hygiene hypothesis

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pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen

Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

Quickly dubbed the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, Strachan’s idea was supported by the fact that the rise in allergies was matched by improvements in hygiene standards over time. A weekly wash before church in a lukewarm bath became a daily shower in steaming hot water. Food was refrigerated or frozen rather than pickled and fermented. Family sizes were shrinking, and life was becoming more and more urban and refined. The hygiene hypothesis just made sense, especially as in developing countries with high rates of infectious disease, allergies were still rare. It seemed that in Europe and North America, people were simply too clean for their own good, and their immune systems were champing at the bit, desperate to attack even harmless particles like pollen. Although the hygiene hypothesis represented a new paradigm for immunologists, it quickly gained scientific favour.

What’s more, they are extremely similar to the very creatures that cause the immune system so much trouble – the pathogenic varieties of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Members of the microbiota even have the same type of give-away molecules coating their surfaces that the immune system uses to detect pathogens. But something about these microbes tells the immune system not to attack. David Strachan’s original hygiene hypothesis was an excellent one, but it now faces an overhaul. He suggested that more infections in childhood meant a lower chance of allergies. The trouble is, the evidence doesn’t support the idea, and the mechanisms don’t quite work. But in some sense the rethink the hygiene hypothesis is undergoing is a subtle one. Although it does not cause disease, the microbiota is, in some sense, a vast infection. These microbes are intruders, but they have been intruding for such a long time, and they bring such great benefit, that the immune system has learnt to accommodate them.

But the researchers accounted for this by calculating the likelihoods again, this time excluding any child who had suffered from wheeze before the age of eighteen months. The link remained strong. Of course, taking antibiotics is all about ridding the body of infection, so the hygiene hypothesis stands up in light of the link between them and allergies. But the paradox remains: why would the immune system attack harmless allergens in preference to the apparently more alarming threat from the body’s microbes? And if the rise in allergies were connected to the drop in infections, why wouldn’t those of us who had had fewer infections be the ones who had more allergies? Professor Agnes Wold of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden was the first to provide an alternative to the hygiene hypothesis, in 1998. Research into the importance of the microbiota was just beginning to pick up steam, and the lack of correlation between infections and allergy had started to challenge Strachan’s idea.


pages: 298 words: 76,727

The Microbiome Solution by Robynne Chutkan M.D.

clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, Mason jar, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome

Strachan’s initial paper, titled “Hay Fever, Hygiene and Household Size,” was published in the British Medical Journal in 1989 and laid the foundation for the “hygiene hypothesis,” which challenged the idea of germs as something to be avoided and posited the importance of early microbial exposure for preventing disease later in life. In 2003 Graham Rook, MD, emeritus professor of medical microbiology and immunology at University College London, expanded on this concept with his “Old Friends” hypothesis, suggesting that a lack of exposure to ancient organisms like parasites that coevolved with our ancestors, not just the absence of relatively new germs like influenza, was responsible for the emergence of these modern plagues. If we look at a map of the world today, one of the striking observations is that illnesses like Crohn’s disease are common in more developed countries and rare in less developed ones. The hygiene hypothesis accounts for this uneven distribution by suggesting that less childhood exposure to bacteria and parasites in affluent societies like the United States and Europe actually increases susceptibility to disease by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.

Version_1 To my parents, Winston and Noelle— Thanks for a dirty childhood Eat a peck of dirt before you die. Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication Epigraph Acknowledgments Introduction: Live Dirty, Eat Clean part 1 • Getting to Know Your Gut Bacteria Chapter 1. The Zoo Inside You Chapter 2. Microbes: Your Worker Bees part 2 • Messing Up the Microbiome Chapter 3. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Our Modern Plagues Chapter 4. Pharmageddon and the Antibiotic Paradox Chapter 5. Dysbiosis—Do You Have It? Chapter 6. Are Our Bacteria Making Us Fat? Chapter 7. Modern Microbial Disruptors part 3 • Rewilding Ourselves Chapter 8. Introducing the Live Dirty, Eat Clean Plan Chapter 9. The Live Dirty, Eat Clean Diet Chapter 10. The Live Dirty Lifestyle Chapter 11.

The other essential step is recognizing what threatens your gut garden’s growth. Being aware of the interlopers and inclement conditions that will reduce your victory garden to an overgrown or blighted plot is key. In the next part of this book we’ll explore in detail how the microbiome gets messed up, and what you can do to preserve yours. part 2 MESSING UP THE MICROBIOME CHAPTER 3 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| The Hygiene Hypothesis and Our Modern Plagues MANY OF US were brought up to believe that it’s better to be clean than dirty. But evidence is mounting to show that if you start from that premise, you will arrive at the wrong destination as far as human health is concerned. The microbial communities established in our bodies at birth, during infancy, and in early childhood mold our health as we grow and help determine whether or not we develop illness.


pages: 161 words: 37,042

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) by Crawford, Dorothy H.

clean water, coronavirus, discovery of penicillin, Francisco Pizarro, hygiene hypothesis, Louis Pasteur, megacity, Nelson Mandela, stem cell

Other human viruses on the list for worldwide eradication include measles, rubella, around 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, re0Smumps, rabies, and HBV. To vaccinate or not to vaccinate? The ethical debate surrounding the use of smallpox vaccination in Jenner’s time has moved on but certainly not disappeared. There are still religious sects who refuse vaccination, but other major issues have now come to the fore. One of these is the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ invoked to explain the recent rise in autoimmune and allergic diseases in Western countries. Both these types of disease are caused by an imbalance in the immune response. The hygiene theory attributes this to a lack of childhood infections resulting from vaccinations as well as rising standards of hygiene and antibiotic use in the modern world. All these factors decrease antigenic stimulation during childhood and could predispose a child’s immune system to these abnormal responses.

