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pages: 158 words: 16,993

Citation Needed: The Best of Wikipedia's Worst Writing by Conor Lastowka, Josh Fruhlinger

airport security, citation needed, en.wikipedia.org, jimmy wales, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking

Lost in the oppressive wackiness is the depressing fact glossed over in the first sentence: an ostrich, crushed by debt, prostitutes itself into slavery to Mickey Mouse for the meager potential reward of just three hundred dollars. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wacky_Races Male lactation Though boys and men have nipples, many are unaware that they also have mammary glands[citation needed] This claim was tested in an informal poll conducted on a New York City street corner. It proved that you will be beaten severely if you ask a bunch of random men whether they are aware that they have mammary glands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male_lactation Terminology of homosexuality Jizz Junkie[citation needed] Most find this term pejorative and prefer “semen enthusiast.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminology_of_homosexuality Joanna of Castile The early stages of Joanna and Philip’s relationship were quite passionate, and the feeling was mutual.

But after Hollywood and Madison Avenue shoved it down our throats for the better part of two decades, it’s slowly become just another hackneyed cliché. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hushpuppy The Harlem Globetrotters on Gilligan’s Island The original script was going to be known as The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders on Gilligan’s Island, but was changed to have the Harlem Globetrotters star instead.[citation needed] The pillow fight scenes suffered immensely from the change. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Harlem_Globetrotters_on_Gilligan’s_Island Da Vinci’s Notebook Enormous Penis is often wrongly assumed to be a Frank Zappa song. When it is, in fact, one of John Philip Sousa’s most underrated works. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Vinci’s_Notebook Punxsutawney Phil During the rest of the year, Phil lives in the town library with his “wife” Phyllis.

The quotes indicate the sinful, never legally sanctioned (but oft-consummated) nature of Phil and Phyllis’s sham marriage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punxsutawney_Phil Lew Zealand His thrown fish are unique in that they return to him once thrown. Something Katherine Hepburn’s thrown fish could never quite get the hang of. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lew_Zealand Animal Fancy One theory for the term “fan”, for one who supports a sports team or any public figure, is that it is likewise derived from this use of “fancy”. Other theories exist, however, including the idea that fan is short for fanatic. Consider too, the expression, “Well, fancy that.” Are you still considering it? We didn’t tell you that you could stop. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_fancy Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project Despite the fact that the cover art features the Turtles fighting a Triceraton, no Triceratons appear in the game.

pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

You can read more about game theory at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory. Appendix A. Call for Submissions The case studies in this book were written by students at Olin College, and edited by Lisa Downey and Allen Downey. They were reviewed by a program committee of faculty at Olin College who chose the ones that met the criteria of interest and quality. I am grateful to the program committee and the students. I invite readers to submit additional case studies. Reports that meet the criteria will be published in an online supplement to this book, and the best of them will be included in future print editions. The criteria are the following: The case study should be relevant to complexity. For an overview of possible topics, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complexity and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_systems.

One interesting kind is the Erdős-Rényi model, denoted , which generates graphs with n nodes, where the probability is p that there is an edge between any two nodes. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erdos-Renyi_model. Example 2-4. Create a file named RandomGraph.py, and define a class named RandomGraph that inherits from Graph and provides a method named add_random_edges that takes a probability p as a parameter and, starting with an edgeless graph, adds edges at random so that the probability is p that there is an edge between any two nodes. Connected Graphs A graph is connected if there is a path from every node to every other node. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connectivity_(graph_theory). There is a simple algorithm to check whether a graph is connected. Start at any vertex and conduct a search (usually a breadth-first-search or BFS), marking all the vertices you can reach.

This transition is sometimes called a “phase change” as an analogy with physical systems that change state at some critical value of temperature. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_transition. Example 2-6. One of the properties that displays this kind of transition is connectedness. For a given size n, there is a critical value, , such that a random graph is unlikely to be connected if and very likely to be connected if . Write a program that tests this result by generating random graphs for values of n and p, and then computing the fraction of the values that are connected. How does the abruptness of the transition depend on n? You can download my solution from http://thinkcomplex.com/RandomGraph.py. * * * [3] Much of this biography follows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Erdos. Iterators If you have read the documentation of Python dictionaries, you might have noticed the methods iterkeys, itervalues, and iteritems.

pages: 197 words: 35,256

NumPy Cookbook by Ivan Idris

business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, mandelbrot fractal, p-value, sorting algorithm, statistical model, transaction costs, web application

We can determine the steady state based on end of day close prices. Far into the distant future or in theory infinite time, the state of our Markov chain system will not change anymore. This is also called a steady state (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steady_state). The stochastic matrix (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_matrix) A, which contains the state transition probabilities, and when applied to the steady state, will yield the same state x. The mathematical notation for this will be as follows: Another way to look at this is as the eigenvector (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenvalues_and_eigenvectors) for eigenvalue 1. How to do it... Now we need to obtain the data. Obtain one year of data.One way we can do this is with Matplotlib (refer to the Installing Matplotlib recipe in Chapter 1, Winding Along with IPython, if necessary).

The Fibonacci series is a sequence of integers starting with zero, where each number is the sum of the previous two; except, of course, the first two numbers zero and one. For more information, read the Wikipedia article about Fibonacci numbers at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number . This recipe uses a formula based on the golden ratio, which is an irrational number with special properties comparable to pi. It we will use the sqrt, log, arange, astype, and sum functions. How to do it... The first thing to do is calculate the golden ratio (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio), also called the golden section or golden mean. Calculate the golden ratio.We will be using the sqrt function to calculate the square root of five: phi = (1 + numpy.sqrt(5))/2 print "Phi", phi This prints the golden mean: Phi 1.61803398875 Find the index below four million.Next in the recipe, we need to find the index of the Fibonacci number below four million.

arange Creates an array with a specified range. astype Converts array elements to a specified data type. sum Calculates the sum of array elements. See also The Indexing with booleans recipe in Chapter 2, Advanced Indexing and Array Concepts Finding prime factors Prime factors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_factor) are prime numbers that divide an integer exactly without a remainder. Finding prime factors seems almost impossible to crack. However, using the right algorithm—Fermat's factorization method (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermat%27s_factorization_method) and NumPy—it becomes very easy. The idea is to factor a number N into two numbers c and d, according to the following equation: We can apply the factorization recursively, until we get the required prime factors. How to do it...

pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

“The Invention of Woodblock Printing in the Tang (618–906) and Song (960–1279) Dynasties,” Asian Art Museum, http://education.asianart.org/explore-resources/background-information/invention-woodblock-printing-tang-618%E2%80%93906-and-song-960%E2%80%931279 (accessed June 26, 2019). 4. “Neolithic Revolution,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_Revolution#Social_change (accessed June 26, 2019). 5. “Plough,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plough#Hoeing (accessed June 26, 2019). 6. “Urbanization,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, http://www.ancient.eu/urbanization/ (June 26, 2019). 7. “Uruk,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uruk (accessed June 26, 2019). 8. David Osborn, “The History of Numbers,” Vedic Science, http://vedicsciences.net/articles/history-of-numbers.html (accessed June 26, 2019). 9. “Cuneiform,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform. 10. “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_of_Gilgamesh (accessed June 26, 2019). 11. “Trade in the Phoenician World,” Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.ancient.eu/article/881/trade-in-the-phoenician-world/ (accessed June 26, 2019). 12.

“Russian Developer of the Notorious ‘Citadel’ Malware Sentenced to Prison,” United States Department of Justice, September 29, 2015, https://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field-offices/atlanta/news/press-releases/russian-developer-of-the-notorious-citadel-malware-sentenced-to-prison (accessed June 26, 2019); and James Vincent, “$500 Million Botnet Citadel Attacked by Microsoft and the FBI,” Independent, June 6, 2013, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/500-million-botnet-citadel-attacked-by-microsoft-and-the-fbi-8647594.html (accessed June 26, 2019). 6. “Leonardo Torres y Quevedo,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_Torres_y_Quevedo (accessed June 26, 2019). 7. “R.U.R.,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R.U.R. (accessed June 26, 2019). 8. “Turing Test,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test (accessed June 26, 2019). 9. Tanya Lewis, “A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence,” Live Science, December 4, 2014, http://www.livescience.com/49007-history-of-artificial-intelligence.html (accessed June 26, 2019). 10. “Deep Blue,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer) (accessed June 26, 2019). 11. “AlphaGo vs Deep Blue,” Reddit, https://www.reddit.com/r/MachineLearning/comments/4a7lc4/alphago_vs_deep_blue/ (accessed June 26, 2019). 12.

Department of Labor, https://www.dol.gov/general/history/100/timeline (accessed on June 28, 2019); and “Health Insurance in the United States,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_insurance_in_the_United_States (accessed June 26, 2019). 35. “The National Labor Relations Act,” National Labor Relations Board, https://www.nlrb.gov/resources/national-labor-relations-act (accessed June 26, 2019). 36. “Labor Unions in the United States,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_unions_in_the_United_States#/media/File:United_States_union_membership_and_inequality,_top_1%25_income_share,_1910_to_2010.png (accessed June 26, 2019). 37. Ibid., https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_unions_in_the_United_States#/media/File:Union_membership_in_us_1930-2010.png (accessed June 26, 2019). 38. “Income Inequality in the United States,” Inequality.org, https://inequality.org/facts/income-inequality/ (accessed June 26, 2019). 39.

pages: 323 words: 65,306

Programming in CoffeeScript by Mark Bates

don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, MVC pattern, node package manager, Ruby on Rails, single page application, web application

See you there. Notes 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_(programming) 3. http://www.prototypejs.org/ 4. http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone/ 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model–view–controller 6. http://www.adobe.com/ 7. http://www.apple.com/ios/ 8. http://www.coffeescript.org 9. http://www.rubyonrails.org 10. http://www.rubyinside.com/rails-3-1-adopts-coffeescript-jquery-sass-and-controversy-4669.html 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_(programming_language) 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language) 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language) 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Php 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.NET_Framework 17. http://www.jquery.com 18. https://github.com/madrobby/zepto 19. http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone 20. http://pivotal.github.com/jasmine/ 21. http://ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/html/ref_c_object.html#Object.method_missing 22. http://nodejs.org Part I: Core CoffeeScript In this first half of the book we are going to cover everything you’ve ever wanted to know, and everything you’ll ever need to know, about CoffeeScript.

We’ve looked at the pros and cons of the ways that CoffeeScript can be compiled and are now armed with the knowledge we need to be able to play with the examples in the rest of this book. Finally, we dug into the coffee command to learn the most important options and parameters we can pass to it. Notes 1. Read-eval-print loop - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-eval-print_loop 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Html 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unobtrusive_JavaScript 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Json 5. Touching a file means lots of different things on different operating systems, but usually just saving the file is enough of a “touch” to trigger the -w into doing its magic. 6. https://github.com/guard/guard 7. https://github.com/TrevorBurnham/jitter 8. http://jashkenas.github.com/coffee-script/documentation/docs/command.html 2.

This chapter could have been called “The Basics—Part 2.” I’m telling you this because, armed with the knowledge contained within this chapter and Chapter 2, we have covered the basic building blocks of CoffeeScript. We can now start looking at the really fun stuff. Notes 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator_(programming) 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditional_(programming) 3. http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ternary_operation 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switch_statement 4. Functions and Arguments In this chapter we are going to look at one of the most essential parts of any language, the function. Functions allow us to encapsulate reusable and discrete code blocks. Without functions our code would be one long, unreadable, and unmaintainable mess.

pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Supreme Court, Speech at the American Bar Association Annual Meeting (Aug. 9, 2003)(revised Aug. 14, 2003), available at http://www.supremecourtus.gov/publicinfo/speeches/sp_08—09—03.html; Wikipedia, Rule of Law, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law (as of June 1, 2007, 08:30 GMT). 66. Wiki Truth, Jimbo Found Out, http://www.wikitruth.info/index.php?title=Jimbo_Found_Out (last visited June 1, 2007). 67. Wikipedia, Articles for Deletion/Angela Beesley, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: Articles_for_deletion/Angela_Beesley (as of Jan 6. 2007, 19:17 GMT). 68. Wikipedia, Articles for Deletion/Angela Beesley (3rd nomination), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Angela_Beesley_(3rd_nomination) (as of May 3, 2007, 16:46 GMT). 69. 17 U.S.C. § 512 (2000); see also Wikipedia, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Copyright_Infringement_Liability _Limitation_Act (providing a summary of the § 512 provisions of the DMCA) (as of June 1, 2007, 09:00 GMT); supra Ch. 5, note 83 and accompanying text. 70.

See Ward Cunningham, Wiki Design Principles http://www.c2.com/cgi/wikiiWiki DesignPrinciples (as of Mar. 26, 2007, 12:00 GMT) (explaining that his goals for the first release of Wiki included designing an “organic” system in which “[t]he structure and text content of the site are open to editing and evolution,” in which “[t]he mechanisms of editing and organizing are the same as those of writing so that any writer is automatically an editor and organizer,” and in which “[a]ctivity within the site can be watched and reviewed by any other visitor to the site”). Cunningham also notes that an additional principle was that “[e]verybody can contribute; nobody has to.” Id. 84. See Meyers, supra note 82; Wikipedia, Ward Cunningham, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Ward_Cunningham (as of May 10, 2007, 13:31 GMT); Wikipedia, Wiki, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WikiWiki (as of May 16, 2007, 23:11 GMT). 85. See Wikipedia, Wiki, supra note 84; Wikipedia, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wikipedia#History (as of May 16, 2007, 15:44 GMT). 86. For further discussion of commons-based peer production (including an examination of free software and Wikipedia) as an alternate economic modality, see Benkler, supra note 65, at 334—36. 87. There is evidence this is, in fact, already occurring.

See Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Wikipedia, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 30. Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Three-Revert Rule, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: Three-revert_rule (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 31. Wikipedia policy prohibits “wheel wars”—cases in which a Wikipedia administrator repeatedly undoes the action of another—just as it prohibits edit wars. See Wikipedia, Wheel War, http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wheel_war (as of May 30, 2007 at 21:40 GMT). A meta-meta-rule is that while administrators do not second-guess each others’ actions without good reason, some restrictions require persistent consensus among admins—nearly any admin may unprotect a page or remove a block. 32. See Wikipedia, Wikipedia: No Legal Threats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: No_legal_threats (as of May 30, 2007 at 21:41 GMT). 33. E.g., Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Editing with Tor, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tor (as ofJUNE 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT) (“English Wikipedia tends to block every Tor node.”). 34.

pages: 255 words: 78,207

Web Scraping With Python: Collecting Data From the Modern Web by Ryan Mitchell

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, optical character recognition, random walk, self-driving car, Turing test, web application

Obviously, you can define as many fields as you’d like (url, content, header image, etc.), but I’m simply collecting the title field from each page, for now. In your newly created articleSpider.py file, write the following: from scrapy.selector import Selector from scrapy import Spider from wikiSpider.items import Article class ArticleSpider(Spider): name="article" allowed_domains = ["en.wikipedia.org"] start_urls = ["http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page", "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_%28programming_language%29"] def parse(self, response): item = Article() title = response.xpath('//h1/text()')[0].extract() print("Title is: "+title) item['title'] = title return item The name of this object (ArticleSpider) is different from the name of the directory (WikiSpider), indicating that this class in particular is responsible for spidering only through article pages, under the broader category of WikiSpider.

Using modi‐ fied code from Chapter 3, the following script does just that: from urllib.request import urlopen from bs4 import BeautifulSoup import datetime import random import re random.seed(datetime.datetime.now()) def getLinks(articleUrl): html = urlopen("http://en.wikipedia.org"+articleUrl) bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) return bsObj.find("div", {"id":"bodyContent"}).findAll("a", href=re.compile("^(/wiki/)((?!:).)*$")) def getHistoryIPs(pageUrl): #Format of revision history pages is: #http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Title_in_URL&action=history pageUrl = pageUrl.replace("/wiki/", "") historyUrl = "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=" +pageUrl+"&action=history" print("history url is: "+historyUrl) html = urlopen(historyUrl) bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) #finds only the links with class "mw-anonuserlink" which has IP addresses #instead of usernames ipAddresses = bsObj.findAll("a", {"class":"mw-anonuserlink"}) addressList = set() for ipAddress in ipAddresses: addressList.add(ipAddress.get_text()) return addressList links = getLinks("/wiki/Python_(programming_language)") while(len(links) > 0): for link in links: print("-------------------") historyIPs = getHistoryIPs(link.attrs["href"]) for historyIP in historyIPs: print(historyIP) newLink = links[random.randint(0, len(links)-1)].attrs["href"] links = getLinks(newLink) This program uses two main functions: getLinks (which was also used in Chapter 3), and the new getHistoryIPs, which searches for the contents of all links with the 66 | Chapter 4: Using APIs class mw-anonuserlink (indicating an anonymous user with an IP address, rather than a username) and returns it as a set.

You should already know how to write a Python script that retrieves an arbitrary Wikipedia page and produces a list of links on that page: from urllib.request import urlopen from bs4 import BeautifulSoup html = urlopen("http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Bacon") bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) for link in bsObj.findAll("a"): if 'href' in link.attrs: print(link.attrs['href']) If you look at the list of links produced, you’ll notice that all the articles you’d expect are there: “Apollo 13,” “Philadelphia,” “Primetime Emmy Award,” and so on. However, there are some things that we don’t want as well: //wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_policy //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us In fact, Wikipedia is full of sidebar, footer, and header links that appear on every page, along with links to the category pages, talk pages, and other pages that do not contain different articles: /wiki/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_April_2014 /wiki/Talk:Kevin_Bacon Recently a friend of mine, while working on a similar Wikipedia-scraping project, mentioned he had written a very large filtering function, with over 100 lines of code, in order to determine whether an internal Wikipedia link was an article page or not.

pages: 589 words: 69,193

Mastering Pandas by Femi Anthony

Amazon Web Services, Bayesian statistics, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, natural language processing, p-value, random walk, side project, statistical model, Thomas Bayes

We can then invoke the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem (CLT) and denote the mean of sample means as an estimate of the true population mean. The population mean is also referred to as the expected value of the population. The mean, as a calculated value, is often not one of the values observed in the dataset. The main drawback of using the mean is that it is very susceptible to outlier values, or if the dataset is very skewed. For additional information, please refer to these links at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_mean_and_sample_covariance, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_large_numbers, and http://bit.ly/1bv7l4s. The median The median is the data value that divides the set of sorted data values into two halves. It has exactly half of the population to its left and the other half to its right. In the case when the number of values in the dataset is even, the median is the average of the two middle values.

A memoryless random variable exhibits the property whereby its future state depends only on relevant information about the current time and not the information from further in the past. An example of modeling a Markovian/memoryless random variable is modeling short-term stock price behavior and the idea that it follows a random walk. This leads to what is called the Efficient Market hypothesis in Finance. For more information, refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_walk_hypothesis. The PDF of the exponential distribution is given by =. The expectation and variance are given by the following expression: For a reference, refer to the link at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_distribution. The plot of the distribution and code is given as follows: In [15]: import scipy.stats clrs = colors.cnames x = np.linspace(0,4, 100) expo = scipy.stats.expon lambda_ = [0.5, 1, 2, 5] plt.figure(figsize=(12,4)) for l,c in zip(lambda_,clrs): plt.plot(x, expo.pdf(x, scale=1.

A good example in the area of retail would be Target Corporation, which has invested substantially in big data and is now able to identify potential customers by using big data to analyze people's shopping habits online; refer to a related article at http://nyti.ms/19LT8ic. Loosely speaking, big data refers to the phenomenon wherein the amount of data exceeds the capability of the recipients of the data to process it. Here is a Wikipedia entry on big data that sums it up nicely: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data. 4 V's of big data A good way to start thinking about the complexities of big data is along what are called the 4 dimensions, or 4 V's of big data. This model was first introduced as the 3V's by Gartner analyst Doug Laney in 2001. The 3V's stood for Volume, Velocity, and Variety, and the 4th V, Veracity, was added later by IBM. Gartner's official definition is as follows: "Big data is high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery and process optimization."

pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

title=The_Death_and_Life_of_Great_American _Cities & oldid=5639 (retrieved June 8, 2007). 36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Rambot/Delete 17:32, 11 Sep 2003 (UTC). 37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots#Restrictions_on _specific_tasks. 38. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 39. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Ignore_all_rules& oldid=54587. 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view. 42. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Notability. 43. Wikipedia has come so far that inclusion implies societal validation of a concept. 44. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-November/008153.html. 45. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Edit_war. Notes_233 46. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Three_revert _rule _enforcement. 47.

Larry Sanger, “Let’s make a wiki” (email), Nupedia-L mailing list, Nupedia, January 10, 2001, http://web.archive .org/web/20030414014355/http://www.nupedia.com/ pipermail/nupedia-l/ 2001-January/000676.html (retrieved on May 1, 2008). 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Mark_Richards/Archive_2#The_ .22Encyclo pedia_that_Slashdot_Built.22_Awards. 22. Simon Winchester, The Meaning of Everything (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). 23. Ibid, p. 108. 24. Ibid, p. 57. 25. Ibid, p. 200. 26. http://huettermann.net/index.php/?cat-2 . 27. 2006 figure. Chapter 5. COMMUNITY AT WORK (THE PIRANHA EFFECT) 28. CNN, December 5, 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:SushiGeek/Wales_inter view_transcript. 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Be_bold& oldid=38947. 30. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-February/001149.html. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Advice_for_new_administrators. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Awareness_statistics. 33. http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/TablesWikipediaEN.htm. 34. 4,687 editors made more than 100 edits each that month. 35. http://wikisummaries.org/index.php?

From “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” p. 65. 68. http://www.firstmonday.org/Issues/issue8_12/ciffolilli/. 69. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.03/wiki.html. 234_Notes 70. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml ?title=Albert_Einstein& diff=2380047& oldid= 2380036 . 71. http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/wiki/Proceedings:MP1. Chapter 8. CRISIS OF COMMUNITY 72. http://wwwtcsdaily.com/article .aspx?id=111504A. 73. http://ascii.textfiles.com/archives/000060.html. 74. http://www.news.com/In-search -of-the-Wikipedia-prankster—page-2/2008-1029_3 -5995977-2 .html ?tag=st.next. 75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Semi-protection_policy#Semi -protection. 76. http://chronicle.com/wiredcampus/index.php?id=1909. 77. http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/wikipedia=oops/. 78. http://en.wikipedia.org / w/ index.php?title =Talk:Imprimatur& diff= prev& oldid= 12614544. 79. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Administrators%27_notice board/Incidents& diff=47360865& oldid=47360559. 80. http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Jimmy_Wales_asks _Wikipedian_to_resign_ %22his_po sitions_of_trust %22_over_nonexistent_degrees. 81. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2007-03-05/Essjay.

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Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (New York: Basic, 2013). 9. Rebecca MacKinnon, “Keynote Speech on Surveillance,” in Opening Ceremony of the Freedom Online Conference, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, http://consentofthenetworked.com/2013/06/17/freedom-online-keynote/. 10. “Aaron Swartz,” Wikipedia, accessed June 29, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Swartz. 11. “Russian Business Network,” Wikipedia, accessed June 19, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Business_Network. 12. “Zero-Day Attack,” Wikipedia, accessed June 21, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-day_attack. 13. “U.S.-Style Personal Data Gathering Is Spreading Worldwide,” Forbes, accessed June 29, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamtanner/2013/10/16/u-s-style-personal-data-gathering-spreading-worldwide/; Paul Schwartz, Managing Global Privacy (Berkeley: ThePrivacyProjects.org, January 2009), accessed September 30, 2014, http://theprivacyprojects.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/The-Privacy-Projects-Paul-Schwartz-Global-Data-Flows-20093.pdf. 14.

Empire of Connected Things 1. Internet Census 2012: Port Scanning /0 Using Insecure Embedded Devices, 2012, accessed September 15, 2014, http://internetcensus2012.bitbucket.org/paper.html. 2. Edith Penrose and Christos Pitelis, The Theory of the Growth of the Firm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); “Edith Penrose,” Wikipedia, accessed June 23, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Penrose. 3. “Hudson’s Bay Company,” Wikipedia, accessed June 15, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson’s_Bay_Company; “East India Company (English Trading Company),” Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed June 16, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176643/East-India-Company. 4. “ITU: Committed to Connecting the World,” accessed June 16, 2014, http://www.itu.int/. 5. “Internet Users in the World,” Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics, June 30, 2012, http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. 6.

“Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group,” Wikipedia, accessed June 20, 2014, http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Threat_Research_Intelligence_Group. 34. Associated Press, “US Secretly Created ‘Cuban Twitter’ to Stir Unrest and Undermine Government,” Guardian, April 3, 2014, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/03/us-cuban-twitter-zunzuneo-stir-unrest. 35. “Storm Botnet,” Wikipedia, accessed June 30, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storm_botnet. 36. “Kraken Botnet,” Wikipedia, accessed June 19, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kraken_botnet. 37. “The Spamhaus Project,” accessed June 20, 2014, http://www.spamhaus.org/. 38. Raphael Satter, “Spamhaus Hit with ‘Largest Publicly Announced DDoS Attack’ Ever, Affecting Internet Users Worldwide,” Huffington Post, March 27, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/27/spamhaus-cyber-attack_n_2963632.html?

pages: 681 words: 64,159

Numpy Beginner's Guide - Third Edition by Ivan Idris

algorithmic trading, business intelligence, Conway's Game of Life, correlation coefficient, Debian, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Khan Academy, p-value, random walk, reversible computing, time value of money

To learn about the datetime64 data type, start a Python shell and import NumPy as follows: $ python >>> import numpy as np Create a datetime64 from a string (you can use another date if you like): >>> np.datetime64('2015-04-22') numpy.datetime64('2015-04-22') In the preceding code, we created a datetime64 for April 22, 2015, which happens to be Earth Day. We used the YYYY-MM-DD format, where Y corresponds to the year, M corresponds to the month, and D corresponds to the day of the month. NumPy uses the ISO 8601 standard (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601 ). This is an internatonal standard to represent dates and tmes. ISO 8601 allows the YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY-MM, and YYYYMMDD formats. Check for yourself, as follows: >>> np.datetime64('2015-04-22') numpy.datetime64('2015-04-22') >>> np.datetime64('2015-04') numpy.datetime64('2015-04') 2. By default, ISO 8601 uses the local tme zone. Times can be specifed using the format T[hh:mm:ss].

The SMA is, afer all, nothing more than a convoluton with equal weights or, if you like, unweighted. Convoluton is a mathematcal operaton on two functons defned as the integral of the product of the two functons afer one of the functons is reversed and shifed. ( f ∗ g ) ( t ) = ∫ −∞ f ( τ ) g ( t − τ ) d τ = ∫ −∞ f ( t − τ ) g ( τ ) d τ Convoluton is described on Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Convolution . Khan Academy also has a tutorial on convoluton at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/differential- equations/laplace-transform/convolution-integral/v/ introduction-to-the-convolution . Use the following steps to compute the SMA: 1. Use the ones() functon to create an array of size N and elements initalized to 1 , and then, divide the array by N to give us the weights: N = 5 weights = np.ones(N) / N print("Weights", weights) For N = 5 , this gives us the following output: Weights [ 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2] 2.

Keeping an open mind, let's assume that we can express a stock price p as a linear combinaton of previous values, that is, a sum of those values multplied by certain coefcients we need to determine: N p t = b + ∑ i= 1 a t − i p t − i In linear algebra terms, this boils down to fnding a least-squares method (see https:// www.khanacademy.org/math/linear-algebra/alternate_bases/orthogonal_ projections/v/linear-algebra-least-squares-approximation ). Independently of each other, the astronomers Legendre and Gauss created the least squares method around 1805 (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Least_squares ). The method was initally used to analyze the moton of celestal bodies. The algorithm minimizes the sum of the squared residuals (the diference between measured and predicted values): ∑ n ( measured i − predicted i ) 2 i= 1 The recipe goes as follows: 1. First, form a vector b containing N price values: b = c[-N:] b = b[::-1] print("b", x) The result is as follows: b [ 351.99 346.67 352.47 355.76 355.36] 2.

pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

The time to grow n-times is 100ln(n). 22 Rule of 70. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_70 23 According to other accounts, it was a legendary Dravida VellalarDravidian peoples is a term used to refer to the diverse groups of people who natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Populations of speakers of around 220 million are found mostly in Southern India. Vellalars (also, Velalars, Vellalas) were, originally, an elite caste of Tamil agricultural landlords in Tamil Nadu, Kerala states in India and in neighbouring Sri Lanka; they were the nobility, aristocracy of the ancient Tamil order (Chera/Chola/Pandya/Sangam era) and had close relations with the different royal dynasties. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_peoples http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vellalar named Sessa or Sissa. There exist many different variation of the same story, one set in the Roman Empire involving a brave general and his Cæsar, another with two merchants at the market, all different situations producing the same result.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_peoples http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vellalar named Sessa or Sissa. There exist many different variation of the same story, one set in the Roman Empire involving a brave general and his Cæsar, another with two merchants at the market, all different situations producing the same result. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_and_chessboard_problem 24 Image courtesy of Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wheat_Chessboard_with_line.svg 25 Cramming more components onto integrated circuits, Gordon E. Moore, 1965. Electronics Magazine. p. 4. http://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-Press_Releases/Gordon_Moore_1965_Article.pdf 26 The Law of Accelerating Returns March 7, Ray Kurzweil, 2001. http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns 27 The Chinese room is a thought experiment presented by John Searle. It supposes that there is a program that gives a computer the ability to carry on an intelligent conversation in written Chinese.

Similarly, Searle concludes, a computer executing the program would not understand the conversation either. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_room 28 A ‘facepalm’ is the physical gesture of placing one’s hand flat across one’s face or lowering one’s face into one’s hand or hands. The gesture is found in many cultures as a display of frustration, disappointment, embarrassment, shock, or surprise. It has been popularised as an Internet meme based on an image of the character Captain Jean-Luc Picard performing the gesture in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode “DéjàQ”. http://picardfacepalm.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facepalm 29 Intelligence Without Reason, Rodney A. Brooks, 1991. Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

For a fascinating discussion of the concept of authorship in Renaissance Italy and of the Venetian Council of Ten Decree of 1545, see Joanna Kostylo’s Commentary on the Venetian Decree of 1545 regulating author/printer relations, on the invaluable Primary Sources in Copyright website. Professor Kostylo’s commentary is available at: http://www.copyrighthistory.org/cgi-bin/kleioc/0010/exec/ ausgabeCom/%22i_1545%22. See Early Music Borrowing (Honey Meconi ed. 2004); http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parody_mass. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josquin_des_Prez. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraphrase_mass. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josquin_des_Prez. K. 180. For further examples and a discussion, see Charles Rosen’s article, “Influence: Plagiarism and Inspiration,” in 19th Century Music, Issue 2, Autumn 1980, pages 87–100. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_ hybrid%29; Matthew Rimmer, Copyright Law and Mash-Ups: A Policy Paper, Australian National University (2010); “Mashing-Up Culture: The Rise of User-Generated Content,” Proceedings from the COUNTER Workshop, Uppsala University, May 13–14, 2009); James Boyle, The Public Domain, Chapter 6 (“I Got a Mashup”) (2008, Yale University Press); Olufunmilayo Arewa, From J.C.

., a private industrial group run by Len Blavatnik, a Russian businessman. 266 NOTES TO PAGES 21–26 22. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives,106th Congress, 2d Session, page 120 (May 25, 2000). Serial No. 145. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/ committees/judiciary/hju65223.000/hju65223_0f.htm. 23. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studio_system. 24. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_the_United_States# Golden_Age_of_Hollywood. 25. 334 U.S. 131 (1948). 26. Edward Jay Epstein, The Big Picture: Money and Power in Hollywood 112 (2006, Random House). See also Schuyler Moore, The Biz: The Basic Business, Legal and Financial Aspects of the Film Industry (2007, 3d edition, Silman-James Press). 27. http://thehollywoodeconomist.blogspot.com.

