in New Mexico’s CSA (Community-supported Agriculture)’, in: Wilk, ed., Fast Food/Slow Food: The Cultural Economy of the Global Food System, ch. 12. 68. Quoted from Manuel Gamio, The Mexican Immigrant: His Life-story (Chicago, 1931), 68. 69. Manuel Gamio, Mexican Immigration to the United States (Chicago, 1930), 67–9 and appendix V. 70. World Bank, Migration and Development Brief, no. 19 (20 Nov. 2012). 71. Alexia Grosjean, ‘Returning to Belhelvie, 1593–1875’, in: Emigrant Homecomings: The Return Movement of Emigrants, 1600–2000, ed.
The omnivore's dilemma: a natural history of four meals by Michael Pollan
additive manufacturing, back-to-the-land, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Community Supported Agriculture, double entry bookkeeping, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, index card, informal economy, invention of agriculture, means of production, new economy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, Whole Earth Catalog
If there was a dark side to Joel's vision of the postindustrial food chain, I realized, it was the deep antipathy to cities that has so often shadowed rural populism in this country Though when I pressed him, pointing out that New York City, den of pestilence and iniquity though it might be, was probably here to stay and would need to eat, he allowed that farmer's markets and CSAs—"community supported agriculture," schemes in which customers "subscribe" to a farm, paying a few hundred dollars at the start of the growing season in exchange for a weekly box of produce through the summer—might be a good way for urbanités to connect with distant farmers. For my own part, this taut little exchange made me appreciate what a deep gulf of culture and experience separates me from Joel—and yet at the same time, what a sturdy bridge caring about food can sometimes provide. 2 4 5 246 * THE O M N I V O R E ' S DILEMMA (Sometimes, but not always, for the antipathy of city and country still runs deep—and in both directions.
., 141—42 Bell, Daniel, 302 Bell Institute, 92 Bentham, Jeremy, 308, 328 Berger, John, 306,323, 359 Berry, Wendell, 11, 68, 145, 220, 254, 259 Bing cherries, 397-98, 399 biodiesel fuel, 164 biodiversity, 9, 410 on organic farms, 161, 197, 2 2 4 , 255 shrinking, 47 in supermarkets, 16-17 biophilia, 128 bison, 2 4 , 70, 3 2 2 - 2 3 Blair, Ed and Rich, 68, 71, 72, 76-77 Blair Ranch, South Dakota, 68-72, 77 Blank, Steven, 2 5 5 - 5 6 blue baby alerts, 47 Bosch, Carl, 43 Bové, José, 255 bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 75-76 Brillat-Savarin, Anthelme, 3, 270, 2 7 2 , 291,295 Brix scores, 176 Budger (cow), 193, 196-97, 198 Budiansky, Stephen, 316 Butz, Earl "Rusty," 5 1 - 5 2 , 103, 201 CAFOs (Confined Animal Feeding Operations) : and cheap corn, 67-68, 200, 253 and fossil fuels, 73 in industrial food chain, 128, 130, 182, 200,317 learned helplessness in, 2 1 8 manure lagoons of, 79, 130 Cal-Organic Farms, 138n, 1 7 3 , 1 7 4 - 7 5 calories, 75 cheap, 1 0 7 - 8 , 1 1 7 daily intake of, 102 as energy, 2 1 - 2 2 , 106, 108, 118 in fast food, 1 1 2 , 118 overproduction of, 103, 108 cannabinoids, 342 cannibalism, 76, 298, 358 Capay farms, 138 capitalism, cultural contradictions of, 318 caramel color, 19 carbohydrates, 20, 86, 91, 118, 179, 266, 291 carbon, 2 0 - 2 2 , 4 2 , 47, 117, 197 carbon dioxide, 20 carbon isotopes, 20, 2 2 , 116 carbophobia, 1-2 Cargill, 5 2 , 63, 69, 86-87, 93 Cascadian Farm, 144-45, 1 5 1 - 5 3 , 154, 156, 162, 173-74 Case for Animal Rights, The (Regan), 323 cassava, 293, 294 INDEX cattle: and cheeseburgers, 114—15, 117 corn fed to, 66, 7 1 , 74-75, 77-78, 82, 84, 200 cow-calf operation (Blair Ranch), 68—72 in a "cow day," 191 diseases of, 75-76, 77-78, 237 drugs fed to, 71, 73, 74,76, 78-79,81, 178 eating cattle, IS—77 and electric fences, 193 on the farm, 38, 39, 193-97,317 fattening up, 75, 81, 200 on feedlots/CAFOs, 39, 65-68, 72-84, 139, 194,200-201 grass fed to, 70, 75, 82, 83, 126, 186-91, 194-95,269 protein matter fed to, 74-77 range-fed, 134-35 ratio of feed to flesh in, 81, 115 rumens of, 70, 72, 74, 75, 78, 82, 187, 193, 197,290,326 slaughter of, 7 1 , 8 1 , 3 2 9 - 3 3 stress-free, 135 supplements fed to, 71, 74 weaning of, 71—72 chamomile, 398 chanterelles, 285-86, 366-70, 380, 406 chemical fertilizers, 4 1 - 4 7 , 68, 146-49, 151,220 chemical pesticides, 45, 143, 148, 152-53, 177,212,220-22 Chez Panisse, Berkeley, 253 Chicago Board of Trade, 60 chicken: in grass-fed meal, 262-66, 269—71 Maillard reaction in, 270 McNuggets, 10,95, 110, 1 1 1 - 1 4 , 115-18 in microwavable TV dinner, 139-40, 173-74 popularity of, 114 price of, 235 chickens: as cattle feed, 76 eggs produced by, 126, 135, 170-71, 211,212,213,251,252,262,269, 317,318 factory life of, 39, 171-72, 182, 317-18 on the farm, 38,39, 126, 140, 169-73, 182,210-13,215,216,221,319, 321 Gallus gallus, 10 killing, 226-38, 250, 332 local markets for, 241—42 organic, 170, 182 ratio of feed to flesh in, 81, 115 Child, Julia, 265 China, fertilizer factories in, 43 citric acid, 86 Cobbett, William, 26, 101 Coca-Cola, 95, 104-5 CoetzeeJ.M, 309,319 Columbus, Christopher, 2 4 , 104, 338 commune movement (1960s), 141—44, 152, 154 community supported agriculture (CSA), 153,245,257,259 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 267 cooking, food chain modified by, 6 corn, 32—56 botanical parts of, 86, 87 C-4, 21-22, 104 cheap, 47-50, 5 1 - 5 2 , 5 3 - 5 4 , 67-68, 74, 7 5 , 8 2 - 8 3 , 9 5 , 101, 103, 108, 117, 118, 199-200,253 and chemical fertilizers, 41—47 cities of, 37-38, 118-19 as commodity, 26, 34, 49, 58-63, 64, 6 6 , 6 7 , 7 3 , 8 4 , 9 3 , 103 dependence on humans, 26—28 developing new uses for, 87, 90 eaten as corn, 85 evolution of, 2 3 - 2 6 , 29-30, 60 exports of, 5 1 , 53, 62, 63 F-l hybrids, 36-37, 104 in fast food, 113 in feedlots, 73, 74-75, 82-84, 200 as foundation of food chain, 18—19, 31, 5 1 , 117 genetically engineered, 3 6 genetic variability of, 25 Golden Bantam, 265—66 government and, 4 1 , 48-50, 67, 74, 103, 108,200-201 grading system for, 60, 200 * 439 440 * INDEX corn (cont.) and grain elevators, 57, 59—61, 63, 86 hybrid, 2 9 - 3 1 , 37, 4 1 , 42, 45 as intellectual property, 30—31,92 kernels of, 86 the meal, 109-19 monoculture of, 8, 38-40, 65, 67, 83, 119,410 in nonfood products, 19 Pioneer Hi-Bred 34H31,36,59 planting, 35-36, 37, 128 pollen, 28-29 prices of, 39, 40, 47-50, 53-56, 60-63, 67, 74, 101, 103 processed foods from, 91-92 processing of, 85—99 quality of, 59, 60 rise of Ztamays, 2 3 - 2 6 , 60, 104 sex change of, 2 7 - 2 8 , 104 sex life of, 28-31 starch in, 87, 88, 89, 98-99 style of, 28 in supermarket, 15—19 surfeit of, 57-58, 62, 67, 74, 101, 103 tassel, 28 usage of, 26 walking, 19-23 yields of, 2 5 , 30-31, 36-37, 39, 4 2 , 4 5 , 46,50,60 corned beef, 25 cornmeal, 85, 86, 93 corn oil, 86,88 cornstarch, 88, 93, 96 corn sweeteners, 18 corn syrup, 88, 89 corn whiskey, 25, 100-101, 104 cows, see cattle Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism,The (Bell), 302 Cuyahoga River, on fire, 142 cyclodextrins, 86 dairy products: and bovine lifestyle, 135-36, 139, 158 organic, 156, 158, 178, 182, 267 Darwin, Charles, 150 Dawson.Todd, 2 3 , 116 DDT, 1 4 1 - 4 2 , 3 2 4 Dennett, Daniel, 3 1 6 , 3 1 7 Department of Agriculture, U.S.: and cheap corn, 5 1 - 5 2 , 74 direct payments to farmers from, 52, 61-63 and entrepreneurship, 246—47, 250 and irradiation of meat, 82, 230, 250 meat graded by, 75, 200 and organic farms, 145, 154—57, 178-79 price supports from, 5 2 , 53, 83 and slaughtering animals, 227, 228—30, 235-36 Descartes, René, 306, 315 Des Moines River, pollution of, 46—47 dextrins, 86 dextrose, 18, 88, 89, 116 diabetes, 102, 107, 117 diets, fads in, 1—3 Diggers, 141 disgust, 292, 355-59 domesticated species, 10, 29-30, 310, 320 Drucker, Peter, 188 eagles, 324 Earthbound Farm, 138, 162-68, 173, 174-75, 176, 182, 183 earthworms, 127, 147, 196, 216 eating: in cars, 109, 1 1 0 - 1 1 , 1 1 7 , 1 1 9 change in national habits of, 1-3, 298-302 as dining, 2 7 2 ethics of, 280-81, 304-13, 405 family dinners, 302 food fads, 1-3,299-301 generalists in, 4; see also omnivore 's dilemma and grace, 407 industrial, 10 low on food chain, 118 and obesity, 62-63, 100, 101-2 paradox of, 3 - 5 , 405 the perfect meal, 405-10 Eatwild.com, 248 EcoFriendly Foods, 2 4 2 E.coliO157:H7, 62, 82, 83,250 ecology, 7 , 4 7 , 6 2 , 143, 161 Eggleston, Bev, 242, 246-50, 260 I N D E X * 44 1 elements, fixing, 4 2 , 45 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 2 2 6 End of Agriculture in the American Portfolio, The (Blank), 2 5 5 - 5 6 energy: in calorie form, 2 1 - 2 2 , 106, 108, 118, 199 in carbohydrates, 291 cheap, 200 in food processing, 118 solar, 2 1 - 2 2 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 70, 73, 83, 188-89, 199 energy density, 10 7—8 Enriching the Earth (Smil), 42 enzyme hydrolysis, 89 essential fatty acids, 267-69 ethanol, 62, 86, 90, 103, 111, 116 evolution: adaptation of species in, 10, 30, 119, 320,385 and agriculture, 2 3 , 129, 267 and appetite elasticity, 106 cannibalism in, 76 Darwinian trial and error, 30 of domesticated species, 10, 29-30 and food chain, 6, 103-4, 280 industrial thinking vs., 68 natural selection in, 150-51, 180, 280, 288,289,320,342 sex change in, 2 7 - 2 8 Excel, 69 factory farms, 45 alternative food chain vs., 13 0-31 animals on, 39, 64, 118, 140, 2 5 4 , 306, 310,317-19 antibiotics used in, 73, 78-79 economic logic of, 75, 81, 139 excess production by, 62-63 and human health, 67 and organic food, 156-69 pollution from, 46-47, 67, 2 0 1 , 2 5 5 productivity as goal in, 46, 318 Fallon, Sally, 248 farmer's markets, 2 4 5 , 246-49, 2 5 7 , 259, 260 farming, 32—56 artisanal production, 249—50 buyers of the crops, 59, 60, 240 chemical fertilizers in ,41— 4 7, 68, 148, 151,220 chemical weed killers in, 40 closed ecological loop in, 68 corn, see corn corporate benefits from, 36, 63, 95, 201 crops owned in, 59 direct purchase from, 240—42, 2 4 4 , 2 4 7 - 4 8 , 2 5 4 , 256 diversity in, 38-39, 4 5 , 67-68, 161, 258 economic problems of, 94, 119, 138, 161 electric fences in, 193, 206 fewer people in, 40 fish, 18,268-69, 280 "good farm," 3 2 7 - 2 8 , 3 3 2 - 3 3 government policies in, 39, 4 1 , 48—50, 5 1 - 5 3 , 61-63, 83, 103, 108, 182, 200-201,227,241, 243,246 and grain elevators, 59—61, 63 grass, see grasses income from, 3 4 , 53—56, 61-63, 95 industrial management in, 4 5 , 5 2 , 138 integrity in, 240—41 intellectual work of, 220 monocultures of, 8, 38-40, 4 5 , 65, 67, 83, 119, 129, 162, 1 6 4 - 6 5 , 2 1 4 , 221,258,410 Naylor curve, 53—56 organic, see organic farming pests in, 149-50, 151 and populists, 50, 245 productivity in, 3 4 , 36, 5 2 , 5 3 , 101, 103, 118, 161, 197-98,213,222, 249 relationship marketing in, 240, 2 4 2 , 244, 247 soil for, 3 3 , 4 1 - 4 2 , 127, 146-47 sustainable, 131-33, 160, 161, 169, 183-84, 198-99, 230, 240, 327, 411 yields in, 32, 36-37, 60, 136 fast food: appeal to children, 111 chemicals in, 113—14 eating in the car, 109, 110-11, 117, 119 g e n e r i c f r a g r a n c e a n d flavor of, 1 1 1 4 4 2 * INDEX fast food (cont.) at McDonald's, 105-6, 109-19, 259, 329,330,411 meal of, 109-19 supersizing, 105-6, 110, 117 fat, dietary, 179,267 feedlots, 65-84 as animal cities, 73 antibiotics on, 73, 78-79 commodity corn in, 39, 73, 74—75, 82-84,200-201 feed mill, 7 3 - 7 4 fossil fuels in, 73 manure lagoons in, 79, 130 organic, 139 pen 63 in, 79-84 