The name ‘herpes’ is derived from the Greek herpeton, meaning reptile, and probably refers to the creeping nature of the lesions of shingles. highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): combination drug therapy used to treat HIV, infection. human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs): a group of retroviruses, that cause AIDS. To date, humans have been infected with HIV-1 strains M, N, O, P, and HIV-2, all of which were acquired from African primates. hygiene hypothesis: the theory that a lack of exposure to Q3 virusle c infectious agents during childhood predisposes to allergic and autoimmune diseases. immunological memory: the ability of the immune system to ‘remember’ previous exposure to an infectious organism and prevent further attacks. Mediated by memory T cells. immunopathology: tissue damage caused by the immune response. incubation period: the period of time between infection and the onset of symptoms.


pages: 623 words: 448,848

Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives by Dean D. Metcalfe

active measures, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, impulse control, life extension, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, statistical model, stem cell, twin studies

Another category of environmental factors that show overwhelming inverse association with atopy are infections, vaccinations, absence of antibiotic treatment, traditional farming environments, older siblings, day care attendance, and pet ownership [60–62]. These findings lead to the “hygiene hypothesis” which proposes that reduced exposure to particular microbiological stimuli [63], which decrease with improved living standards and higher personal hygiene, might result in an increased risk of developing allergy. Indeed, perinatal treatment (mothers prenatal and infants 6-month postnatal) with the probiotic Lacobacillus GG strain significantly reduced the development of allergies up to the age of 4 years [64]. Although the “hygiene hypothesis” is widely accepted, the underlying mechanisms are controversial. In particular, the molecular link between environmental stimuli and immune hyperresponsiveness is far from being understood.

Annu Rev Immunol 2005;23:749–86. 59 Eder W, Klimecki W, Yu L, et al. Association between exposure to farming, allergies and genetic variation in CARD4/NOD1. Allergy 2006;61:1117–24. 77 Gilfillan AM, Tkaczyk C. Integrated signalling pathways for mast-cell activation. Nat Rev Immunol 2006;6:218–30. 60 Vercelli D. Mechanisms of the hygiene hypothesis – molecular and otherwise. Curr Opin Immunol 2006;18:733–7. 61 Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremsner PG, van RR. Allergy, parasites, and the hygiene hypothesis. Science 2002;296:490–4. 62 de MG, Janssen NA, Brunekreef B. Early childhood environment related to microbial exposure and the occurrence of atopic disease at school age. Allergy 2005;60:619–25. 63 Mazmanian SK, Liu CH, Tzianabos AO, Kasper DL. An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system.

Although subcutaneous immunotherapy has been successful in treating allergic rhinitis, it has, unfortunately, resulted in increased adverse systemic reactions and has proven unacceptable for the treatment of food allergy [5,6]. However, in the advent of the “hygiene hypothesis,” there have been various novel approaches to the treatment Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives, 4th edition Edited by Dean D. Metcalfe, Hugh A. Sampson, and Ronald A. Simon © 2008 Blackwell Publishing, ISBN: 978-1-405-15129-0 of atopic disorders. The “hygiene hypothesis” postulates that increased hygiene and the lack of immunostimulatory pathogens early in childhood have resulted in a skewing of the Th1 and Th2 response [7]. Consequently, due to an increased persistent Th2 immune response, there is a growing prevalence of allergic disorders.


pages: 531 words: 125,069

The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure by Greg Lukianoff, Jonathan Haidt

AltaVista, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, helicopter parent, hygiene hypothesis, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed

The immune system is a complex adaptive system, which can be defined as a dynamic system that is able to adapt in and evolve with a changing environment.8 It requires exposure to a range of foods, bacteria, and even parasitic worms in order to develop its ability to mount an immune response to real threats (such as the bacterium that causes strep throat) while ignoring nonthreats (such as peanut proteins). Vaccination uses the same logic. Childhood vaccines make us healthier not by reducing threats in the world (“Ban germs in schools!”) but by exposing children to those threats in small doses, thereby giving children’s immune systems the opportunity to learn how to fend off similar threats in the future. This is the underlying rationale for what is called the hygiene hypothesis,9 the leading explanation for why allergy rates generally go up as countries get wealthier and cleaner—another example of a problem of progress. Developmental psychologist Alison Gopnik explains the hypothesis succinctly and does us the favor of linking it to our mission in this book: Thanks to hygiene, antibiotics and too little outdoor play, children don’t get exposed to microbes as they once did.

In the devil’s snare: The Salem witchcraft crisis of 1693. New York, NY: Random House. Novotney, A. (2014). Students under pressure: College and university counseling centers are examining how best to serve the growing number of students seeking their services. Monitor on Psychology, 45, 36. Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, state, and utopia. New York, NY: Basic Books. Okada, H., Kuhn, C., Feillet, H., & Bach, J. (2010). The “hygiene hypothesis” for autoimmune and allergic diseases: An update. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 160, 1–9. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Ostrom, V. (1997). The meaning of democracy and the vulnerability of democracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Pariser, E. (2011). The filter bubble: How the new personalized web is changing what we read and how we think.