Thucydides, Book Five, History of the Peloponnesian Wars, reproduced in The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War 352 (Robert Strassler ed., The Free Press 1996). The Athenians made good on this realpolitik by killing the Melian men, enslaving the Melian women and children, and then repopulating it as an Athenian state. See http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Melian_dialogue, and A.B., Bosworth. “The Humanitarian Aspect of the Melian Dialogue.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 113 (1993): 31, http://www.jstor.org/stable/632396; W. Liebeschuetz. “The Structure and Function of the Melian Dialogue.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 88 (1968): 75, http://www.jstor. org/stable/628672. 47. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melian_dialogue. 48. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8681410. See http://www .michaelgeist.ca/content/view/5563/125/. 49. See http://business.financialpost.com/2011/05/30/judge-approvessettlement-in-music-royalties-class-action/. 50.

Programming Computer Vision with Python by Jan Erik Solem

augmented reality, computer vision, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, text mining, Thomas Bayes, web application

Use this to determine if a pair of images contains a planar scene, for example using the inlier count. A planar scene will have a high inlier count for an affine transformation. Build a panograph (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panography) from a collection (for example from Flickr) by matching local features and using least-squares rigid registration. * * * [8] A convex combination is a linear combination ∑jαjxi (in this case of the triangle points) such that all coefficients αj are non-negative and sum to 1. [9] The edges are actually the dual graph of a Voronoi diagram. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaunay_triangulation. [10] Images are courtesy of J. K. Keller (with permission). See http://jk-keller.com/daily-photo/ for more details. Chapter 4. Camera Models and Augmented Reality In this chapter, we will look at modeling cameras and how to effectively use such models.

Morphology—Counting Objects Morphology (or mathematical morphology) is a framework and a collection of image processing methods for measuring and analyzing basic shapes. Morphology is usually applied to binary images but can be used with grayscale also. A binary image is an image in which each pixel takes only two values, usually 0 and 1. Binary images are often the result of thresholding an image, for example with the intention of counting objects or measuring their size. A good summary of morphology and how it works is in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_morphology. Morphological operations are included in the scipy.ndimage module morphology. Counting and measurement functions for binary images are in the scipy.ndimage module measurements. Let’s look at a simple example of how to use them. Consider the binary image in Figure 1-12.[4] Counting the objects in that image can be done using: from scipy.ndimage import measurements,morphology # load image and threshold to make sure it is binary im = array(Image.open('houses.png').convert('L')) im = 1*(im<128) labels, nbr_objects = measurements.label(im) print "Number of objects:", nbr_objects This loads the image and makes sure it is binary by thresholding.

Now, let’s see what happens with a real image: from PIL import Image from pylab import * import rof im = array(Image.open('empire.jpg').convert('L')) U,T = rof.denoise(im,im) figure() gray() imshow(U) axis('equal') axis('off') show() The result should look something like Figure 1-14, which also shows a blurred version of the same image for comparison. As you can see, ROF de-noising preserves edges and image structures while at the same time blurring out the “noise.” Exercises Take an image and apply Gaussian blur like in Figure 1-9. Plot the image contours for increasing values of σ. What happens? Can you explain why? Implement an unsharp masking operation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unsharp_masking) by blurring an image and then subtracting the blurred version from the original. This gives a sharpening effect to the image. Try this on both color and grayscale images. An alternative image normalization to histogram equalization is a quotient image. A quotient image is obtained by dividing the image with a blurred version I/(I * Gσ). Implement this and try it on some sample images.

pages: 524 words: 143,993

The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--And Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf

air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The International Monetary Fund’s Global Financial Stability Report for April 2006 stated, baldly and boldly: ‘There is growing recognition that the dispersion of credit risk by banks to a broader and more diverse set of investors, rather than warehousing such risk on their balance sheets, has helped make the banking and overall financial system more resilient.’ See Global Financial Stability Report (Washington DC: International Monetary Fund, 2006), p. 51. 8. On IKB, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IKB_Deutsche_Industriebank, on the eight Norwegian municipalities, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Securities_scandal, and on Narvik, in particular, which lost $18 million in August 2007, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narvik. 9. Skidelsky, Keynes, p. 8, and Tom Braithwaite and Chris Tighe, ‘Patient Queues in Very British Bank Run’, Financial Times, 14 September 2007. 10. Paul McCulley invented the term ‘Shadow Banking System’ for intermediation via money-market funds, special investment vehicles (SIVs), conduits and hedge funds.

See Lawrence Summers, ‘Why Stagnation might Prove to be the New Normal’, 15 December 2013, Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/87cb15ea-5d1a-11e3-a558-00144feabdc0.html. On Alvin Hansen, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Hansen. 55. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_wealth_fund#Size_of_SWFs and http://www.swfinstitute.org/fund-rankings/. 56. See Kenneth Rogoff, ‘Globalization and Global Deflation’, Paper prepared for the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City conference on ‘Monetary Policy and Uncertainty: Adapting to a Changing Economy’, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 29 August 2003, https://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2003/082903.htm. 57. See ‘Moore’s Law’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore’s_law. 58. On the forces driving inequality and their consequences, see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (Paris: OECD, 2011), Joseph Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers our Future (New York and London: Norton, 2012), and Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA, and London, England, 2014). 59.

‘Communiqué’, Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, Busan, Republic of Korea, 5 June 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/422d6406-7093-11df-96ab-00144feabdc0.pdf. 2. Financial Times, 22 August 2013, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6fea2b90-09bf-11e3-ad07-00144feabdc0.html. 3. ‘Declaration on Strengthening the Financial System’, London Summit, 2 April 2009, http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/g20_summit/2009-1/annex2.html. 4. On Basel III, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_III. 5. On Basel I, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_I. 6. On Basel II, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_II. 7. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, ‘Basel III: A Global Regulatory Framework for More Resilient Banks and Banking Systems’, December 2010 (revised June 2011), http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs189.pdf. See also Independent Commission on Banking, Final Report: Recommendations, London, September 2011, p. 84, https://hmt-sanctions.s3.amazonaws.com/ICB20final%20reportICB%2520Final%2520Report%5B1%5D.pdf. 8.

Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project by Karl Fogel

active measures, AGPL, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, collaborative editing, continuous integration, corporate governance, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, natural language processing, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pull request, revision control, Richard Stallman, selection bias, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, SpamAssassin, web application, zero-sum game

You may be able to avoid a lot of the headache of choosing and configuring many of these tools by using a canned hosting site: an online service that offers prepackaged, templatized web services with some or all of the collaboration tools needed to run a free software project. See the section called “Canned Hosting” later in this chapter for a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of canned hosting. * * * [26] From his book The Mythical Man Month, 1975. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Mythical_Man-Month, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooks_Law, and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Brooks. Web Site For our purposes, the web site means web pages devoted to helping people participate in the project as developers, documenters, etc. Note that this is different from the main user-facing web site. In many projects, users have different needs and often (statistically speaking) a different mentality from the developers.

[51] While some selection bias no doubt informs my experience — after all, the consultant tends to get brought in when things are going wrong, not when they're going right — my assertion that proprietary vendors don't get open source right if left to their own habits is based not just on my own experiences but also on talking to many other people, who report the same finding with remarkable consistency. [52] For a more general discussion of IV&V, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verification_and_validation and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_verification_and_validation. Note that neither of those discusses open source specifically, however Funding Non-Programming Activities Programming is only part of the work that goes on in an open source project. From the point of view of the project's participants, it's the most visible and glamorous part. This unfortunately means that other activities, such as documentation, formal testing, etc., can sometimes be neglected, at least compared to the amount of attention they often receive in proprietary software.

But the packagers are also doing the project a favor, by taking on a mostly unglamorous job in order to make the software more widely available, often by orders of magnitude. It's fine to disagree with packagers, but don't flame them; just try to work things out as best you can. * * * [73] See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minification_%28programming%29. [74] Your all-caps files — README, INSTALL, etc — may of course have ".txt" extensions, or ".md" to indicate Markdown (daringfireball.net/projects/markdown) format, etc. [75] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozilla_Corporation_software_rebranded_by_the_Debian_project#Iceweasel gives a well-known example of this. Testing and Releasing Once the source distribution is produced from the stabilized release branch, the public part of the release process begins. But before the distribution is made available to the world at large, it should be tested and approved by some minimum number of developers, usually three or more.

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I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

view=long&pmid=16014596 Kids Who Spot Bullshit, and the Adults Who Get Upset About It Kids Who Spot: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/kids-who-spot-bullshit-and-the-adults-who-get-upset-about-it/ Ryan Giggs’s penis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Giggs Brain Gym: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/category/brain-gym/ writing about since 2003: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/2003/06/work-out-your-mind/ pay hundreds of thousands: http://www.davidcolarusso.com/blog/?p=48 hundreds of state schools: http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=%22brain+gym%22+inurl%3Asch.uk Emily Rosa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Rosa published a scientific paper: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/279/13/1005.full Journal of the American Medical Association: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journal_of_the_American_Medical_Association practitioners were deeply unhappy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Rosa Rhys Morgan: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/sep/15/miracle-mineral-solutions-mms-bleach www.crohnsforum.com: http://www.crohnsforum.com/ finding official documents: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm220756.htm The adults banned him: http://thewelshboyo.co.uk/?

id=369 ‘Who is Having Babies’: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/births 1209.pdf ‘Dog Shoots Man’: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/02/01/ap/strange/main6162474.shtml ‘Dog Shoots Man in Back’: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,291687,00.html another in Iowa: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7068549.stm Puppy Shoots Man: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5950304 Datamining for Terrorists Would Be Lovely If It Worked Datamining for Terrorists: http://www.badscience.net/2009/02/data mining-would-be-lovely-if-it-worked/ This week Sir David Omand: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/feb/25/database-state-ippr-paper described how the state: http://www.ippr.org/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=646 what statisticians call the ‘specificity’: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_(tests) Benford’s Law: Using Stats to Bust an Entire Nation for Naughtiness Benford’s Law: http://www.badscience.net/2011/09/benfords-law-using-stats-to-bust-an-entire-nation-for-naughtiness/ something called Benford’s Law: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benford%27s_law 61,838,154 in 2009: http://www.google.co.uk/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&met_y=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:GBR&dl=en&hl=en&q=uk+population think about why this happens: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benfords_law testingbenfordslaw.com: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/ Twitter users’ follower counts: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/twitter-users-by-followers-count books in different libraries: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/total-number-of-print-materials-in-us-libraries countries’ economic data: http://econpapers.repec.org/article/blagermec/v_3a10_3ay_3a2009_3ai_3a_3ap_3a339-351.htm the results were published: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0475.2011.00542.x/abstract hat-tip to Tim Harford: http://timharford.com/2011/09/look-out-for-no-1/ macroeconomic data: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/esa95_supply_use_input_tables/data/workbooks online repository Eurostat: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/esa95_supply_use_input_tables/introduction run several investigations: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/product_details/publication?

q=coffee+hallucinations+location%3Auk exactly what the researchers did: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.032 survey is still online: http://psychology.dur.ac.uk:82/srj/caffeine2.html ‘Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale’: http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Launay-Slade+Hallucination+Scale alternative explanations: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confounding_variable the academic paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.032 the press release: http://www.alphagalileo.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=readrelease&releaseid=535120&ez_search=1 ‘multiple comparisons’: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_comparisons no one was there: http://www.thinkgeek.com/caffeine/accessories/5a65/ draw a target around them: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_sharpshooter_fallacy Voices of the Ancients Voices of the Ancients: http://www.badscience.net/2010/01/voices-of-the-ancients/ Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1240746/Prehistoric-sat-nav-set-ancestors-Britain.html the Metro: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/807855-did-prehistoric-satnav-help-britons-find-their-way Matt Parker: http://www.standupmaths.com/ applied the same techniques: http://bengoldacre.posterous.com/did-aliens-play-a-role-in-woolworths BIG DATA There’s Something Magical About Watching Patterns Emerge from Data There’s Something Magical: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/theres-something-magical-about-watching-patterns-emerge-from-data/ British Medical Journal: http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d2983.full first NHS reforms: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/nhs Give Us the Data A consultation is under way: http://c561635.r35.cf2.rackcdn.com/A-Consultation-on-Data-Policy-for-a-Public-Data-Corporation.pdf foolishly restrictive: http://pdcconsult.ernestmarples.com/ everyday government data: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/government-data forbidden to repurpose it: http://hadleybeeman.net/2011/01/26/uses-for-open-data/ TheyWorkForYou.com: http://www.theyworkforyou.com/ all our postcode information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postcodes_in_the_United_Kingdom the house-number boundaries: http://ernestmarples.com/blog/2010/01/postcode-petition-response-our-reply/ make the government: http://pdcconsult.ernestmarples.com/ Care.data Can Save Lives: But Not If We Bungle It greatest need in the NHS http://www.theguardian.com/society/nhs at risk by the bungled: http://www.nature.com/news/power-to-the-people-1.14505?

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Mastering ElasticSearch by Rafal Kuc, Marek Rogozinski

Amazon Web Services, create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, information retrieval

This is an expert setting. The following options are available: the internaldefault comparison algorithm based on optimized implementation of the Damerau Levenshtein similarity algorithm, damerau_levenshtein is the implementation of the Damerau Levenshtein string distance algorithm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damerau–Levenshtein_distance), levenstein which is an implementation of Levenshtein distance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance), jarowinkler which is an implementation of the Jaro-Winkler distance algorithm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaro-Winkler_distance) and finally the ngram, which is an n-gram based distance algorithm. Note Because we've used the terms suggester during the initial examples, we decided to skip showing how to query the terms suggester and how the response would look like in this place.

You can read more about the n-gram smoothing models by visiting at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram#Smoothing_techniques and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katz's_back-off_model (which is similar to the stupid backoff model described). Laplace The Laplace smoothing model is also called additive smoothing. When used (in order to use it, we need to use the laplace value as its name), a constant value equal to the value of the alpha parameter (which is by default 0.5) will be added to counts to balance the weights of frequent and infrequent n-grams. As mentioned, the Laplace smoothing model can be configured using the alpha property, which is by default set to 0.5. The usual values for this parameter are typically equal or below 1.0. You can read more about additive smoothing at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Additive_smoothing. Linear interpolation Linear interpolation is the last smoothing model that takes the values of the lambdas provided in the configuration and uses them to calculate weights of trigrams, bigrams and unigrams.

Communicating with ElasticSearch We talked about how ElasticSearch is built, but after all, the most important part for us is how to feed it with data and how to build your queries. In order to do that ElasticSearch exposes a sophisticated API. The primary API is REST based (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer) and is easy to integrate with practically any system that can send HTTP requests. ElasticSearch assumes that data is sent in the URL, or as the request body as JSON document (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON). If you use Java or language based on JVM, you should look at Java API, which in addition to everything that is offered by the REST API has built-in cluster discovery. It is worth mentioning that Java API is also used internally by the ElasticSearch itself to do all the node to node communication.

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Jenkins Continuous Integration Cookbook by Alan Berg

anti-pattern, continuous integration, Debian, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, job automation, performance metric, revision control, web application

You should now see an extra sub-directory named FULL-{timestamp}, where {timestamp} is the time to the second that the full backup was created. Click on the Restore icon. A select box restore backup form will be shown with the dates of the backups. Select the backup just created. Click on the Restore button. To guarantee the consistency, restart the Jenkins server. How it works... The backup scheduler uses the cron notation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cron). 1 0 * * 7 means every seventh day of the week at 00:01 AM. 1 1 * * * implies that differential backup occurs once per day at 1.01 A.M. Every seventh day, the previous differentials are deleted. Differential backups contain only files that have been modified since the last full backup. The plugin looks at the last modified date to work out which files need to be backed up. The process can sometimes go wrong if another process changes the last modified date, without actually changing the content of the files. 61 is the number of directories created with backups.

A fuzzer goes through a series of URLs, appends different parameters blindly, and checks the response from servers. The inputted parameters are variations of scripting commands such as<script>alert("random string");</script>. An attack vector is found if the server's response includes the unescaped version of the script. Cross Site Scripting attacks are currently one of the more popular forms of attack (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting). The attack involves injecting script fragments into the client's browser so that the script runs as if it comes from a trusted website. For example, once you have logged in to an application, it is probable that your session ID is stored in a cookie. The injected script might read the value in the cookie and then send the information to another server ready for an attempt at reuse.

This action not only removes the risk of running unsolicited JavaScript, but also removes some flexibility for you as the administrator of the Job. You can no longer add formatting tags, such as font. The Mask Passwords plugin removes the password from the screen or the console, replacing each character of the password with the letter "x", thus avoiding accidental reading. You should also always keep this plugin turned on, unless you find undocumented side effects or need to debug a Job. Cross Site Request Forgery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery) occurs, for example, if you accidentally visit a third-party location. A script at that location then tries to make your browser perform an action (such as delete a Job) by making your web browser visit a known URL within Jenkins. Jenkins, thinking that the browser is doing your bidding, then complies with the request. Once the nonce feature is turned on, Jenkins avoids CSRF by generating a random one-time number called a nonce that is returned as part of the request.

pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal, WikiLeaks

Henry Kamen, Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice (New Haven, 2001). III 125. www.spain-flag.eu/region-spain-flags/aragon.htm (2008). 126. Armand de Fluvià i Escorsa, Els quatre pals: l’escut dels comtes de Barcelona (Barcelona, 1994). 127. See J. Llobera, The Role of Historical Memory in (Ethno)Nation-Building (London, 1996). 128. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/els_segadors (2011). 129. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/himno_de_aragon (2011). 130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/himno_de_la_comunidad_valenciana (2011). 131. ‘The Anthem of Majorca’, http://www.consellmallorca.net/?&id_parent=272&id_section=1855&id_son=749& (2011). 132. ‘Hymne á la Catalogne’, http:www.oasisdesartistes.com/modules/newbbex/viewtopic.php? (2011). 133. Bisson, Medieval Crown, pp. 189–90. Chapter 5. LITVA Bibliographical Note.

I 1. http://un.org/members/list.shtml (2008). 2. http://montenegro.embassyhomepage.com (2008). 3. www.visit-montenegro.com/tourism-mcc.htm (2008). 4. http://www.summitpost.org/durmitor/152176 (2011). 5. Claire Wrathall, ‘A Star Reborn’, Financial Times (4–5 June 2011); http://www.amanresorts.com. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/podgorica (2008). 7. http://en.wikipedia.org.wiki/cetinje (2008). 8. BBC News, 14 November 2002; Steve Hanke, ‘Inflation Nation’, Wall Street Journal (24 May 2006). 9. http://media.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008 (2008); Russia weighed in at 147th, and Belarus at 151st. Denmark is top, Somalia bottom. 10. ‘Controversy over Montenegrin ethnic identity’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/montenegrins. 11. ‘Montenegro’s Referendum’, www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?=4144 (2006). 12. Radio Free Europe, 17 October 2008. 13. www.earthconservation.net/dam-effect-on-environment.html (2011). 14. http://www.eupolitics.einnews.com/news/eu-enlargement-montenegro (2011). 15.

The overwhelming mass of general works on Burgundy are written from the French perspective, and the great majority of them concentrate heavily on the history of the late medieval duchy. See, for example, Henri Drouot, Histoire de Bourgogne (Paris, 1927), or Jean Richard, Histoire de Bourgogne (Paris, 1957). There is no standard study of the imperial Kingdom of Burgundy in English, and no broad survey of Burgundian history as a whole. I 1. See www.brk.dk; also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bornholm (2007). 2. See www.cimber.com (2010), www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/general_aviation/4474449 (2010). 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.bornholmsk_dialect (2011); J. D. Prince, ‘The Danish Dialect of Bornholm’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 63/2 (1924), pp. 190–207. 4. ‘Bornholmsk Folkemusik’, http://www.myspace.com/habbadam (2010). 5. J. H. Hopkins, ‘Bornholm Disease’, British Medical Journal, 1/4664 (May 1950). 6. Martin Anderson Nexo, Pelle Eroberen (1910), translated as Pelle the Conqueror (London, 1916) and turned into a film directed by Bille August in 1987. 7. http://www.iau.org.tw. 8.

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Red November: Inside the Secret U.S.-Soviet Submarine War by W. Craig Reed

Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, cable laying ship, centre right, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, undersea cable, upwardly mobile

Moore, Potomac Books, 2004, provided a reference for submarine designations and capabilities Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics, Patrick Tyler, Harper & Row Publishers, 1986 The Submarine: A History, Thomas Parrish, Penguin Books, 2004 Power Shift: The Transition to Nuclear Power in the U.S. Submarine Force as Told by Those Who Did It, Dan Gillcrist, iUniverse, 2006 WEBSITES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyman_G._Rickover http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nautilus_(SSN-571) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Cubera_(SS-347) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Underwater_Propulsion_Power_Program http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Grider http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Seawolf_(SSN-575) http://www.iwojima.com/ CHAPTER 2 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS Donald Ross, Ph.D., former DEMON sonar project lead in San Diego, provided excellent information regarding SOSUS capabilities and development of submarine sonar systems.

Goodman, Prince ton University Press, 1989 The Soviet Union and the Arms Race, David Holloway, Yale University Press, 1984 WEBSITES http://www.lostsubs.com/E_Cold.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Thresher_(SSN-593) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathyscaphe_Trieste http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Preserver_(ARS-8) http://usnavyphotos.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/ars-8-usspreserver1res cue-85x11.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_McNamara http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Military-Communications/US-Navy-worldwide-HF-DF-system-AN-FRD-10-or-Bullseye-United-States.html http://www.jproc.ca/rrp/masset.html http://www.onpedia.com/encyclopedia/Wullenweber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wullenweber http://coldwar-c4i.net/CDAA/history.html http://www.r-390a.net/faq-systems.htm http://groups.msn.com/ctoseadogs/wullenwebers1.msnw http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/an-flr-9.htm http://www.eham.net/forums/Elmers/201472 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Pr-Re/Radio-Direction-Finding-Equipment.html CHAPTER 12 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS Frank Turban, former communications technician “T-Brancher” chief and spook, provided keen insights into missions conducted by the USS Swordfish around the time of K-129’s demise.

Chapters 11 and 15 detail interesting information about the use of HFDF Huff Duffs during World Wars I and II. WEBSITES http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Pacific/RDF/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_George_Washington_(SSBN-598) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UGM-27_Polaris http://rusnavy.com/science/electronics/rv6.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/systems/sosus.htm http://russianfun.net/technology/secret-soviet-submarine-base-in-sevastopol/ http://www.angelfire.com/falcon/usspillsbury-der_133/elequip.html http://www.jproc.ca/sari/counter.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_frequency http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jutland CHAPTER 4 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS William Reed, LT, USN, Retired. Robert Lynn Wortman, CD, RCN, RCMP, Retired, former Bore-sight/Bulls Eye HFDF systems and Wullenweber arrary engineer.

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The Eureka Factor by John Kounios

active measures, Albert Einstein, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Flynn Effect, functional fixedness, Google Hangouts, impulse control, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, US Airways Flight 1549, Wall-E, William of Occam

(San Francisco: Cengage Learning, 2011). A Matter of Interpretation 1 For background about Gestalt psychology and its origins, see Wikipedia, s.v. “Gestalt psychology,” last modified July 6, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychology/. A summary of early Gestalt research on insight can be found in R. E. Mayer, “The Search for Insight: Grappling with Gestalt Psychology’s Unanswered Questions,” in The Nature of Insight, ed. R. J. Sternberg and J. E. Davidson (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995), pp. 3–32. 2 Information about the Wright brothers’ propeller design can be found here at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_brothers#cite_note-47. Insight Is Creative 1 For a recent discussion of definitions of insight, see J. Kounios and M. Beeman, “The Cognitive Neuroscience of Insight,” Annual Review of Psychology 65 (2014): 71–93. 2 For a discussion of definitions of creativity, see J.

Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (New York: Henry Holt, 1938), 818. CHAPTER 3: THE BOX * * * 1 The origin of the phrase “Columbus’s egg” is discussed in Wikipedia, s.v. “Egg of Columbus,” last modified May 14, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbus_Egg. The story may be apocryphal, or the egg trick may have been performed by the Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi. 2 Figure 3.1 (Columbus standing an egg on its end) was taken from J. Trusler, The Works of William Hogarth: In a Series of Engravings with Descriptions, and a Comment on Their Moral Tendency (London: Jones, 1833), en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Columbus_egg.jpg. Figure 3.2 (Christopher Columbus’s Egg Puzzle) can be found in S. Loyd, Cyclopedia of Puzzles: en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Creativity_-_An_Overview/Thinking_outside_the_box#mediaviewer/File:Eggpuzzle.jpg. 3 An early classic study of the Nine-Dot Problem is described in N.

Morgan’s quote is derived from Morgan, “A Morphological Life,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 26 (1988): 1–9. 2 Rebecca Woodings’s story can be found here: www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/14/AR2009121402863.html. Thoughts from the Fringe 1 The quote from William Rowan Hamilton’s letter to his son is adapted from en.wikiquote.org/wiki/William_Rowan_Hamilton. Information about Hamilton can be found at Wikipedia, s.v. “William Rowan Hamilton,” last modified July 28, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Rowan_Hamilton. A relatively accessible explanation of Hamilton’s idea is given at plus.maths.org/content/curious-quaternions. The picture of the plaque commemorating Hamilton’s discovery is found at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Rowan_Hamilton_Plaque_-_geograph.org.uk_-_347941.jpg. The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is another example of thought from the fringe. It sometimes occurs while you’re trying to remember something, usually a word. As with intuition, you can’t remember the specific word, but you know it’s there, because it feels like it’s on the tip of your tongue.

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Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim

Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, longitudinal study, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Myron Scholes, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Davenport

Saul Hansell, “Google Answer to Filling Jobs Is an Algorithm,” New York Times, January 3, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/01/03/technology/03google.html. 8. “Joseph Jagger,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Jagger; “Joseph Jagger: The Man Who Broke the Bank,” www.wildjackcasino.com/ joseph-jagger.html; “Joseph Jagger,” www.realmoneycasinos.net/joseph-jagger. html; “Roulette—The Men Who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo—Joseph Jagger,” www.wiseguyroulette.com/roulette-history/joseph-jagger/. 9. Rama Ramakrishnan, “Three Ways to Analytic Impact,” The Analytic Age blog, July 26, 2011, http://blog.ramakrishnan.com/. 10. People v. Collins, 68 Cal. 2d 319 (1968); http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=2393563144534950884; “People v. Collins,” http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/People_v._Collins. Chapter 3 1. A. M. Starfield, Karl A. Smith, and A. L. Bleloch, How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), 19. 2.

Anand Rajaraman, “More Data Usually Beats Better Algorithms,” Datawocky (blog), March 24, 2008, http://anand.typepad.com/datawocky/2008/03/more-data-usual.html. 10. Daryl Morey, “Success Comes from Better Data, Not Better Analysis,” blog post, Harvard Business Review, August 8, 2011, http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/08/ success_comes_from_better_data.html. 11. “Tycho Brahe,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe; Michael Fowler, “Tycho Brahe,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/1995/ lectures/tychob.html; Arthur Koestler, The Watershed: A Biography of Johannes Kepler (Doubleday, 1960); “Johannes Kepler,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Johannes_Kepler; “Johannes Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion,” http://csep10 .phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html; Michael Fowler, “Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/tycho.htm; Michael Fowler, “Johannes Kepler,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/ 1995/lectures/kepler.html; “Johannes Kepler,” Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/315225/Johannes-Kepler; Ann Lamont, “Johannes Kepler: Outstanding Scientist and Committed Christian,” 1:1, http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v15/i1/kepler.asp, December 1, 1992. 12.

David Schmitt, “Tell a Story,” June 27, 2012, http://www.allanalytics.com/ author.asp?id=2092&doc_id=246428. 4. I. Bernard Cohen, The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006), chapter 9; “Florence Nightingale,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale; P. Nuttall, “The Passionate Statistician,” Nursing Times 28 (1983): 25–27. 5. Gregor Mendel, “Experiments in Plant Hybridization,” http://www.mendelweb.org/; “Gregor Mendel,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregor_Mendel; Seung Yon Rhee, Gregor Mendel, Access Excellence, http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Gregor_Mendel.php; “Mendel’s Genetics,” anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm; David Paterson, “Gregor Mendel,” www .zephyrus.co.uk/gregormendel.html; “Rocky Road: Gregor Mendel,” Strange Science, www.strangescience.net/mendel.htm; Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig, “Johann Gregor Mendel: Why His Discoveries Were Ignored for 35 Years,” www.weloennig .de/mendel02.htm; “Gregor Mendel and the Scientific Milieu of His Discovery,” www.2iceshs.cyfronet.pl/2ICESHS_Proceedings/Chapter_10/R-2_Sekerak.pdf; “Mendelian Inheritance,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelian_ inheritance. 6.

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Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

See the spreadsheet by Jeremiah Owyang at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/12xTPJNvdOZVzERueyA-dILGTtL_KWKTbmj6RyOg9XXs/edit#gid=1884009904. CHAPTER 2: EXCESS CAPACITY 1. “Owning and Operating Your Vehicle Just Got a Little Cheaper According to AAA’s 2014 ‘Your Driving Costs’ Study,” AAA NewsRoom, May 9, 2014, http://newsroom.aaa.com/2014/05/owning-and-operating-your-vehicle-just-got-a-little-cheaper-aaas-2014-your-driving-costs-study. 2. “AT&T Corporation,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AT%26T_Corporation. 3. Ibid. 4. “Skype,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skype. 5. Craig Newmark, “What Was the True Genesis of Craigslist?,” Quora.com, January 22, 2012. 6. “About Craigslist,” www.craigslist.org/about/open_source”AT&T Corporation. 7. “iPhone Unlocked: AT&T Loses iPhone Exclusivity, August 24, 2007, 12:00PM EDT,” Engadget, August 24, 2007, www.engadget.com/2007/08/24/iphone-unlocked-atandt-loses-iphone-exclusivity-august-24-2007. 8.

“Military Satellite System to Go Public,” CNN.com, March 29, 1996. 3. “Improving the Civilian Global Positioning System (GPS),” speech by President Bill Clinton, May 1, 2000, http://clinton3.nara.gov/WH/EOP/OSTP/html/0053_4.html. 4. “Global Positioning System,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System. 5. Barbara van Schewick, “Network Neutrality and Quality of Service: What a Non-Discrimination Rule Should Look Like,” Center for Internet and Society, June 11, 2012. 6. “Minitel,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minitel. 7. Jack Clark, “NHS Tears Out Its Oracle Spine in Favour of Open Source,” TheRegister.com, October 10, 2013, www.theregister.co.uk/2013/10/10/nhs_drops_oracle_for_riak. 8. Stephen Crocker, “How the Internet Got Its Rules,” New York Times, April 6, 2009. 9.

Andrew Leonard, “You’re Not Fooling Us, Uber! 8 Reasons Why the ‘Sharing Economy’ Is All About Corporate Greed,” Salon.com, February 17, 2014. 10. Lisa Fleisher, “Thousands of European Cab Drivers Protest Uber, Taxi Apps,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2014. 11. Megan McArdle, “Why You Can’t Get a Taxi,” The Atlantic, May 2012. 12. “Taxicab,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicab. 13. “Taxicabs of the United Kingdom,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicabs_of_the_United_Kingdom#cite_note-The_Knowledge-3. 14. Jeff Bercovici, “Uber’s Ratings Terrorize Drivers and Trick Riders. Why Not Fix Them?” Forbes.com, August 14, 2014. 15. Andy Kessler, “Brian Chesky: The ‘Sharing Economy’ and Its Enemies,” Wall Street Journal, January 17, 2014. 16. “Freelancing in America: A National Survey of the New Workforce,” 2014, independent study commissioned by the Freelancers Union and ElanceoDesk, http://chaoscc.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/freelancinginamerica_report-1.pdf. 17.