pollution in, 68, 79 sick cows in, 77-79 waste products of, 79, 83 see also CAFOs; factory farms fertilizers: chemical, 4 1 - 4 7 , 68, 146-49, 151, 220 and crop yields, 44—45 fossil fuels in production of, 4 4 Haber-Bosch process, 4 3 , 47 manure, 4 2 , 2 1 0 , 2 1 1 , 2 1 3 , 2 1 6 N-P-K formula of, 146-49, 180-81 in organic farming, 160, 165—66 pollution from, 46-47 fish: as cattle feed, 76 farmed, 18,268-69,280 reengineering, 18, 67 wild, 135,269 fishing, 279-80, 339, 365 Flannery,Tim, 323 Fletcherizing, 299 food: abstract, 112, 1 1 4 - 1 5 , 119 cheap, 103, 117, 1 3 6 , 2 0 0 , 2 4 3 cooking of, 293, 294 energy cost of, 107—8 fads, 1-3,299-301 and fixed stomach problem, 94, 117 genetically modified, 36, 152, 154, 255 globalization of, 255 hidden costs of, 2 4 3 - 4 5 , 250, 281 and human nutrition, 179—81, 266—68 industrialization of, 62, 93-94, 249 liberated from nature, 90-94, 9 5 , 1 1 2 , 114 macronutrients in, 179-81, 267-69 as metaphor, 2 5 5 , 257, 411 national cuisines, 295, 299, 301, 303 neutraceutical, 93 processed, 90-99, 106-7, 115, 118, 152,243,301 quality of, 2 4 4 , 251 separation of producer from consumer, 60, 153 storied, 134-36, 1 3 7 - 3 9 , 4 1 1 synthetic, 97, 98, 143, 177-78 taboos of, 296, 298, 357, 358 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 76 food chain: biological systems at ends of, 9 connectedness of, 146, 149, 151, 2 1 3 , 214,226 eating low on, 118 and evolution, 6, 103-4, 280 forests in, 388-89 foundations of, see corn; grasses of hunter-gatherers, 280-81, 362-63 imbalance in, 62 industrial, see industrial food chain local, 236, 2 3 9 - 4 2 , 249, 262 modifications of, 6—7, 5 2 in nature, 6, 62, 2 1 4 - 1 5 , 388-89, 405 obscurity of, 3 4 - 3 5 , 195 perfect meal at end of, 399 reinvention of, 7, 260—61 scientific investigation of, 20, 2 2 - 2 3 , 116-17 solar-powered, 70—71 food industry: and consumer expectations, 139, 184 and food fads, 301 and government, 82 growth rate of, 94—95 industrialization of, 7, 93-94, 117; see also industrial food chain and omnivore 's dilemma, 5 selling convenience, 96, 301 substitution in, 95 supersizing in, 105-6, 117 value added in, 95-98, 103, 152 food poisoning, 62, 152 food scares, 152—53 INDEX * 443 food science, 107, 111 food security, 64, 92 food systems, 93, 240 alternative, 143, 149-50, 153, 154, 246, 249 connectedness of, 146, 153 consumers in, 95, 139, 184, 245, 258-60 distribution in, 138, 153, 2 5 0 - 5 2 , 259 energy density in, 107—8 local, 153, 240-45, 247-49, 2 5 2 - 5 4 , 257-59, 260, 262 foraging: for abalone, 394-96 for mushrooms, see fungi forbs, 127, 195 forests: biological processes at work in, 149 in food chain, 388-89 mushrooms in, see fungi renewal of, 388 fossil fuels: in chemical fertilizers, 44, 45 consumed in processing food, 83—84, 88, 117, 167, 182-84 consumed in transporting food, 183, 240, 249 converted to food, 45-46, 83-84 and global warming, 198 in industrial food chain, 7, 30, 73, 83-84, 1 8 2 - 8 4 , 2 4 9 from Middle East, 83 Francis, Saint, 305 Franklin, Benjamin, 310, 327 French paradox, 3, 300-301 Freud, Sigmund, 298 fructose, 18, 86, 89, 107 Fry, Gearld, 188 fungi: autochthonous nature of, 374 chanterelles, 285-86, 366-70, 380, 406 chlorophyll lacking in, 374-75 eating, 370-71 foraging for, 278, 365-70, 379-85, 386-90 as hallucinogens, 373, 376 hyphaeof, 374, 375 identifying, 3 7 1 , 3 7 2 morels, 378-85, 386-90, 394, 396, 408 mycelium of, 127, 374, 375, 378 mycorrhizal, 147, 374, 375, 387 mysteries of, 373-78, 384 organic matter decomposed by, 375—76 poisons in, 278-79, 366, 370-71, 373, 376 saprophytic, 374, 375, 387 theories about, 383-84, 387 types of, 377 Gandhi, Mohandas K., 305 gardening, 365-66, 385-86 Garro, Angelo, 2 8 2 - 8 4 dressing the meat, 354—57 as food lover, 339, 354, 356, 392 mushroom hunting with, 366—70, 371 and perfect meal, 392, 396-97, 398, 400-401,404,405-8 pig hunting with, 335-36, 337,338, 340-42, 344-45, 347, 349-54 General Mills, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 144-45, 151 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 36, 152, 1 5 4 , 2 5 5 Gerrish.Jim, 187-88 Glickman, Dan, 179 global warming, 47, 198 glucose, 18, 86, 88-89, 107, 291 glucose isomerase, 89 gluten, 88 gluttony, 106 Goodman, Drew and Myra, 162—68, 176 grain: diet based on, 268 as industrial commodity, 201 grain elevators, 57, 59-61, 63, 86 Grandin,Temple, 233, 329-30 grasses, 1 2 3 - 3 3 , 185-207 abstraction of, 185-86 C-4, 21-22, 104 chickens eating, 262-66, 269-71 corn, see corn cows eating, 70, 75, 82, 83, 126, 186-91,269 diversity of species, 197 edible, 2 4 evolution of, 129, 293 as foundation of food chain, 126—29, 195, 196, 201-2, 239, 252, 266-70, 326 444 * INDEX grasses (cont.) growth pattern of, 189 hay-making, 1 2 3 - 2 4 , 125-29 lignification of, 189 management-intensive grazing (MiG), 187-91, 192-99,209-11 meal at end of food chain, 262-73 overgrazing, 70, 190, 191 pastoral idyll, 1 2 4 - 2 5 , 128, 143, 209, 223, 230, 256 prairie, 33, 38, 149 roots of, 195, 196 Grass Productivity (Voisin), 188 Greenways Organic, 159-62, 165, 176 Grimmway Farms, 138, 174, 175 Gussow, Joan Dye, 155—56 Haber, Fritz, 4 2 - 4 4 , 47 Harvey, Arthur, 156n hay, 74, 1 2 3 - 2 4 , 125-29, 219 Hemingway, Ernest, 336 hens, see chickens heterosis, 31 high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 18, 19, 89, 103-4, 108, 115, 139 Horizon Organic, 156 horses, 38, 39 Howard, Sir Albert, 1 4 5 - 5 1 , 155, 160, 181 humans: appetites of, 106, 272 atavistic experiences of, 343—44, 364-65 fear of death, 358 and grasses, 128-29 language of, 316, 3 3 7 , 3 4 3 life expectancy of, 102 marginal cases, 311—12 morality in lives of, 325 nutrition of, 179-81,266-68 obese, 62-63, 100, 101-2, 