., 222–23 Cooper, Harris, 185, 245 correlation: causation and, 227–29, 231–32 spurious, 152, 228 Coulter, Ann, 83 Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams, 67–68, 71, 221 Crick, Nicki, 155 crime, 167, 186, 238, 266 criminal justice system, 74 critical thinking, 39, 113, 259 CYA (Cover Your Ass), 203, 211, 212 Daily Californian, 84 Dalai Lama, 267 Day of Absence, 114–15 Deaner, Robert, 225 debate clubs, 248 democracy, 66, 191–94, 222–23, 254 Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 195 Democrats, 129–31, 213, 216 see also politics Department of Education, 207 Department of Justice, 207 depression, 5, 12, 24, 30, 125, 126, 143, 157, 164, 250 activities correlated with, 152–53 anxiety and, 158 cognitive behavioral therapy and, 7–8 cognitive distortions and, 7–8, 10, 36–37, 150, 158–59, 161 first-person account of, 143–44 in girls versus boys, 149–51, 160 play deprivation and, 183 rates of, 149–50, 157–58, 160, 183, 185 safetyism and, 158 see also suicide Depression, Great, 130 Deresiewicz, William, 189 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 25 dichotomous thinking, 38, 39, 50, 85, 89, 145, 177, 277 dignity culture, 209–10 disconfirm, inability to, 278 disconfirmation, institutionalized, 109, 110, 229 discounting positives, 38, 177, 277 distributive justice, 217–21, 227, 230, 231 Dolezal, Rachel, 104 Dreger, Alice, 254–55 Drexel University, 135, 202 Duckworth, Angela, 190 Duke, Annie, 248–49 Durden, Lisa, 134–35 Durkheim, Emile, 100, 102, 103, 106–8, 113–15, 120 Eady, Trent, 73 Eagleman, David, 58 Ebner, Julia, 266–67 economy, 13, 152 education: purpose of, 254 see also school; universities emotional reactivity, 95–96 emotional reasoning, 3, 4, 33–51, 119, 177, 202, 208, 212, 241, 247, 259, 278 disinvitations of speakers and, 47–51 microaggressions and, 40–46 “see something, say something” and, 203–4 subjective standards and, 25–26 Enlightenment Now (Pinker), 264 Epictetus, 33, 34, 50 equality: absolute, 65 distributive justice and, 218 fairness and, 218 equal-outcomes social justice, 223–27, 230, 231 equity theory, 218–20, 226, 227, 231 Essex County College, 134–35 Evergreen State College, 114–21, 133, 198 EverydayFeminism.com, 44 Excellent Sheep (Deresiewicz), 189 exclusion, 246–47 experience-expectant development, 182–84 fairness, 217–18, 222 equity theory and, 218–20, 226, 227, 231 procedural justice and, 219 see also justice Fall of the Faculty, The: The Rise of the All-Administrative University and Why It Matters (Ginsberg), 198 Facebook, 49, 55, 105, 107, 130, 146–47, 207, 265 fascism, 86, 89, 92 FBI, 138, 166, 261 feminism, 49, 94, 104, 105, 107, 208 filter bubble, 130–31 First Amendment, 5, 64, 82, 116, 138, 200–201, 256 forbidden base rates, 229 fortune-telling, 89, 277 Foster, Karith, 44–45, 51, 55 Foucault, Michel, 69 Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), 5, 47, 64, 74, 94, 135, 145, 200, 202, 204, 216, 255 Fox News, 118, 133–35 fragility, 2–4, 9, 14, 19–32, 119, 170, 171, 177, 196, 202, 212, 236, 258–59 antifragility, 22–24, 28, 31, 146, 164, 176, 178, 193, 206, 237, 246 see also safetyism Franklin, Benjamin, 269 Free-Range Kids movement, 164, 211, 238 free-range parenting bill, 266 free speech, 5–6, 31, 65, 84, 138, 200–203, 207, 212, 251 Chicago Statement on Principles of Free Expression, 255–56, 268, 279–81 First Amendment and, 5, 64, 82, 116, 138, 200–201, 256 free speech zones, 202–3 and responding to pressure campaigns and outrage, 256–57 speech codes, 207, 256 Friedersdorf, Conor, 72 From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation (Taylor), 135 Galileo’s Middle Finger (Dreger), 254–55 Game of Thrones, 201 Gandhi, Mahatma, 98 gap year, 250–51, 257 Gastañaga, Claire Guthrie, 92 Gawker, 228 Gelman, Andrew, 213, 214 gender pronouns, 24–25 General Motors (GM), 67 Generation X, 167, 174, 184–85 Generation Z, see iGen genes, 182 Ghitza, Yair, 213, 214 Gibson, William, 9–10 Gingrich, Newt, 131 Ginsberg, Benjamin, 198 good people versus evil; us versus them, 3–4, 14, 53–77, 85, 90, 92, 119–20, 132, 177, 206, 243–44, 247, 259–60 see also groups Gopnik, Alison, 21, 24 Grant, Adam, 240 Gray, Hanna Holborn, 50, 51 Gray, Peter, 183–85, 190–91, 193–94, 238 Greatest Generation, 110 Greek statues, 136–37 Green, Melanie, 159 grit, 190 Grit (Duckworth), 190 Gross, Neil, 88 groups, 44, 57–59, 68, 70–71, 76, 100, 120 collective effervescence in, 100, 103 minimal group paradigm, 57–58 moral matrices and, 9, 10 self-segregation in, 130 solidarity in, 108–9 tribalism and, 57–59, 76, 130, 131, 153, 267 us versus them and good people versus evil, 3–4, 14, 53–77, 85, 90, 92, 119–20, 132, 177, 206, 243–44, 247, 259–60 see also identity politics groupthink, 73, 106, 108, 113, 131 Guinier, Lani, 222 Gulag Archipelago, The (Solzhenitsyn), ix, 243 Gunn, Tommy, 75 Haidt, Max, 19–20 Halloween costumes, 56, 102, 165 Hamid, Shadi, 42–43 Hampshire College, 135 Hannity, Sean, 132 Happiness Hypothesis, The (Haidt), 2, 35 harassment, concept creep and, 206–9 Harvard Law School, 205 Harvard University, 112, 253 Haslam, Nick, 25–26 hate crimes and speech, 86, 94, 126, 138–39 Haymarket riot, 201 Hennessy, Matthew, 49 Heterodox Academy, 248 Heyer, Heather, 91, 139 Heying, Heather, 116, 118 Higher Education Research Institute, 113 Hitler, Adolf, 63, 91 Hoffer, Eric, 99 Holder, Eric, 48 Holland, Stephen, 37 homework, 185–86, 245 honor cultures, 209 Horowitz, David, 83 Horwitz, Steven, 191–92, 211 How to Raise an Adult (Lythcott-Haims), 165 Huo, Yuen, 220 hygiene hypothesis, 21–22 Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy, 104–5 Hyperallergic, 136 Identity