Reactive Messaging Patterns With the Actor Model: Applications and Integration in Scala and Akka by Vaughn Vernon

A Pattern Language, business intelligence, business process, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Internet of things, Kickstarter, loose coupling, remote working, type inference, web application

SBT in Action: The simple Scala build tool. Shelter Island, NY: Manning Publications, 2015. [ScalaTest] www.scalatest.org/ [SIS] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_information_system [Split-Brain] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split-brain_(computing) [SRP] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_responsibility_principle [Suereth] Suereth, Joshua. Scala in Depth. Shelter Island, NY: Manning Publications, 2012. [Tilkov-CDM] https://www.innoq.com/en/blog/thoughts-on-a-canonical-data-model/ [Transistor Count] http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor_count [Transistor] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_transistor [Triode] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triode [Typesafe] http://typesafe.com [Vogels-AsyncArch] www.webperformancematters.com/journal/2007/8/21/asynchronous-architectures-4.html [Vogels-Scalability] www.allthingsdistributed.com/2006/03/a_word_on_scalability.html [Westheide] www.parleys.com/play/53a7d2c6e4b0543940d9e54d [WhitePages] http://downloads.typesafe.com/website/casestudies/Whitepages-Final.pdf?

[Akka-Google] http://typesafe.com/blog/running-a-2400-akka-nodes-cluster-on-google-compute-engine [Akka-Message-Guarantees] http://doc.akka.io/docs/akka/snapshot/general/message-delivery-guarantees.html [Ambysoft] www.ambysoft.com/surveys/success2013.html [AMC-Causal Consistency] http://queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=2610533 [Amdahl’s law] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl’s_law [Atomic-Scala] Eckel, Bruce, and Marsh, Dianne. Atomic Scala: Learn Programming in a Language of the Future. Crested Butte, CO: Mindview LLC, 2013. [Bolt-on Causal Consistency] www.bailis.org/papers/bolton-sigmod2013.pdf [Brewer-Inktomi] https://www.usenix.org/legacy/publications/library/proceedings/ana97/summaries/brewer.html [CAP] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAP_theorem [Chaos Report] http://blog.standishgroup.com/post/18 [Coursera] www.coursera.org [CQRS] http://martinfowler.com/bliki/CQRS.html [CQS] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command%E2%80%93query_separation [Cray-CDC] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDC_1604 [DDD] Evans, Eric. Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software.

Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1995. [Google-Architecture] http://infolab.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html [Google-Owies] http://aphyr.com/posts/288-the-network-is-reliable [Google-Platform] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_platform [Gossip Protocol] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gossip_protocol [Herb Sutter] www.gotw.ca/publications/concurrency-ddj.htm [Hewitt-ActorComp] http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1008/1008.1459.pdf [Horstmann] www.horstmann.com/scala/index.htm [IBM-History] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_7090 [IBM-zEC12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_zEC12_(microprocessor) [IDDD] Vernon, Vaughn. Implementing Domain-Driven Design. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2013. [Inktomi-Architecture] www.thefreelibrary.com/Inktomi+Unveils+Third+Generation+Search+Architecture%3B+Inktomi...

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Manage Partitions With GParted (How-To) by Unknown

Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Ruby on Rails

References The partition table name mdsos dates back to 1983 when support for partitioned media was introduced with IBM PC DOS 2.0. IBM PC DOS was a rebranded version of Microsoft MS DOS. For more information on disk partitioning, the msdos partition table—also known as Master Boot Record (MBR), the GUID partition table, PC/BIOS, and EFI, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_partitioning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensible_Firmware_Interface Copying a partition (Become an expert) Copying a partition can be a complex and long running operation. As there are implications to copying a partition, we discuss these along with the steps to copy a partition. How to do it... Select the source partition to copy: Choose the Partition | Copy menu option to place a copy of the partition in the copy buffer.

Another reason is that GPT supports 128 primary partitions, whereas msdos is limited to 4 primary partitions. Note that RAIDs that use msdos partition tables do not require this repair step because there is only one copy of the msdos partition table, which is located at the start of the disk device. Reference information For more information on RAIDand the GUID partition table, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table. Rescuing data from a lost partition (Become an expert) If you delete or otherwise lose a partition and realize that you need some data from the partition, there is still some hope. This recipe describes the steps to attempt data rescue from a lost or deleted partition. Getting ready While we hope it never happens to you, if you lose a partition by accidental deletion or by some other method and you do not have a backup of your data, this recipe may help you to rescue data from your partition.

The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs by Nicolas Pineault

Albert Einstein, en.wikipedia.org, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter

If physicists and engineers are so convinced that non-ionizing radiation has no effect whatsoever on the human body, it must be because there is simply no evidence this could be the case, right? What’s puzzling to me is that thousands of “black-swan” studies show the opposite — that non-ionizing radiation does have biological effects at levels way too low to cause any heat. 69 70 en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org © 2017 N&G Media Inc. Let’s hear from Martin Blank’s wisdom again: “In 1948, two groups of researchers, working independently, both noted nonthermal effects resulting from EM radiation exposure. Scientists at the Mayo Clinic noted the incidence of cataracts in dogs following exposure to microwave radiation, and researchers at the University of Iowa noted that exposure to microwaves resulted in cataracts in rabbits and dogs, and ‘testicular degradation’ in rats.”71 This is one of the thousands of studies showing that the 4 kinds of EMFs I told you about in Chapter 1 — Radio Frequency, Magnetic Fields, Electric Fields and Dirty Electricity — can either heal or harm even at very, very low levels.

On the opposite end, you find very short waves with a very high frequency like X-rays and gamma rays which contain enough energy to destroy your DNA or pretty much instantly damage your body — and that you definitely don’t want to mess with. Here’s a quick mind-bender for you: the frequency of an EMF signal equals how many times it oscillates every second — calculated in Hertz (Hz). While the Earth’s natural magnetic field is known to be around 7.83 Hz, the 4G/LTE signal coming off your iPhone can oscillate up to 2.7 2 en.wikipedia. org © 2017 N&G Media Inc. billion times per second (2.7 GHz). Now that’s fast. Now, we’re still at the dinner conversation level here — because none of what I’ve said so far means that EMFs are dangerous per se. After all, EMFs are basically everywhere in nature. Believe it or not, light is a kind of EMF, and the sun emits light in the visible spectrum (think of the entire rainbow), invisible UV light (helps you produce vitamin D or burns your skin if you get too much) and invisible infrared light (heat).

A compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL), for example, saves energy by going ON and OFF at least 20,000 times per second.11 While interrupting current this way can help us dim lights or save energy, this also corrupts the electricity, or as Dr. Sam Milham — an epidemiologist who has published dozens of research papers on the subject in the world’s most prestigious journals for the last 50 years — puts it, “creates Dirty Electricity”. 10 11 en.wikipedia.org Milham, S., MD. (2012). Dirty Electricity: Electrification and the Diseases of Civilization. iUniverse © 2017 N&G Media Inc. 12 Instead of staying within the usual 50-60 Hz range, Dirty Electricity is a bum who likes to emit a lot of EMFs in what are called the intermediate frequencies — ranging from 300 Hz to 10 MHz.12 What this all means in plain English: when the electricity in your home or workplace is dirty, it constantly irradiates these spikes of intermediate frequency Electric Fields which can have serious health effects according to Miller — especially those between 2 kHz and 100 kHz in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. 13 12 See Magda Havas’ video “Dirty Electricity Explained” at youtube.com/watch?

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Site Reliability Engineering: How Google Runs Production Systems by Betsy Beyer, Chris Jones, Jennifer Petoff, Niall Richard Murphy

Air France Flight 447, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, database schema, defense in depth, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Flash crash, George Santayana, Google Chrome, Google Earth, information asymmetry, job automation, job satisfaction, Kubernetes, linear programming, load shedding, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, performance metric, platform as a service, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, six sigma, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, trickle-down economics, web application, zero day

We have found that continuous data processing with strong guarantees, as provided by Workflow, performs and scales well on distributed cluster infrastructure, routinely produces results that users can rely upon, and is a stable and reliable system for the Site Reliability Engineering team to manage and maintain. 1 Wikipedia: Extract, transform, load, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extract,_transform,_load 2 Wikipedia: Big data, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data 3 Jeff Dean’s lecture on “Software Engineering Advice from Building Large-Scale Distributed Systems” is an excellent resource: [Dea07]. 4 Wikipedia: System Prevalence, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Prevalence 5 The “model-view-controller” pattern is an analogy for distributed systems that was very loosely borrowed from Smalltalk, which was originally used to describe the design structure of graphical user interfaces [Fow08]. 6 Wikipedia: Model-view-controller, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model%E2%80%93view%E2%80%93controller Chapter 26. Data Integrity: What You Read Is What You Wrote Written by Raymond Blum and Rhandeev Singh Edited by Betsy Beyer What is “data integrity”?

You can then switch from planning recovery to planning prevention, with the aim of achieving the holy grail of all the data, all the time. Achieve this goal, and you can sleep on the beach on that well-deserved vacation. 1 Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID. SQL databases such as MySQL and PostgreSQL strive to achieve these properties. 2 Basically Available, Soft state, Eventual consistency; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eventual_consistency. BASE systems, like Bigtable and Megastore, are often also described as “NoSQL.” 3 For further reading on ACID and BASE APIs, see [Gol14] and [Bai13]. 4 Binary Large Object; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_large_object. 5 See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-day_(computing). 6 Clay tablets are the oldest known examples of writing. For a broader discussion of preserving data for the long haul, see [Con96]. 7 Upon reading this advice, one might ask: since you have to offer an API on top of the datastore to implement soft deletion, why stop at soft deletion, when you could offer many other features that protect against accidental data deletion by users?

In essence, Google has adapted known reliability principles that were in many cases developed and honed in other industries to create its own unique reliability culture, one that addresses a complicated equation that balances scale, complexity, and velocity with high reliability. 1 E911 (Enhanced 911): Emergency response line in the US that leverages location data. 2 Electrocardiogram readings: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocardiography. 3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_integrity_level 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrective_and_preventive_action 5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competent_authority 6 http://ehstoday.com/safety/nsc-2013-oneill-exemplifies-safety-leadership. 7 See “FACTS, Section B” for the discussion of Knight and Power Peg software in [Sec13]. 8 “Regulators blame computer algorithm for stock market ‘flash crash’,” Computerworld, http://www.computerworld.com/article/2516076/financial-it/regulators-blame-computer-algorithm-for-stock-market—flash-crash-.html.

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Stop Saving Start Investing: Ten Simple Rules for Effectively Investing in Funds by Jonathan Hobbs

Albert Einstein, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

[online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/investment/docs/legal_texts/framework/091221-methodilogies-1_en.pdf [Accessed 21 Jan. 2017]. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). FTSE SmallCap Index. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTSE_SmallCap_Index [Accessed 7 Dec. 2016]. Ftse.com. (2017). FactSheet. [online] Available at: http://www.ftse.com/Analytics/FactSheets/Home/FactSheet/Regions/MCAP/1/ASIA/1 [Accessed 21 Mar. 2017]. Ftse.com. (2017). UK. [online] Available at: http://www.ftse.com/products/indices/uk [Accessed 1 Feb. 2017]. Howard, Thomas C. (2017). The Active Equity Renaissance: Rejecting a Broken 1970s Model. [online] CFA Institute Enterprising Investor. Available at: https://blogs.cfainstitute.org/investor/2017/03/14/the-active-equity-renaissance-rejecting-a-broken-1970s-model/ [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017]. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). FTSE All-World index series. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTSE_All-World_index_series [Accessed 10 Dec. 2016].

For the next rule, we’ll look at diversification, and why it’s something that no investment portfolio should ever to go without… * * * 19 FTSE stands for ‘Financial Times Stock Exchange.’ 20 Source: http://www.ftse.com/products/indices/uk 21 Schroder UK dynamic smaller companies (Z) accumulation fund research & insight, 2017. Source: http://www.hl.co.uk/funds/fund-discounts,-prices--and--factsheets/search-results/s/schroder-uk-dynamic-smaller-companies-z-accumulation/research 22 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTSE_SmallCap_Index 23 Stewart Investors Asia Pacific Leaders (class B) accumulation fund research & insight, 2017. Source: http://www.hl.co.uk/funds/fund-discounts,-prices--and--factsheets/search-results/s/stewart-investors-asia-pacific-leaders-class-b-accumulation/research 24 Source: http://www.ftse.com/Analytics/FactSheets/Home/FactSheet/Regions/MCAP/1/ASIA/1 25 (Marlborough UK micro-cap growth (class P) accumulation fund research & insight, 2017. http://www.hl.co.uk/funds/fund-discounts,-prices--and--factsheets/search-results/m/marlborough-uk-micro-cap-growth-class-p-accumulation/research Chapter summary Some fund managers are the best at what they do.

Next, you’ll learn how to insure your portfolio against unfavourable turns in the market. * * * 49 https://blogs.cfainstitute.org/investor/2017/03/14/the-active-equity-renaissance-rejecting-a-broken-1970s-model/ 50 Lindsell train global equity (class D) income fund price & information, 2017. http://www.hl.co.uk/funds/fund-discounts,-prices--and--factsheets/search-results/l/lindsell-train-global-equity-class-d-income 51 FTSE all-world index series, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FTSE_All-World_index_series 52 Index tracker fund fees range from about 0.10% to 0.70% per year. Chapter summary Fund management is a business that needs money to pay its employees. Therefore, funds charge investors annual fund management fees. Depending on the type of fund, yearly fund management fees usually range from 0.3% to 1.5% of your fund investment. Active funds try to beat their benchmarks and passive funds try to match them.

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Clean Agile: Back to Basics by Robert C. Martin

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, c2.com, continuous integration, DevOps, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Frederick Winslow Taylor, index card, iterative process, Kubernetes, loose coupling, microservices, remote working, revision control, Turing machine

Each week, each day, each hour, and even each minute is driven by looking at the results of the previous week, day, hour, and minute, and then making the appropriate adjustments. This applies to individual programmers, and it also applies to the management of the entire team. Without data, the project cannot be managed.19 19. This is strongly related to John Boyd’s OODA loop, summarized here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop. Boyd, J. R. 1987. A Discourse on Winning and Losing. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Library, Document No. M-U 43947. So even if you don’t get those two charts on the wall, make sure you get the data in front of managers. Make sure the managers know how fast the team is moving and how much the team has left to accomplish. And present this information in a transparent, public, and obvious fashion—like putting the two charts on the wall.

Adding Staff In general, the business is simply not willing to change the schedule. The date was chosen for good business reasons, and those reasons still hold. So let’s try to add staff. Everyone knows we can go twice as fast by doubling the staff. Actually, this is exactly the opposite of the case. Brooks’ law22 states: Adding manpower to a late project makes it later. 22. Brooks, Jr., F. P. 1995 [1975]. The Mythical Man-Month. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brooks%27s_law. What really happens is more like the diagram in Figure 1.7. The team is working along at a certain productivity. Then new staff is added. Productivity plummets for a few weeks as the new people suck the life out of the old people. Then, hopefully, the new people start to get smart enough to actually contribute. The gamble that managers make is that the area under that curve will be net positive.

A professional developer has every right to say “no” to a particular job or task. It may be that the developer does not feel confident in their ability to complete the task, or it may be that the developer believes the task better suited for someone else. Or, it may be that the developer rejects the tasks for personal or moral reasons.6 6. Consider the developers at Volkswagen who “accepted” the tasks of cheating the EPA test rigs in California. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_emissions_scandal. In any case, the right to accept comes with a cost. Acceptance implies responsibility. The accepting developer becomes responsible for the quality and execution of the task, for continually updating the estimate so that the schedule can be managed, for communicating status to the whole team, and for asking for help when help is needed. Programming on a team involves working closely together with juniors and seniors.

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The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Just as we continued to update automobile safety regulations in ways that were unforeseen during the invention moment, we will continue to update the regulatory requirements around the blockchain over the lifetime of its evolution. NOTES 1. A term popularized in Clayton Christensen’s book (The Innovator’s Dilemma) suggesting that successful companies can put too much emphasis on customers’ current needs, and fail to adopt new technology or business models, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Innovator%27s_Dilemma. List of U.S. executive branch czars, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._executive_branch_czars. 2. Source: Author’s sample survey of market leaders, April 2016. 3. Java, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_%28programming_language%29. 4. IDC Study, http://www.infoq.com/news/2014/01/IDC-software-developers. 5. These are popular programming languages. 6. https://cryptoconsortium.org/ 4 BLOCKCHAIN IN FINANCIAL SERVICES “The worst place to develop a new business model is from within your existing business model.”

Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease, The Byzantine Generals Problem. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/lamport/pubs/byz.pdf. 6. IT Does not Matter, https://hbr.org/2003/05/it-doesnt-matter. 7. PayPal website, https://www.paypal.com/webapps/mpp/about. 8. Personal communication with Vitalik Buterin, February 2016. 9. Byzantine fault tolerance, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_fault_tolerance. 10. Proof-of-stake, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof-of-stake. 2 HOW BLOCKCHAIN TRUST INFILTRATES “I cannot understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I’m frightened of the old ones.” –JOHN CAGE REACHING CONSENSUS is at the heart of a blockchain’s operations. But the blockchain does it in a decentralized way that breaks the old paradigm of centralized consensus, when one central database used to rule transaction validity.

A blockchain implementation will have a number of new architectural and functional components that need to work in harmony. Companies will need to decide what implementation approaches to choose, based on their own competencies and choice of external partnerships. You should not just see the Blockchain as a problem-solving technology. Rather, it is a technology that lets you innovate and target new opportunities. NOTES 1. Ira Magaziner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Magaziner. 2. “List of U.S. executive branch czars,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._executive_branch_czars. 3. MaidSafe, http://maidsafe.net/. 7 DECENTRALIZATION AS THE WAY FORWARD “All things are difficult before they’re easy.” –THOMAS FULLER A DECENTRALIZED TECHNOLOGY (the blockchain) will telegraph a decentralized world. If we thought the blockchain’s destiny was just to infiltrate enterprise systems and replace intermediaries, think again.

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Build Awesome Command-Line Applications in Ruby: Control Your Computer, Simplify Your Life by David B. Copeland

Chris Wanstrath, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, full stack developer, Ruby on Rails, web application

The system itself will be actually executing your application, and future developers may need to integrate your command-line apps into larger systems of automation (similar to how our database backup script integrates mysqldump). In the next chapter, we’ll talk about how to make your apps interoperate with the system and with other applications. Footnotes [19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_least_astonishment [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nroff [21] http://defunkt.io/gem-man/ [22] http://rtomayko.github.com/ronn/ [23] The Wikipedia entry for the UNIX man system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_page#Manual_sections) has a good overview of the other sections if you are interested. [24] http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/ [25] http://rtomayko.github.com/ronn/ronn-format.7.html [26] Savvy users can alias man to be gem man -s, which tells gem-man to use the system manual for any command it doesn’t know, thus providing one unified interface to the system manual and the manual of installed Ruby command-line apps.

Is there a way to make the experience of these users just as good as for everyone else? In the next chapter, we’ll learn how to make our applications configurable in an easy way that will allow users to customize the default behavior of our apps, all without sacrificing ease of use, helpfulness, or interoperability. Footnotes [33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rc_file [34] http://www.multicians.org/shell.html [35] http://cukes.info [36] http://www.rspec.info [37] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON [38] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletypewriter Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 6 Make Configuration Easy In the previous chapter, we learned how the design decisions we make provide direction to our users about how to use our apps. But, what about advanced users, who use our apps regularly but in unusual ways?

If you thought OptionParser was too verbose or you didn’t like the way your command suite looked using GLI, never fear; there’s more than one way to do it. In the appendix that follows, we’ll take a quick tour of some other popular command-line libraries and show you how our running examples, db_backup and todo, might look using tools like Thor, Main, and Trollop. Footnotes [48] http://betterthangrep.com/ [49] http://mxcl.github.com/homebrew [50] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness [51] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANSI_escape_code [52] http://github.com/sickill/rainbow [53] http://flori.github.com/term-ansicolor/ Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Appendix 1 Common Command-Line Gems and Libraries To keep things simple, we’ve used only a handful of tools to demonstrate the principles presented in this book. We chose OptionParser because it’s a standard library available with Ruby, and we used GLI because of the ease with which we can add the necessary features of a command suite.

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Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For an amazingly insightful analysis of the effects of increased communication and decreased energy cost across everything from living cells to civilizations, see Robert Wright, Nonzero (New York: Pantheon 2000). 7. Amazon Web Services (AWS), accessed November 25, 2014, http://aws.amazon.com. 8. W. B. Yeats, “The Second Coming,” 1919, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Second_Coming_(poem). 3. ROBOTIC PICKPOCKETS 1. At least, that’s the way I remember it. Dave may have a different recollection, especially in light of the fact that Raiders wasn’t released until 1981. 2. David Elliot Shaw, “Evolution of the NON-VON Supercomputer,” Columbia University Computer Science Technical Reports, 1983, http://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:11591. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce, last modified December 31, 2014. 4. James Aley, “Wall Street’s King Quant David Shaw’s Secret Formulas Pile Up Money: Now He Wants a Piece of the Net,” Fortune, February 5, 1996 http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1996/02/05/207353/index.htm. 5.

These figures are almost identical to present-day Mozambique (http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/country/strategies/files/ftf_factsheet_mozambique_oct2012.pdf, accessed November 29, 2014) and Uganda (http://www.farmafrica.org/us/uganda/uganda, accessed November 29, 2014). Income data is from the World DataBank, “GNI per Capita, PPP (Current International $)” table, accessed November 29, 2014, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/reports/tableview.aspx#. 4. For example, Robert Reich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Reich, last modified December 31, 2014); Paul Krugman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugman, last modified December 12, 2014); and the recent influential book by Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-first Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 2014). 5. This analogy relies primarily on income data from the U.S. Census (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/families/index.html, last modified September 16, 2014). 6.

Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: Norton, 2014). 1. TEACHING COMPUTERS TO FISH 1. J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C. E. Shannon, A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, 1955, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/dartmouth.html. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Rochester_(computer_scientist), last modified March 15, 2014. 3. Committee on Innovations in Computing and Communications: Lessons from History, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, Funding a Revolution (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999), 201. 4. Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Basic Books 1993), 58, 221n. 5.

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Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire by Danny Dorling, Sally Tomlinson

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Etonian, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, housing crisis, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, wealth creators

, BBC News, 13 October, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-37274201 28 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Parliament_election,_2014_(United_Kingdom). In 2009, 27.5 per cent Conservatives were in the ECR group, UKIP got 16.0 per cent, BNP 6.0 per cent, English Democrat 1.8 per cent. In 2004, the Conservatives were in EPP-ED, UKIP got 15.6 per cent, BNP 4.8 per cent. In 1999, UKIP got 6.5 per cent, BNP 1 per cent. In 1994, UKIP got 1.0 per cent, National Front 0.1 per cent. In 1989, the National Front won less than 0.1 per cent. The first page in the series is: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Parliament_election,_1979_(United_Kingdom) 29 Currently the best, most comprehensive and most easy to access data can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Parliament_election,_2014_(United_Kingdom). See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Parliament_election,_1979_(United_Kingdom) 30 At the time of Corbyn’s comments, the EU was failing to respond fairly to the refugee crisis or to Greece’s financial crisis, neither of which were entirely of Greece’s own making.

For gluttons there are more here: http://www.economistjokes.com/jokes and here: https://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/the_first_law_of_economists_for_every_economist_there_exists_an_equal_and_o/ 29 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barclays#1690_to_1900 30 BBC (2008) ‘What is a City trading job like?’, BBC News, 24 January, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7207543.stm 31 Staff Reporter (2009) ‘Darling “blocked Barclays bid to take over failing Lehman”’, London Evening Standard, 29 October, https://www.standard.co.uk/business/darling-blocked-barclays-bid-to-take-over-failing-lehman-6753348.html 32 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolsack and in turn from here: http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/building/palace/architecture/palace-s-interiors/lords-chamber/ 33 EU (2018) The Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive, Brussels: European Union, https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/business/company-tax/anti-tax-avoidance-package/anti-tax-avoidance-directive_en 34 Zielonka, J. (2017) ‘British leaders have lost the plot’, Zeit Online, 14 November, http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2017-11/great-britain-government-brexit-paradise-papers-sexism-english 35 See the Campaign Against the Arms Trade: https://www.caat.org.uk 36 Norton-Taylor, R. (2010) ‘BAE tops global list of largest arms manufacturer’, The Guardian, 11 April, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2010/apr/12/bae-systems-weapons-arms-manufacturers 37 Stone, J. (2016) ‘Britain is now the second biggest arms dealer in the world’, The Independent, 5 September, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/britain-is-now-the-second-biggest-arms-dealer-in-the-world-a7225351.html 38 Borger, J. (2017) ‘US nuclear plans will lead to arms race’, The Guardian, 30 October, https://www.pressreader.com/uk/the-guardian/20171030/281865823728587 39 Leroux, M. (2017) ‘1,000 jobs at risk as BAE’s fast jet runs out of orders’, The Times, 10 October, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/1-000-jobs-at-risk-as-bae-gives-up-on-order-for-jets-77kb70g99 40 Evans, R. (2017) ‘UK trade department draws half its secondees from arms industry’, The Guardian, 8 October, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/08/uk-trade-department-draws-half-its-secondees-from-arms-industry 41 Arias Sánchez, Ó. (2009) ‘The global arms trade’, Harvard International Review, 4 January, http://hir.harvard.edu/article/?

page_id=769 9 Tomlinson, S. (2017) A Sociology of Special and Inclusive education, London: Routledge, p. 54. 10 Tomlinson, S. (2017) ibid., p. 71. 11 There are a huge number of sources that can be given, but perhaps the best is Wikipedia, where slowly and gradually more and more evidence of these crimes against humanity is being documented and presented for all to see, edit and add to, starting perhaps with: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_Integrity_Act_of_1924 12 Darwin quoted in Jamoussi, Z. (1999) Primogeniture and Entail in England, Paris: Centre de Publication Universitaire, p. 130. 13 Dorling, D. (2010) ‘Commentary: The Darwins and the Cecils are only empty vessels’, op. cit., p. 1024. 14 Reproduced from a study reported by Berra, T. M., Alvarez, G., and Ceballos, F. C. (2010) ‘Was the Darwin/Wedgwood Dynasty Adversely Affected by Consanguinity?’

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The Second Intelligent Species: How Humans Will Become as Irrelevant as Cockroaches by Marshall Brain

Amazon Web Services, basic income, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, job automation, knowledge worker, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Occupy movement, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, working poor

id=28 [53] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [54] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [55] http://www.reddit.com/r/manna [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Permanent_Fund [57] http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/04/11/3425609/walmart-prices-food-stamps/ [58] http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm [59] http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/evil [60] http://chimpanzeefacts.net/are-chimpanzees-endangered.html [67] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Demilitarized_Zone#Nature_reserve [68] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_uploading [69] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population_density [70] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36769422/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/hawking-aliens-may-pose-risks-earth/#.T2YyfBEge5I [71] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation [72] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superluminal_communication [73] http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CES0000000001 Manna - Two Visions of Humanity's Future The book "Manna - Two Views of Humanity's Future" is a novella originally published on MarshallBrain.com in 2003.

We should make the most of it for every person on the planet. References [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons [2] https://wiki.rit.edu/display/smfl/Rubylith [3] http://gizmodo.com/a-humans-guide-to-googles-many-robots-1509799897# [4] http://braininitiative.nih.gov/ [5] https://www.humanbrainproject.eu/ [6] http://www.computershopper.com/components/reviews/intel-core-i7-4790k [7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_i7_microprocessors [8] http://www.naplestech.com/shopcart/intel_i7_processors.asp#gsc.tab=0 [9] http://nvidianews.nvidia.com/news/nvidia-launches-tegra-x1-mobile-super-chip [10] http://www.engadget.com/2015/03/27/toshiba-intel-3d-nand-chips [11] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_YZtKXXCvg [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactions_to_Occupy_Wall_Street#Police_response [13] http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/01/10/the-biggest-question-facing-the-u-s-economy-why-are-people-dropping-out-of-the-workforce/ [14] https://www.youtube.com/watch?

id=28 [53] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [54] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [55] http://www.reddit.com/r/manna [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Permanent_Fund [57] http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/04/11/3425609/walmart-prices-food-stamps/ [58] http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm [59] http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/evil [60] http://chimpanzeefacts.net/are-chimpanzees-endangered.html [67] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Demilitarized_Zone#Nature_reserve [68] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_uploading [69] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population_density [70] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36769422/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/hawking-aliens-may-pose-risks-earth/#.T2YyfBEge5I [71] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation [72] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superluminal_communication [73] http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CES0000000001 Manna - Two Visions of Humanity's Future The book "Manna - Two Views of Humanity's Future" is a novella originally published on MarshallBrain.com in 2003. It is a fictional work that contains two different predictions for how the world might look after robots and automation have taken over all of the jobs that humans perform today. For more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manna_(novel) http://www.amazon.com/Manna-Two-Visions-Humanitys-Future-ebook/dp/B007HQH67U http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7902912-manna http://www.reddit.com/r/Manna Manna - Chapter 1 Depending on how you want to think about it, it was funny or inevitable or symbolic that the robotic takeover did not start at MIT, NASA, Microsoft or Ford.

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Technical Blogging: Turn Your Expertise Into a Remarkable Online Presence by Antonio Cangiano

23andMe, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, bitcoin, bounce rate, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Network effects, revision control, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, slashdot, software as a service, web application

Turning the page will lead you into the fourth part of the book, which is devoted to reaping the benefits of your work as a blogger. This is the fun part, where you’ll learn how to maximize your reward as well as experience the satisfaction of having your content be widely read and appreciated. Footnotes [76] http://lesswrong.com [77] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw_man [78] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_hominem [79] http://xkcd.com/386 [80] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Part 4 Benefit from It Chapter 10 Making Money from Your Blog For I can raise no money by vile means. William Shakespeare This section of the book is where you learn strategies to reap the benefits of your blogging activities. We’ll start by looking at direct, easy-to-implement ways you can earn money from your blog.

Footnotes [124] http://personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count [125] http://cafemom.com or http://patientslikeme.com, respectively. [126] http://youtube.com [127] http://geni.com or http://goodreads.com, respectively. [128] http://govloop.com or http://channeldb2.com, respectively. [129] http://foursquare.com [130] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites [131] http://facebook.com/bookmarks/pages [132] http://linkedin.com/companies [133] http://twitter.com/acangiano [134] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_currency [135] http://google.com/webmasters/+1/button, http://twitter.com/about/resources, and http://developers.facebook.com/docs/plugins, respectively. [136] http://tweetdeck.com [137] http://hootsuite.com [138] http://socialoomph.com [139] http://bufferapp.com [140] For a real life example of how this can backfire, check out the “Ragu Hates Dads” disaster at http://cc-chapman.com/2011/ragu-hates-dads

Note that DNS propagation can take several hours, so if you want to work with your domain name right away, you can edit your local hosts file to have the domain name point to the right IP locally. This change enables you to use your domain name instead of the IP as you configure your self-hosted blog even before the DNS records have become visible to the world. On *nix systems this is usually located at /etc/hosts. For Windows, consult the Wikipedia page at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosts_(file). In your hosts file, you should include a line that looks like this: ​ yoursitename.com​ Replace the fictitious IP and domain name with your real ones. If you don’t know the IP of your server, you should check the emails your hosting company sent you when you registered with them, because it’s usually located there. Logging into your hosting account will also typically provide you with this information.