107, 108, 117,201 as omnivorous, 6, 289-94, 305, 3 1 2 , 314 pain and suffering of, 316-17 relationships to other animals, 10, 306-7, 320, 333, 357-58, 401 taste buds of, 269, 291-92, 295 tools developed by, 294 humus, 147-48, 196 Hungry Soul,The (Kass), 297, 405 hunter- gatherers, 364-90 agriculturists vs., 279-80, 320 diets of, 267, 268 food chain of, 280-81, 362-63 heightened senses of, 285, 334—35, 3 4 1 - 4 2 , 368-69, 382-83,385-86 meals entirely from, 277-82, 391-411 of mushrooms, 365-70, 379-85, 386-90 seasons of, 284 hunting: author's experience with, 277—78, 284, 344-54 author's feelings about, 356-63, 389, 403-4 bloodlustof, 360 dressing the meat, 354-57, 358, 362 and eating the meat, 361—62, 401 to extinction, 10 and killing, 305,358-61 and prédation in nature, 321—25, 328 preparations for, 334—37, 339—44 responsibility in, 281, 359-61, 401 skill in, 346, 348 stories of, 347, 349, 3 5 2 - 5 3 Huntington, Sarah, 161 hybridization, 2 9 - 3 1 , 37, 41, 42 hydrogen, 4 2 , 44 hypoxic (dead) zone, 47 IBP, 69 Iltis, Hugh, 27 Indians: bison hunted by, 322—23 corn hybridized by, 29, 30 corn yields realized by, 3 7 maize planted by, 24—25, 26 and the right to opt out, 132 and wild species, 388—89 industrial food chain: alternatives to, 125, 130-33, 143-44, 212-13, 214-18, 240, 249-50, 256-57,260-61 animals in, see CAFOs; factory farms chemical pesticides in, 45, 143, 148, 152-53, 177,212,220-22 competitive advantage of, 255 INDEX * 4 4 5 complexity of, 1 7 - 1 9 , 130 convenience of, 2 5 9 corn as foundation of, 18—19, 3 1 , 5 1 , 117 distribution system of, 138 efficiency in, 7 1 , 8 1 , 136, 161,201, 214,244,249,256,318 energy-dense foods in, 7, 107—8 exports in, 53, 62, 63 fast food in, 115-19 fertilization in, see fertilizers and food-borne illness, 230, 250 forgetting about nature in, 10—11, 68, 73, 1 1 5 , 2 4 5 fossil fuels in, 7, 30, 73, 83-84, 182-84,249 globalization of, 254—57 government policies in, 41, 61—63, 67, 241,243,250 hybridization in, 31 marketing in, 110, 112, 138,301-2 and the meal, 109-19 mechanical harvesting in, 37, 220 and organic food, 131—32, 133, 134-40, 144-45, 151, 152-69, 182-84,257,260 price as focus of, 136, 249 processing in, see processing plant species adapted for, 30, 201, 268 Inge, William Ralph, 6 Institute of Cereal Technology, 92 International Flavors & Fragrances, 97 Iowa: cities of corn in, 37-38, 118-19 food imported by, 34 as food source, 35, 108, 239, 259 grain elevators in, 57, 61, 63, 86 Greene County, 33, 38-39, 45, 61 livestock farmers in, 39 pollution in, 46-47 soil in, 3 3 , 4 1 - 4 2 soybeans in, 35, 40, 87 Iowa Farmers Cooperative, 61, 63, 86, 87 Iowa State University, 87 Isabella, queen of Spain, 104 isotopes, 20, 2 2 - 2 3 Jackson, Wes, 198, 2 1 4 James, Henry, 124 Jean-Pierre (chef), 339, 3 4 4 - 4 5 , 348, 367,373,378,392,397 Jefferson,Thomas, 101, 124, 125, 148, 204 Johnson, Larry, 87—88 Judith (wife), 109-10, 112, 115-16,392 Judy's Family Farm, 170—71 Jungle,The (Sinclair), 250 Kahn.Gene, 144-45, 1 5 1 - 5 3 , 155, 156, 157-59, 161, 168 Kansas, feedlots in, 65-66, 239 Kant, Immanuel, 311 Karp, Walter, 50 Kass, Leon, 297,405 Kellogg, John Harvey, 299, 300 ketosis, 299 King, F.
Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines by Richard Heinberg, James Howard (frw) Kunstler
addicted to oil, anti-communist, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Fractional reserve banking, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, urban planning
Already the fastest growth in farm operators in America is among female full-time farmers, as well as Hispanic, Asian, and Native American farm operators. Another positive trend worth noting: in the Northeast US, where the soil is acidic and giant agribusiness has not established as much of a foothold as elsewhere, the number of small farms is increasing. Young adults — not in the millions, but at least in the hundreds — are aspiring to become Permaculture or organic or Biointensive farmers. Farmers markets and community-supported agriculture farms (CSAs) are established or springing up throughout the region. This is also somewhat the case on the Pacific coast, although much less so in the Midwest and South. What will it take to make these tentative trends the predominant ones? Among other things we will need good, helpful policies. The USDA will need to cease supporting and encouraging industrial monocropping for export, and begin supporting smaller farms, rewarding those that make the effort to reduce inputs and to grow for local consumption.
Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter
3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, functional fixedness, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method
Locally grown veggies combined with a minimum of transportation and sold unpackaged are about as good as you can get for the environment, and they’re about as good as you can get for yourself. Look for a farmers’ market in the summer (or if you’re lucky enough to live in California, year-round). Farmers’ markets are a great way to really understand where your food is coming from. Plus, your local economy will thank you. You can also subscribe to a CSA (community-supported agriculture) share, where every week or two you receive a box of local and seasonal produce. It’s a great way to challenge yourself in the kitchen, because invariably something unfamiliar will show up in your CSA share, or you’ll find yourself with 10 pounds of spinach and be looking for something new to do with it. Regardless of anything else, your mother was right: eat your veggies. (On a personal note unrelated to the environment, I believe the typical American diet doesn’t include enough veggies.