Evropa, 136 identity politics, 59–67, 76, 259 common-enemy, 62–67, 71–73, 76, 77, 89–90, 119–20, 244 common-humanity, 60–62, 74–76, 221, 244 positive trends in, 266–67 schools and, 244 iGen, 146–51, 174–75, 178 anxiety and depression in, see anxiety; depression college and, 31, 145, 148, 156–59, 174–75, 185 play and, 185 politics and, 213, 214 safetyism and, 30–31, 156, 158, 161 iGen (Twenge), 30–31, 146–49, 152–54, 159 immune system, 21–22, 164 Importance of Being Little, The (Christakis), 165 “In Defense of Transracialism” (Tuvel), 104–7, 121 institutionalized disconfirmation, 109, 110, 229 intellectual humility, 244, 247 intellectual virtues, 247, 258 Intellectual Virtues Academy, 247–48 intent, 51, 86, 104–5 charitability in interpreting, 42, 51, 55, 243–44, 260 impact versus, 43–44, 46 microaggression theory and, 40–46, 51, 71, 77 internet, 237, 241 see also social media intersectionality, 67–69, 71, 76–77, 90 intimidation, 14, 81–98 intuitive justice, 217–21 distributive, 217–21, 227, 230, 231 procedural, 217, 219–22, 227, 230, 231 Islamist extremists, 266–67 Iyengar, Shanto, 130–32 Jacksonville State University, 202 Jandhyala, Pranav, 82 Jenner, Caitlyn, 104, 105, 205–6 Jennings, John, 82 Jensen, Mike, 205–6 Jews, 63, 90, 126 Jim Crow laws, 221 Johnson, Samuel, 269 Jones, Van, 96–98, 192, 259 judgment focus, 278 justice, 217–21, 223, 254 distributive, 217–21, 227, 230, 231 intuitive, 217–21 procedural, 217, 219–22, 227, 230, 231 see also social justice Kabat-Zinn, Jon, 242 Kaiser, Sandra, 133 Kerr, Clark, 197 kindergarten, 185, 187–88 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 60–62, 75, 76, 98 Kipnis, Laura, 208–10 Krupenkin, Masha, 130–32 Ku Klux Klan, 12, 90, 91, 207 Kuran, Timur, 267 labeling, 38, 39, 50, 89, 145, 150, 277 LaFreniere, Peter, 181 Lagarde, Christine, 48 language development, 182 Lareau, Annette, 173–75, 179, 235 Las Vegas shooting, 12 law education, 205 Leahy, Robert, 37, 241–42 LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy), 20–21 learned helplessness, 158 Let Grow, 164, 238–39 Licence, 238–39 Levitsky, Steven, 131 Lexington High School, 190 Lilla, Mark, 74–75 Limbaugh, Rush, 132 locus of control, 46, 70, 158 Louisiana State University (LSU), 199 Lythcott-Haims, Julie, 165, 169–70, 190 Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 265 Mac Donald, Heather, 88–89, 126 Maher, Bill, 48 Mandela, Nelson, 81, 98 Manning, Jason, 209, 210 Mao Zedong, 100–101 Marano, Hara Estroff, 170 Marcus Aurelius, 95 Marcuse, Herbert, 64–71 marriage equality, 61–62 Martínez Valdivia, Lucía, 93 Marx, Karl, 64, 254 Marxism, 64, 65 matrix, matrices, 9–10 May Day, 201 McChrystal, Stanley, 251 McElroy, Wendy, 26–28 McGinn, Lata, 37 McLaughlin and Associates, 86 McNally, Richard, 29 McNeese State University, 203 McWhorter, John, 86 media, 130–32, 137 Meng Tzu (Mencius), 19 mental health, 26, 140, 143–61, 266 of college students, 156–59 in girls versus boys, 149–51, 154–56, 160, 161 self-harming and, 151, 195–96 and social media and phones, 146–47, 152–56, 159–61, 265 see also anxiety; depression #MeToo Movement, 12, 27 microaggressions, 40–46, 51, 71, 77, 145, 205, 210, 260 Middlebury College, 12, 87–88, 90, 103, 127 Mill, John Stuart, 248 Millennials, 30, 31, 156, 160, 175, 178, 184–85, 188, 213 Milton, John, 34 mindfulness, 242 mind reading, 38, 41, 212, 277 Misoponos, 1–4, 14, 34, 50 moral dependency, 209–12 moral judgments, intent versus impact in, 43–44, 46 moral matrices, 9, 10, 58 moral values, 61–62 Morgan, Kathryn Pauly, 68–69 Murray, Charles, 87–88, 103, 127 Murray, Pauli, 61, 62, 75–76, 260 Nader, Ralph, 24 National Association of Social Workers, 220 National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 166, 168 Nazis and neo-Nazis, 12, 63, 64, 90–92, 133, 139, 140 negative filtering, 38, 177, 277 negative partisanship, 131–32, 140 Neuromancer (Gibson), 9–10 New Jersey Transit, 203–4 New Jim Crow, The: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (Alexander), 74 New Left, 65, 67 New Republic, 6 Newsome, Hawk, 75–76 Newton, Isaac, 125 New York, 106 New Yorker, 205 New York Sun, 163 New York Times, 6, 26, 88, 92, 95, 127, 133, 190, 226 New York University (NYU), 204–5 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 2, 22 1960s, 213–14, 216, 230 No Child Left Behind, 188 Noonday Demon, The: An Atlas of Depression (Solomon), 143 Northern Michigan University, 200, 211 Northwestern University, 208 Notre Dame vs. the Klan: How the Fighting Irish Defeated the Ku Klux Klan (Tucker), 207 NW Anxiety Institute, 163 Oakton Community College, 201 Obama, Barack, 11, 96, 140, 214 Obama, Malia, 250 Oberlin College, 24–25 Occupy Wall Street, 129 Oliver, Kelly, 106–7 Olivia (Claremont student), 53–55, 175 Once and Future Liberal, The: After Identity Politics (Lilla), 74–75 On Liberty (Mill), 248 oppression, 6, 44, 46, 57, 64, 65, 68–71 Orlando nightclub shooting, 12 Ostrom, Elinor, 191 Ostrom, Vincent, 191, 192 Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis (Putnam), 173–76 overgeneralizing, 38, 39, 50, 277 overprotection, 13 in parenting, 126, 148, 164, 165, 167–72, 183, 201–2, 235, 236, 266 see also fragility; parenting; safetyism overreaction, 201, 203 overregulation, 201–3 parenting, 125, 126, 163–79, 192 and actual versus imagined risk, 167–68 and arrest for neglect, 171–72, 266 and assuming capability in children, 237 and child’s walking to places alone, 169–70, 237–39 cognitive distortions and, 177–78 concerted cultivation style of, 173, 174, 176, 179, 235–36 free-range, 164, 211, 238, 266, 268 Let Grow License and, 238–39 natural growth style of, 174, 179 