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The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

language=en [cccxxxviii] http://motherboard.vice.com/read/sleep-tech-will-widen-the-gap-between-the-rich-and-the-poor [cccxxxix] Covered in detail in my previous book, “Surviving AI”. [cccxl] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_drugs_and_rock_and_roll [cccxli] I am that terrible old cliché: a socialist student whose left-wing views did not long survive contact with the world of work. As a trainee BBC journalist writing about Central and Eastern Europe long before the Berlin Wall fell, I soon realised how fortunate I was to have grown up in the capitalist West. I didn’t expect to be heading back in the other direction in later life. [cccxlii] https://edge.org/conversation/john_markoff-the-next-wave [cccxliii] http://uk.pcmag.com/robotics-automation-products/34778/news/will-a-robot-revolution-lead-to-mass-unemployment [cccxliv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment [cccxlv] http://www.prisonexp.org/ [cccxlvi] http://fourhourworkweek.com/2014/08/29/kevin-kelly/ [cccxlvii] https://www.edge.org/conversation/kevin_kelly-the-technium [cccxlviii] http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/165acton.html [cccxlix] http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf [cccl] http://www.dugcampbell.com/byzantine-generals-problem/ [cccli] http://www.economistinsights.com/technology-innovation/analysis/money-no-middleman/tab/1 [ccclii] : The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI) in Northern California, The Future of Humanity Institute (FHI) and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER) in England’s Oxford and Cambridge respectively, and the Future of Life Institute (FLI) in Massachussetts.

The physicist and science fiction author Vernor Vinge argued in 1993 that artificial intelligence and other technologies would cause a singularity in human affairs within 30 years. This idea was picked up and popularised by the inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil, who believes that computers will overtake humans in general intelligence in 1929, and a singularity will arrive in 2045. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_singularity [v] The event horizon of a black hole is the point beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer, or in other words, the point of no return. The gravitational pull has become so great as to make escape impossible, even for light. [vi] http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/universal-basic-income/?utm_content=buffer71a7e&utm_medium=social&utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_campaign=buffer [vii] At the end of this video: http://bit.ly/1MtEqNb [viii] https://www.minnpost.com/macro-micro-minnesota/2012/02/history-lessons-understanding-decline-manufacturing [ix] http://blogs.rmg.co.uk/longitude/2014/07/30/guest-post-pirate-map/ [x] https://www.weforum.org/pages/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-by-klaus-schwab [xi] http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/259572/eib3_1_.pdf.

utm_content=buffer71a7e&utm_medium=social&utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_campaign=buffer [vii] At the end of this video: http://bit.ly/1MtEqNb [viii] https://www.minnpost.com/macro-micro-minnesota/2012/02/history-lessons-understanding-decline-manufacturing [ix] http://blogs.rmg.co.uk/longitude/2014/07/30/guest-post-pirate-map/ [x] https://www.weforum.org/pages/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-by-klaus-schwab [xi] http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/259572/eib3_1_.pdf. Employment in agriculture declined in absolute terms as well, from 11.7m in 1900 to 6.0m in 1960. http://www.nber.org/chapters/c1567.pdf [xii] www.ons.gov.cuk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/170-years-of-industry/170-years-of-industrial-changeponent.html [xiii] http://www.americanequestrian.com/pdf/us-equine-demographics.pdf [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation#cite_note-7 [xv] M. A. Laughton, D. J. Warne (ed), Electrical Engineer's Reference book [xvi] http://www.oleantimesherald.com/news/did-you-know-gas-pump-shut-off-valve-was-invented/article_c7a00da2-b3eb-54e1-9c8d-ee36483a7e33.html [xvii] Radio frequency Identification tags. They can take various forms – for instance, some have inbuilt power sources, while others are powered by interacting with nearby magnetic fields, or the radio waves which interrogate them.

pages: 274 words: 93,758

Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller, Stanley B Resor Professor Of Economics Robert J Shiller

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, David Brooks, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equity premium, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, loss aversion, market bubble, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, publication bias, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave

Velotta, “Gaming Commission Rejects Slot Machines at Cash Registers,” Las Vegas Sun, March 18, 2010, last accessed May 12, 2015, http://lasvegassun.com/news/2010/mar/18/gaming-commission-rejects-slot-machines-cash-regis/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter. Senator Harry Reid is famous as chair of the Nevada Gambling Commission for his stand against Mafia influence. The movie Casino is said to be based on Reid’s stance against Frank Rosenthal (see “Harry Reid,” Wikipedia, accessed December 1, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Reid). 5. Natasha Dow Schüll, Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012). 6. Ibid., pp. 24–25. 7. These include a gas station/convenience store and a supermarket where she sometimes gambles, and then, most significantly, the Palace Station casino. 8. Schüll, Addiction by Design, p. 2. Mollie tells Schüll, “I am not playing to win.

We are using the term rip-off in the sense that people are paying a high price for the services they are getting. We are not referring, except in rare instances, to transactions that are illegal. The Wikipedia entry “Ripoff” describes this as one usage of the term: “a bad financial transaction. Usually it refers to an incident in which a person is overcharged for something.” Accessed November 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ripoff. 21. According to Sheharyar Bokhari, Walter Torous, and William Wheaton, the loan-to-value ratios in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s, before the housing boom, were less than 80 percent for only 40 percent of home purchases with mortgages purchased by Fannie Mae. Taking the transaction costs as about 10 percent of the sale price (6 percent for real estate fees, 4 percent for closing costs), this means that for 60 percent of house closings, those costs were 50 percent or more of the buyer’s down payment.

(New York: Worth Publishers, 2009), pp. 12–13, use this example to explain the nature of equilibrium. Robert H. Frank and Ben Bernanke also refer to this image in Principles of Macroeconomics (New York: McGraw Hill, 2003). 4. See Cinnabon, Inc., “The Cinnabon Story,” accessed October 31, 2014, http://www.cinnabon.com/about-us.aspx. 5. Ibid. 6. “Cinnabon,” Wikipedia, accessed October 22, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnabon. 7. Email from Stefano DellaVigna to George Akerlof, October 25, 2014. 8. International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association, “Industry Research,” accessed October 22, 2014, http://www.ihrsa.org/industry-research/. 9. Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier, “Paying Not to Go to the Gym,” American Economic Review 96, no. 3 (June 2006): 694–719. See also DellaVigna and Malmendier, “Contract Design and Self-Control: Theory and Evidence,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 2 (May 2004): 353–402. 10.

Realtime Web Apps: HTML5 WebSocket, Pusher, and the Web’s Next Big Thing by Jason Lengstorf, Phil Leggetter

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, Ruby on Rails, Skype, software as a service, web application, WebSocket

The client has to do much more work; it retrieves and loads content dynamically, it changes the user interface (UI) based on user feedback, and the UI is presented in a way that we would be traditionally associated with a desktop application. There’s much less focus on pages reloading and the concept of a page in general. Content also becomes much less text-based, and we start to achieve much more visually appealing and interactive representations of data within a web application. 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_revolution http://scobleizer.com/2009/02/09/is-the-real-time-web-a-threat-to-google-search/ 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_content#Content_is_king 2 4 Chapter 1 ■ What Is Realtime? HTTP Hacks As more of us (we developers are the pioneers) started to build web applications, the demands on the web browser increased. Performance became a problem; not just the web browser application but also the machines that the browsers were running on.

For HTTP-based solutions, this meant that you could only have one page of a web app or site open which was using HTTP long-polling or streaming. If you tried to open a second page the connections would fail. The workaround for this was to have lots of subdomains that mapped back to the same server. Connection restrictions are still enforced in modern browsers, but the number of connections allowed is now much more reasonable.10 7 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same_origin_policy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-origin_resource_sharing 9 http://caniuse.com/#search=cors 10 www.browserscope.org/?category=network 8 8 Chapter 1 ■ What Is realtIme? a NOte ON the terMINOLOGY there are a number of different terms that have been used to describe the http-based realtime web solutions. most of these are umbrella terms that encompass the various methods developers use to achieve a server to client communication over http. these terms include Comet, http server push, and aJaX push, among a slew of others. the problem is that although some of these terms have very specific definitions and techniques—especially Comet—they tend to hold different meanings for different people. the position held in this book is that Comet is a term used to define a paradigm within an application structure: namely that of simulating bidirectional communication between the server and the client using two http connections.

This method is great for adding user triggered functionality to a web app, so still typically relied on an event in the browser, such as a click, and therefore didn’t really solve any problems in the quest to keep content up-to-the-minute. Polling After AJAX took hold, it was a short jump to try and take the browser event out of the equation and to automate the process of getting new information. Developers set up a refresh interval using something like the JavaScript setInterval() function to check for updates every n seconds. 4 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol www.w3.org/TR/XMLHttpRequest/ 5 5 Chapter 1 ■ What Is Realtime? “Yep.” “Anything new?” “Nope.” “Anything new?” “Nope.” “Anything new?” “Nope.” “Anything new?” “Nope.” “Anything new?” “Nope.” “Anything new?” “Anything new?” “Nope.” Server Client 0s Time 10s Figure 1-2. Polling sends HTTP requests frequently to check for new information To better understand just how wasteful this can be, you can think of this communication as a conversation between the client and server: CLIENT: Hi!

ucd-csi-2011-02 by Unknown

bioinformatics, en.wikipedia.org, pattern recognition, The Wisdom of Crowds

Two examples relevant for this paper are the pages on network motifs and hierachical clustering; at the time of writing, these pages are not necessarily inaccurate but they are not comprehensive or authoritative. It is clear from an examination of the edit history of these pages that they have not received much attention from Wikipedia contributors. 1 Fatally Flawed: Refuting the Recent Study on Encyclopedic Accuracy by the Journal Nature, http: //corporate.britannica.com/britannica_nature_response.pdf 2 See Wikipedia articles at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_ articles. 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Version_1.0_Editorial_Team/ Assessment 1 In this paper we present some preliminary work exploring the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the collaboration in Wikipedia is revealed to some extent in the edit graph – the two-mode graph of articles and contributors to those articles. We have extracted edit graphs for nine sections of Wikipedia (see Table 1) and characterized each of these graphs in terms of network motif profiles.

Each dataset constitutes a target graph for GraphGrep and the 134 network motifs are used as the query graphs. When using GraphGrep for network motif counting care must be taken to handle graph automorphisms. For instance, GraphGrep returns six when both the target and query graphs are simple triangles. To correct for this, each count is divided by the number of automorphisms of the query graphs. 4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sociologists http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_League 5 http://github.com/ChrisSalij/PageAnalyzer Footballers Sociologists Chelsea Everton West Ham Utd. French British German American Italian 18th Century Nodes 161 160 203 370 374 308 1,092 82 480 Pages 33 30 45 74 62 55 235 11 83 Users 128 130 158 296 312 253 857 71 397 Edges 941 959 1,330 1,275 734 1,009 3,393 130 1,710 Table 1: The nine Wikipedia datasets. 3 AP-Edges 682 625 786 1,133 720 897 3,242 126 1,598 PP-Edges 259 334 544 142 14 112 151 4 112 Chelsea West Ham United Everton American British Born in 18 century Italian French German Italian French British Born.in.18.century American Everton West.Ham.United Chelsea German Figure 1: A clustering of the nine network motif profiles based on correlation. 3.2 Normalization of Network Motif Profiles The number of network motif instances in a graph depends on the size and the density of the graphs.

Scala in Action by Nilanjan Raychaudhuri

continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, index card, MVC pattern, type inference, web application

All operations are performed by sending messages to objects. All user-defined types are objects. Scala supports all these qualities and uses a pure object-oriented model similar to that of Smalltalk[4] (a pure object-oriented language created by Alan Kay around 1980), where every value is an object, and every operation is a message send. Here’s a simple expression: 4 “Smalltalk,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smalltalk. 1 + 2 In Scala this expression is interpreted as 1.+(2) by the Scala compiler. That means you’re invoking a + operation on an integer object (in this case, 1) by passing 2 as a parameter. Scala treats operator names like ordinary identifiers. An identifier in Scala is either a sequence of letters and digits starting with a letter or a sequence of operator characters. In addition to +, it’s possible to define methods like <=, -, or *.

The basic Actor architecture relies on a shared-nothing policy and is lightweight in nature. It’s not analogous to a Java thread; it’s more like an event object that gets scheduled and executed by a thread. The Scala Actor model is a better way to handle concurrency issues. Its shared-nothing architecture and asynchronous message-passing techniques make it an easy alternative to existing thread-based solutions. 9 “Actor model,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model. History of the Actor model The Actor model was first proposed by Carl Hewitt in 1973 in his paper “A Universal Modular ACTOR Formalism for Artificial Intelligence” and was later on improved by Gul Agha (“ACTORS: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems”). Erlang was the first programming language to implement the Actor model. Erlang is a general-purpose concurrent programming language with dynamic typing.

Instead, Scala supports something called singleton objects. A singleton object allows you to restrict the instantiation of a class to one object.[5] Implementing a singleton pattern in Scala is as simple as the following: 4 “Cutting out Static,” Gilad Bracha blog, Room 101, Feb. 17, 2008, http://gbracha.blogspot.com/2008/02/cutting-out-static.html. 5 “Singleton pattern,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singleton_pattern. object RichConsole { def p(x: Any) = println(x) } Here RichConsole is a singleton object. The object declaration is similar to a class declaration except instead of class you’re using the object keyword. To invoke the new p method, you have to prefix it with the class name, as you’d invoke static methods in Java or C#: scala> :l RichConsole.scala Loading RichConsole.scala... defined module RichConsole scala> RichConsole.p("rich console") rich console You can import and use all the members of the RichConsole object as follows: scala> import RichConsole._ import RichConsole._ scala> p("this is cool") this is cool The DB object introduced in listing 3.2 is nothing but a factory to create DB instances representing a database in MongoDB: object DB { def apply(underlying: MongDB) = new DB(underlying) } What’s interesting here is that when you use a DB object as a factory, you’re calling it as if it’s a function, DB(underlying.getDB(name)), whereas you’d expect something like DB.apply(underlying.getDB(name)).

pages: 312 words: 93,504

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/ index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk&oldid=333254700 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002a, June 28). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84s k&diff=prev&oldid=107671 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002b, June 29). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84s k&diff=next&oldid=107930 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2004, February 10). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk &diff=2355452&oldid=2355317 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2012, June 26). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk&diff=49939 0993&oldid=499387188 Gedajlovic, E., Lubatkin, M.

See also [[WP:Namespace#Pseudo-namespaces]], [[WP:Shortcuts]]. 2. Also sometimes used as an abbreviation for WikiProject (see also WPP). Notes PROLOGUE 1. I purposefully avoid providing citations to these discussions to protect the subjects. 2. For ease of reference, all citations to the English Wikipedia are presented in a shortened format. For example, [[WP:Size_comparisons]] can be found at https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:Size_comparisons (or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wikipedia:Size_comparisons, because “WP” is a shortcut to “Wikipedia”). Double square brackets are characteristic of the markup code of wiki technology, often used by people to collaborate in creating and modifying content on the web. They allow easy visual differentiation of this type of citation. I n t ro d u c t io n 1. The ethnographic study discussed in this book took place in 2006–2012, when I was particularly active on the Polish Wikipedia (where I was elected an administrator and a bureaucrat—roles are described in more detail in Chapter 2) and the English Wikipedia, which both serve as the basis of the analysis.

Ostrom’s principles related to smaller communities, and it can be assumed that Wikipedia is a pioneer in addressing many of the social organization problems of scale and that not all principles of open-collaboration communities may be fully applicable to it. C h a p t er 5 1. Essjay’s original talk page no longer exists, but this post has been archived at http://www.wikipedia-watch.org/essjay.html. 2. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Ess jay&oldid=112480415#Slashdot. 3. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_ talk:Essjay&oldid=112480415. No t e s t o C h a p t er 6   2 3 3 C h a p t er 6 1. For a useful taxonomy of contributions to Wikimedia projects, see “Research:Contribution Taxonomy Project,” 2012. 2. I wrote these words two days after I was appointed one of seven members of the FDC, and I was later elected chair.

pages: 157 words: 35,874

Building Web Applications With Flask by Italo Maia

continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full stack developer, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, premature optimization, web application

Each table is isolated from one another and the related data may be retrievable, thanks to the relations established by the foreign keys! The data normalization techniques are a set of rules used to allow proper scattering of the data across the tables so that the related tables are easily fetched and redundancy is kept to a minimum. Tip Please, refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_normalization for an overview of database normalization. For an overview of the normal forms, please refer to the following links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_normal_form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_normal_form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_normal_form We may now proceed! Hands on Let's begin by installing the library into our environment and trying out a few examples: pip install sqlalchemy On to our first example! Let's create a simple employee database for a company (maybe yours?)

Writing and consulting languages are vendor-specific, and you may have to give up on ACID too in a tradeoff for speed, lots of speed! You have probably guessed it already! This chapter is all about the M layer of MVC, that is, how to store and access your data in a transparent way with Flask! We'll look at the examples of how to use query and write to both the database types, and when to choose which one to use. Tip ACID is the acronym for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. Refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID for a cozy definition and overview. SQLAlchemy SQLAlchemy is an amazing library for working with relational databases. It was made by the Pocoo Team, the same folks that brought you Flask, and is considered "The Facto" Python SQL library. It works with SQLite, Postgres, MySQL, Oracle, and all SQL databases, which comes with compatible drivers. SQLite describes itself as a self-contained, serverless, zero-configuration, and transactional SQL database engine (https://sqlite.org/about.html).

: from sqlalchemy import create_engine db = create_engine('sqlite:///employees.sqlite') # echo output to console db.echo = True conn = db.connect() conn.execute(""" CREATE TABLE employee ( id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, name STRING(100) NOT NULL, birthday DATE NOT NULL )""") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'marcos mango', date('1990-09-06') );") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'rosie rinn', date('1980-09-06') );") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'mannie moon', date('1970-07-06') );") for row in conn.execute("SELECT * FROM employee"): print row # give connection back to the connection pool conn.close() The preceding example is pretty simple. We create a SQLAlchemy engine, grab a connection from the connection pool (engine handles that for you) and then we execute the SQL command to create a table, insert a few rows and query to see whether everything occurred as expected. Tip Visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connection_pool for the connection pool pattern overview. (This is important, really!) In our insertion, we provided the value NULL to the primary key id. Be aware that SQLite will not populate the primary key with NULL; instead, it will ignore the NULL value and set the column with a new, unique, across the table integer. That's SQLite- specific behavior. Oracle, for example, would require you to insert a sequence's next value explicitly in order to set a new unique column value for the primary key.

pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

In Sweden, the FRA Law authorizes the Swedish government to tap all voice and Internet traffic that crosses its borders—without a warrant. It was met with fierce protests across the political spectrum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FRA_law). British privacy laws are a complex and complicated set of regulations that face serious challenges resulting from how people use platforms that rely on big data, such as Twitter (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/23/uk-privacy-law-thrown-int_n_865416.html). The number of closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV) in London is estimated to be almost two million (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television). And it is well known that the Chinese government heavily regulates Internet traffic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China). Just a few examples from only three countries show the wide variety of values at play in how technology in general, and big data in particular, are utilized and managed.

At risk are the very benefits of big data innovation itself. In late 2011 and early 2012, the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) put before Congress was met with fierce resistance from a wide variety of industries, organizations, and individuals. The primary reason was the belief that the provisions of the proposed law would severely constrain innovation in the future using technical tools such as big data (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_Online_Piracy_Act). Part of the debate centered around the belief that the members of Congress supporting the bill were either misinformed by interested parties about how the technology worked and how innovation was made possible, or they were just simply unaware of the realities of how Internet and big data technologies worked in the first place. In either case, SOPA represents a classic example of how a lack of transparent and explicit discourse about how a critical piece of our economy and society works had the potential to significantly limit our collective ability to benefit from those tools.

Victims of abuse or people who suffer from the same disease can share their experiences and gain an invaluable sense of connection and community through the use of ostensibly anonymous online identities. These perspectives, however, motivate the question: have we lost or gained control over our ability to manage how the world perceives us? In 1993, the New Yorker famously published a cartoon with canines at the keyboard whose caption read: “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Internet,_nobody_knows_you%27re_a_dog). At the time, this was funny because it was true. Today, however, in the age of prevalent big data, it is not only possible for people to know that you’re a dog, but also what breed you are, your favorite snacks, your lineage, and whether you’ve ever won any awards at a dog show. In those instances where an individual intentionally keeps any information about their identity private, at least one ethical question arises: what right do others have to make it public?

Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

The uncertainty principle states that certain pairs of physical properties cannot be known beyond a specified level of precision at the same time. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Uncertainty_principle. 67. Christophe Bruno, Human Browser (2005; available at http://www.iterature.com/human -browser/en/). 68. Latour, Reassembling the Social, 59. 69. Albert-László Barabási, Linked: The New Science of Networks (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2002), 80. 70. Ibid., 66. 71. Ibid., 86. 72. DARPA’s motivation was to develop a robust communications infrastructure for use by its projects at universities and research laboratories in the US, but whether it was developed to withstand attack from a nuclear strike, feared at the time of the Cold War, is rather more contentious. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARPANET. 73. Ibid. The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), initially known as ARPA (1963), was the world’s first operational packet-switching network.

./") state_str = ['queued', 'checking', 'downloading metadata', 'downloading', 'finished', 'seeding', 'allocating'] while (1): s = h.status() print '%.2f%% complete (down: %.1f kb/s up: %.1f kB/s peers: %d) %s' % (s.progress * 100, s.download_rate / 1000, s.upload_rate / 1000, s.num_peers, state_str[s.state]) time.sleep(5) Notes 0 Double Coding 1. For more on the Befunge programming language, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Befunge. 2. The Hello World Collection, compiled by Wolfram Roesler (with help from many people around the world), includes 421 “Hello world” programs in many more or less well-known programming languages, plus 63 human languages (available at http://roesler-ac.de/wolfram/hello.htm). 3. Referring to John 1:1: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” 4.

For instance, taking up the challenge in 2001–2002 and following Kempelen’s instructions closely, Jakob Scheid translated the use of traditional materials to digital computer methods (see http://klangmaschinen.ima.or.at/db/pv.php?table=Object&id=2011&lang=). 41. Brigitte Felderer, “Orality,” in Zauberhafte Klangmaschinen: Von der Sprechmaschine bis zur Soundkarte (Hainburg: IMA Institut für Medienarchäologie, Schott Music, 2008), 92. The speaking machine can still be seen in the Deutsches Museum, Munich. 42. See Wikipedia entry, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_von_Kempelen% 27s_Speaking_Machine. 43. Rée, I See a Voice, 258. 44. Ong, Orality and Literacy, 86. 45. See http://www.omniglot.com/writing/korean.htm. 46. Rée, I See a Voice, 262. 47. George Bernard Shaw, Pygmalion (1916). Also see Ovid’s Metamorphoses, book X. 48. Alan Turing, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950), in Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, eds., The New Media Reader (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003), 49–64. 49.

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Programming Clojure by Stuart Halloway, Aaron Bedra

continuous integration, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, type inference, web application

Footnotes [33] http://norvig.com/21-days.html [34] http://lampwww.epfl.ch/papers/idealhashtrees.pdf [35] http://tinyurl.com/clojure-persistent-vector [36] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number [37] For more on how the JVM manages its stack, see “Runtime Data Areas” at http://tinyurl.com/jvm-spec-toc. [38] On today’s JVMs, languages can provide automatic TCO for some kinds of recursion but not for all. Since there is no general solution, Clojure forces you to be explicit. When and if general TCO becomes widely supported on the JVM, Clojure will support it as well. [39] Hat tip to Jeff Brown, who posed this problem over breakfast at a No Fluff, Just Stuff symposium. [40] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hofstadter_sequence [41] 3.06 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo, 4 GB 667 MHz DDR2 SDRAM, Ubuntu 10.10, SSD Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf.

Clojure’s macro implementation is easy to learn and use correctly for common tasks and yet powerful enough for the harder macro-related tasks. In the next chapter, you will see how Clojure is bringing macros to mainstream programming. Footnotes [50] http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/2232 [51] http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-clojure-protocols/?ca=drs- [52] http://clojure.org/datatypes [53] Notice more than one pitch maps to 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10. [54] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cage [55] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleatoric_music Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 7 Macros Macros give Clojure great power. With most programming techniques, you build features within the language. When you write macros, it is more accurate to say that you are “adding features to” the language. This is a powerful and dangerous ability, so you should follow the rules in Section 7.1, ​When to Use Macros​, at least until you have enough experience to decide for yourself when to bend the rules.

You have seen Clojure’s expressive syntax, learned about Clojure’s approach to Lisp, and seen how easy it is to call Java code from Clojure. You have Clojure running in your own environment, and you have written short programs at the REPL to demonstrate functional programming and the reference model for dealing with state. Now it is time to explore the entire language. Footnotes [8] Software Estimation: Demystifying the Black Art [McC06] is a great read and makes the case that smaller is cheaper. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homoiconicity [10] http://www.paulgraham.com/icad.html [11] http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html [12] http://github.com/technomancy/leiningen [13] http://github.com/technomancy/leiningen [14] pst is available only in Clojure 1.3.0 and greater. [15] Creating a new REPL will prevent name collisions between your previous work and the sample code functions of the same name.

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Creative Selection: Inside Apple's Design Process During the Golden Age of Steve Jobs by Ken Kocienda

1960s counterculture, anti-pattern, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bash_history, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, HyperCard, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, premature optimization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, zero-sum game

Wikipedia contributors, “International Talk Like a Pirate Day,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=International_Talk_Like_a_Pirate_Day&oldid=831048898. Accessed November 14, 2017. 3. Wikipedia contributors, “QWERTY,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=QWERTY&oldid=842348998. Accessed May 14, 2018. 4. Samantha, Today I Found Out, “The Origin of the Qwerty Keyboard,” January 7, 2012. http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2012/01/the-origin-of-the-qwerty-keyboard/. Accessed May 14, 2018. 5. Wikipedia contributors, “Critique of Judgment,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Critique_of_Judgment&oldid=842429054. Accessed November 14, 2017; Immanuel Kant, Kant’s Critique of Judgement, translated with Introduction and Notes by J.

Accessed November 16, 2017. “Sound Design of Star Wars.” Filmsound.org. http://www.filmsound.org/starwars/. 5. Wikipedia contributors, “Ben Shneiderman,” Wikipedia, The Free En-cyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ben_Shneiderman&oldid=838578865. Accessed November 16, 2018. Wikipedia contributors, “Direct Manipulation Interface,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Direct_manipulation_interface&oldid=831492190. Accessed November 16, 2017. 6. Wikipedia contributors, “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Magical_Number_Seven,_Plus_or_Minus_Two&oldid=841444468. Accessed November 16, 2017. George A. Miller, “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,” Classics in the History of Psychology. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Miller/.

patentnumber=8232973. 2. Wikipedia contributors, “Bugzilla,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bugzilla&oldid=841348601. Accessed November 15, 2017. 3. stopdesign, creative outlet of Douglas Bowman, “Goodbye, Google,” March 20, 2009. http://stopdesign.com/archive/2009/03/20/goodbye-google.html. Accessed November 15, 2017. 4. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (New York: Collier & Son, 1909), pp. 45–46. I obtained a digital scan of this edition at https://ia902205.us.archive.org/19/items/originofspecies00darwuoft/originofspecies00darwuoft.pdf. 5. Wikipedia contributors, “Seagull Manager,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Seagull_manager&oldid=838557671. Accessed November 15, 2017. The original source for this notion appears to come from a book titled Leadership and the One Minute Manager by Ken Blanchard, published in 1985. 9.

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Forge Your Future with Open Source by VM (Vicky) Brasseur

AGPL, anti-pattern, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), call centre, continuous integration, Debian, DevOps, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Internet Archive, Larry Wall, microservices, Perl 6, premature optimization, pull request, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, Turing machine

Footnotes [5] https://octoverse.github.com [6] https://www.fsf.org [7] https://sfconservancy.org [8] https://opensource.org/ [9] https://www.spi-inc.org [10] https://fsfe.org/index.en.html [11] https://opensourceprojects.eu [12] https://linux.org.au [13] http://opensource.asia [14] https://fossasia.org [15] http://www.fossfa.net [16] https://africaopendata.org [17] https://softwarelivre.org [18] https://flisol.info [19] https://www.softwarelibre.org.pe [20] https://wikipedia.org [21] https://creativecommons.org [22] https://okfn.org/about/ [23] https://archive.org [24] https://osseeds.org [25] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman [26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Project [27] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Manifesto [28] https://www.fsf.org [29] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christine_Peterson [30] https://opensource.org/ [31] https://opensource.org/osd [32] https://opensource.org/osd-annotated [33] https://opensource.org/licenses [34] https://about.gitlab.com/2017/12/18/balanced-piaa/ [35] https://github.com/blog/2337-work-life-balance-in-employee-intellectual-property-agreements [36] https://opensource.org/licenses [37] https://opensource.org/licenses/Apache-2.0 [38] https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT [39] https://opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license [40] https://opensource.org/licenses/lgpl-license [41] https://opensource.org/licenses/MPL-2.0 Copyright © 2018, The Pragmatic Bookshelf.

Use this chapter as a guideline, but always follow the established communication norms for the project. Now that you know how to communicate with others in a FOSS community, it’s time to get to know them, and what better way to do that than getting together in person? Footnotes [92] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Torvalds; The inventor of Linux. [93] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larry_Wall; The inventor of rn, patch, Perl, and Perl 6. [94] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee; The inventor of the World Wide Web. [95] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastebin [96] https://www.xkcd.com/386/ [97] https://opensource.com/life/16/6/irc Copyright © 2018, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 8 It’s About the People By now you’ve noticed a large part of the book is dedicated to methods and tips for interacting with others.

To Brian, my editor and my friend, who came to me with a crazy idea and who helped me turn it into reality, without whom I literally could not have done this (pun intended): Thank you. To everyone on the channel, who knows who they are and who are there for me through it all: Thank you. I love each and every one of you and I will never tire of saying so. And finally to you, who will help shape the future of technology through your free and open source contributions: Thank you. Footnotes [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whac-A-Mole#Colloquial_usage [2] https://pragprog.com/titles/vbopens/errata [3] https://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=%23fossforge [4] https://opensource.com/life/16/6/irc-quickstart-guide Copyright © 2018, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 1 The Foundations and Philosophies of Free and Open Source When we think or talk about free and open source software, there’s a strong tendency to focus on that last bit: the software.

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Business Metadata: Capturing Enterprise Knowledge by William H. Inmon, Bonnie K. O'Neil, Lowell Fryman

affirmative action, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, continuous integration, corporate governance, create, read, update, delete, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, semantic web, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. ✦ Von Krogh, Georg, Ichijo, Kazuo, and Nonaka, Ikujiro. Enabling Knowledge Creation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ✦ Wikipedia. “Tacit Knowledge.” Referenced July 13, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Tacit knowledge ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Worker.” Referenced July 12, 2006. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_worker ✦ Wikipedia. “Internet.” Referenced July 20, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Internet ✦ Wikipedia. “Groupware.” Referenced July 16, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Groupware C H A P T E R TA B L E O F CO N T E N T S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................121 Technical Sources of (Both Business and Technical) Metadata ...............................................................................122 Editing the Metadata as It Passes into the Enterprise Metadata Repository .....................................................128 Turning Technical Metadata into Business Metadata .......................................................................................................135 Summary .......................................................................................................137 Introduction CHAPTER 7 Capturing Business Metadata from Existing Data This chapter explores all the general sources of metadata.