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The Microbiome Solution by Robynne Chutkan M.D.
Introduction: Live Dirty, Eat Clean MY HUSBAND ISN’T completely on board with my plan to sell our house in the city, move to a farm, raise animals, and grow our own food. But since much of what’s available in the supermarket is full of chemicals and devoid of any real nutrients, taking control of what we eat and making sure it comes from nature, not a factory, strikes me as a good idea. I’m fortunate to live in Washington, D.C., where farmers’ markets and community supported agriculture (CSA) shares are plentiful, so moving to an actual farm may seem a little extreme. My real motivation is that I want my daughter to grow up dirty, literally—as in easy on the soap and shampoo, heavy on the mucky animal chores. I shared her saga of antibiotic misadventure in my first book, Gutbliss. Since then, I’ve seen hundreds of patients with stories similar to hers, and I’ve become even more convinced that damage to the microbiome—the trillions of organisms that call our digestive tract home—is at the root of many of our current health problems.
Shadow Work: The Unpaid, Unseen Jobs That Fill Your Day by Craig Lambert
airline deregulation, Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, big-box store, business cycle, carbon footprint, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, financial independence, Galaxy Zoo, ghettoisation, gig economy, global village, helicopter parent, IKEA effect, industrial robot, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, pattern recognition, plutocrats, Plutocrats, recommendation engine, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game, Zipcar
In this mode, the customer assumes all the functions of the cashier and bagger except that of accepting payment. In essence, the system realizes Clarence Saunders’s vision of a Foodelectric store, seventy years after he propounded the idea. Ironically, another feature of grocery shopping in the twenty-first century harkens all the way back to the beginnings of the grocery-buying experience in America. Farmers’ markets and community-supported agriculture, or CSA, in which customers pay a farmer before the growing season for a share of the crops harvested over the summer, echo the public markets of the colonial era. The technology is low, and farmers’ markets remove the layers of middlemen from the food-buying process. These middlemen have become a kind of food chain in their own right. Farmers’ markets and CSA delete them by disintermediation.
Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici
Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
What is needed is the reopening of a collective struggle over reproduction, reclaiming control over the material conditions of our reproduction and creating new forms of cooperation around this work outside of the logic of capital and the market. This is not a utopia, but a process already under way in many parts of the world and likely to expand in the face of a collapse of the world financial system. Governments are now attempting to use the crisis to impose stiff austerity regimes on us for years to come. But through land takeovers, urban farming, community-supported agriculture, through squats, the creation of various forms of barter, mutual aid, alternative forms of healthcare—to name some of the terrains on which this reorganization of reproduction is more developed—a new economy is beginning to emerge that may turn reproductive work from a stifling, discriminating activity into the most liberating and creative ground of experimentation in human relations.
Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
The sections that are featured right at the front of the store, and that presumably do the most business, are the sex section, the psychology section, the cooking section, the ethnic studies section (which is mostly books about women), and the alternative lifestyle section (which is 80 percent about gay issues). And this does seem to be a pretty accurate reflection of local priorities. Burlington boasts a phenomenally busy public square. There are kite festivals and yoga festivals and eating festivals. There are arts councils, school-to-work collaboratives, environmental groups, preservation groups, community-supported agriculture, antidevelopment groups, and ad hoc activist groups. The result is an interesting mixture of liberal social concern and old-fashioned preservation efforts to ward off encroaching modernism and, most important, development. And this public square is one of the features that draws people to Latte Towns. People in these places apparently would rather spend less time in the private sphere of their home and their one-acre yard and more time in the common areas.
River Cottage Every Day by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall
The more shoppers choose this kind of fresh produce over imported out-of-season exotics (especially ones that have traveled by air), the more supermarkets will commit to supporting the farmers who are ready and willing to supply the vast majority of the vegetables we need. Having said that, there is another way to get a regular supply of top-quality vegetables. If you’re not a customer already, I would heartily recommend giving a farm-box scheme a go (called a Community Supported Agriculture, or CSA, plan in the States). Here, you sign up for a weekly delivery from an organic farm, taking whatever fruits and vegetables are in season at the time. We sign up for a farm-box delivery at home during the colder months (my bid for self-sufficiency in winter vegetables is improving every year, but I still haven’t got it licked). Ours also brings us local organic milk, and organic and fair trade “exotic essentials” – the bananas, oranges, lemons, and avocados that, like most families, we would find it hard to do without.
The Wisdom of Frugality: Why Less Is More - More or Less by Emrys Westacott
Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate raider, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Diane Coyle, discovery of DNA, Downton Abbey, dumpster diving, financial independence, full employment, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, McMansion, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, negative equity, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, the market place, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Veblen good, Zipcar
So given a choice, they will buy local apples rather than apples shipped from thousands of miles away, and they will look to eat what is in season where they live insofar as this is possible. Obviously, locavores differ in how seriously and rigorously they apply these principles, but the thinking behind the philosophy is common to all. Locally produced food, they argue, is usually better quality since it is fresh. Because it is often produced on a small scale by Community Supported Agriculture (CSAs), organic farms, community gardens, or backyards, it is healthier and more trustworthy than what comes from industrial agriculture, where fruit and vegetables are drenched in pesticides and animals are pumped full of steroids and antibiotics. It typically requires less energy to produce and transport. In towns and cities a desire for local produce encourages small farming enterprises and community gardens on vacant lots, which improves the urban landscape with pleasing areas of greenery.
The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Instead of rushing to debut on the Stock Exchange they could have chosen to operate as a nonprofit, low-profit, or, following the example of the popular online crafts marketplace Etsy, a Certified B Corporation, a relatively new designation that takes social and environment impacts into account. Why not resurrect the vision of an advertising-independent search engine that initially inspired Google’s founders, or launch a cooperatively owned version of iTunes or Netflix (perhaps modeled on successful institutions such as New Day Films, a documentary distribution collective that has survived for four decades), or start online associations based on Community Supported Agriculture (known as CSAs) that allow readers to purchase advance shares to fund local newsgathering? There are plenty of inventive financial arrangements that could put sustainability and civic responsibility front and center, yet so far they mostly go untried. In the digital realm, who stands for the public interest? The state remains the most powerful entity that can be employed to advance the cause of sustainable culture.
Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser
agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, Kickstarter, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment
The qualifications, training, and experience of provincial inspectors varies from one province to another, as does the frequency and intensity of support by professional veterinarians. At the retail meat case and in commercial or institutional dining rooms, it is often unclear whether meat was provincially or federally inspected, and it is difficult to discover where it was slaughtered and processed. Many Canadians prefer to buy meat from locally produced livestock, and there is growing interest in organic and natural meat products, community-supported agriculture, and alternative farming practices. This trend should reinforce the role of small-scale, locally oriented slaughter plants in the commodity chain. The friendly, small-town butcher, operating a small provincially inspected plant, provides a valued alternative to national chain stores and large scale meat-packing plants. But the friendly butcher may also be processing older livestock that are more likely to be disabled or to have some zoonotic infection.
Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider
1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar
Because nobody owns it, it’s harder to become fabulously wealthy from keeping secrets. Transparency is the default. People make these programs because they need them, not because they think they can manipulate someone to want them. Instead of relying on rich kids in a Googleplex somewhere, slow computing works best when we’re employing people like Jamie McClelland to adapt open tools to local needs. He’s my farmer; May First is my community-supported agriculture, my CSA. Still, to those interested in some consciousness-raising about the machines with which we spend so much of our lives, there’s a need for more than my acts of piety—there’s a need for better business models, models accountable to users more than the whims of capital markets, that reward contributions to the commons more than tricks that make data of public import artificially scarce and the data of our private lives surreptitiously profitable.
The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer
back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
Far more likely is a situation in which soaring fossil fuel prices cascade down the food chain, turning industrial farms and their distribution networks into economic basket cases propped up by government subsidies, sky-high food prices and trade barriers that keep other options out of the economic mainstream. Since people still need to eat, a future of this sort will likely accelerate the rise of microfarms and market gardens and the co operatives, farmer’s markets and community-supported agriculture schemes that provide food distribution outside the official economy. This backyard agriculture will have to use minimal fossil fuel inputs 105 106 T he E cotechnic F u t u re and rely on local distribution, since fuel costs will put long-distance transport out of reach. It will have to focus on intensive production from very small plots, since most acreage large enough for industrial farming will already be occupied by industrial farms, and thus hard to come by.
Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
For example, the living wage movement targets the minimum wage in individual cities, and “the devolution of welfare programs to the state level betters allows for grass-roots movements to make an impact and gives activists a critical sense of efficacy.”90 Borrowing from a vibrant tradition in Latin America, some communities in the United States are experimenting with programs like time banking, which enable participants simultaneously to build a sense of solidarity and to trade services with each other; community supported agriculture programs; or community producers’ or consumers’ cooperatives.91 Although it would do the most to reduce inequality, raising taxes on the nation’s wealthiest seems the least likely tangible scenario. Studies show that even as Americans express discontentment with rising inequality, they are squeamish about the government expanding taxes—even taxes on the wealthy—or establishing admittedly redistributive government programs.92 It is difficult to communicate to people that economic inequality undermines democracy itself, and that, at such a point, “reasonable envy” has to come into play to restore the political balance.93 But Republicans’ willingness to threaten government shutdown or even to countenance possible default over the debt ceiling shows that in general, negotiations about economic issues linked to equality—education, infrastructure, research and development, and health care—are off the table.94 Finally, the inequality problem might be partially addressed by regulating labor markets through higher minimum wages or even maximum wages.
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
This expands capabilities, develops competence in the new landscape, publicizes that competence, attracts new kinds of employees, and generates goodwill. Instead of simply resisting disruption, the hybrid company embraces it while also staking a real but limited claim on that disruption’s becoming the new normal. What might some of these strategies look like moving forward? Consider supermarket chains, which are increasingly threatened by local food shares, community-supported agriculture (CSA), and growing discontent with Big Agra. The traditional corporate response to this conundrum is Whole Foods: a large, publicly traded company that attempts to provide consumers with organic products at scale. Problem is, “certified organic”—an appellation itself corrupted by corporate agriculture’s lobbying of the Department of Agriculture—rarely means food from small or local farms.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
He took away from that experience the fact that “If we can’t solve the climate problem, then all the rest of this is for naught.”25 I witnessed something similar, if on a smaller scale, in New York City one year later in the immediate aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. While visiting Red Hook, Brooklyn, one of the hardest hit neighborhoods, I stopped by the Red Hook Community Farm—an amazing place that teaches kids from nearby housing projects how to grow healthy food, provides composting for a huge number of residents, hosts a weekly farmer’s market, and runs a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program, getting all kinds of produce to people who need it. Not only was the farm improving the lives of people in the neighborhood, it was also doing everything right from a climate perspective—reducing food miles; staying away from petroleum inputs; sequestering carbon in the soil; reducing landfill by composting. But when the storm came, none of that mattered. The entire fall harvest was lost.
., 171–73 coal-fired power plants, 3, 67–68, 81–82, 83, 97, 136–39, 141, 200, 208, 236, 247–48 global campaign against, 319–20, 348–49, 350–52, 365 public utilities and, 100, 196 coal industry, 197, 300–301 opposition to, see anti-coal movements political and economic power of, 316, 321 see also extractive industries coal mining, 145, 398 in Appalachia, 309, 353 in Montana, 320, 342–43, 346, 370, 388–93, 395, 397, 445 mountaintop removal in, 2, 303, 309, 310, 329, 353 water supply contamination from, 332 coal-powered economies, 88 Coates, Ta-Nehisi, 415 Cobenais, Marty, 318–19, 332 Cochabamba, Bolivia, 444n Cohen, Nick, 156 Cold War, 15, 42, 43, 74, 261 collective action, 36 collective sacrifice, 16–17 colleges and universities: divestment movement and, 354–55, 401 renewable energy investment by, 401–2 Colombia, 202, 348, 376–77 colonialism, 154, 370, 414–16 coal and, 173, 176 extractivism and, 169–70 Industrial Revolution and, 171, 175, 457 Scientific Revolution and, 170–71 Colorado, 52, 357n Colorado School of Public Health, 428 Combes, Maxime, 304n, 317–18 Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow, 45 Common Sense (Paine), 314 communism, 20, 39, 42, 44, 177 communities, 106 building of, 92 climate change and, 364–65 renewable energy in, 131–32, 133 see also worldview, communitarian Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs, 405 compassion, 62–63, 462 Competitive Enterprise Institute, 32, 45, 411 complexity, 267, 290 composting systems, 108 computer models, of climate change, 270–71 Conant, Lionel, 380 Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, 319 Conference Board of Canada, 145 Congo, 220 ConocoPhillips, 226, 227–28, 246 Conservation Fund, 196, 205 Conservation International, 84, 189, 196, 205–6, 209, 211–12 Conservative Party (Canadian), 36 Constitution, Canadian, 371 construction, green, 90 consumer lifestyles, 2, 75, 116–17 consumption, 116 decrease in, 90 excess, 85, 91, 92, 93, 210, 412, 413 green, 211–13, 252 container ships, 76, 79 Conway, Erik, 42 Cook, James, 266 Cook, Katsi, 419 coolants, 219–20 “Cool Dudes” (McCright and Dunlap), 46–47 Coon, David, 374 co-ops: energy, 130, 131–32 worker-run, 122–23, 133 Coos Bay, Oreg., 349 Copenhagen Climate Summit of 2009, 11–14, 34, 150, 262, 451 copper, 91n, 296 coral, coral reefs, 301, 348, 434 Corexit, 432 Cornell University, 143, 217, 317 corn ethanol, 239, 240 corporate donors, 83, 210n corporations, 25 centralization under, 179 crisis exploited by, 8 democracy vs., 7 deregulation of, 19, 20, 72, 142, 154, 210 disaster prevention at, 51–52 environmental groups’ cooperation