overprotective (helicopter), 126, 148, 164, 165, 167–72, 183, 201–2, 235, 236, 266 prepare the child for the road, not the road for the child, 23, 237–40 risk taking and, 238 school policies and, 245–49 social class and, 173–76, 179 societal pressures and, 171 suggestions for, 235–51 Parker, Sean, 147 Paros, Mike, 118 Patz, Etan, 165, 166 Paxson, Christina, 27 “Paying the Price for Breakdown of the Country’s Bourgeois Culture” (Wax and Alexander), 107–8, 121 peanut allergies, 19–21, 23–24, 30, 164, 236, 237 Peck, Don, 10 personalizing, 277 Pew Research Center, 128 phones, 30, 146, 147, 152–54, 159–61, 194, 214 and limiting device time, 249–50 school and, 247 see also social media Pinker, Steven, 264, 265 play, 125, 126, 178, 181–94 brain and, 181–84, 193 free, 183–86, 188, 189, 191, 193–94, 235–37, 245–46, 266 importance of, 181–83, 193–94 outdoor, 184, 186, 266 playgrounds, 183, 238 risk and, 183–85, 236, 238, 246 polarization, 121, 125–41, 251, 265 affective, 129, 131–32, 141 outrage and, 133–38, 261 police, attitudes toward, 219–20 political correctness, 46, 94–95, 202 Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations (Chua), 267 politics, 213–14 alt-right, 81, 84, 118, 139, 266 bipartisanship in, 131 birth year and, 213–14 filter bubble and, 130–31 left-wing, 5, 110–13, 126–27, 132–38, 141, 199 negative partisanship in, 131–32 from 1940s to 1980, 130 right-wing, 5, 63, 110–13, 118, 126, 127, 132–38, 141 universities and, 110–13, 121, 126–27, 132–38, 141, 199, 258 see also polarization Pomona College, 89–90 positives, discounting, 38, 177, 277 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 25, 28–29 power, 53, 66 intersectionality and, 68 prejudice, 25, 40–44, 46 see also racism Princeton Review, 189 principle of charity, 42, 51, 55, 243–44, 260 privilege, 68–71 problems of progress, 13–14, 170, 264 procedural justice, 217, 219–22, 227, 230, 231 professors: political perspectives of, 110–13, 121, 258 retraction demands and, 103–4, 107–8, 121 social media and, 137, 141, 201 trust between students and, 205–6, 212 viewpoint solidarity and diversity among, 108–13, 121, 258 proportionality, 217–19, 224, 227 proportional-procedural social justice, 220–23, 231 Putnam, Robert, 173–76, 236 racism, 6, 42, 44–45, 64, 71, 140 civil rights movement and, 60–61 Halloween costumes and, 56, 102, 165 intimidation and threats, 138–40 Jim Crow laws, 221 white supremacists, 12, 86, 87, 89–91, 94 Rage, The: The Vicious Circle of Islamist and Far Right Extremism (Ebner), 266–67 rape culture, 26–28 rape law, teaching of, 205 Rational Optimist, The (Ridley), 264–65 Rauch, Jonathan, 59, 267 Rawls, John, 213 Redelsheimer, Katrina, 82 Reed College, 93, 127 regret orientation, 278 religion: American civil, 60–61 rituals in, 100 Renaissance, 136 “Repressive Tolerance” (Marcuse), 65–67 Republicans, 129–31, 213, 216 see also politics rider-and-elephant metaphor, 35, 36, 51, 62 Ridley, Matt, 264–65 Righteous Mind, The: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion (Haidt), 9 Right on Crime, 74 Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America’s Police Forces (Balko), 74 risk, 185, 237 actual versus imagined, 167–68 play and, 183–85, 236, 238, 246 see also safety rituals, 100 Roberts, John, 192–93 Roman statues, 136–37 Roof, Dylann, 139 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 74 Sacks, Jonathan, 53, 64 safety, 6–7, 9, 14, 24–25, 29–30, 96, 148 and actual versus imagined risk, 167–68 crime and, 167, 186, 238, 266 improvements in child safety, 168–69 meaning of, and concept creep, 24–25, 27, 246–47, 259 threats and, 138–40, 260–61 safetyism, 29–30, 85, 104, 121, 125, 164, 165, 194, 203, 246–47 on campus, 12, 24–26, 96–97, 125, 145–46, 148, 195–212, 268 cognitive distortions and, 177–78 dangers of, 168–71 exclusion and, 246–47 iGen and, 30–31, 156, 158, 161 overprotective parenting, 126, 148, 164, 165, 167–72 rise of, 24–26, 121 safe spaces, 26–31, 96, 145, 210, 259 school and, 236 trigger warnings, 6–7, 24, 28, 29, 31, 145, 210 Salem witch hunts, 99–100 San Bernardino attack, 12 Sanders, Bernie, 213 Savio, Mario, 84 schemas, 36–38, 57, 150, 177 Schill, Michael, 92 school (K–12), 59, 185–89, 194 college admissions and, 189–91, 194, 235, 236, 257–58, 268 debate teaching in, 248 discussions on coursework in, 248 first-grade readiness checklists, 186–87, 238 grades in, 190 homework, 185–86, 245 ideas for elementary schools, 245–47 ideas for middle schools and high schools, 247–49 identity politics and, 244 influencing policies at, 245–49 kindergarten, 185, 187–88 phones at, 247 recess at, 245–47 safetyism and, 236 year of service or work between high school and college, 250–51, 257 Schulz, Kathryn, 244 “see something, say something,” 203–4 Seligman, Martin, 158 September 11, 2001, attacks, 200, 203 Service Year Alliance, 251 sexism, 6, 44, 71 sexual misconduct and assault, 27 law education and, 205 #MeToo Movement and, 12, 27 Shakespeare, William, 34 Shapiro, Ben, 83 Sheskin, Mark, 218 shoulds, 277 Shuchman, Daniel, 238 Shulevitz, Judith, 26–28 Silverglate, Harvey, 74 Simmons, Ruth, 259 Singal, Jesse, 106 Skenazy, Lenore, 163–65, 169, 171, 172, 177, 185, 211, 238 sleep, 250 smartphones, see phones Smith College, 72 snowballs, and danger, 236 social class: parenting and, 173–76, 179 universities and, 174, 176 social justice, 111, 125, 126, 213–32 and correlation as causation, 227–29, 231–32 definition and use of term, 217, 220–21, 223 equal-outcomes, 223–27, 230, 231 major news stories related to, 214–16 proportional-procedural, 220–23, 231 social media, 5, 10, 30, 130, 133, 139, 145, 194, 203, 259 call-out