HR Magazine, February 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_2_51/ai_n16101872 ✦ Sun Executive Boardroom. “How to Deal with a Graying Workforce.” January, 2004. http://www.sun.com/br/0104_ezine/man_graying.html ✦ Von Krogh, Georg, et al. Enabling Knowledge Creation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Base.” Referenced on November 26, 2006, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_base ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Management.” Referenced on November 25, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management ✦ Wikipedia. “Tacit Knowledge.” Referenced on November 25, 2006, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacit_knowledge This page intentionally left blank In Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 16.1 Introduction ................................................................................................273 The Importance of Business Metadata .......................................274 Business Metadata and Metadata Initiatives...........................275 The Essence of Business Metadata................................................276 Lessons Learned in the Field .............................................................278 What Does the Future Hold?.............................................................

CNN, September 30, 1999. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9909/30/mars. metric.02/ ✦ Seybold, Patty. “Where Do Search and Findability Fit in Your Business Strategy?” Outside Innovation, 2006. http://outsideinnovation.blogs.com/ pseybold/2006/06/where_do_search.html ✦ Wahl, Zach. “Masterclass: Business Taxonomy, Part I.” Inside Knowledge, October 31, 2006. http://www.ikmagazine.com/ ✦ Wikipedia. “NATO Bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.”Referenced on October 26, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/NATO_Bombing_of_the_Chinese_embassy_in_Belgrade C H A P T E R TA B L E O F CO N T E N T S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................79 Why Consolidate or Integrate Metadata? ....................................80 Metadata Project Planning and Scoping Considerations .................................................................................................... 82 Defining the Scope of the Metadata Repository ....................85 Summary ..........................................................................................................87 Introduction As organizations moved to an understanding of the need for enterprise information, rather than just application information, corporations recognized that they needed to do something about their metadata.

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Factfulness: Ten Reasons We're Wrong About the World – and Why Things Are Better Than You Think by Hans Rosling, Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund

animal electricity, clean water, colonial rule, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), jimmy wales, linked data, lone genius, microcredit, purchasing power parity, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, Thomas L Friedman, Walter Mischel

“Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_abolition_of_slavery_and_serfdom. Wikipedia[2]. “Capital punishment by country: Abolition chronology.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_by_country#Abolition_chronology. Wikipedia[3]. “Feature film: History.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_film#History. Wikipedia[4]. “Women’s suffrage.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage. Wikipedia[5]. “Sound recording and reproduction: Phonoautograph.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_recording_and_reproduction#Phonautograph. Wikipedia[6]. “World War II casualties.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties. Wikipedia[7]. “List of terrorist incidents: 1970–present.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_terrorist_incidents#1970–present.

“List of terrorist incidents: 1970–present.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_terrorist_incidents#1970–present. Wikipedia[8]. “Cobratoxin: Multiple sclerosis.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobratoxin#cite_note-pmid21999367-8. Wikipedia[9]. “Charles Waterton.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Waterton. Wikipedia[10]. “Recovery position.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recovery_position. World Bank[1]. “Indicator GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2011 international $).” International Comparison Program database. Downloaded October 22, 2017. gapm.io/xwb171. World Bank[2]. “World Bank Country and Lending Groups.” Accessed November 6, 2017. gapm.io/xwb172. World Bank[3]. “Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group).” Accessed November 5, 2017. gapm.io/xwb173. World Bank[4]. “Population of Country Income Groups in 2015—Population, total.” Accessed November 7, 2017. gapm.io/xwb174.

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The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 32. 41. “The Ninety-Five Theses,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ninety-Five_Theses. 42. J. Katz, The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984), 7–8. 43. American Medical Association, Code of Medical Ethics, 1847, http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-history/history-ama-ethics.page. 44. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, 303. 45. “Sacrosanctum Concilium,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacrosanctum_Concilium. 46. “Ad Orientem,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_orientem. 47. J. Schuessler, “Wired: Putting a Writer and Readers to a Test,” New York Times, November 30, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/30/books/arnon-grunberg-is-writing-while-connected-to-electrodes.html. 48.

That may be especially apropos, given the symbol’s original suggestion of a godlike nature of physicians, and the tradition of paternalism that the AMA, along with many physicians, inherited from the ancient world. FIGURE 2.2: Evolution of the caduceus symbol in medicine and its adoption by the American Medical Association. Sources: (left and middle) “Caduceus,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caduceus; and (right) “History of AMA Ethics,” American Medical Association, accessed August 13, 2014, http://www.ama-assn.org/ama. The American Medical Association The American Medical Asssociation was founded in 1847, and for more than 160 years since, says its website, the AMA’s Code of Medical Ethics has been the “authoritative ethics guide for practicing physicians.”25 Authoritative it has been.

This is the first chapter of the “My” section of the book; each one is about different components of your information. Later in the book we’ll get to the transformative implications of having and owning your GIS data. FIGURE 5.1: Differences in our ability to map an infectious disease epidemic. Sources: (left) “1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak; and (right) J. L. Gardy et al., “Whole-Genome Sequencing and Social-Network Analysis of a Tuberculosis Outbreak,” New England Journal of Medicine 364 (2011): 730–739. The human GIS comprises multiple layers of demographic, physiologic, anatomic, biologic, and environmental data (Figure 5.2) about a particular individual.5 This is a rich, multi-scale, mosaic of a human being, which can be used to define one’s medical essence; when fully amassed and integrated, it is what a digitized person looks like, at least for the sake of how medical care can be rendered.

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Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

The end of the timeline, furthest to the right, perfectly fits the start, furthest to the left, to show how this pattern repeats. Moreover, in contrast with the first diagram, it is now clear how the rate of change in its position itself changes. The first diagram shows only position. 5. Three different ways of describing the movement of the perpetual pendulum. (Adapted from an illustration in the Wikipedia entry “Phase Portrait,” probably by Krishnatej Vedala, accessed 7 September 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_portrait#/media/File:Pendulum_phase_portrait_illustration.svg.) The final of the three diagrams, shown at the bottom of figure 5, takes time off any axis. This phase portrait of the pendulum is a circle around which the pendulum is swinging anti-, or counter-, clockwise. Deceleration toward its highest position on the circle, which is furthest right in real space (number 3), occurs after a slowdown between points 2 and 3.

Perhaps it is the case that many people, worldwide, are very interested in between 1 and 2 million things and that, after that number is reached, each additional million entries are generally of less interesting content than the previous million were. The encyclopedias of the past had far fewer than a million entries. 10. Articles in Wikipedia, 15 January 2001–1 January 2019. (Data adapted from “Wikipedia: Size of Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, accessed 24 February 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_of_Wikipedia.) A second change can be seen in the trend that occurred in 2015, when Wikipedia’s growth rate briefly accelerated again. It is possible that people had started assuming that they would find a Wikipedia entry for anything and everything they thought was important or interesting, and so those who could edit (and computer literacy was increasing quickly back then) added more “stubs” to make the existing gaps apparent, and other people coming across the stubs were invited to do something about it via a notice on the page itself.

They are all directly involved either in the production of oil and gas, in making the cars that run on the oil, in building and running the enormous supermarkets with gigantic car parks to which you drive in your car using that oil (in the case of Walmart), or—they are the “largest shareholder in United Airlines and Delta Air Lines and a top 3 shareholder in Southwest Airlines and American Airlines” (in the case of Berkshire Hathaway, run by Warren Buffet), among much else.12 Table 5. Ten largest companies in the world by revenue, 2018 Source: “List of Largest Companies by Revenue,” Wikipedia, accessed 22 April 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_companies_by_revenue. ONE DEGREE ABOVE NORMAL BY 2018 The timeline in figure 17 shows what is widely believed to be the effect of the relentless rise in CO2 pollution around the planet. That pollution is measured each June high up on a mountain on a Hawaiian island in the Pacific Ocean. The average temperature around the planet, and how it is changing, is much harder to estimate because it does not spread out evenly like a gas.

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Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age by W. Bernard Carlson

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Henri Poincaré, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, packet switching, popular electronics, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, undersea cable, yellow journalism

The page numbers used in the notes refer to the 1982 Johnson edition. 3. Tim Judah, The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 5. 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lika. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MilitaryFrontier. 6. NY Herald, 1893, 92. See also Notecard on Kosanović’s criticism of O’Neill’s mss., KSP. 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian provinces. 8. NY Herald, 1893. 9. Cheney and Uth, Master of Lightning, 5. 10. Mrkich, “NT Father.” See also [Dan] Mrkich, Nikola Tesla: The European Years (Ottawa: Commoners’ Publishing, 2004), 52–53. 11. The French established twenty-five gymnasia in the Illyrian provinces; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_provinces. 12. Mrkich, “NT Father.” 13. Mrkich, Tesla: The European Years, 53. This church was burned down in 1941 and restored in the 1980s, only to be destroyed again during the fighting in 1992 (Mrkich, “NT Father”).

RUJ, Remembered Yesterdays, 400. 19. TCM, “Nikola Tesla,” The Century Magazine 47 (February 1894): 582–86 in TC 9:1–4. 20. TCM to RUJ, 7 February 1894 and TCM to NT, 17 February 94, in Seifer, Wizard, 129. 21. NT to RUJ, 15 February 1894, Bakken Museum of Electricity, Minneapolis. 22. NT, New York Academy of Sciences Lecture, 31. 23. On Jefferson and Crawford, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Jefferson and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Marion_Crawford. 24. TCM, “Tesla’s Oscillator and Other Inventions,” 928. 25. NT to RUJ, 2 May 1894, in Seifer, Wizard, 128; NT to KJ, 2 May 1894, in Cheney, Tesla: Man out of Time, 95. 26. Martin, “Tesla’s Oscillator.” 27. Arthur Brisbane, “Our Foremost Electrician,” New York World, 22 July 1894, p. 1; John Foord, “Nikola Tesla and His Work,” New York Times, 30 September 1894; and Curtis Brown, “A Man of the Future,” Savannah Morning News, 21 October 1894, all in TC 9:44–48, 64–67, 84–87; TCM, “The Burning of Tesla’s Laboratory,” Engineering Magazine, April 1895, pp. 101–4, on 101 in TC 9:162–64. 28.

As he watched the ball spin, Tesla deduced that because the coils varied in their windings, they produced two different alternating currents.5 As we saw with Baily’s motor in the last chapter, these two currents created a rotating magnetic field that in turn caused the ball to spin. Here was confirmation of the hunch Tesla had had while walking in the park with Szigeti: that alternating current could create the rotating magnetic field he wanted for his motor. FIGURE 3.1. First transformers developed by Zipernowsky, Bláthy, and Déri in 1884–1885 in the Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest. Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ZBD.jpg. To be sure, the ball spinning on the top of the broken ring transformer did not reveal to Tesla how to control several alternating currents so that they created a rotating magnetic field; again, the spinning ball only confirmed that Tesla’s ideal of the motor was possible. Tesla would spend the next five years acquiring the knowledge and skill necessary to get electricity to do his bidding.

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Applied Artificial Intelligence: A Handbook for Business Leaders by Mariya Yao, Adelyn Zhou, Marlene Jia

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, computer vision, conceptual framework, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, performance metric, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software is eating the world, source of truth, speech recognition, statistical model, strong AI, technological singularity

Retrieved from http://blog.clarifai.com/customer-case-studies/” (7) http://probcomp.csail.mit.edu/ (8) Reading List. (n.d.). MIT Probabilistic Computing Project. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://probcomp.org/reading-list/ (9) Optical computing. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_computing (10) Quantum computing. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computing 2. The Machine Intelligence Continuum If you’re not an AI researcher or engineer, understanding the subtle differences and applications of various machine learning approaches can be challenging. Business problems can usually be solved in multiple ways by different algorithms, and determining the comparative merits of different methodologies can be frustrating without technical experience or practical experimentation.

Retrieved from http://www.danielgoleman.info/whenemotional-intelligence-does-not-matter-more-than-iq (16) Sentiment analysis. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved on November 17, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentiment_analysis (17) Knight, W. (2016, June 13). Emotional intelligence might be a virtual assistant’s secret weapon. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/s/601654/amazon-working-on-making-alexarecognize-your-emotions/ (18) Talbot, D. (2014, September 19). Apps for Autism. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/s/528191/digitalsummit-first-emotion-reading-apps-for-kids-with-autism/ (19) Technological singularity. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_singularity 3. The Promises of Artificial Intelligence The promises of AI extend beyond the challenges of Silicon Valley and Wall Street.

To get an updated overview of modern AI technologies, download our latest guide on our book website at appliedaibook.com/resources. * * * (1) “Vincent, J. (2017, October 26). Facebook’s head of AI wants us to stop using the Terminator to talk about AI. The Verge. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/RtDL5” (2) “http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-real-story-of-2016/” (3) “Symbolic Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolic_artificial_intelligence” (4) “Le, Q.V., & Schuster, M. (2016, September 27). A Neural Network for Machine Translation, at Production Scale [blog post]. Retrieved from: https://research.googleblog.com/2016/09/a-neural-network-for-machine.html” (5) “Huang, X.D. (2017, August 20). Microsoft researchers achieve new conversational speech recognition milestone [blog post].

pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum

Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, conceptual framework, database schema, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, selection bias, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, survivorship bias, text mining, too big to fail, web application

For Java people, there is Apache’s OpenNLP project at http://opennlp.apache.org/, and a commercial library called LingPipe, available at http://alias-i.com/lingpipe/. * * * [8] http://www.weotta.com [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing [10] http://citygrid.com/ [11] http://bit.ly/X9sqWR [12] http://nltk.org [13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_classification [14] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/people/pabo/movie-review-data/ [15] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/llee/papers/sentiment.pdf [16] http://bit.ly/QibGfE [17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naive_Bayes_classifier [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_entropy_classifier [19] https://github.com/japerk/nltk-trainer [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part-of-speech_tagging [21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunking_(computational_linguistics) [22] http://www.slideshare.net/japerk/corpus-bootstrapping-with-nltk Chapter 7.

Slow connections cause timeouts when loading pages, so your program has to fail gracefully and move on, keeping a history of what you were and were not able to save so that you can make a second (or third or fourth) pass to get more data. However, it is sometimes a fun challenge to reverse-engineer a website and figure out how they do things under the hood, notice common design approaches, and end up with some interesting data to work with in the end. * * * [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Child_Left_Behind_Act [6] http://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/ [7] https://github.com/bolinfest/chickenfoot/ Chapter 6. Detecting Liars and the Confused in Contradictory Online Reviews Jacob Perkins Did you know that people lie for their own selfish reasons? Even if this is totally obvious to you, you may be surprised at how blatant this practice has become online, to the point where some people will explain their reasons for lying immediately after doing so.

Until then, you may be able to make do with files. I hope that you have been able to extract lessons from my experience. My aim with this chapter has been to provide a different view on how to structure a data mining project. You have not found the universal truth here. Hopefully, what you have found is a series of useful tools that you can apply bits of in future projects. Thank you for reading. Kia kaha. * * * [59] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson%27s_Law_of_Triviality [60] http://code.google.com/p/protobuf/ [61] http://thrift.apache.org/ Chapter 13. Crouching Table, Hidden Network Bobby Norton “You were enlightened?” “No. I didn’t feel the bliss of enlightenment. Instead… I was surrounded by an endless sorrow.” —Yu Shu Lien describing the effects of bad data (…or something similar…) to Li Mu Bai in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Data is good to the extent that it can be quickly analyzed to reveal valuable information.

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Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand

Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

Evaluating that list data structure is what defines the function. * * * [6] Clojure is by no means the only homoiconic language, nor is homoiconicity a new concept. Other homoiconic languages include all other Lisps, all sorts of machine language (and therefore arguably Assembly language as well), Postscript, XSLT and XQuery, Prolog, R, Factor, Io, and more. [7] The natural language parse tree was mostly lifted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parse_tree. The Reader Although Clojure’s compilation and evaluation machinery operates exclusively on Clojure data structures, the practice of programming has not yet progressed beyond storing code as plain text. Thus, a way is needed to produce those data structures from textual code. This task falls to the Clojure reader. The operation of the reader is completely defined by a single function, read, which reads text content from a character stream[8] and returns the next data structure encoded in the stream’s content.

In Clojure, functional programming means: A preference for working with immutable values; this includes: The use of immutable data structures that satisfy simple abstractions, rather than mutable bags of state The treatment of functions as values themselves, enabling higher-order functions A preference for declarative processing of data over imperative control structures and iteration The natural incremental composition of functions, higher-order functions, and immutable data structures in order to solve complex problems by working with higher-level (or, right-level) abstractions These are all part of the foundation for many of the more advanced features of Clojure that you may have heard of—in particular, Clojure’s fantastic support for concurrency, parallelism, and more generally, providing defined semantics for the management of identities and changing state, which we’ll cover separately in Chapter 4. * * * [35] After you’ve internalized what we provide here, you may find the Wikipedia entry for functional programming to be a surprisingly good springboard for diving deeper into a variety of related topics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming. [36] Note that it is possible to use functional programming principles even in languages—like Java—that do little to encourage (and sometimes actively discourage) FP styles. This is made much easier if you have some quality persistent data structures and implementations of FP fundamentals like those provided by the Google Guava (https://code.google.com/p/guava-libraries/) or Functional Java (http://functionaljava.org) libraries.

[45] In Chapter 12, we provide examples of how Clojure’s facilities make many familiar object-oriented patterns unnecessary or invisible. [46] Perhaps you recall the confusion and uncertainty that existed around double-checked locking some years ago—eventually resolved, but with much complexity and the help of a new JVM memory model: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~pugh/java/memoryModel/DoubleCheckedLocking.html. [47] A.k.a. Heisenbugs, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heisenbug. First-Class and Higher-Order Functions Despite the great variability about what “functional programming” means in different languages, one requirement is consistent: functions must themselves be values, so that they may be treated like any other data, accepted as arguments and returned as results by other functions. Functions as data permits a means of abstraction that a language without first-class functions lacks.

pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

In 2012, Greenberg looked at the fast growth of R/GA to over one thousand and decided to split it up into teams of 150 each and add new services, from product design to strategic consulting; Nike+, http://judgeseyesonly.com/nikeplus.html, accessed September 13, 2012. 134 So R/GA designed a website: personal interview with Greenberg; http://judgeseyesonly.com/nikeplus_video.html. 135 There are many different kinds of games: personal interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011, New York City; Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Boston: MIT Press, 2004), 80–83. 136 Friedrich Froebel: One of the legends of product design, Tucker Viemeister first presented this connection between progressive education and design and creativity at a DMI conference that I cochaired with David Butler, the design director of Coca-Cola. It was eye-opening, and I asked him to present it to my class, which he did, in the spring of 2011. He’s the only designer I know who was named after a car, the Tucker, which his father designed. http://www.friedrichfroebel.com/, accessed October 20, 2012. 136 the progressive education movement expanded: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montessori_education, accessed September 13, 2012; http://www.montessori-ami.org, accessed September 13, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wal dorf_schools, accessed September 13, 2012. 136 In 2007, Katie Salen: interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011. 136 received a MacArthur Foundation grant: http://www.instituteofplay.org/about, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 Salen puts on a weeklong summer: interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011, Institute of Play, http://www.instituteofplay.org/work/ projects/mobile-quest, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 Perhaps that is why 72 percent: Video Game Voters, http://videogamevoters.org/pages/top_10_gamer_facts/, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 StarCraft II: John Gaudiosi, “Major League Gaming Wraps Record-Breaking 2011 Season with Over $600,000 in Cash and Prizes,” GamerLive.TV, November 21, 2011, accessed September 13, 2012, http://www.gamerlive.tv/article/major-league-gaming-wraps-record-breaking -2011-season-over-600000-cash-and-prizes; Gunnar Technology Eyewear, http://www.gunnars.com/events/gunnar-mlg-providence-national-championships/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 Re-Mission is a game: Re-Mission website, http://www.re-mission.net/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 The game was created by HopeLab: “About HopeLab,” http://www.hopelab.org/about-us/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 According to a study conducted: Pamela M.

Pollock, “A Video Game Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: A Randomized Trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 2, August 1, 2008, accessed September 13, 2012, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/122/2/e305.full. 138 “A game designer”: Edutopia, “Big Thinkers,” http://www.edutopia.org/digital-generation -katie-salen-video?page=1,accessed September 13, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SimCity, accessed October 21, 2012. 139 Humans vs. Mosquitoes: http://humansvsmosquitoes.com/background/, accessed September 13, 2012; Lauren Graham, “Climate Conversations—Can a Game Combat Malaria?” AlertNet, July 17, 2012, accessed October 20, 2012, http://www.trust.org/alertnet/blogs/climate- conversations/can-a-game-combat-malaria/. 139 It was designed by students: Ibid. 140 In 1485, Leonardo da Vinci: http://www.flyingmachines.org/davi.html, accessed September 13, 2012. 140 It was not only a beautiful work: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithopter, accessed September 13, 2012. 140 in 1959, a wealthy British businessman: Aza Raskin, “Wanna Solve Impossible Problems?

__source=vty, accessed September 9, 2012. 191 Corning is developing new: http://9to5mac.com/2012/ 06/04/corning-announces-slim-flexible-willow-glass-video/, accessed September 5, 2012; http://www.apple.com/about/job-creation/, accessed September 9, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla_Glass, accessed September 9, 2012. 191 From its founding in 1939: In the spring of 2012, I assembled a panel of six retired HP engineers and researchers who’d worked there from the early glory days through the company’s decline, and spent two days talking with them in order to understand the culture of HP and how it had changed. 191 advanced degrees in electrical engineering: Lee Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs: The Story of Hewlett-Packard’s Thermal InkJet,” Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 11, no. 5, 1059–84 (Oxford University Press, 2002); “Case Study: Spitting Image,” Economist, September 19, 2002, accessed September 10, 2012, http://www.economist.com/node/1324685. 192 “HP Labs was a wonderful place”: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs.” 192 “I bore easily”: Ibid. 192 “very far, very fast”: Ibid. 192 In 1978, Vaught and Donald: Ibid. 192 From the beginning of what: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot_matrix_printer, accessed September 5, 2012; http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id325.htm, accessed September 5, 2012. 192 Dot-matrix printers were “impact printers”: Stan Retner, “History of Inkjet Printers Development,” Toner Cartridge Depot, November 21, 2007, accessed September 5, 2012, http://blog.tonercartridgedepot.com/2007/ 11/21/history-of-inkjet-printers-development/. 192 Printing was slow and loud: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dots_per_inch, accessed September 5, 2012. 192 In fact, the joke going: personal interviews with the six retired HP engineers I talked with in Portland, Oregon, in the spring of 2012. 193 For most of its early history: Ibid.; Frank Cloutier, “Building One of the World’s Largest Technology Businesses (and How to Have Fun and Profit from Your Hobbies),” presentation at MIT, March, 2, 2004, accessed at http://techtv-dev.mit.edu/videos/ 15930-building-one-of-the-world-s-largest-technology-businesses-and-how-to-have-fun-and-profit-from-your-home. 193 “We weren’t the largest”: Cloutier, “Building One of the World’s Largest Technology Businesses.” 193 And yet on Christmas Eve: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs; “Case Study: Spitting Image.” 193 as Vaught caught sight: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs.” 193 “Inventors just don’t go home”: Ibid. 193 “if you think about it”: Ibid. 193 (Because of this explosive process): Thomas Kraemer, “Printing Enters the Jet Age,” American Heritage Invention and Technology, Spring 2001, vol. 6, no. 4, 18–27; accessed September 5, 2012, http://tomsosu.blogspot.com/2012/ 02/history-of-hp-inkjet-printers-in.html. 194 “They had tremendous fun”: Alan G.

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The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

We will also continue our discussions with industry experts about what is happening, what might happen, and what needs to happen to bring about the vision of the Internet of Things. 1 Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy (Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press, 2011), p.297. 2 Nokia, Machine-to-Machine: Let Your Machines Talk (2004). http://www.m2mpremier.com/uploadFiles/m2m-white-paper-v4.pdf. 3 The observation that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law.) 4 Motorola, Aspira Intelligence Everywhere (1999). 5 Mark Weiser, “The Computer for the 21st Century,” Scientific American, Special Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks, September 1991. 6 Glen Allmendinger and Ralph Lombreglia, “Four Strategies for the Age of Smart Services,” Harvard Business Review, October 2005. 7 Ericsson, More Than 50 Billion Connected Devices (February 2011). http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/wp-50-billions.pdf. 8 W.

OBD is an automotive term referring to a vehicle’s self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or a repair technician access to information for various vehicle subsystems. Modern OBD implementations use a standardized digital communications port to provide real-time data, in addition to a standardized series of diagnostic trouble codes, or DTCs, which allow one to identify and remedy malfunctions within the vehicle. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OBD-II#OBD-II.) Chapter 3 THE FUTURE OF THE SILENT INTELLIGENCE Business is going to change more in the next ten years than it has in the last fifty. ~ Bill Gates We made a point in chapter 1 that the exponential growth of the Internet of Things is going to have a profound effect on our lives over the next five to ten years. If we are correct, the quote above that opens Bill Gates’s book Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy,15 written over a decade ago, seems to be more relevant today than ever.

Also Garry Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer,” New York Review of Books, February 11, 2010. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/feb/11/the-chess-master-and-the-computer/. 17 Second Life is an online virtual world developed by Linden Lab. It was launched on June 23, 2003. A number of free client programs, or Viewers, enable Second Life users to interact with one another through avatars (also called Residents). (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Life.) 18 Peer-to-peer car-sharing services like Getaround, JustShareIt, and others are in operation. We don’t know if they’ll be successful, but this type of service would not be possible without M2M. 19 After this interview and just before this book was published, BodyMedia was acquired by Jawbone. Chapter 4 CORE APPLICATION DOMAINS Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic

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Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Urban Land Institute Terwilliger Center for Housing: 19. 2014 [52] https://twitter.com/NelsonNygaard/status/684042745216798720 [53] http://www.uspirg.org/news/usp/new-report-shows-mounting-evidence-millennials%E2%80%99-shift-away-driving [54] https://www.jtlu.org/index.php/jtlu/article/view/751 [55] http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/a-future-of-self-driving-cars-were-ready-now/ [56] http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35242514 [57] https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-travel-survey-2014 [58] http://www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-polarization-in-the-american-public/ [59] http://www.morganstanley.com/ideas/car-of-future-is-autonomous-electric-shared-mobility [60] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_car [61] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/411471/road-traffic-forecasts-2015.pdf [62] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marchetti%27s_constant [63] https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-theory/wp/2016/02/29/are-americans-leaving-cars-behind/ [64] Door to Door: The Magnificent, Maddening, Mysterious World of Transportation, Edward Humes, 2016 [65] http://la.curbed.com/2016/9/9/12824240/self-driving-cars-plan-los-angeles [66] http://sustainablemobility.ei.columbia.edu/files/2012/12/Transforming-Personal-Mobility-Jan-27-20132.pdf [67] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinclair_C5 [68] http://www.segway.com/ [69] https://www.wired.com/2016/10/teslas-self-driving-car-plan-seems-insane-just-might-work/ [70] Alphabet is Google’s parent company and owner of Waymo, formerly known as Google Self Driving Car project

_r=0 Blogs: A selection of blogs on the topic of Driverless cars: http://penguindreams.org/blog/self-driving-cars-will-not-solve-the-transportation-problem/# http://utilware.com/autonomous.html http://ideas.4brad.com/rodney-brooks-pedestrian-interaction-andrew-ng-infrastructure-and-both-human-attitudes https://medium.com/@alexrubalcava/a-roadmap-for-a-world-without-drivers-573aede0c968 http://www.newgeography.com/content/005024-preparing-impact-driverless-cars http://blog.piekniewski.info/2017/05/11/a-car-safety-myths-and-facts/ https://medium.com/@christianhern/self-driving-cars-as-the-new-toolbar-8c8a47a3c598 https://backchannel.com/self-driving-cars-will-improve-our-cities-if-they-dont-ruin-them-2dc920345618#.4va0brsyg Videos: A selection of Videos on the topic of Driverless cars: Video of Tesla Auto pilot - https://thescene.com/watch/arstechnica/cars-technica-hands-on-with-tesla-s-autopilot https://youtu.be/tiwVMrTLUWg (15 Minute TED Talk by Chris Urmson of Google, 2015) * * * [1] http://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/McKinsey%20Digital/Our%20Insights/Disruptive%20technologies/MGI_Disruptive_technologies_Full_report_May2013.ashx [2] http://www.morganstanley.com/articles/autonomous-cars-the-future-is-now [3] http://www3.weforum.org/docs/Media/WEF_FutureofJobs.pdf [4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Amara [5] https://twitter.com/BenedictEvans/status/763209924302090240 [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeno%27s_paradoxes#Dichotomy_paradox [7] https://twitter.com/BenedictEvans/status/771115479393906688 [8] https://lilium.com/ [9] https://www.uber.com/info/elevate/ [10] The Salmon of Doubt, Douglas Adams, 2002 [11] http://farmerandfarmer.org/mastery/builder.html [12] https://global.oup.com/academic/product/innovation-and-its-enemies-9780190467036?

cc=us&lang=en& [13] Profiles of the Future, 1962 [14] http://content.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,2026224_2200963,00.html [15] The Tempest, Act I, Scene I [16] Disruptive Mobility: AV Deployment Risks and Possibilities, Barclays Research, Jul 2015 [17] https://cleantechnica.com/2017/02/04/us-electric-car-sales-59-january-2017/ [18] http://www.encyclopedia.com/literature-and-arts/art-and-architecture/architecture/shopping-center [19] http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-chicago-auto-show-early-cars-flashback-0208-jm-20150207-story.html [20] Peter Norton, 2002 [21] Proceedings of the National Safety Council, Tenth Annual Safety Congress, Boston 1922 [22] http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/michigan-history/2015/04/26/auto-traffic-history-detroit/26312107/ [23] Frank R Coates, American Electric Railway Association, US Chamber of Commerce, Washington, May 1926 [24] https://medium.com/@anthonymobile/peak-city-b5457846ce11 [25] https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Report.pdf [26] https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/oct/19/oslo-moves-to-ban-cars-from-city-centre-within-four-years [27] https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/pubs/hf/pl11028/chapter1.cfm [28] https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/pubs/hf/pl11028/chapter4.cfm [29] 'Traffic', Tom Vanderbilt (2008) [30] https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/consumer-expenditures/2015/home.htm [31] http://inrix.com/scorecard/ [32] https://mobility.tamu.edu/ums/report/ [33] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10505818 [34] http://assets.highways.gov.uk/our-road-network/pope/major-schemes/POPE___meta_2011___main_report___final.pdf [35] https://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/subject_areas/national_household_travel_survey/daily_travel.html [36] http://cityminded.org/daily-commute-need-talk-99-12436 [37] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5409622/?reload=true&tp=&arnumber=5409622&url=http:%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F4149681%2F5409610%2F05409622.pdf%3Farnumber%3D5409622 [38] http://360.here.com/2014/04/30/jams-game-theory-equations-science-of-traffic/ [39] http://engineering.illinois.edu/news/article/21938 [40] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braess%27s_paradox [41] http://chester.faculty.asu.edu/library/access39_parking.pdf [42] http://www.transportationlca.org/losangelesparking/ [43] Rethinking a Lot (2012), Eran Ben-Joseph [44] http://shoup.bol.ucla.edu/CruisingForParkingAccess.pdf [45] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/10082461/Motorists-spend-106-days-looking-for-parking-spots.html [46] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/cars/news/london-parking-space-goes-on-sale-for-350000/ [47] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/12/us/12parking.html [48] Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, Joel Garreau, 2011 [49] http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21720269-dont-let-people-park-free-how-not-create-traffic-jams-pollution-and-urban-sprawl [50] https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Housing_Development_Toolkit%20f.2.pdf [51] Bending the Cost Curve – Solutions to Expand the Supply of Affordable Rentals.”

pages: 315 words: 70,044

Learning SPARQL by Bob Ducharme

database schema, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, linked data, semantic web, SPARQL, web application

@prefix d: <http://learningsparql.com/ns/data#> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . d:c1 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label1 . d:c2 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label2 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:c3 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label3 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:label1 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Mammal" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal> . d:label2 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Dog" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog> . d:label3 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Cat" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat> . Note Note that this SKOS-XL example includes extra triples about the source of each term, using the Dublin Core source property, to show SKOS-XL’s flexibility. You can add all the metadata you want, from any namespaces you want, to these terms. If you CLEAR the data currently in your Fuseki dataset (see update request ex324.ru) and upload the ex327.ttl data above (the SKOS data, not the ex328.ttl SKOS-XL data) into it, you can then run the following update request in Fuseki’s SPARQL Update panel to convert the stored SKOS data into SKOS-XL data: # filename: ex329.ru PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> PREFIX xl: <http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#> DELETE { ?