with, 196, 206–11 freedom from regulation for, 19 free speech for, 151 goals of private, 129–30 ideology of, 75 impact of climate change on, 49 Indigenous peoples vs., 221–23 natural world vs., 60–61 political power of, 199, 124–26, 141–52 right-wing think tanks funded by, 44, 50 taxes avoided by, 115 USCAP and, 226–28 Correa, Rafael, 180–81, 410–11 corruption, of government regulators, 333–34 Cosbey, Aaron, 70 Costa Rica, 348 Coste, Torrance, 363 “Cowboys and Indians alliance,” 302, 318–19, 322–23, 346 crash of 1929, 88 Crawford, Julia Trigg, 361 Crompton, Tom, 60 crops, 9, 34, 57 crowdfunding, 198 Crow Reservation, 389, 397 Crutzen, Paul, 261–62 Cuadrilla, 130 cultural cognition, 36, 44–45, 59, 63, 186 Culture of Narcissism (Lasch), 117 Czechoslovakia, 178 Czech Republic, 42–43, 144, 348 Dai, Aiguo, 272, 275 Daily Mail, 5454 Dallas, Tex., 329 Daly, Herman, 173 dams, 180, 183, 202 Daniel, Patrick, 331–32 dark money, 44 Darling, Jay Norwood “Ding,” 185 Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 433–34 David, Ned, 247 Davis, David Brion, 463 Dayaneni, Gopal, 448 Day One, 391 DDT, 185, 201, 203, 207 de Boer, Yvo, 87 decade zero, 24, 143 Dediu, Doina, 344 deep ecology, 75 deepwater drilling, see offshore drilling, deepwater Defense Department, U.S., 113 deforestation, 202 degrowth strategies: selective, 93–95 for wealthy nations, 88, 89 Delaware River Basin, 346 Delgamuukw v.
Early Retirement Extreme by Jacob Lund Fisker
8-hour work day, active transport: walking or cycling, barriers to entry, buy and hold, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, diversification, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, dumpster diving, financial independence, game design, index fund, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, lateral thinking, loose coupling, market bubble, McMansion, passive income, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, psychological pricing, the scientific method, time value of money, transaction costs, wage slave, working poor
If you can keep animals above ground, have your chicken eat some of the red wiggler worms you use for speedy composting of your green waste. If you can't have chicken, at least get a fishing license and use your surplus worms or share them with others. There are always people who are into vermicomposting. All it takes to build a vermicomposter are two buckets and a drill. If you can't get access to land, and indoor hydroponics is too far-fetched, you could join a CSA (community-supported agriculture). Buying into a CSA seems rather expensive, though, and it may be cheaper to arrange your own "community" by asking friends if you can use some of their unused land to plant something. Many will be happy to let you pluck their oranges or apples to keep their lawn free of obstacles. Some engage in guerrilla gardening. You can find many books describing how to grow your own food, whether it's on a farm, a small homestead or even your balcony.
Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic by John de Graaf, David Wann, Thomas H Naylor, David Horsey
big-box store, Community Supported Agriculture, Corrections Corporation of America, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, God and Mammon, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Mark Shuttleworth, McMansion, medical malpractice, new economy, Peter Calthorpe, Ralph Nader, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, The Great Good Place, trade route, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra, young professional
To make good on that mouthful of intentions, the group recycles, composts, cultivates a community garden, and works on local issues like battling the last leg of a metro beltway. Like the rest of the country, Harmony residents are victims of an economy that doesn’t always “get it.” Recently, they caught employees of the recycling company red-handed—mixing carefully sorted materials together with trash bound for the landfill. The group also experiments with more innovative activities, like community-supported agriculture. Since their own garden is still evolving, many in the neighborhood subscribe to a produce service from a local farmer who delivers eight or ten bushel baskets of produce to the neighborhood every week. This enables J. P., the farmer, to know at the beginning of the growing season how much to plant. (“So who’s got a great coleslaw recipe?”) Another concept being actively discussed is an effective, businesslike car-sharing cooperative.
Healthy at 100: The Scientifically Proven Secrets of the World's Healthiest and Longest-Lived Peoples by John Robbins
clean water, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, Donald Trump, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, land reform, life extension, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, telemarketer
Go to your kitchen cupboard and get rid of any food products that no longer serve your potential to be radiantly fit and healthy. You don’t have to count calories if you make every calorie count. Eat slowly, chew thoroughly, digest well. Eat just to the point of fullness without feeling stuffed. Remember that it takes twenty minutes for your stomach to register how full it is, so give it time. _____ Whenever possible, shop at local farmers’ markets or participate in community-supported agriculture, buying produce direct from the grower. Shop at local natural-foods stores, or at chains like Whole Foods, Wild Oats, and Trader Joe’s. Always read labels so that you can select foods with the most nutritious ingredients. Save money and packaging by buying in bulk. Don’t buy or eat anything that contains partially hydrogenated oil. Learn to recognize the smell of rancidity, and don’t eat nuts, seeds, or grain products that carry the telltale odor.
Your Money: The Missing Manual by J.D. Roth
Airbnb, asset allocation, bank run, buy and hold, buy low sell high, car-free, Community Supported Agriculture, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, Firefox, fixed income, full employment, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, index card, index fund, late fees, mortgage tax deduction, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, Paul Graham, random walk, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, speech recognition, stocks for the long run, traveling salesman, Vanguard fund, web application, Zipcar
You don't need to hold up the line: If you suspect an error, step to the side and check the receipt as the clerk begins the next order. If there's a problem, politely point it out. It's your money—ask for it. Buy from produce stands and farmers markets. During the summer months, produce stands and farmers markets offer fresh, local food at excellent prices. Even better, these kinds of places usually don't have a lot of impulse items to tempt you. Also look at community-supported agriculture (CSA) programs, which let you "subscribe" to fresh produce from a local farm (see www.localharvest.org for more info). Waste not. One of the best ways to save money on food is to not let it go to waste. According to various estimates, Americans throw away 12–25% of their food. So if you spend $400 on groceries every month, you may be able to save $50 to $100 simply by never throwing food away.
Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray
affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional
Burlington, Vermont, is an example of a certain kind of small city that David Brooks calls “Latte Towns,” enclaves of affluent and well-educated people, sometimes in scenic locales such as Santa Fe or Aspen and sometimes in university towns such as Ann Arbor, Berkeley, or Chapel Hill. Of Burlington, Brooks writes: Burlington boasts a phenomenally busy public square. There are kite festivals and yoga festivals and eating festivals. There are arts councils, school-to-work collaboratives, environmental groups, preservation groups, community-supported agriculture, antidevelopment groups, and ad hoc activist groups.… And this public square is one of the features that draw people to Latte Towns. People in these places apparently would rather spend less time in the private sphere of their home and their one-acre yard and more time in the common areas.12 Attendance at city council meetings in Latte Towns is high and residents who willingly take part in local politics are plentiful.