culture and, 71–73 curation and comparisons in, 154–55, 161 Facebook, 49, 55, 105, 107, 130, 146–47, 207, 265 impact on girls, 154–56 and limiting device time, 249–50 mental health and, 146–47, 152–56, 159–61, 265 positive trends in, 265–66 professors and, 137, 141, 201 Twitter, 81, 130, 135–37, 147, 265 virtue signaling and, 73 Socrates, 49, 50 Solomon, Andrew, 143 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, ix, 243 Soviet Union, 130, 243 Spellman, Mary, 54–55, 57, 71, 102–3, 105–6, 134 Spencer, Richard, 139 Spock, Benjamin, 174 sports, 152, 189, 225–26 Title IX and, 224–25 spurious correlations, 152, 228 Stalin, Joseph, 243 Stanger, Allison, 87–88, 103, 127, 140 Starmans, Christina, 218 statues, Greco-Roman, 136–37 “sticks and stones” saying, 210 Stoicism, 95–96, 98 Stone, Geoffrey, 255, 279 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, 84 Sue, Derald Wing, 40–42 suicide, 5, 24, 30, 143–44, 152 academic competition and, 190 rates of, 150–51, 160, 183, 190 sharing thoughts of, 195–96 Suk Gersen, Jeannie, 205 summer camps, 240 Supreme Court, 61 Tajfel, Henri, 57–58, 76 Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, 22–23, 28, 164, 170 Tannen, Deborah, 154 Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta, 135–36 Tea Party, 129 telos, 253–55 Tenbrink, Tyler, 139 terrorism, 11–12, 204 September 11, 2001, attacks, 200, 203 Tetlock, Phil, 229 Texas State University, 63–64, 67 Theodoric, 34 Theory of Justice, A (Rawls), 213 Thinking in Bets: Making Smarter Decisions When You Don’t Have All the Facts (Duke), 248–49 threats, 138–40, 260–61 Three Felonies a Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent (Silverglate), 74 Thucydides, 108–9 Title IX, 206–8, 223–25 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 191, 195 tolerance, 65–66 transgenderism, 104–5, 205–6 transracialism, 104 trauma, 25–26, 28–29, 31–32, 33 PTSD, 25, 28–29 Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders (Leahy, Holland, and McGinn), 37 tribalism, 57–59, 76, 130, 131, 153, 267 see also groups trigger warnings, 6–7, 24, 28, 29, 31, 145, 210 Trump, Donald, 12, 82–83, 87, 96, 112, 114, 127, 135, 139, 140 Charlottesville and, 91, 94 supporters of, 75–76, 81, 83 truth, 253–55, 268 Tucker Carlson Tonight, 118, 133, 134 Turning Point USA (TPUSA), 138 Tuvel, Rebecca, 104–7, 121, 127 Twenge, Jean, 30–31, 146–49, 152–54, 159, 160, 164, 185 Twitter, 81, 130, 135–37, 147, 265 Tyler, Tom, 219–20 Tyranny of the Majority, The (Guinier), 222 UCLA, 92 Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life (Lareau), 173–75 unfair comparisons, 278 universities, 5, 8, 10, 11, 59, 125–26, 214 admissions to, 189–91, 194, 235, 236, 257–58, 268 amenities at, 199, 211 bureaucracy at, 125, 126, 192, 194, 195–212 canon wars at, 7 Chicago Statement and, 255–56, 268, 279–81 consumerist mentality at, 198–200, 211 corporatization of, 197–98, 211 cross-partisan events at, 261 distorted thinking modeled by administrators at, 200–203 diversity among professors in, 108–13, 121, 258 diversity among students in, 43, 258, 260 expansion of, 197–98 freedom of inquiry at, 255–57 free speech at, 5–6, 31, 65, 84, 200–203 heckler’s veto and, 257 iGen and, 31, 145, 148, 156–59, 174–75, 185 intellectual virtues and, 258 intimidation and violence at, 81–98 mental health and, 156–59 as multiversities, 197, 253 political orientation and, 110–13, 121, 126–27, 132–38, 141, 199, 258 preparation for life following, 8–9 productive disagreement in, 258–60 regulations at, 192, 200–203, 211–12 and responding to pressure campaigns and outrage, 256–57 retraction demands at, 103–4, 107–8, 121 safe spaces and, 26–31, 96, 145, 210, 259 safetyism at, 12, 24–26, 96–97, 125, 145–46, 148, 195–212, 268; see also safetyism school spirit at, 260 social class and, 174, 176 speakers at, 6, 27, 47–51, 87, 199 suggestions for, 253–62 trigger warnings and, 6–7, 24, 28, 29, 31, 145, 210 trust between professors and students at, 205–6, 212 truth and, 253–55, 268 wisdom and, 253–62 University of California, 197 Berkeley, 12, 81–87, 90, 94, 120 Los Angeles, 92 University of Central Florida, 207 University of Chicago, 119, 251, 253, 268 Chicago Statement on Principles of Free Expression, 255–56, 268, 279–81 University of Cincinnati, 203 University of Connecticut, 202 University of Iowa, 136–37 University of Michigan, 184, 207 University of Missouri, 11 University of Northern Colorado, 205–6 University of Oregon, 92 University of Pennsylvania, 107, 108 University of Virginia, 12, 188, 223–27 University of West Alabama, 202 Unsafe at Any Speed (Nader), 24 us versus them; good people versus evil, 3–4, 14, 53–77, 85, 90, 92, 119–20, 132, 177, 206, 243–44, 247, 259–60 see also groups vaccination, 21 Valenti, Jessica, 26–27 Venker, Suzanne, 49 victimhood culture, 209–10 victimization, 41–42, 46, 57, 126 viewpoint diversity, 11, 109, 112–13, 121, 248, 258 vindictive protectiveness, 10, 235 violence, 81–98 definition of, 85–86 words as, 84–86, 89, 94–98, 145, 158 Virginia Rowing Association, 223 virtue signaling, 73 vulnerability, culture of, 209, 210 see also fragility Wall Street Journal, 222 Walsh, Adam, 165–66 Walsh, John, 166 Ward, Douglas Turner, 114 War on Cops, The (Mac Donald), 88 Washington Post, 93, 199 Wax, Amy, 107–8, 121, 126 Weinstein, Bret, 114–19, 127, 133 “what if” questions, 278 Where You Go Is Not Who You Will Be: An Antidote to the College Admissions Mania (Bruni), 190 white genocide, 135, 136 white nationalists and white supremacists, 12, 86, 87, 89–91, 94, 135, 136, 139, 140, 266 Will, George, 48 William & Mary, 92 Williams College, 49–50 Wilson, E.