If you send a browser to http://dbpedia.org/snorql/, you’ll see a form where you can enter a query and select the format of the results you want to see, as shown in Figure 1-2. For our experiments, we’ll stick with “Browse” as our result format. Figure 1-2. DBpedia’s SNORQL web form I want DBpedia to give me a list of albums produced by the hip-hop producer Timbaland and the artists who made those albums. If Wikipedia has a page for Some Topic at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Some_Topic, the DBpedia URI to represent that resource is usually http://dbpedia.org/resource/Some_Topic, so after finding the Wikipedia page for the producer at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbaland, I sent a browser to http://dbpedia.org/resource/Timbaland, found plenty of information (although it was redirected to http://dbpedia.org/page/Timbaland, because when a browser asks for the information, DBpedia redirects it to the HTML version of the data), and knew that this was the right URI to represent him in queries.

.> | | rdfs:comment | "Joseph Hocking (November 7, 1860–March ..."@en | | skos:subject | cat:Cornish_writers | | skos:subject | cat:English_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:19th-century_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:People_from_St_Stephen-in-Brannel | | skos:subject | cat:1860_births | | skos:subject | cat:1937_deaths | | skos:subject | cat:English_novelists | | rdfs:label | "Joseph Hocking"@en | | foaf:page | <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hocking> | ------------------------------------------------------------------ This result doesn’t have a ton of data, but only because I deliberately picked an obscure person to ask about. I also trimmed the data in the two places where you see ... above to make it easier to fit on the page; the rdfs:comment value describing the British novelist/minister is actually an entire paragraph.

pages: 310 words: 89,653

The Interstellar Age: Inside the Forty-Year Voyager Mission by Jim Bell

Albert Einstein, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, gravity well, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Kuiper Belt, Mars Rover, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, polynesian navigation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking

perspectives to come from the Voyagers that would follow: Amateur astronomer and planetary image processor Ted Stryk has compiled a nice collection of Pioneer 11 “greatest hits” images of Saturn online at strykfoto.org/pioneersaturn.htm. perhaps some other complex hydrocarbons: This and other early pioneering planetary spectroscopic discoveries were made by the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper, who is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern planetary science. There’s a nice Wikipedia biography of Kuiper online at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_Kuiper. could have led to the formation of life on Earth: Wikipedia’s entry on the Miller-Urey experiments at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller-Urey_experiment is a great starting point for learning more about these famous early efforts at understanding the possible origins of life on Earth and other habitable worlds. Voyager’s cameras were blind to the surface itself: Uncovering those secrets, including discovering the hoped-for seas of ethane and methane, would have to wait more than twenty-five years, when the Cassini Saturn orbiter, armed with cloud-penetrating radar inspired by Voyager’s discoveries, would finally map the fascinating geology and hydrology of Titan and when the ESA Huygens probe would get near-surface images just before landing.

only slightly above the plane of the planets: See heavens-above.com/SolarEscape.aspx. modern-day spacecraft forensics: For more details, see The Planetary Society’s director of projects Bruce Betts’s April 19, 2012, blog post “Pioneer Anomaly Solved!” at planetary.org/blogs/bruce-betts/3459.html. just under four light-years away: For information about Voyager 1’s predicted encounter with Gliese 445, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliese_445, and for information about Voyager 2’s predicted encounter with Ross 248, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ross_248. “redirect the spacecraft as closely as possible . . .”: Carl Sagan, et al., Murmurs of Earth, pages 235–36. evidence of planets around other nearby stars: The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia, online at exoplanet.eu/catalog, contains lists, plots, and links to the now more than 1,800 planets discovered around nearby stars that are (mostly) like our sun, via a variety of ground-based and space-based methods.

some in Congress have asked (really): For an example, see NASA historian Stephen J. Garber’s article “Searching for Good Science: The Cancellation of NASA’s SETI Program,” Journal of British Interplanetary Society 52 (1999): 3–12 (online at history.nasa.gov/garber.pdf). Why should American taxpayers support NASA?: Wikipedia has a fairly comprehensive entry on the history of the NASA budget, with links to more information, at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budget_of_NASA. inspiration is priceless during tough times: Watch and read Neil deGrasse Tyson’s passionate 2012 testimony to the US Senate’s Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee on Neil’s own website, at haydenplanetarium.org/tyson/read/2012/03/07/past-present-and-future-of-nasa-us-senate-testimony. complications of a stroke, passed away in late 2005: A nice “In Memoriam” piece written by several of Ed Danielson’s professional colleagues can be found in the planetary science journal Icarus 194 (2008): 399–400 (online at dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.12.007).

pages: 344 words: 104,077

Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

But if you are a stickler for the historical plausibility of hypothetical examples, you may be wondering whether lions and mangoes ever existed together in ancient times as I posited here. The answer is: they probably did. Lions were common in Africa, and so were African mangoes. See Wikipedia, s.v. “lion,” accessed February 11, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion; “Historic vs Present Geographical Distribution of Lions,” Brilliant Maps, April 26, 2016, http://brilliantmaps.com/distribution-of-lions/; Wikipedia, s.v. “Irvingia gabonensis,” accessed February 11, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irvingia_gabonensis. It is less likely that lions would have been in a rainforest, since they typically inhabit grasslands and savannas. But perhaps the imaginary scenarios described here took place near the edge of a rainforest or involved unusual lions who liked rainforests.

Scott Wong, Irving Lin, Jayanth Komarneni, and Shantanu Nundy, “Machine Classifier Trained on Low-Volume, Structured Data Predicts Diagnoses Near Physician-Level: Chest Pain Case Study,” presented at the 39th annual North American Meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making, Pittsburgh, PA, October 22, 2017, https://smdm.confex.com/smdm/2017/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/11058. CHAPTER 16 1. Erik Eckermann, World History of the Automobile (Warrendale, PA: SAE Press, 2001), 14; Wikipedia, s.v. “Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot,” last modified August 12, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas-Joseph_Cugnot; Wikipedia, s.v. “history of the automobile,” last modified September 28, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_automobile. 2. Orville C. Cromer and Charles L. Proctor, s.v. “gasoline engine,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, published March 20, 2013, https://www.britannica.com/technology/gasoline-engine/Fuel#toc47239. 3. Alan K. Binder and John Bell Rae, s.v. “automotive industry,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, last modified July 18, 2017, https://www.britannica.com/topic/automotive-industry. 4.

“WatsonPaths,” IBM, accessed August 17, 2016, https://www.research.ibm.com/cognitive-computing/watson/watsonpaths.shtml?cmp=usbrb&cm=s&csr=watson.site_20140319&cr=work&ct=usbrb301&cn=s1healthcare. 5. Shai Wininger, “The Secret Behind Lemonade’s Instant Insurance,” Lemonade, November 23, 2016, https://stories.lemonade.com/the-secret-behind-lemonades-instant-insurance-3129537d661. 6. Wikipedia, s.v. “Wikipedia:Bots,” accessed August 18, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots. 7. Aniket Kittur, Boris Smus, Susheel Khamkar, and Robert E. Kraut, “CrowdForge: Crowdsourcing Complex Work,” in Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (New York: ACM Press, 2011), http://smus.com/crowdforge/crowdforge-uist-11.pdf. 8. Figure from Kittur A., Smus, B., Khamkar, S., Kraut, R.E., “CrowdForge: Crowdsourcing Complex Work.”

pages: 519 words: 104,396

Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone

availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, social intelligence, starchitect, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor

., 429. 29 “Psychophysics is an exact doctrine”: Fechner 1966, 8. 30 “Carving Meat and Setting the Table”: Heidelberger 2004, 43. 30 “But then I ruined my eyesight”: Fechner’s autobiographical note is translated in ibid., 322. 30 “People called Fechner a fool”: quoted in ibid., 323. 30 Little Book on Life After Death: See ibid., 44. 31 “How much stronger or weaker”: quoted in Stevens 1975, 59. 31 Plateau biography: Ibid., 7; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Plateau. 33 power curve rule can be stated in seven words: Stevens 1975, 16. 33 “As an experimental fact”: Ekman and Sjöberg 1965, quoted in Stevens 1975, 266. 5. Black Is White 34 “tell us how matters stand out there”: Stevens 1975, 18. 34 “For example, is it the differences”: Ibid., 18. 35 “The print in this book looks black”: Ibid., 79. 35 Category and magnitude scales: There is a concise, nontechnical discussion of response scales in Kahneman, Schkade, and Sunstein 1998, 53–55.

The Price Scale 42 “Smitty was a close man with a dollar”: Miller 1975, 431. 43 “Suppose I were to tell you”: Stevens 1975, 6. 43 $35 to $50: Ibid. 44 Indow study: Ibid., 235–37. 44 Social status: Ibid., 244–45. 44 Seriousness of theft: Ibid., 258–59. 8. Input to Output 49 Mob types: See Tuohy 2001. Goffstein took over the Riviera after his boss, Gus Greenbaum, was murdered by the Chicago mob (apparently). 49 Murphy biography: See Wikipedia entry, “Charles B. G. Murphy,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_B._G._Murphy. Murphy’s Wood Kalb Foundation also supported psychiatry at Yale. 49 He came up with Ward Edwards: Paul Slovic interview, July 1, 2008. 49 Murphy asked to use the Four Queens for experiments: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 51 “revealed preference”: See Samuelson 1947. 51 “impossible for the behavior”: Simon 1945, 79. 51 “How any grown-up”: quoted in Mirowski 2002, 454. 52 “Do you think the ratio”: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 53 “was nutty”: Barbara Tversky interview, July 8, 2008. 53 “occasional colorful and forthright behavior”: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 53 “Ruth’s excellent, if often exotic cooking”: Ibid. 53 Paper titled “Behavioral Decision Theory”: Edwards 1961. 53 (“a marvelous person”): Lichtenstein interview, July 28, 2008. 53 “was actually interested in the economic theories”: Ibid. 53 “comparing incomparables”: cited in Goldstein and Einhorn 1987, 250. 53 “Always choose the bet”: Edwards 1961, describing “A Study of Decision Making Under Risk” by C.

He doubts there were any profits after expenses. 73 Game unpopular, Ponticello wanted to improve: Slovic interview, July 1, 2008. 74 “The results of this experiment”: Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 75. 74 “There is a natural concern”: Ibid. 76 “I call them as I see them”: Tversky and Thaler 1990, 210. 76 “It would be an overstatement”: Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, xvi. 76 “Each of the blind men was partly right”: See Wikipedia entry, “Blind Men and an Elephant,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blind_Men_and_an_Elephant. 12. Cult of Rationality 77 “If you can’t talk about a preference”: Lichtenstein interview, July 29, 2008. 77 “The first time I talked about it”: Lichtenstein interview, July 28, 2008. 78 “I was very young”: Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 78 “would get taken advantage of in the markets”: Ibid. 78 Economics and “irrationality”: This capsule history is indebted to the more detailed account in Laibson and Zeckhauser 1998. 78 “to discredit the psychologists’ work”: Grether and Plott 1979, reprinted in Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 77. 79 “We knew Charlie Plott”: Lichtenstein interview, July 29, 2008 79 “Plott is pretty good at spotting”: Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 79 “In a very real sense”: Grether and Plott 1979, reprinted in Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 85. 79 “Unsophisticated Subjects,” other hypotheses: Grether and Plott 1979. 80 “amplifier”: Colin Camerer’s word, in Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 80 Admiring letters from cranks: Ibid. 13.

Drink?: The New Science of Alcohol and Your Health by David Nutt

Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, impulse control, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, microbiome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

David broadcasts widely to the general public both on radio and television. In 2010 The Times Eureka science magazine voted him one of the 100 most important figures in British Science, and the only psychiatrist in the list. In 2013 he was awarded the John Maddox Prize from Nature/Sense about Science for standing up for science and in 2017 a Doctor of Laws hon causa from the University of Bath. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Nutt www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6170/478.full www1.imperial.ac.uk/departmentofmedicine/divisions/brainsciences/psychopharmacology DRINK? The New Science of Alcohol and Your Health Professor David Nutt www.yellowkitebooks.co.uk This book contains research findings and the opinions of the author. It is not a substitute for medical advice from your health professional and the author/publisher has no liability in this respect.

path=/bmj/363/8172/This_Week.full.pdf 3 www.gov.uk/government/news/public-health-england-and-drinkaware-launch-drinkfree-days 4 www.theguardian.com/society/2019/may/15/britons-get-drunk-more-often-than-35-other-nations-survey-finds 5 ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/causesofdeath/bulletins/alcoholrelateddeathsintheunitedkingdom/registeredin2017 6 who.int/news-room/detail/21-09-2018-harmful-use-of-alcohol-kills-more-than-3-million-people-each-year-most-of-them-men 7 www.alcoholchange.org.uk/alcohol-facts/fact-sheets/alcohol-statistics 8 digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-alcohol/2019 9 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weihenstephan_Abbey 10 www.bmj.com/content/362/bmj.k3944 11 www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(10)61462-6/fulltext www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25922421 journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119841569?journalCode=jopa 12 doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27553 How Drinking Affects Your Body and Brain 1 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28216062 2 Additional information from: www.alcohol.org/effects/blood-alcohol-concentration 3 pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9bb9/846bf3eec9fd7b1a37ae6e0e8cc025d34563.pdf 4 foodanddrink.scotsman.com/drink/the-controversial-story-of-buckfasts-rise-to-prominence-in-scotland 5 www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3242494/Revenge-PM-s-snub-billionaire-funded-Tories-years-sparked-explosive-political-book-decade.html 6 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2426682 7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27380261 8 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC543875 9 theconversation.com/lining-your-stomach-with-milk-before-a-big-night-out-and-other-alcohol-myths-88116 10 pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa72/aa72.htm 11 www.researchgate.net/publication/263287740 _Editorial_Can_Hangover_Immunity_be_Really_Claimed 12 www.researchgate.net/publication/26693901 _Are_Some_Drinkers_Resistant_to_Hangover_A_Literature_Review 13 www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p1015-excessive-alcohol.html 14 www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325619.php 15 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230485 16 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22434663 17 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180514095530.htm 18 news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8416431.stm 19 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515685 20 journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2050324517741038 The Health Harms of Alcohol 1 www.researchgate.net/publication/235971838_Alcohol_consumption_alcohol_dependence_and_attributable_burden_of_disease_in_Europe_Potential_gains_from_effective_interventions_for_alcohol_dependence 2 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181003102732.htm 3 understandinguncertainty.org/files/2012bmj-microlives.pdf 4 assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/489795/summary.pdf 5 www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32744-2/fulltext 6 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27073140 7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15770105 8 www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5843059/NHS-pharmacy-worker-37-died-toxic-poisoning-misjudging-alcohol-measures-holiday.html 9 www.nhs.uk/conditions/alcohol-related-liver-disease-arld/treatment 10 Personal communication from Professor Nick Sheron 11 eprints.soton.ac.uk/427505/1/1_s2.0_S246826671830241X_main.pdf 12 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992057 13 www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/health-effects-of-alcohol/diseases/alcohol-and-liver-cancer 14 www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/exposures/alcoholic-drinks 15 www.aicr.org/continuous-update-project/reports/breast-cancer-report-2017.pdf 16 www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/exposures/alcoholic-drinks 17 cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/92876/reporting/en 18 www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/314539.php 19 www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-673618)31772-0/fulltext 20 www.vox.com/science-and-health/2018/8/29/17790118/alcohol-lancet-health-study 21 Milwood et al., 2019 Lancet on Kadoorie study 22 www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.HYP.33.2.653 23 www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/strokeaha.108.520817 24 www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(17)30003-8/fulltext 25 www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j2353 26 www.bmj.com/company/newsroom/both-long-term-abstinence-and-heavy-drinking-may-increase-dementia-risk 27 www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.787440 28 www.nytimes.com/2018/06/18/health/nih-alcohol-study.html 29 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294775 30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29103170 31 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590619 AAA: Alcohol, Accidents and Aggression 1 www.theguardian.com/society/2019/sep/04/violence-nhs-staff-face-routine-assault-intimidation 2 assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/827834/drink-drive-final-estimates-2017.pdf 3 www.gov.iruk/government/statistics/reported-road-casualties-in-great-britain-final-estimates-involving-illegal-alcohol-levels-2017 4 webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100921035247/http:/northreview.independent.gov.uk/docs/NorthReview-Report.pdf 5 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814299 6 www.alcoholhelpcenter.net/Program/BAC_Standalone.aspx 7 www.researchgate.net/publication/223136111_Alcohol-Related_Risk_of_Driver_Fatalities_An_Update_Using_2007_Data 8 ibid 9 webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100921035247/http:/northreview.independent.gov.uk/docs/NorthReview-Report.pdf 10 www.sussex.ac.uk/broadcast/read/48912 11 etsc.eu/wp-content/uploads/report_reducing_drink_driving_final.pdf 12 www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/bloodalcoholcontenteffectivenessreview.pdf 13 eprints.gla.ac.uk/189646 14 www.oisevi.org/a/archivos/estudios-especificos/ong/Union-Europea-Druid-Final-Report.pdf 15 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955613 16 www.bath.ac.uk/announcements/why-the-effects-of-a-boozy-bank-holiday-binge-could-last-longer-than-you-think 17 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497803 18 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gulag_Archipelago 19 www.historyextra.com/period/viking/the-truth-about-viking-berserkers 20 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090218081624.htm 21 www.inverse.com/article/49228-who-alcohol-report-drinking-deaths 22 www.drinkaware.co.uk/research/data/consequences 23 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353113105000520 24 www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-20630771 25 metro.co.uk/2011/06/17/ascot-fight-on-ladies-day-stuns-horse-racing-fans-47597/ 26 alcoholchange.org.uk/publication/are-you-looking-at-me 27 theconversation.com/if-england-gets-beaten-so-will-she-the-link-between-world-cup-and-violence-explained-99769 28 www.ias.org.uk/uploads/IAS%20report%20Alcohol%20domestic%20abuse%20and%20sexual%20assault.pdf What Alcohol Does to Your Mental Health 1 www.nhs.uk/news/mental-health/alcohol-and-depression 2 www.cmaj.ca/content/191/27/E753 3 pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh26-2/130-135.htm 4 adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder/social-anxiety-and-alcohol-abuse 5 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/loss-of-consciousness-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder/E82CD29771CBD412EBA3D51A896CB059 6 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770804 7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29183241 8 academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/99/1/57/1523792 9 www.verywellmind.com/adult-alcoholism-adhd-connected-63078 10 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/088761859290009V 11 jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/497548 12 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460398000094 13 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6598815 14 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460396000536 15 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00127-005-0981-3 16 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22983943 Hormones and Fertility 1 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1772851 2 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527168 3 www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-research-on-alcohol-intake-and-male-fertility 4 www.bionews.org.uk/page_137273 5 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141002221232.htm 6 ibid 7 www.bmj.com/content/354/bmj.I4262 8 www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14261-8 9 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3367299 10 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170411090205.htm 11 www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/alcohol-medicines-drugs-pregnant 12 pubs.niaaa.nih.gov › publications › arh22-1 13 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181128154000.htm 14 www.nhs.uk/conditions/foetal-alcohol-syndrome 15 bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/12/e022578 16 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609722 17 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445685 18 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_South_African_Wine_Initiative#cite_note-AFP-2 19 www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/may/27/mothers-children-foetal-alcohol-syndrome-south-africa 20 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170821122756.htm 21 ibid 22 www.cochrane.org/CD011445/PREG_ethanol-alcohol-preventing-preterm-birth 23 academic.oup.com/humupd/article/22/4/516/2573866 24 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500807 25 www.breastcancer.org/research-news/20080311 26 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171107092906.htm 27 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24118767 28 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306453011003350 29 www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2009/06/26/0812809106.full.pdf 30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30738971 How Alcohol Affects Your Quality of Life 1 www.nhs.uk/apps-library/sleepio 2 science.howstuffworks.com/life/sleep-obesity1.htm 3 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170420114020.htm 4 jech.bmj.com/content/71/12/1177 5 www.sussex.ac.uk/broadcast/read/47131 6 www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/the-incredible-shrinking-man-5544531.html 7 www.euro.who.int/–data/assets/pdf_file/0018/319122/Public-health-successes-and-missed-opportunities-alcohol-mortality-19902014.pdf 8 www.researchgate.net/publication/26314858_Beer_consumption_and_the_‘beer_belly’_Scientific_basis_or_common_belief 9 www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanpub/PIIS2468-2667(17)30089-0.pdf 10 https://www.alcoholpolicy.net/2019/06/a-new-report-from-the-institute-of-alcohol-studies-ias-says-the-cost-of-hangovers-is-up-to-14-billion-a-year-with-as-ma.html 11 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180825124245.htm 12 medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-hangovers-brain-function.html 13 www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/health-effects-of-alcohol/lifestyle/can-alcohol-affect-sports-performance-and-fitness-levels 14 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629692 15 www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/tony-adams-life-alcoholic-knew-play-football-didnt-know 16 www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-47864761 17 www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/arsenal-news-nitrous-oxide-laughing-gas-latest-ozil-lacazette-guendouzi-aubameyang-video-club-a8672061.html 18 www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-3037536/Raheem-Sterling-filmed-taking-hippy-crack-just-days-pictures-Liverpool-star-smoking-shisha-pipe.html 19 www.theguardian.com/science/sifting-the-evidence/2015/nov/17/sex-does-alcohol-really-make-you-better-in-bed 20 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1403295 21 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160804141034.htm 22 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160918214439.htm 23 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S205011611830120X 24 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917074 25 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140328102907.htm 26 www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2016/03/22/wine-and-sleep-make-for-better-decisions/#38f815a824b1 27 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016303713 28 www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2016/03/22/wine-and-sleep-make-for-better-decisions/#38f815a824b1 29 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum_ration 30 www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/darts/6637884/Andy-Fordham-I-became-world-darts-champion-despite-never-being-sober.html 31 www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2794310/drunk-belgian-anaesthetist-killed-british-mother-caesarean-told-police-need-vodka-don-t-shake.html 32 www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/03/british-woman-dies-botched-caesarean-france 33 www.bmj.com/content/2/5103/993 34 DOI: 10.1177/0269881117735687 Addiction: Have I Got an Alcohol Problem?

., 2019 Lancet on Kadoorie study 22 www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.HYP.33.2.653 23 www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/strokeaha.108.520817 24 www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(17)30003-8/fulltext 25 www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j2353 26 www.bmj.com/company/newsroom/both-long-term-abstinence-and-heavy-drinking-may-increase-dementia-risk 27 www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.787440 28 www.nytimes.com/2018/06/18/health/nih-alcohol-study.html 29 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294775 30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29103170 31 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590619 AAA: Alcohol, Accidents and Aggression 1 www.theguardian.com/society/2019/sep/04/violence-nhs-staff-face-routine-assault-intimidation 2 assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/827834/drink-drive-final-estimates-2017.pdf 3 www.gov.iruk/government/statistics/reported-road-casualties-in-great-britain-final-estimates-involving-illegal-alcohol-levels-2017 4 webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100921035247/http:/northreview.independent.gov.uk/docs/NorthReview-Report.pdf 5 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814299 6 www.alcoholhelpcenter.net/Program/BAC_Standalone.aspx 7 www.researchgate.net/publication/223136111_Alcohol-Related_Risk_of_Driver_Fatalities_An_Update_Using_2007_Data 8 ibid 9 webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100921035247/http:/northreview.independent.gov.uk/docs/NorthReview-Report.pdf 10 www.sussex.ac.uk/broadcast/read/48912 11 etsc.eu/wp-content/uploads/report_reducing_drink_driving_final.pdf 12 www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/bloodalcoholcontenteffectivenessreview.pdf 13 eprints.gla.ac.uk/189646 14 www.oisevi.org/a/archivos/estudios-especificos/ong/Union-Europea-Druid-Final-Report.pdf 15 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955613 16 www.bath.ac.uk/announcements/why-the-effects-of-a-boozy-bank-holiday-binge-could-last-longer-than-you-think 17 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497803 18 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gulag_Archipelago 19 www.historyextra.com/period/viking/the-truth-about-viking-berserkers 20 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090218081624.htm 21 www.inverse.com/article/49228-who-alcohol-report-drinking-deaths 22 www.drinkaware.co.uk/research/data/consequences 23 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353113105000520 24 www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-20630771 25 metro.co.uk/2011/06/17/ascot-fight-on-ladies-day-stuns-horse-racing-fans-47597/ 26 alcoholchange.org.uk/publication/are-you-looking-at-me 27 theconversation.com/if-england-gets-beaten-so-will-she-the-link-between-world-cup-and-violence-explained-99769 28 www.ias.org.uk/uploads/IAS%20report%20Alcohol%20domestic%20abuse%20and%20sexual%20assault.pdf What Alcohol Does to Your Mental Health 1 www.nhs.uk/news/mental-health/alcohol-and-depression 2 www.cmaj.ca/content/191/27/E753 3 pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh26-2/130-135.htm 4 adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder/social-anxiety-and-alcohol-abuse 5 www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/loss-of-consciousness-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder/E82CD29771CBD412EBA3D51A896CB059 6 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770804 7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29183241 8 academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/99/1/57/1523792 9 www.verywellmind.com/adult-alcoholism-adhd-connected-63078 10 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/088761859290009V 11 jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/497548 12 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460398000094 13 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6598815 14 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460396000536 15 link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00127-005-0981-3 16 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22983943 Hormones and Fertility 1 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1772851 2 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527168 3 www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-research-on-alcohol-intake-and-male-fertility 4 www.bionews.org.uk/page_137273 5 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141002221232.htm 6 ibid 7 www.bmj.com/content/354/bmj.I4262 8 www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14261-8 9 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3367299 10 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170411090205.htm 11 www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/alcohol-medicines-drugs-pregnant 12 pubs.niaaa.nih.gov › publications › arh22-1 13 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181128154000.htm 14 www.nhs.uk/conditions/foetal-alcohol-syndrome 15 bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/12/e022578 16 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609722 17 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445685 18 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_South_African_Wine_Initiative#cite_note-AFP-2 19 www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/may/27/mothers-children-foetal-alcohol-syndrome-south-africa 20 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170821122756.htm 21 ibid 22 www.cochrane.org/CD011445/PREG_ethanol-alcohol-preventing-preterm-birth 23 academic.oup.com/humupd/article/22/4/516/2573866 24 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500807 25 www.breastcancer.org/research-news/20080311 26 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171107092906.htm 27 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24118767 28 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306453011003350 29 www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2009/06/26/0812809106.full.pdf 30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30738971 How Alcohol Affects Your Quality of Life 1 www.nhs.uk/apps-library/sleepio 2 science.howstuffworks.com/life/sleep-obesity1.htm 3 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170420114020.htm 4 jech.bmj.com/content/71/12/1177 5 www.sussex.ac.uk/broadcast/read/47131 6 www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/the-incredible-shrinking-man-5544531.html 7 www.euro.who.int/–data/assets/pdf_file/0018/319122/Public-health-successes-and-missed-opportunities-alcohol-mortality-19902014.pdf 8 www.researchgate.net/publication/26314858_Beer_consumption_and_the_‘beer_belly’_Scientific_basis_or_common_belief 9 www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanpub/PIIS2468-2667(17)30089-0.pdf 10 https://www.alcoholpolicy.net/2019/06/a-new-report-from-the-institute-of-alcohol-studies-ias-says-the-cost-of-hangovers-is-up-to-14-billion-a-year-with-as-ma.html 11 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180825124245.htm 12 medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-hangovers-brain-function.html 13 www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/health-effects-of-alcohol/lifestyle/can-alcohol-affect-sports-performance-and-fitness-levels 14 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629692 15 www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/tony-adams-life-alcoholic-knew-play-football-didnt-know 16 www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-47864761 17 www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/arsenal-news-nitrous-oxide-laughing-gas-latest-ozil-lacazette-guendouzi-aubameyang-video-club-a8672061.html 18 www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-3037536/Raheem-Sterling-filmed-taking-hippy-crack-just-days-pictures-Liverpool-star-smoking-shisha-pipe.html 19 www.theguardian.com/science/sifting-the-evidence/2015/nov/17/sex-does-alcohol-really-make-you-better-in-bed 20 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1403295 21 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160804141034.htm 22 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160918214439.htm 23 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S205011611830120X 24 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917074 25 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140328102907.htm 26 www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2016/03/22/wine-and-sleep-make-for-better-decisions/#38f815a824b1 27 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053810016303713 28 www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2016/03/22/wine-and-sleep-make-for-better-decisions/#38f815a824b1 29 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum_ration 30 www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/darts/6637884/Andy-Fordham-I-became-world-darts-champion-despite-never-being-sober.html 31 www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2794310/drunk-belgian-anaesthetist-killed-british-mother-caesarean-told-police-need-vodka-don-t-shake.html 32 www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/03/british-woman-dies-botched-caesarean-france 33 www.bmj.com/content/2/5103/993 34 DOI: 10.1177/0269881117735687 Addiction: Have I Got an Alcohol Problem?

pages: 201 words: 21,180

Designing for the Social Web by Joshua Porter

barriers to entry, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Howard Rheingold, late fees, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Milgram experiment, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, recommendation engine, social software, social web, Steve Jobs, web application, zero-sum game

In other words, we need to pay attention to what matters, and try to ignore what doesn’t. The Attention Economy, as it has come to be called, is all about the exchange of attention in a world where it is increasingly scarce. Much of what we do on the web is about this exchange of attention. To circle back to the reviews at Amazon, it is definitely about more than money: it’s about attention. 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention_economy CHAPTER 1 THE RISE OF THE SOCIAL WEB At its very core, social software is about connecting people virtually who already have relationships in the physical world. That’s why MySpace and Facebook are so popular. What do most people do on those sites when they sign up? They immediately connect with friends they already have!9 Or, to put it another way, they maintain their current attention streams.

Starting with the social software precursors mentioned above, the web has evolved toward more mature social software. What follows is a very abridged history of the web from a social software point of 9 For more insight into the reasons why people use MySpace, read Danah Boyd’s: Identity Production in a Networked Culture: Why Youth Heart MySpace http://www.danah.org/papers/AAAS2006.html 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Email 11 Super cool link: Tim Berners-Lee announcing the World Wide Web on Usenet: http://groups.google. com/group/alt.hypertext/msg/395f282a67a1916c 13 14 DESIGNING FOR THE SOCIAL WEB view. This is important because our audiences, except the youngest ones, have lived through and experienced this history and it shapes their expectations. A One-Way Conversation (Read Only) In 1995, back when Amazon was just a fledgling start-up, the web was quite a different place than it is now.

Ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. Moreover, even when the destructive effects of their work become patently clear, and they are asked to carry out actions incompatible with fundamental standards of morality, relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority.3 3 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment for the fascinating details of the Milgram experiment. CHAPTER 4 DESIGN FOR SIGN-UP Authority works because it makes people pay attention. The mere fact that Seth Godin uses this software is impressive. But notice, too, that this element doesn’t overplay Godin’s involvement. It simply states that he uses the software. More importantly, it describes what he uses it for: to promote his books.

Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge by Cass R. Sunstein

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Build a better mousetrap, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market design, minimum wage unemployment, prediction markets, profit motive, rent control, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, slashdot, stem cell, The Wisdom of Crowds, winner-take-all economy

All quotations from the Wikipedia site are available via http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page. 252 / Notes to Pages 140–50 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Replies_to_common_ objections. 7. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stop_hand.png. 8. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category: NPOV_disputes. 9. Taken from http://www.lessig.org/blog/archives/003012.shtml. 10. See “A Wiki For Your Thoughts” (June 17, 2005), available at http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-edwiki17jun17,1,1789326.story. 11. See Where is the Wikitorial? (undated), available at http:// www.latimes.com/news/opinion/editorials/la-wiki-splash,0, 1349109.story. 12. For the full story, and the final version, see http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Improve_this_article_about_ Wikipedia&direction=next&oldid=23806738. 13.

See James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies, and Nations (New York: Doubleday, 2004). 2. John Zajc, “This Week in SABR” (Society for American Baseball Research, Cleveland, Ohio), Oct. 9, 2004 (Results of playoff prediction survey), available at http://www.sabr.org/ sabr.cfm?a=cms,c,1123,3,212. 3. The story is told in “Kasparov Against the World,” http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasparov_versus_The_World. 4. See Cass R. Sunstein et al., “Assessing Punitive Damages,” Yale Law Journal 107 (1998): 2095–99 (showing that small groups often reflect judgments of community as whole, at least when their judgments are made on a bounded scale). 5. See Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, “The Anatomy of a LargeScale Hypertextual Web Search Engine,” Computer Networks & ISDN System 30 (1998): 107–10, available at http://dbpubs .stanford.edu:8090/pub/1998–8. 6.

Lawrence Lessig has done a great deal of important work on the relationship between innovation and openness, in a way that is evidently influenced by the success of open source software. See Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2005); Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Vintage, 2002). 19. See Peter Woodford, “Open-Source Medicine: Cure for What Ails the Third World?,” available at http://www.nationalreview ofmedicine.com/issue/2004/09_23/ government_medicine02_17.html. 20. See Woody Guthrie, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woody_ Guthrie 21. Lawrence Lessig, “Open Source Baselines: Compared to What?,” in Government Policy toward Open Source Software, ed. Robert Hahn et al. (Washington, DC: Brookings, 2002), 50. Notes to Pages 153–65 / 253 22. Ibid., 53. 23. GNU General Public License (vol. 2, 1991), § 2©, available at http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php. 24. Strong copyleft licenses, and the GPL specifically, are commonly used in the open source community: Of the 65,439 open source projects hosted by SourceForge.net, fully 45,151, or 68.9 percent, use the GPL (SourceForge.net. figures as of July 22, 2005).

pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

.§ * Vineet Nayar, Employees First, Customers Second: Turning Conventional Management Upside Down (Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2010); see also Gary Hamel, The Future of Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007). † Nayar, Employees First, Customers Second. § HCL Technologies, Annual Report (US GAAP), 2005–2006; and Wikipedia, s.v. “HCL Technologies,” last modified June 24, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HCL_Technologies. A Journey Worth Taking Building a conscious business is a challenging but wonderfully rewarding and meaningful undertaking, whether such a business is created from scratch or is the outcome of a transformation. We recognize that many leaders have become weary of change. It seems there is a new set of buzzwords to deal with every few years—from total quality management to the reengineering of business processes to Six Sigma and numerous others.

McCloskey, Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can’t Explain the Modern World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 48–57. 4. “South Korea GDP,” Trading Economics Web page, n.d., www.tradingeconomics.com/south-korea/gdp. 5. Matt Rosenberg, “Current World Population,” About.com, January 1, 2011, http://geography.about.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/a/worldpopulation.htm. 6. Wikipedia, s. v. “life expectancy,” last modified June 5, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM ed. (New York: United Nations, 2011). 7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “Hunger,” Web portal, 2012, www.fao.org/hunger/en/; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The State of Food Insecurity in the World (Rome: FAO, 2010); Population Reference Bureau, 2010 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2010). 8.

Index of Leading Economic Indicators, 2003, published by the American Enterprise Institute; Steve Raynor, “The International Challenge of Climate Change,” November 24, 2004, 12. 20. Jack Hollander, The Real Environmental Crisis: Why Poverty, Not Affluence, Is the Environment’s Number One Enemy (Berkeley: University of California, 2004). Chapter Eleven 1. Sam Walton, Made in America (New York: Bantam, 1993). 2. Wikipedia, s.v. “labor unions in the United States,” last modified June 8, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_unions_in_the_United_States; Morgan Reynolds, “A History of Labor Unions from Colonial Times to 2009,” Mises Daily (Ludwig von Mises Institute), July 17, 2009, http://mises.org/daily/3553#part12. 3. Ibid. 4. Steven Greenhut, Plunder: How Public Employee Unions Are Raiding Treasuries, Controlling Our Lives and Bankrupting the Nation (Santa Ana, Calif.: Forum Press, 2009). 5. Remarks shared at a private dinner in Dallas, October 6, 2011. 6.

pages: 823 words: 220,581

Debunking Economics - Revised, Expanded and Integrated Edition: The Naked Emperor Dethroned? by Steve Keen

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, central bank independence, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, collective bargaining, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market microstructure, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, place-making, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, seigniorage, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, stochastic process, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, total factor productivity, tulip mania, wage slave, zero-sum game

7 The actual equations were: ‘the rate of change of x with respect to time equals the constant a multiplied by (y–z); the rate of change of y with respect to time equals x multiplied by (b–z) minus y; the rate of change of z with respect to time equals (x multiplied by y) minus (c multiplied by z).’ 8 I use chapter and section references for Marx, rather than page numbers, since his work is now freely accessible via the Internet from the site www.marxists.org/archive/marx/. 9 The two equations are linked, because workers’ wage demands depend on the rate of employment, while investment – which determines the rate of growth – depends on income distribution (a higher workers’ share means lower profits, and hence lower investment). 10 For more details, see the Wikipedia entries en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_flow_block_diagram, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_function, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_space_(controls) and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_engineering. Chapter 10 1 he became Fed chairman in February 2006, having briefly served as chairman of the president’s Council of economic advisers before that. 2 more strictly, a market demand curve can have any shape that can be described by a polynomial equation. This rules out a curve that returns two or more prices for the same quantity, but allows curves that return the same price for many different quantities. 3 keynes lumped what we today term neoclassical economists with those we today call the classical economists.

See desai (1981) and kaldor (1982) for critiques of the monetarist period. 32 See www.ukagriculture.com/production_cycles/pigs_production_cycle.cfm. 33 None of these made it through to the version of rational expectations that was incorporated into models of the macroeconomy. 34 ‘ergodic’ is a frequently misunderstood term, especially within economics. It is properly defined by the Wiktionary (en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ergodic), and the Wikipedia entry on ergodic Theory (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ergodic_theory) makes the important point that ‘For the special class of ergodic systems, the time average is the same for almost all initial points: statistically speaking, the system that evolves for a long time “forgets” its initial state.’ This is not the case for complex or chaotic models, which show ‘sensitive dependence on initial conditions’ (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos_theory). 35 I can think of no more apt term to describe the group that led the campaign to make macroeconomics a branch of neoclassical microeconomics. Certainly the neoclassical attitude to researchers who refused to use ‘rational expectations’ in their models approached the old mafia cliché of ‘an offer you can’t refuse’: ‘assume rational expectations, or your paper won’t get published in a leading journal.’ 36 This is based on the belief that output would be higher (and prices lower) under competition than under monopoly, which I showed to be false in Chapter 4. 37 a rule of thumb that asserts that the central bank can control inflation by increasing real interest rates roughly twice as much as any increase in inflation.

To regard someone who has worked only one hour in a week as employed is simply absurd – at least fifteen hours of work at the minimum wage are needed to be paid even the equivalent of unemployment benefits. Similar distortions apply in other countries. The USA, for example, ceases counting someone as unemployed if they have been out of work for more than a year – a change in definition introduced in 1994 (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unemployment# United_States_Bureau_of_Labor_Statistics and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_Population _Survey#Employment_classification for more details). Abuses of statistics like this have prompted private citizens to record what official statistics ignore. The opinion-polling organization Roy Morgan Research (www.roymorgan.com.au/) now publishes its own survey of Australian unemployment, which it puts at 7.9 percent versus the recorded figure of 5.5 percent (the not-seasonally-adjusted figure as of January 2011).

pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Africa 15 Indonesia Australia 16 Turkey Mexico 17 Iran Taiwan 18 Australia Iran 19 Taiwan Turkey 20 Netherlands Saudi Arabia Sources: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2009_downloads/renewables_section_2009.pdf; Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook (data retrieved via Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP). From Pearl Street to EveryGenerator.com: A Story of Rising Power Density and Falling Costs Electricity and electricity generation have become so commonplace that we forget just how cheap electricity has become. But a comparison of the hardware used by Edison with today’s generators brings the enormous improvements made over the past century into focus.

., http://www.howstuffworks.com/horsepower.htm/printable. 4 Joule invented the British Thermal Unit (Btu). 5 One joule is the amount of energy needed to move an object with a force of 1 newton (N) over a distance of 1 meter (m). The newton is a unit of force named after Isaac Newton. One watt is equal to 1 joule per second (1 W = 1 J/s). Americans are well acquainted with the watt from buying lightbulbs, hair dryers, and various other appliances. 6 Wikipedia, “Joule,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule. 7 Richard A. Muller, Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008), 72. 8 Renewableenergyworld.com, “US Geothermal Capacity Could Top 10 GW,” October 2, 2009, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/10/us-geothermal-capacity-could-top-10-gw. 9 Arnulf Grübler, “Transitions in Energy Use,” Encyclopedia of Earth, 2008, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Energy_transitions, 163. 10 Energy-density metrics for area are uncommon. 11 John Pearley Huffman, “Generations,” May 8, 2003, http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=93327#3. 12 “2010 Ford Fusion Review,” n.d., http://www.edmunds.com/ford/fusion/2010/review.html. 13 Here’s the math.

., http://www.motortrend.com/new_cars/04/ferrari/f430/index.html. 25 InternetAutoguide, n.d., http://www.internetautoguide.com/car-specifications/09-int/1999/acura/tl/index.html. 26 “2010 Ford Fusion Review.” 27 John Pearley Huffman, “Generations,” May 8, 2003, http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=93327#3. 28 Calculated by author from home A/C unit, which draws 19.2 amps at 220 volts, for 4,224 watts. 29 Wikipedia, “Honda Super Cub,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_Super_Cub. 30 Based on author’s personal Yard Machines lawnmower. 31 Measured at author’s home with a Kill A Watt, August 27, 2009. 32 “Home Wattage Calculator,” n.d., http://www.poweredgenerators.com/wattage-calculator.html. This source puts a toaster at 1,250 watts. 33 Ben Hewitt, “Tour de Lance,” Wired, July 2004, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.07/armstrong.html. 34 “Home Wattage Calculator,” n.d., http://www.poweredgenerators.com/wattage-calculator.html.

pages: 511 words: 111,423

Learning SPARQL by Bob Ducharme

Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, hypertext link, linked data, place-making, semantic web, SPARQL, web application

@prefix d: <http://learningsparql.com/ns/data#> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . d:c1 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label1 . d:c2 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label2 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:c3 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label3 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:label1 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Mammal" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal> . d:label2 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Dog" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog> . d:label3 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Cat" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat> . Note Note that this SKOS-XL example includes extra triples about the source of each term, using the Dublin Core source property, to show SKOS-XL’s flexibility. You can add all the metadata you want, from any namespaces you want, to these terms. (On the down side, the extra complexity of SKOS-XL has prevented it from getting much support or traction.)

If you send a browser to http://dbpedia.org/snorql/, you’ll see a form where you can enter a query and select the format of the results you want to see, as shown in Figure 1-2. For our experiments, we’ll stick with “Browse” as our result format. I want DBpedia to give me a list of albums produced by the hip-hop producer Timbaland and the artists who made those albums. If Wikipedia has a page for “Some Topic” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Some_Topic, the DBpedia URI to represent that resource is usually http://dbpedia.org/resource/Some_Topic. So, after finding the Wikipedia page for the producer at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbaland, I sent a browser to http://dbpedia.org/resource/Timbaland. I found plenty of data there, so I knew that this was the right URI to represent him in queries. (The browser was actually redirected to http://dbpedia.org/page/Timbaland, because when a browser asks for the information, DBpedia redirects it to the HTML version of the data.)

.> | | rdfs:comment | "Joseph Hocking (November 7, 1860–March ..."@en | | skos:subject | cat:Cornish_writers | | skos:subject | cat:English_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:19th-century_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:People_from_St_Stephen-in-Brannel | | skos:subject | cat:1860_births | | skos:subject | cat:1937_deaths | | skos:subject | cat:English_novelists | | rdfs:label | "Joseph Hocking"@en | | foaf:page | <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hocking> | ------------------------------------------------------------------ This result doesn’t have a ton of data, but only because I deliberately picked an obscure person to ask about. I also trimmed the data in the two places where you see ... above to make it easier to fit on the page; the rdfs:comment value describing the British novelist and minister is actually an entire paragraph.

pages: 244 words: 20,327

Structuring Backbone Code With RequireJS and Marionette Modules by David Sulc

en.wikipedia.org, MVC pattern, web application

Of course, we’ll see that having many regions come in handy with a more complex interface, but that’s for later… Now, instead of displaying a simple message in the console, we instantiate a new view when our application has started and use our pre-defined region to display it. You’ll now understand how region definitions work (line 16): the key on the left is what we call our region within our Marionette application, while the value on the right is a jQuery selector present in our page. In other words, by declaring a region with mainRegion: "#main-region", we’re saying that calling ²¹http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_concerns ²²https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/JavaScript/Guide/Working_with_objects Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Displaying a Static View 9 ContactManager.mainRegion.show(staticView); means “put the contents of staticView inside the element corresponding to the jQuery selector #main-region”. With our latest modifications, our index.html now looks like this: index.html 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 <!

Refer to the full index.html included below if you’re unsure where this code gets inserted. You’ll notice that we’ve got some special <%= %> tags in there. These serve the same purpose as in many templating languages (ERB in Rails, PHP, JSP, etc.): they allow the templating engine to interpret them and include the resulting output within the rendered result. By default, Marionette ²⁷http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model%E2%80%93view%E2%80%93controller ²⁸http://backbonejs.org/#Model Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Displaying a Model 16 uses Underscore’s templating engine²⁹ where <%= %> means output will be displayed, and <% %> tags which allow arbitrary javascript to be executed (such as an if condition). Since the model is serialized and passed on to the view template, writing <%= firstName %> means the model’s firstName attribute will be displayed.

Instead, let’s leverage events (line 6): Triggering an event in assets/js/app.js 1 2 3 ContactManager.on("initialize:after", function(){ if(Backbone.history){ Backbone.history.start(); 4 if(this.getCurrentRoute() === ""){ ContactManager.trigger("contacts:list"); } 5 6 7 8 9 } }); Then, we update the URL fragement and call the appropriate action within our controller by listening for that same event (lines 15-18): Responding to the navigation event in assets/js/apps/contacts/contacts_app.js 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ContactManager.module("ContactsApp", function(ContactsApp, ContactManager, Backbone, Marionette, $, _){ ContactsApp.Router = Marionette.AppRouter.extend({ appRoutes: { "contacts": "listContacts" } }); 8 9 10 11 12 13 var API = { listContacts: function(){ ContactsApp.List.Controller.listContacts(); } }; 14 ⁸⁸http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don%27t_repeat_yourself Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Implementing Routing 15 16 17 18 79 ContactManager.on("contacts:list", function(){ ContactManager.navigate("contacts"); API.listContacts(); }); 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ContactManager.addInitializer(function(){ new ContactsApp.Router({ controller: API }); }); }); Much better! We now have proper URL handling without needing to trigger routes.

pages: 462 words: 172,671

Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship by Robert C. Martin

continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, finite state, G4S, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, iterative process, place-making, Rubik’s Cube, web application

Third, it violates the Single Responsibility Principle7 (SRP) because there is more than one reason for it to change. Fourth, it violates the Open Closed Principle8 (OCP) because it must change whenever new types are added. But possibly the worst problem with this function is that there are an unlimited number of other functions that will have the same structure. For example we could have 7. a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_responsibility_principle b. http://www.objectmentor.com/resources/articles/srp.pdf 8. a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open/closed_principle b. http://www.objectmentor.com/resources/articles/ocp.pdf isPayday(Employee e, Date date), or deliverPay(Employee e, Money pay), or a host of others. All of which would have the same deleterious structure. The solution to this problem (see Listing 3-5) is to bury the switch statement in the basement of an ABSTRACT FACTORY,9 and never let anyone see it.

The Law of Demeter There is a well-known heuristic called the Law of Demeter2 that says a module should not know about the innards of the objects it manipulates. As we saw in the last section, objects hide their data and expose operations. This means that an object should not expose its internal structure through accessors because to do so is to expose, rather than to hide, its internal structure. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Demeter More precisely, the Law of Demeter says that a method f of a class C should only call the methods of these: • C • An object created by f • An object passed as an argument to f • An object held in an instance variable of C The method should not invoke methods on objects that are returned by any of the allowed functions. In other words, talk to friends, not to strangers.

[AOSD]: Aspect-Oriented Software Development port, http://aosd.net [ASM]: ASM Home Page, http://asm.objectweb.org/ [AspectJ]: http://eclipse.org/aspectj [CGLIB]: Code Generation Library, http://cglib.sourceforge.net/ [Colyer]: Adrian Colyer, Andy Clement, George Hurley, Mathew Webster, Eclipse AspectJ, Person Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005. [DSL]: Domain-specific programming language, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain-specific_programming_language [Fowler]: Inversion of Control Containers and the Dependency Injection pattern, http://martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html [Goetz]: Brian Goetz, Java Theory and Practice: Decorating with Dynamic Proxies, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jtp08305.html [Javassist]: Javassist Home Page, http://www.csg.is.titech.ac.jp/~chiba/javassist/ [JBoss]: JBoss Home Page, http://jboss.org [JMock]: JMock—A Lightweight Mock Object Library for Java, http://jmock.org [Kolence]: Kenneth W.

pages: 628 words: 107,927

Node.js in Action by Mike Cantelon, Marc Harter, Tj Holowaychuk, Nathan Rajlich

Amazon Web Services, Chris Wanstrath, create, read, update, delete, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, node package manager, p-value, pull request, Ruby on Rails, web application, WebSocket

It’s important to understand how the browser works in order to understand how Node works. Both are event-driven (they use an event loop) and non-blocking when handling I/O (they use asynchronous I/O). Let’s look an example to explain what that means. Event Loops and Asynchronous I/O For more about event loops and asynchronous I/O, see the relevant Wikipedia articles at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event_loop and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_I/O. Take this common snippet of jQuery performing an Ajax request using XMLHttp-Request (XHR): This program performs an HTTP request for resource.json. When the response comes back, an anonymous function is called (the “callback” in this context) containing the argument data, which is the data received from that request. Notice that the code was not written like this: In this example, the assumption is that the response for resource.json would be stored in the data variable when it is ready and that the console.log function will not execute until then.

MIME types MIME types are discussed in detail in the Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIME. To handle chat-related messaging, you could poll the server with Ajax. But to make this application as responsive as possible, you’ll avoid using traditional Ajax as a means to send messages. Ajax uses HTTP as a transport mechanism, and HTTP wasn’t designed for real-time communication. When a message is sent using HTTP, a new TCP/IP connection must be used. Opening and closing connections takes time, and the size of the data transfer is larger because HTTP headers are sent on every request. Instead of employing a solution reliant on HTTP, this application will prefer WebSocket (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebSocket), which was designed as a bidirectional lightweight communications protocol to support real-time communication.

JavaScript is a compilation target, and there are a number of languages that compile to it already.[4] 4 See the “List of languages that compile to JS”: https://github.com/jashkenas/coffee-script/wiki/List-of-languages-that-compile-to-JS. Node uses one virtual machine (V8) that keeps up with the ECMAScript standard.[5] In other words, you don’t have to wait for all the browsers to catch up to use new JavaScript language features in Node. 5 For more about the ECMAScript standard, see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECMAScript. Who knew JavaScript would end up being a compelling language for writing server-side applications? Yet, due to its sheer reach, performance, and other characteristics mentioned previously, Node has gained a lot of traction. JavaScript is only one piece of the puzzle though; the way Node uses JavaScript is even more compelling. To understand the Node environment, let’s dive into the JavaScript environment you’re most familiar with: the browser. 1.2.

pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

“Mapping Inequalities Across the On-Demand Economy,” Data and Society, accessed May 9, 2019, https://datasociety.net/​initiatives/​future-of-labor/​mapping-inequalities-across-the-on-demand-economy/. 62. Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, April 17, 2015. 63. Wikipedia, s.v. “The Great Transformation,” last modified March 29, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​The_Great_Transformation_(book). 64. Zuboff, “Big Other,” 80. 65. Michael Winnick, “Putting a Finger on Our Phone Obsession,” June 16, 2016, https://blog.dscout.com/​mobile-touches. 66. Nir Eyal with Ryan Hoover, Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products (New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2014), 1. 67. Rana Foroohar, “All I Want for Christmas Is a Digital Detox,” Financial Times, December 22, 2017. 68.

David Vise, The Google Story: Inside the Hottest Business, Media, and Technology Success of Our Time (New York, Bantam Dell, 2005), 84–85. 29. Fisher, “ ‘Google Was Not a Normal Place.’ ” 30. Battelle, The Search, 125. Chapter 4: Party Like It’s 1999 1. Joshua Cooper Ramo, “Jeffrey Preston Bezos, 1999 Person of the Year,” Time, December 27, 1999. 2. Wikipedia, graphic of dot-com bubble, accessed May 9, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Dot-com_bubble#/​media/​File:Nasdaq_Composite_dot-com_bubble.svg. 3. Simon Dumenco, “Touby Prize,” New York, July 20, 2007. 4. Rana Foroohar, “Europe’s Got Net Fever,” Newsweek International, September 5, 1999. 5. Ibid. 6. “Dotcom Darlings: Where Are They Now?” The Telegraph, accessed May 9, 2019, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/​finance/​8354329/​Dotcom-darlings-where-are-they-now.html/. 7.

Richard Fletcher, “Antfactory Is Wound Up by Shareholders,” The Daily Telegraph, September 30, 2001. 10. Hal R. Varian, “Economic Scene: Comparing Nasdaq and Tulips Unfair to Flowers,” The New York Times, February 8, 2001. 11. Olson, Rise and Decline of Nations. 12. Rana Foroohar, Makers and Takers: How Wall Street Destroyed Main Street (New York: Crown Business, 2016), 130. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Wikipedia, s.v. “Dot-com bubble,” last modified May 22, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Dot-com_bubble. 16. Melanie Warner, “The Beauty of Hype: A Cautionary Tale,” Fortune, March 1, 1999. 17. Rana Foroohar, “Flight of the Dot-Coms,” Newsweek International, July 15, 2001. 18. Rana Foroohar and Stefan Theil, “The Dot-Com Witch Hunt,” Newsweek International, September 3, 2001. 19. Nicole Friedman and Zolan Kanno-Youngs, “Hedge Fund Investor Charles Murphy Dies in Apparent Suicide,” The Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2017. 20.

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The Simulation Hypothesis by Rizwan Virk

3D printing, Albert Einstein, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, butterfly effect, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, game design, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Minecraft, natural language processing, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Zeno's paradox

. [←46] Credit: Shutterstock.com [←47] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma [←48] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics, (New York: Bantam, 1975), 85-86. [←49] In Brad Steiger, In My Soul I Am Free (Eckankar, 1968), 95. [←50] Thomas Ashley-Ferrand, Healing Mantras (New York: Ballantine Wellspring, 1999), 3–7. [←51] Steiger, Brad; In My Soul I Am Free, 92. [←52] Mattheiu Ricard, The Quantum and the Lotus, (New York: Crown, 2001), 179–81. [←53] www.al-islam.org [←54] http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p123a12.htm [←55] https://insightswithbillyvee.wordpress.com/2010/02/19/question-is-god-keeping-a-record-rev-2012-heb-812/ [←56] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recording_angel [←57] Ibid. [←58] Ibid. [←59] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-death_experience [←60] https://dannionandkathrynbrinkley.com/dannions-ndes/ [←61] https://www.history.com/topics/paranormal/project-blue-book [←62] https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/16/us/politics/pentagon-program-ufo-harry-reid.html [←63] https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612232/the-8-dimensional-space-that-must-be-searched-for-alien-life/ [←64] Jacques Vallee, “A Theory of Everything (Else),” TED Talk video presentation, 2011, www.jacquesvallee.com. [←65] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Bodies_Doctrine_(Vedanta) [←66] Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Philosophy (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007) 161. [←67] https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/amp/ncna913926 (Corey Powell) [←68] http://serious-science.org/skepticism-and-the-simulation-hypothesis-6189 [←69] https://www.simulation-argument.com/faq.html [←70] Andrew Masterson, “Matrix Phobia?

title=File:King%27s_Quest_-_DOS_-_Map_-_Daventry.png [←31] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wheeler_telescopes_set-up.svg (Source: Patrick Edwin Moran). [←32] https://www.sciencealert.com/wheeler-s-delayed-choice-experiment-record-distance-space [←33] David Toomey, The New Time Travelers (New York: W.W. Norton, 2007), 254. [←34] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Minimax.svg (Source: Nuno Nogueira, user: Nmnogueira) [←35] Thomas Campbell, My Big TOE, (Lightning Strike Books, 2003), 201. [←36] John Wheeler, Geons, Black Holes and Quantum Foam (Norton, 1998). [←37] George Johnson, “How is the Universe Built? Grain by Grain,” The New York Times, December 7, 1999. [←38] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_time [←39] https://www.space.com/20881-wormholes.html [←40] Credit: Shutterstock.com. [←41] https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/would-astronauts-survive-interstellar-trip-through-wormhole-180953269/ [←42] Credit: Shutterstock.com [←43] Fred Alan Wolf, The Dreaming Universe, (Touchstone, 1995), 81. [←44] Wolf, Fred Alan; The Dreaming Universe, p. 21 [←45] Serinity Young, Dreaming in the Lotus: Buddhist Dream Narratives, Imagery and Practice (Wisdom Publications, 1999). [←46] Credit: Shutterstock.com [←47] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma [←48] Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics, (New York: Bantam, 1975), 85-86. [←49] In Brad Steiger, In My Soul I Am Free (Eckankar, 1968), 95. [←50] Thomas Ashley-Ferrand, Healing Mantras (New York: Ballantine Wellspring, 1999), 3–7. [←51] Steiger, Brad; In My Soul I Am Free, 92. [←52] Mattheiu Ricard, The Quantum and the Lotus, (New York: Crown, 2001), 179–81. [←53] www.al-islam.org [←54] http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p123a12.htm [←55] https://insightswithbillyvee.wordpress.com/2010/02/19/question-is-god-keeping-a-record-rev-2012-heb-812/ [←56] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recording_angel [←57] Ibid. [←58] Ibid. [←59] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-death_experience [←60] https://dannionandkathrynbrinkley.com/dannions-ndes/ [←61] https://www.history.com/topics/paranormal/project-blue-book [←62] https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/16/us/politics/pentagon-program-ufo-harry-reid.html [←63] https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612232/the-8-dimensional-space-that-must-be-searched-for-alien-life/ [←64] Jacques Vallee, “A Theory of Everything (Else),” TED Talk video presentation, 2011, www.jacquesvallee.com. [←65] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Bodies_Doctrine_(Vedanta) [←66] Heisenberg, Werner, Physics and Philosophy (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007) 161. [←67] https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/amp/ncna913926 (Corey Powell) [←68] http://serious-science.org/skepticism-and-the-simulation-hypothesis-6189 [←69] https://www.simulation-argument.com/faq.html [←70] Andrew Masterson, “Matrix Phobia?

. [←2] https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/alan_kay_875443 [←3] https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/elon-musk-ai-artificial-intelligence-computer-simulation-gaming-virtual-reality-a7060941.html [←4] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atari_Pong_arcade_game_cabinet.jpg (Source: Rob Boudon) [←5] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mandelbrot_island.jpg (Source: Alexis Monnerot-Dumaine) [←6] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sark-aerial.jpg (Source: Phillip Capper, Sark, Channel Islands, 17 September 2005) [←7] https://www.displaydaily.com/article/display-daily/light-field-displays-are-coming [←8] https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/false-memories [←9] http://news.mit.edu/2013/neuroscientists-plant-false-memories-in-the-brain-0725 [←10] https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2016/04/hawking-at-harvard/ (Stephen Hawking lecture at Harvard)/ [←11] https://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/24/books/on-writers-and-writing-it-s-philip-dick-s-world-we-only-live-in-it.html [←12] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turing_test_diagram.png (Source: Juan Alberto Sánchez Margallo) [←13] Minh, Kavukcuoglu, Silver, et al., “Playing Atari with Deep Reinforcement Learning,” Deepmind Technologies (2013). [←14] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sophia_at_the_AI_for_Good_Global_Summit_2018_(27254369347).jpg [←15] https://www.theverge.com/2017/11/10/16617092/sophia-the-robot-citizen-ai-hanson-robotics-ben-goertzel [←16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Laws_of_Robotics [←17] Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near, (New York: Penguin, 2005), 10. [←18] Vernor Vinge, “Technological Singularity” (1993), https://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/book98/com.ch1/vinge.singularity.html [←19] https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612257/digital-version-after-death/ [←20] Nick Bostrom, “Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?”

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Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

4chan, AGPL, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WikiLeaks

He also claimed that this would be a tough “fact” for the Environmentalists to compete with, retorting “Explain that, Al Gore!” It was great TV, but created problems for Wikipedia. So many people responded to Colbert’s rallying cry that Wikipedia locked the article on Elephants to protect it from further vandalism. <h p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2006-0807/Wikiality> Furthermore, Wikipedia banned the user Stephencolbert for using an unverified celebrity name (a violation of Wikipedia’s terms of use <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Stephencolbert>. 53 Colbert and his viewers’ edits were perceived as mere vandalism that was disrespectful of the social contract that the rest of Wikipedia adhered to, thus subverting the underlying fabric of the community. Yet they were following the social contract provided by their leader and his initial edit.

As a pie ce of cutle ry or kitche nware , a fork is a tool consisting of a handle with se ve ral narrow tine s (usually two, thre e or four) on one e nd. The fork, as an e ating ute nsil, has be e n a fe ature primarily of the We st. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fork> 2. (so ware ) Whe n a pie ce of so ware or othe r work is split into two branche s or variations of de ve lopme nt. In the past, forking has implie d a division of ide ology and a split of the proje ct. With the adve nt of distribute d ve rsion control, forking and me rging be come s a le ss pre cipitous, divisive action. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fork_%28so ware_development%29> The disruptive force of forking is greater in an environment whose default is to maintain code in centralized, collaboratively maintained repositories such as Subversion. Entry and exit in the project implicate both a division of participants and the need to erect new infrastructural support.