The Laurel's Kitchen Bread Book: A Guide to Whole-Grain Breadmaking by Laurel Robertson, Carol Flinders, Bronwen Godfrey
But certain innovations took hold and never went away—not, typically, as mass movements, and not in a big public way, but quietly and steadily, moved along lovingly by individuals whose dedication seems to get a little deeper by the year. The organic gardening movement, for instance, has unfurled into a global network of activists who advocate a wide spectrum of inter-connected programs like Sustainable Agriculture, Community Supported Agriculture, cooperative urban gardens, and the use of fresh locally-grown produce in school lunches, and who defend the rights of small farmers everywhere, opposing vehemently the use of genetically modified organisms and the patenting of plant and animal species. Whole-grain bread is another of those new/old “Well, whyever not?” ideas that sprang up alongside solar panels and vegetarianism and went on to win tenure.
Bi-Rite Market's Eat Good Food: A Grocer's Guide to Shopping, Cooking & Creating Community Through Food by Sam Mogannam, Dabney Gough
It’s not just about connecting guests with producers. We have found other ways to support producers, such as our unique arrangement with Soul Food Farm. As a burgeoning farm, they had the best possible problem: they had more demand for their gorgeous eggs than they could supply. To scale up, they needed capital. So we loaned it to them, repayable through a steady supply of eggs and chickens for the next year. Sort of like a community-supported agriculture (CSA, or “farm shares”) arrangement, but with bigger volume and a single customer—us! And everyone benefited from it—Soul Food Farm, our guests, and Bi-Rite. Over the years, we realized how important it was for us to facilitate these relationships between our staff, our vendors, and our guests—each one interdependent on the other for success. Our business was, in essence, a collaboration between these groups.
Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall
Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade
“seventy-five years” Ibid. 43. “870 million” “2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics,” World Hunger Education Service, accessed August 23, 2013, http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm#Number_of_hungry_people_in_the_world. 44. “7.1 billion people” “US and World Population Clock,” US Department of Commerce, accessed August 23, 2013, http://www.census.gov/popclock/. 45. “genetic engineering has not contributed to yield increase” Doug Gurian-Sherman, “Failure to Yield: Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops,” Union of Concerned Scientists, April 2009, http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/food_and_agriculture/failure-to-yield.pdf. 46. “community-sponsored agriculture (CSA) programs” “Community Supported Agriculture,” LocalHarvest, accessed July 30, 2013, http://www.localharvest.org/csa/. 47. “four thousand listed in its database” Ibid. CHAPTER 16 1. “representing at least a million US households” “2011 Late Summer Garden Trends Report,” Garden Writers Association, accessed August 21, 2013, http://www.gardenwriters.org/gwa.php?p=gwafoundation/surveys_gt_nonmembers.html. Todd Major, “Tracking the Trends for 2012,” North Shore News, January 11, 2012, A15. 2.
A Paradise Built in Hell: Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster by Rebecca Solnit
Berlin Wall, Burning Man, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, David Graeber, different worldview, dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, Loma Prieta earthquake, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, South of Market, San Francisco, Thomas Malthus, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, War on Poverty, yellow journalism
And the point is not to welcome disasters. They do not create these gifts, but they are one avenue through which the gifts arrive. Disasters provide an extraordinary window into social desire and possibility, and what manifests there matters elsewhere, in ordinary times and in other extraordinary times. Most social change is chosen—you want to belong to a co-op, you believe in social safety nets or community-supported agriculture. But disaster doesn’t sort us out by preferences; it drags us into emergencies that require we act, and act altruistically, bravely, and with initiative in order to survive or save the neighbors, no matter how we vote or what we do for a living. The positive emotions that arise in those unpromising circumstances demonstrate that social ties and meaningful work are deeply desired, readily improvised, and intensely rewarding.
Tender: A Cook and His Vegetable Patch by Nigel Slater
The allotments referred to throughout this book are small parcels of land leased to private citizens in England (and Europe) by local government entities for the purpose of growing food crops. Allotments differ from community gardens in that they are not worked by a group of people, but by the individual to whom the land is leased. The organic-box program in the UK is equivalent to the US system known as Community Supported Agriculture, or CSA, in which farmers deliver their locally grown produce directly to consumers in a weekly box throughout the farming season. In this program, farmers offer a certain number of “shares” to the public; consumers purchase a share and in return receive a weekly produce delivery. The vegetable diaries and growing seasons reflect the experiences in the particular climate of a London garden.
The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten
Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, different worldview, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, shared worldview, social intelligence, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey
Such efforts might seem futile if not for the fact that communityrooted, human-scale, values-based, independent businesses constitute by far the majority of all businesses, provide most of the jobs, create nearly all new jobs, and serve as the primary source of technological innovation.5 They include businesses of all sorts, from bookstores to bakeries, land trusts, manufacturing facilities, software developers, organic farms, farmers’ markets, community-supported agriculture initiatives, restaurants specializing in locally grown organic produce, worker co-ops, community banks, suppliers of fair-traded coffee, independent media outlets, and many more. POLITICAL TURNING Other citizen initiatives are democratizing the structures of government, promoting more active citizen participation in political life, opening the political process to a greater diversity of voices and parties, and shifting public priorities in favor of people, families, communities, and the planet.
Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Boris Johnson, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, sexual politics, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
In the above, the FAO are describing a process of industrialization that has, in its own individual way, already taken place in the UK over the last 200 years and whose spread throughout the developing world they predict, endorse and promote. Today many people in Britain have misgivings about the industrialized agricultural system that we have inherited, and are trying to de-industrialize it through support for organic farming, local foods, real meat, community supported agriculture, animal welfare measures, and campaigns against GM, pesticides and junk food. To the FAO these are an indication that we in Britain, have reached the ‘post-industrial’ phase where, as they put it, ‘environmental and public health objectives take predominance’. The poorest in the developing world have no choice but to progress through three prior stages of industrialization and urbanization before they arrive at our state of grace, and even if they had the choice, that is what they would choose to do.
Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook That Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and The... by Sally Fallon, Pat Connolly, Mary G. Enig, Phd.
Who knows but that they wouldn't confirm these pharmacological properties of this flavorful and underrated vegetable. SWF Winter Root Medley Serves 4 4 parsnips, peeled and cut into sticks 4 turnips, peeled and cut into quarters 1 rutabaga, peeled and cut into chunks 3 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil In a heavy skillet, saute vegetables in butter and olive oil until tender and golden brown. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is a community-based organization of growers and consumers. The consumer households live independently but agree to provide direct, up-front support for the local growers who produce their food. . .the primary need is not for the farm to be supported by the community, but rather for the community to support itself through farming. This is an essential of existence, not a matter of convenience. . ..