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The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat by Tim Spector

biofilm, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, David Strachan, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, Kickstarter, life extension, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Steve Jobs, twin studies

A study recently found that babies who had their rubber dummies sucked clean by a parent then popped back into their mouths had considerably fewer allergies than those with parents dutifully replacing hygienic sterile dummies.12 The old-fashioned practice of mothers pre-chewing their baby’s food, which is rare in the West nowadays, served both to break down tough starchy foods and meats and to transmit a wide range of helpful microbes via saliva. Licking babies is common in most mammals and in some human cultures, and of course kissing is pretty universal. The Hygiene Hypothesis is an idea you may have heard of. It was developed by a colleague I trained with in epidemiology, David Strachan, whose interest was sparked when he was looking at the national data of children followed up from birth for asthma and eczema. He found a correlation between damp housing conditions and allergy in the UK.13 But the link was not what we might intuitively have expected: the damp, poor conditions and overcrowded families were actually protective, even after adjusting for other possible sources of bias.

Researchers from Indiana who studied the local Amish found only 7 per cent of Amish children had positive results from skin-prick tests, which is six times fewer than genetically similar Swiss children.14 The Amish way of living hasn’t changed much since they left Berne in Switzerland in the seventeenth century. All kids are raised communally and taught to walk and milk cows in dusty barns full of hay, straw, animal hair and manure. The workers that do most of the farming possess the most diverse sets of gut microbes, with large amounts of some species like Prevotella which, as we have seen, are rare in the rest of America but common in Africa.15 The Hygiene Hypothesis has stood the test of time so far, but now has to be adapted to our new knowledge of the importance of microbes. We need to remember that our gut microbes play a key role in training our immune systems. They do this via communication with the Treg cells in the gut walls, which are the main communicators and thermostats between what we eat and how our immune systems react.16 High Treg levels are generally healthy as they suppress the immune system.


pages: 476 words: 148,895

Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation by Michael Pollan

biofilm, bioinformatics, Columbian Exchange, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Drosophila, energy security, Gary Taubes, Hernando de Soto, hygiene hypothesis, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, microbiome, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steven Pinker, women in the workforce

Children born by Cesarean section, a far more hygienic process, take much longer to populate their intestinal tract, and never acquire quite the same assortment of bugs. Some researchers believe this could help explain the higher rates of allergies, asthma, and obesity observed in children born by Cesarean. The sanitized environment in which we try to surround our children is probably also taking its toll on their microbiota. Now widely accepted, the “hygiene hypothesis” holds that children need to be exposed to more bacteria, not fewer, in order to properly develop their immune system, so that it can learn to accurately distinguish between good and bad microbes. Without that training, the theory goes, the body is apt to mistake benign proteins, such as those in certain foods, for mortal threats, and react accordingly. The hypothesis explains escalating rates of allergy, asthma, and autoimmune disease in the developed world, as well as the curious fact that children reared in the microbially rich—some would say perilous—environment of a farm have fewer allergies and generally more robust immune systems.* The average child in the developed world has also received between ten and twenty courses of antibiotics before his or her eighteenth birthday, an assault on the microflora the implications of which researchers are just beginning to reckon.* Like the pesticides applied to a farm field, antibiotics “work,” at least in the short term.

Milk and cheese can be contaminated after pasteurization, and often are. Also, the cleanliness of dairying has only gotten worse under the regime of pasteurization; since dairy farmers know their milk will be sterilized after it leaves the farm and gets mixed with milk from countless other farms, they have less incentive to be scrupulous about hygiene. Nowadays, the post-Pasteurians can cite in their support the hygiene hypothesis. This is perhaps their most devastating argument, though it, too, has unacknowledged weaknesses. According to the argument, the problem is not so much with the bacteria in the milk, which they’re prepared to concede, but with the compromised immune systems of us milk drinkers—compromised (need it be said?) by years of misrule by the Pasteurians themselves, with their antibiotics, sterilized food, and sanitized child-rearing regimes.


pages: 218 words: 70,323

Critical: Science and Stories From the Brink of Human Life by Matt Morgan

agricultural Revolution, Atul Gawande, biofilm, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive dissonance, crew resource management, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, hygiene hypothesis, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, meta analysis, meta-analysis, personalized medicine, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs

‘The German immunologist and Nobel laureate, Paul Ehrlich, coined the term ‘horror autotoxicus’, or the horror of self-toxicity, to describe the body’s aversion to immunological self-destruction.’ Horror Autotoxicus and Other Concepts of Paul Ehrlich. JAMA 176, 50–51 (1961). ‘Most notably, the immunologist David Strachan published his “clean hypothesis” in 1989, and this has since formed a guiding principle in applied research.’ Strachan, D. P. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the ‘hygiene hypothesis’. Thorax 55, S2–S10 (2000). 3: SKIN AND BONES ‘In total, the hospital cared for twenty-eight patients, many benefiting from the breakthrough “spray-on skin” developed by the pioneering surgeon, Fiona Wood.’ Wood, F. M., Stoner, M. L., Fowler, B. V. & Fear, M. W. The use of a non-cultured autologous cell suspension and Integra dermal regeneration template to repair full-thickness skin wounds in a porcine model: a one-step process.


The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Orlov, Reinventing Collapse, offers a good outline. 6. Stu Campbell, Let it Rot!: The Gardener’s Guide to Compost, Storey Publishing, 1990, one of the standard handbooks, is my source for much of this ­section. 7. See Joseph Jenkins, The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting ­Human Manure, Chelsea Green, 1999. 8. Carol Steinfeld, Liquid Gold: The Lore and Logic of Using Urine to Grow Plants, Ecowaters, 2007. 9. The “hygiene hypothesis” remains controversial but is supported by epidemiological evidence. See David Strachan, “Hay fever, hygiene, and household size,” British Medical Journal 299 (1989), pp. 1259–1260. 10. See Stu Campbell, The Mulch Book: A Complete Guide for Gardeners, Storey Publishing, 1991. 11. Recent disputes around the ethics of eating animal foods are complex and, in my view, badly in need of clear reasoning — ​enough so that limits of space do not permit a detailed discussion here.


pages: 322 words: 107,576

Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, experimental subject, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, publication bias, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, urban planning

The Times, for example, covered an experiment which showed that having younger siblings was associated with a lower incidence of multiple sclerosis. MS is caused by the immune system turning on the body. ‘This is more likely to happen if a child at a key stage of development is not exposed to infections from younger siblings, says the study.’ That’s what The Times said. But it’s wrong. That’s the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, that’s the theory, the framework into which the evidence might fit, but it’s not what the study showed: the study just found that having younger siblings seemed to be somewhat protective against MS. It didn’t say what the mechanism was, it couldn’t say why there was a relationship, such as whether it happened through greater exposure to infections. It was just an observation. The Times confused the evidence with hypothesis, and I am very glad to have got that little gripe out of my system.


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

They said sloppiness allows for the qualities critical to greatness—like improvisation, adaptability, and serendipity. (If Alexander Fleming hadn’t been sloppy enough to leave dirty Petri dishes lying around his desk, he would never have discovered penicillin.) They even said that messy people make better parents—focused as they are on warmth and hominess, rather than stacked-up toys and ring-free coffee tables. They even hinted that clean is killing us. Doctors are now starting to credit the “hygiene hypothesis”—the idea that the sharp rise in childhood asthma and allergies today is attributable to the lack of exposure to certain germs. Chlorine bleach, which erases all mistakes one can make in clothing, is said to poison hundreds of kids a year, and may be linked to breast cancer in women and reproductive problems in men. Pesticides, those cure-alls for green trimmed lawns, have been linked to diminution of short-term memory, hand-eye coordination, and drawing ability in children.


pages: 651 words: 180,162

Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder by Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Air France Flight 447, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business cycle, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discrete time, double entry bookkeeping, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, financial independence, Flash crash, Gary Taubes, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, informal economy, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, money market fund, moral hazard, mouse model, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, selection bias, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, Zipf's Law

Thuman, 2002, “Extrapair Paternity in Birds: A Review of Interspecific Variation and Adaptive Function.” Molecular Ecology 11: 2195–212. Grob, Gerald N., 2002, The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Guadalupe-Grau, A., T. Fuentes, B. Guerra, and J. Calbet, 2009, “Exercise and Bone Mass in Adults.” Sports Medicine 39(6): 439–468. Guarner, F., R. Bourdet-Sicard, et al., 2006, “Mechanisms of Disease: the Hygiene Hypothesis Revisited.” Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology 3(5): 275–284. Guidone, C., et al., 2006, “Mechanisms of Recovery from Type 2 Diabetes After Malabsorptive Bariatric Surgery.” Diabetes 55: 2025–2031. Hacking, Ian, 1984, The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.