However, it is conceivable, if fanciful, that control of the means of production could nurture a feeling of autonomy that empowers further action outside of the market. Autonomous individuals and communities Glossary: Autonomy Autonomy is a conce pt found in moral, political, and bioe thical philosophy. Within the se conte xts it re fe rs to the capacity of a rational individual to make an informe d, un-coe rce d de cision. In moral and political philosophy, autonomy is o e n use d as the basis for de te rmining moral re sponsibility for one 's actions. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomy> The work of late twe ntie th-ce ntury thinke rs and fe minist scholars proble matize s the notion that an individual subje ct could e ithe r pre ce de all social formations or could possibly make rational de cisions. Inste ad the body is se e n as a site in which all manne r of social force s are made manife st, articulate d in physiological, psychological and biological ways.

pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

aat=1&t=111&dnt=111 15https://www.eff.org/privacybadger 16https://www.eff.org/https-everywhere 17https://certbot.eff.org/ 18This is a pseudonym, but one Kidane uses in real life with his diaspora community too. 19https://uk.kantar.com/tech/social/2018/gen-z-is-the-generation-taking-a-stand-for-privacy-on-social-media/ 20Cohn notes this line of reasoning is central to Cory Doctorow’s online privacy themes in his young adult book, Little Brother. 21https://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org 22https://stats.wikimedia.org/v2/#/en.wikipedia.org 23https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics 24https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/2016-2017_Fundraising_Report 25https://www.vogue.co.uk/article/how-the-conduit-plans-to-change-the-world 26https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bomis 27https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_of_Wikipedia_in_Turkey 28https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LE15_Gender_overall_in_2018.png 29https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/10/how-wikipedia-is-hostile-to-women/411619/ 30https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05947-8 31As highlighted in a Twitter thread from Demos’s Carl Miller here: https://twitter.com/carljackmiller/status/1022055586471534592 32Zittrain is the author of The Future of the Internet – And How To Stop It, which is well worth a read.

noredirect=on&utm_term=.e7adba67bfe6 3https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-42745853 1 THE ARCHITECTS 1US broadband speed taken from http://fortune.com/2017/06/02/internet-speed-akamai-survey/ 2The narrative of the first internet message is taken from this (charming and very readable) transcript: https://archive.icann.org/meetings/losangeles2014/en/schedule/mon-crocker-kleinrock/transcript-crocker-kleinrock-13oct14-en.pdf 3https://www.internethalloffame.org//inductees/steve-crocker 4https://ai.google/research/people/author32412 5Wired have a great feature with much more detail on ‘the mother of all demos’ here: https://www.wired.com/2010/12/1209computer-mouse-mother-of-all-demos/ 6This was the recollection of Bob Taylor, who secured the funding (https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/an/2011/03/man2011030004/13rRUxly9fL), but was disputed by Charles Herzfeld, who said he had agreed the funding, but had taken more than twenty minutes’ persuasion (https://www.wired.com/2012/08/herzfeld/). 7Full video and transcript: http://opentranscripts.org/transcript/steve-crocker-internet-hall-fame-2012-profile/ 8This is also from Kleinrock’s 2014 transcript: https://archive.icann.org/meetings/losangeles2014/en/schedule/mon-crocker-kleinrock/transcript-crocker-kleinrock-13oct14-en.pdf 9https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0675.txt 10ARPANET had operated as a packet switching network from its inception – TCP is just a specific implantation of the concept, and the one which came to be the standard. 11This paragraph borrows key dates from https://www.webfx.com/blog/web-design/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/ 12Everything from Steve Lukasik comes from his paper ‘Why the ARPANET Was Built’, published online here: https://www.academia.edu/34728504/WHY_THE_ARPANET_WAS_BUILT 13This is from the Crocker/Kleinrock discussion. 14https://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/ 15These are sourced to the Internet Services Consortium, but most easily viewed on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Internet_usage 16https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-32884867 17https://www.statista.com/statistics/471264/iot-number-of-connected-devices-worldwide/ 18This stat comes from TeleGeography (https://www2.telegeography.com/submarine-cable-faqs-frequently-asked-questions) – their map of the main undersea internet cables is well worth a look: https://www.submarinecablemap.com/ 2 THE CABLE GUYS 1http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/17/AR2007101702359.html?

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Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges and Leaderboards by Yu-Kai Chou

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, functional fixedness, game design, IKEA effect, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, loss aversion, Maui Hawaii, Minecraft, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

On that fateful day in 2003 when I decided to quit playing computer games, I never would have guessed that I would end up devoting my life’s work to studying it so many years later. The value games can provide us far exceeds simply killing time. Now is the time to harness that value and make the most out of our time. The journey begins here. Charles Coonradt. The Game of Work. Paperback. Gibbs Smith. Layton, Utah. 07/01/2012.↩ Wikipedia Entry “User-Centered Design”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_design↩ Human Centered Design Tookit by IDEO. URL: http://www.ideo.com/work/human-centered-design-toolkit/↩ Chapter 2: The PBL Fallacy A Story about Social Media The landscape of gamification development must be viewed within a historical context to see why gamification mechanics themselves don’t ultimately lead to effective design. Let’s start by taking a look at social media1.

Is it Product, Workplace, Marketing, or Lifestyle Gamification? Medium: Identify a gamification example you have encountered before. Is it Explicit or Implicit Gamification? What are the pros and cons for using that type of implementation? Share what you come up with on Twitter or your preferred social network with the hashtag #OctalysisBook and see what ideas other people have. Wikipedia Article: “Gamification”, accessed 12/13/2014. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamification↩ Deterding, Sebastion. “A Quick Buck by Copy and Paste”, Gamification Research Network, Posted 09/15/2011.↩ Zichermann, Gabe. “A Teachable Moment” by Gabe Zichermann, Gamification.co, Posted 09/20/2011.↩ BusinessDictionary entry: “advergames”. Accessed 12/13/2014.↩ Mcgonigal, Jane. Slideshare: “We don’t need no stinkin’ badges: How to re-invent reality without gamification”, posted 2/17/2011.↩ Deterding, Sebastian.

New Section Unlocked! - Get Inspired Now that you are becoming familiar with the Octalysis Framework, check out my TEDx talk on how eight different world-changing products utilize each of the 8 Core Drives to make the world a better place. The TEDx talk can be accessed at http://yukaichou.com/tedx, or you can simply go on Google and search “Gamification Tedx.” Wikipedia Entry: “pwn”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pwn. Accessed 12/18/2014.↩ Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams. Wikinomics. P75. Portfolio Publishing. September 28, 2010.↩ Wikimedia Blog. “Who are Wikipedias Donors”. 02/05/2012.↩ Maney, Kevin. “Apple’s ‘1984’ Super Bowl Commercial Still Stands as Watershed Event”. USA Today. January 28, 2004.↩ Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. Secker & Warburg. 1949.↩ Youtube, “Apple - 1984” URL: http://www.yukaichou.com/1984↩ Friedman, Ted.

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Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Grasping Social Patterns, by Christian Crumlish, http://www.slideshare.net/xian/ grasping-social-patterns Jargon File entry on Cargo Cult Programming, http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/c/ cargocultprogramming.html “Me vs. You (vs. i),” http://www.graphpaper.com/2007/08-17_me-vs-you-vs-i (Chris Fahey’s Graphpaper blog) “Rule 1,” by Dave Winer, http://archive.scripting.com/2002/09/29#rule1? “User vs. You,” http://www.graphpaper.com/2007/08-02_user-vs-you (Chris Fahey’s Graphpaper blog Wikipedia entry on Cargo Cult Programming, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Cargo_cult_programming “You vs. I,” http://www.graphpaper.com/2007/08-11_you-vs-i (Chris Fahey’s Graphpaper blog) “Your Web Application as a Text Adventure,” http://2007.sxsw.com/blogs/podcasts. php/2007/05/31/your_web_application_as_a_text_adventure? (Michael Buffington, podcast from South by Southwest 2007) Download at WoweBook.Com Download at WoweBook.Com Part II I Am Somebody The notion of self, something long discussed and debated by philosophers, psychologists, and scientists, is now part of the discussion in the user experience design world.

Rather, they just give users a sense for their levels of achievement and indicate progress toward the next reputation milestone (for example, “Dwalin is a Level 8 Dwarf (342)”). Download at WoweBook.Com Rankings 173 Points should reward performance (e.g., winning a game against an opponent) rather than activity (e.g., 10 points for every message posted). Points that reward activity may lead users to perform that activity again and again with no regard for the quality of their contributions. The gaming world even has a term for this: grinding (http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Grind_(gaming)). In some communities, participants want a tangible measurement of their accomplishments for personal satisfaction and to make comparisons with other competitors. One exception to the performance recommendation: points may be a useful reward of activity the first time a user performs an action (e.g., “You completed your profile! Here are 20 points”). These “first time” awards are hard to game, and can encourage users to explore new areas of your offering.

These “first time” awards are hard to game, and can encourage users to explore new areas of your offering. Examples Yahoo! Answers (Figure 6-17) awards points to users for a variety of actions (http:// answers.yahoo.com/info/scoring_system;_ylt=AqAAJlkazAoSjM8PHj5tvVbpy6IX;_ylv=3). Figure 6-17. The Yahoo! Answers points system is carefully calibrated to nudge users toward greater engagement. Xbox Live’s GamerScore (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xbox_Live#Gamerscore) is a measure that corresponds to the number of points accumulated by an XBox Live player. eBay’s Feedback Score (http://pages.ebay.com/help/feedback/feedback-scores.html) is based on the number of successful transactions that a seller or buyer has completed. See OMGPOP.com (formerly the dating site iminlikewithyou.com) for examples of how to use reputation, levels, and points to keep people playing.

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Graph Databases by Ian Robinson, Jim Webber, Emil Eifrem

Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, commoditize, corporate governance, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, linked data, loose coupling, Network effects, recommendation engine, semantic web, sentiment analysis, social graph, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

An R-Tree is a graph-like index that describes bounded boxes around geographies.5 Using such a structure we can describe overlapping hierarchies of locations. For example, we can represent the fact that London is in the UK, and that the postal code SW11 1BD is in Battersea, which is a district in London, which is in south-eastern England, which in turn is in Great Britain. And because UK postal codes are fine-grained, we can use that boundary to target people with somewhat similar tastes. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-tree 22 | Chapter 2: Options for Storing Connected Data Such pattern matching queries are extremely difficult to write in SQL, and laborious to write against aggregate stores, and in both cases they tend to perform very poorly. Graph databases, on the other hand, are optimized for precisely these types of traversals and pattern matching queries, providing in many cases millisecond responses; moreover, most graph databases provide a query language suited to expressing graph constructs and graph queries—in the next chapter, we’ll look at Cypher, which is a pattern matching language tuned to the way we tend to describe graphs using diagrams.

Continuing with our example use case, let’s assume that we can update the graph from our regular network monitoring tools, thereby providing us with a near real-time view of the state of the network 6. When a user reports a problem, we can limit the physical 6. With a large physical network, we might use Complex Event Processing to process streams of low-level network events, updating the graph only when the CEP solution raises a significant domain event. See: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_event_processing 36 | Chapter 3: Data Modeling with Graphs fault-finding to problematic network elements between the user and the application and the application and its dependencies. In our graph we can find the faulty equipment with the following query: START user=node:users(id = 'User 3') MATCH (user)-[*1..5]-(asset) WHERE asset.status! = 'down' RETURN DISTINCT asset The MATCH clause here describes a variable length path between one and five relationships long.

Because of the schema-free nature of graph databases, geospatial data can reside in the database beside other kinds of data—social network data, for example—allowing for complex multidimensional querying across several domains.3 Geospatial applications of graph databases are particularly relevant in the areas of tel‐ ecommunications, logistics, travel, timetabling and route planning. Master Data Management Master data is data that is critical to the operation of a business, but which itself is nontransactional. Master data includes data concerning users, customers, products, sup‐ pliers, departments, geographies, sites, cost centers and business units. In large organ‐ 2. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-tree 3. Neo4j Spatial is an open source library of utilities that implement spatial indexes and expose Neo4j data to geotools. See https://github.com/neo4j/spatial 96 | Chapter 5: Graphs in the Real World isations, this data is often held in many different places, with lots of overlap and redun‐ dancy, in many different formats, and with varying degrees of quality and means of access.

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21 Recipes for Mining Twitter by Matthew A. Russell

en.wikipedia.org, Google Earth, natural language processing, NP-complete, social web, web application

Example 1-29. Analyzing friendship cliques (see http://github.com/ptwobrussell/Recipes-for-Mining -Twitter/blob/master/recipe__clique_analysis.py) # -*- coding: utf-8 -*import sys import json import networkx as nx 50 | The Recipes G = sys.argv[1] g = nx.read_gpickle(G) # # # # Finding cliques is a hard problem, so this could take a while for large graphs. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NP-complete and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clique_problem cliques = [c for c in nx.find_cliques(g)] num_cliques = len(cliques) clique_sizes = [len(c) for c in cliques] max_clique_size = max(clique_sizes) avg_clique_size = sum(clique_sizes) / num_cliques max_cliques = [c for c in cliques if len(c) == max_clique_size] num_max_cliques = len(max_cliques) max_clique_sets = [set(c) for c in max_cliques] people_in_every_max_clique = list(reduce(lambda x, y: x.intersection(y), max_clique_sets)) print print print print print print print print print print 'Num 'Avg 'Max 'Num cliques:', num_cliques clique size:', avg_clique_size clique size:', max_clique_size max cliques:', num_max_cliques 'People in all max cliques:' json.dumps(people_in_every_max_clique, indent=4) 'Max cliques:' json.dumps(max_cliques, indent=4) For purposes of illustration, Mining the Social Web (O’Reilly) included an analysis conducted in mid-2010 that determined the following statistics for Tim O’Reilly’s ~700 friendships: Num Avg Max Num Num cliques: 762573 clique size: 14 clique size: 26 max cliques: 6 people in every max clique: 20 Some of the more interesting insight from the analysis was that there are six different cliques of size 26 in Tim O’Reilly’s friendships, which means that those six variations of 26 people all “know” one another to the point that they were at least interested in receiving each other’s status updates in their tweet stream.

Practically speaking, this means that for a very large graph, you either need to wait a very long time to get an exact answer to the problem of finding cliques, or you need to be willing to settle for an approximate solution. The implementation that NetworkX offers should work fine on commodity hardware for graphs containing high-hundreds to low-thousands of nodes (possibly even higher) before the time required to compute cliques becomes unbearable. See Also http://networkx.lanl.gov/reference/generated/networkx.algorithms.clique.find_cliques .html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clique_problem 1.19 Analyzing the Authors of Tweets that Appear in Search Results Problem You want to analyze user profile information as it relates to the authors of tweets that appear in search results. Solution Use the /search resource to fetch search results, and then extract the from_user field from each search result object to look up profile information by screen name using either the /users/show or /users/lookup resources.

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Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now by Jaron Lanier

4chan, basic income, cloud computing, corporate governance, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, gig economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Milgram experiment, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, theory of mind, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/03/how-the-internet-is-destroying-everything/ 3.   http://www.berkeleywellness.com/self-care/preventive-care/article/are-mobile-devices-ruining-our-eyes 4.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_God_that_Failed 5.   https://www.forbes.com/sites/elizabethmacbride/2017/12/31/is-social-media-the-tobacco-industry-of-the-21st-century/ 6.   https://www.hud.gov/sites/documents/20258_LEGISLATIVEHISTORY.PDF 7.   The television era tried its best to be BUMMER, but without direct feedback loops to individuals. Through heroic effort, television was able to be slightly BUMMER even without much data. “Cultivation theory” studies the phenomenon. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultivation_theory 8.   This history will be recounted in later arguments. 9.   While digital spending on advertising and marketing might still be a little shy of half of all such spending globally—remember TV is still strong, especially for the aging generations that grew up with it—overall spending is going up, most new spending is digital, and almost all of that is BUMMER.

https://www.axios.com/sean-parker-unloads-on-facebook-2508036343.html 2.   https://gizmodo.com/former-facebook-exec-you-don-t-realize-it-but-you-are-1821181133. Though I must note that Palihapitiya walked back his statement a bit in the following days, talking about how he thought Facebook did good overall in the world. 3.   https://mashable.com/2014/04/30/facebooks-new-mantra-move-fast-with-stability/ 4.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catfishing 5.   The optimization of timing is only one example out of many. Every design choice in your social media experiences is being optimized all the time on similar principles. Ex-Googler Tristan Harris has assembled more examples, including the way options of all kinds are shown to you, the way you are able to click on options, and the ways that you and others are shown options in tandem.

Facebook has faced considerable legal blowback for using WhatsApp data that way in Europe (see https://www.theverge.com/2017/12/18/16792448/whatsapp-facebook-data-sharing-no-user-consent). In the United States, since the network neutrality rules are being relaxed, it’s possible that all texting, even native texting between phones, will become part of BUMMER, but as of this writing it doesn’t appear to have happened. 3.   The most prominent current academic approach to the study of asshole creation is SIDE Theory. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_identity_model_of_deindividuation_effects, but please promise me you won’t become a jerk in an edit war about this entry, okay? If you want to read relevant research from a scientist working for Facebook, see the work of Justin Cheng: https://www.clr3.com/. 4.   http://leesmolin.com/writings/the-trouble-with-physics/ 5.   Shout-out to Tim Wu. 6.   https://www.recode.net/2016/12/29/14100064/linkedin-daniel-roth-fake-news-facebook-recode-podcast 7.   

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Beautiful Testing: Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software (Theory in Practice) by Adam Goucher, Tim Riley

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, continuous integration, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Grace Hopper, index card, Isaac Newton, natural language processing, p-value, performance metric, revision control, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, the scientific method, Therac-25, Valgrind, web application

.‡ Lint and compiler warnings are two examples of static analysis. Static analysis can be used to find style issues, but the main reason to use it is to find subtle problems. Often these problems can occur in uncommon situations, such as error conditions (i.e., the worst possible time to make a bad situation worse). # http://pypi.python.org/pypi/fusil/ * http://svn.python.org/view?view=rev&revision=64775 † http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_code_analysis ‡ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_review BEAUTIFUL IS BETTER THAN UGLY 125 For example, static analysis can find invalid memory uses or memory leaks in error-handling code. Very often, the problems it finds can lead to crashes in conditions that rarely happen or that are hard to reproduce. By contrast, dynamic analysis is good for finding problems in code that already has test cases. Static analysis is a nice complement and finds problems in code that isn’t executed.

When calling a C function from Python, Python wraps the arguments in a tuple. The C function then needs to parse this tuple into C-native ints and chars that it can operate on. To make this easier, we provide a function called PyArg_ParseTuple()† that operates a lot like the C scanf()‡ function. One example call looks like the following: § http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_utilities ‖ http://docs.python.org/extending/index.html # http://pychecker.sourceforge.net/ * http://www.logilab.org/857 † http://docs.python.org/c-api/arg.html ‡ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanf 126 CHAPTER NINE static PyObject *string_replace(PyStringObject *self, PyObject *args) { Py_ssize_t count = -1; PyObject *from, *to; if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "OO|n:replace", &from, &to, &count)) return NULL; ... } If from, to, or count has a different type than the format string claims, PyArg_ParseTuple could write garbage to memory and cause a crash or, worse, a security vulnerability.

I will either manually correlate database interactions that I can control in the frontend with the actual code or use a script to pull out all the database calls and inspect that. SQL injection is a problem that has a known solution: parameterized SQL and/or diligent escaping so code inspection is a quick and efficient way of identifying this type of problem. Appropriate permissions Can a user of a certain permission class do what they should be able to do? And only what they should be able to do? * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting † http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQL_injection 236 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Information leakage Can a user access/view/modify information they should not be able to access? Consider a multitenant system with Coke and Pepsi as two of your clients. Clearly, Coke should not be able to see Pepsi’s information, and vice versa. L: Languages The next letter and layer of testing that is done centers around Languages.

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Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

-“Veronica-Mars”-Movie-Opens-March. 262 “One could argue that”: Marc Andreessen, interview by the authors, August 2015. 263 In early 2016, Indiegogo introduced: Jacob Kastrenakes, “Indiegogo Wants Huge Companies to Crowdfund Their Next Big Products,” Verge, January 6, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/1/6/10691100/indiegogo-enterprise-crowdfunding-announced-ces-2016. 263 “real-time customer feedback”: Indiegogo, “Indiegogo for Enterprise,” accessed February 8, 2017, https://learn.indiegogo.com/enterprise. 263 including some of the world’s largest hedge funds: Telis Demos and Peter Rudegeair, “LendingClub Held Talks on Funding Deals with Och-Ziff, Soros, Third Point,” Wall Street Journal, last updated June 9, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/lendingclub-and-hedge-funds-have-discussed-major-funding-deals-1465476543. 263 In 2014, well over half: Shelly Banjo, “Wall Street Is Hogging the Peer-to-Peer Lending Market,” Quartz, March 4, 2015, https://qz.com/355848/wall-street-is-hogging-the-peer-to-peer-lending-market. 264 “Teespring is the modern method”: Andreessen, interview, August 2015. 264 “In general it is not the owner”: Joseph Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934), 66. 265 Eric von Hippel: Eric von Hippel, Democratizing Innovation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006). 265 “Wouldn’t it be nice”: Alexia Tsotsis, “TaskRabbit Turns Grunt Work into a Game,” Wired, July 15, 2011, https://www.wired.com/2011/07/mf_taskrabbit. 265 Apple acquired 70 companies: Wikipedia, s. v. “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Apple,” last modified January 21, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Apple. 265 Facebook more than 50: Wikipedia, s. v. “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Facebook,” last modified February 4, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Facebook. 265 Google nearly 200: Wikipedia, “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Alphabet,” last modified February 2, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Alphabet. 266 Facebook paid $1 billion for Instagram: Evelyn M. Rusli, “Facebook Buys Instagram for $1 Billion,” New York Times, April 9, 2012, https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/facebook-buys-instagram-for-1-billion. 266 more than $20 billion for WhatsApp: Facebook Newsroom, “Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp,” February 19, 2014, http://newsroom.fb.com/news/2014/02/facebook-to-acquire-whatsapp. 267 D.

McAfee, “Wikipedia (A),” Harvard Business School Courseware, 2007, https://courseware.hbs.edu/public/cases/wikipedia. 247 Nupedia had twelve completed articles: Ibid. 247 “Humor me”: Larry Sanger, “My Role in Wikipedia (Links),” LarrySanger.org, accessed February 8, 2017, http://larrysanger.org/roleinwp.html. 247 By 2016 there were 36 million articles: Wikipedia, s. v. “History of Wikipedia,” accessed February 8, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia. 248 Wikipedia was the sixth-most-popular website: Alexa, “Wikipedia.org Traffic Statistics,” last modified February 7, 2017, http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org. 248 “other people using the encyclopedia can check”: Wikipedia, s. v. “Wikipedia:Verifiability,” last modified February 27, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability. 249 Slack, a group-level tool: Josh Costine, “Slack’s Rapid Growth Slows as It Hits 1.25M Paying Work Chatters,” October 20, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/10/20/slunk. Chapter 11 WHY THE EXPERT YOU KNOW IS NOT THE EXPERT YOU NEED 252 That’s the conclusion: Karim Lakhani et al., “Prize-Based Contests Can Provide Solutions to Computational Biology Problems,” Nature Biotechnology 31, no. 2 (2013): 108–11, http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v31/n2/full/nbt.2495.html. 253 The popular MegaBLAST algorithm: Ibid. 253 The idAb algorithm: Ibid. 253 Dr.

# More specifically, Chambers described the Cyclopaedia as “Containing the Definitions of the Terms, and Accounts of the Things Signify’d Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, and the Several Sciences, Human and Divine: the Figures, Kinds, Properties, Productions, Preparations, and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial; the Rise, Progress, and State of Things Ecclesiastical, Civil, Military, and Commercial: with the Several Systems, Sects, Opinions, etc; among Philosophers, Divines, Mathematicians, Physicians, Antiquaries, Criticks, etc.: The Whole Intended as a Course of Ancient and Modern Learning.” ARTFL Project, “Chambers’ Cyclopaedia,” accessed February 7, 2017, https://artfl-project.uchicago.edu/content/chambers-cyclopaedia. ** “Verifiable accuracy” became part of the “five pillars” intended to guide the Wikipedia community. Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars,” last modified February 6, 2017, at 10:52, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars. †† Larry Sanger left the Wikipedia community in the early years of the twenty-first century over differences about its governance. He came to feel that it was harmfully antiauthoritarian. Larry Sanger [timothy, pseud.], “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II,” Slashdot, April 19, 2005, https://slashdot.org/story/05/04/19/1746205/the-early-history-of-nupedia-and-wikipedia-part-ii. ‡‡ Wikipedians are not paid for their contributions and are mostly anonymous, so fame is of limited power as an incentive.

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Natural language processing with Python by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, Edward Loper

bioinformatics, business intelligence, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, elephant in my pajamas, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, information retrieval, Menlo Park, natural language processing, P = NP, search inside the book, speech recognition, statistical model, text mining, Turing test

Why? ○ Consider the sequence of words: Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo. This is a grammatically correct sentence, as explained at http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_buffalo_Buffalo_buffalo_buffalo_buffalo_Buffalo_buf falo. Consider the tree diagram presented on this Wikipedia page, and write down a suitable grammar. Normalize case to lowercase, to simulate the problem that a listener has when hearing this sentence. Can you find other parses for this sentence? How does the number of parse trees grow as the sentence gets longer? (More examples of these sentences can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ho mophonous_phrases.) ◑ You can modify the grammar in the recursive descent parser demo by selecting Edit Grammar in the Edit menu. Change the first expansion production, namely 8.9 Exercises | 323 NP -> Det N PP, to NP -> NP PP.

('fir', ['F', 'ER1']) ('fire', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0']) ('fire', ['F', 'AY1', 'R']) ('firearm', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'AA2', 'R', 'M']) ('firearm', ['F', 'AY1', 'R', 'AA2', 'R', 'M']) ('firearms', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'AA2', 'R', 'M', 'Z']) ('firearms', ['F', 'AY1', 'R', 'AA2', 'R', 'M', 'Z']) ('fireball', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'B', 'AO2', 'L']) For each word, this lexicon provides a list of phonetic codes—distinct labels for each contrastive sound—known as phones. Observe that fire has two pronunciations (in U.S. English): the one-syllable F AY1 R, and the two-syllable F AY1 ER0. The symbols in the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary are from the Arpabet, described in more detail at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arpabet. Each entry consists of two parts, and we can process these individually using a more complex version of the for statement. Instead of writing for entry in entries:, we replace entry with two variable names, word, pron . Now, each time through the loop, word is assigned the first part of the entry, and pron is assigned the second part of the entry: >>> for word, pron in entries: ... if len(pron) == 3: ... ph1, ph2, ph3 = pron ... if ph1 == 'P' and ph3 == 'T': ... print word, ph2, ... pait EY1 pat AE1 pate EY1 patt AE1 peart ER1 peat IY1 peet IY1 peete IY1 pert ER1 pet EH1 pete IY1 pett EH1 piet IY1 piette IY1 pit IH1 pitt IH1 pot AA1 pote OW1 pott AA1 pout AW1 puett UW1 purt ER1 put UH1 putt AH1 The program just shown scans the lexicon looking for entries whose pronunciation consists of three phones .

The loose structure of Toolbox files makes it hard for us to do much more with them at this stage. XML provides a powerful way to process this kind of corpus, and we will return to this topic in Chapter 11. The Rotokas language is spoken on the island of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. This lexicon was contributed to NLTK by Stuart Robinson. Rotokas is notable for having an inventory of just 12 phonemes (contrastive sounds); see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotokas_language 2.5 WordNet WordNet is a semantically oriented dictionary of English, similar to a traditional thesaurus but with a richer structure. NLTK includes the English WordNet, with 155,287 words and 117,659 synonym sets. We’ll begin by looking at synonyms and how they are accessed in WordNet. Senses and Synonyms Consider the sentence in (1a). If we replace the word motorcar in (1a) with automobile, to get (1b), the meaning of the sentence stays pretty much the same: (1) a.

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Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Beniger, Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1986). 32. James Farr,‘Understanding Conceptual Change Politically’, in Political Innovation, 25. 33. Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (London: Vintage Books, 2011), 24–7. 34. Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (London: Harvill Secker, 2015), 167. 35. ‘Domesday Book’, Wikipedia, last modified 26 November 2017 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesday_Book> (accessed 28 November 2017). 36. Harari, Homo Deus, 167. 37. Paraphrasing Alain Desrosières, The Politics of Large Numbers:A History of Statistical Reasoning, translated by Camille Naish (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998), 16. 38. Desrosières, Politics of Large Numbers, 9. 39. Alexander Hamilton, ‘The Federalist No. 23’, 18 December 1787, in Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (New York: Penguin, 2012), 45; see Bruce Bimber, Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 45. 40.

Bhavani, ‘Biometric Authorization System Using Gait Biometry’, arXiv, 2011 <https://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.6294.pdf% 3b%20Boden/39-40.pdf> (accessed 30 November 2017). 76. Khatchadourian, ‘We Know How You Feel’. 77. Boden, AI, 74. 78. Boden, AI, 162. 79. Alan Winfield, Robotics: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 16. 80. ‘Moravec’s Paradox’, Wikipedia, last modified 9 May 2017. <https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moravec%27s_paradox> (accessed 6 December 2017). 81. Bostrom, Superintelligence, 15. 82. Schwab, Fourth Industrial Revolution, 153. 83. Susskind and Susskind, Future of the Professions, 168; Time, ‘Meet the Robots ShippingYour Amazon Orders’, Time Robotics, 1 December 2014 <http://time.com/3605924/amazon-robots/> (accessed 30 November 2017). 84. Brynjolfsson and McAfee, Machine Platform Crowd, 101. 85.

Bobby Johnson, ‘Amazon Kindle Users Surprised by “Big Brother” Move’, The Guardian, 17 July 2009 <https://www.theguardian. com/technology/2009/jul/17/amazon-kindle-1984> (accessed 8 December 2017). Jonathan Zittrain,‘Engineering an Election’, Harvard Law Review Forum, 20 June 2014 <https://harvardlawreview.org/2014/06/engineeringan-election/> (accessed 1 December 2017). Chapter 9 1. ‘Who? Whom?’ Wikipedia, last modified 3 June 2017 <https://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Who,_whom%3F> (accessed 7 December 2017). OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 30/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 400 Notes 2. Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality (New York: Basic Books, 1983), xiii. 3. Walzer, Spheres, 11. 4. Carol Gould, Rethinking Democracy: Freedom and Social Cooperation in Politics, Economy, and Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 271. 5.

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One Way Forward: The Outsider's Guide to Fixing the Republic by Lawrence Lessig

collapse of Lehman Brothers, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, jimmy wales, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan

They are “mainly white … married, older than 45, more conservative than the general population, and likely to be more wealthy and have more education” (“Tea Party movement,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea_Party_movement, accessed January 12, 2012). Sixty-two percent of Tea Partiers call themselves conservative Republicans (Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 27–28). 9 “Grassroots activists, roving billionaire advocates, and right-wing media purveyors—these three forces, together, create the Tea Party and give it the ongoing clout to buffet and redirect the Republican Party” (Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 13). 10 Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 12. 11 Glenn H. Reynolds, “Tea Parties: Real Grassroots,” New York Post, April 13, 2009; http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/item_kjS1kZbRyFntcyNhDJFlSK, accessed January 13, 2012. 12 “Occupy Wall Street,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupy_Wall_Street, accessed January 12, 2012. 13 Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 32. 14 Pew Research Center, “Frustration with Congress Could Hurt Republican Incumbents” (December 15, 2011), 11. 15 Indeed, as I’ve traveled across the country to see these different groups, each of them has its own character.

(Vt. 2011). 42 See, for example, the Yarmuth Amendment H.J. Res 97, 112th Cong. (2011); the Move to Amend Amendment (http://movetoamend.org/amendment, accessed January 2, 2012); and the Get Money Out Amendment (http://www.getmoneyout.com, accessed January 3, 2012). 43 Disclosure: I am a noncompensated member of the Advisory Board of Americans Elect. 44 “Icelandic Loan Guarantees Referendum, 2010,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_loan_guarantees_referendum,_2010 (accessed January 13, 2012). 45 See http://ohmygov.com/printfriendly.aspx?=7435. 46 State Elections Enforcement Commission, Citizens’ Election Program 2010: A Novel System with Extraordinary Results 2 (January 2011). 47 130 S.Ct. 876 (2010). 48 Dan Eggen, “Large Majority Opposes Supreme Court Decision,” Washington Post, February 17, 2010 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/17/AR2010021701151.html ). 49 558 U.S. ___ (2010), slip.

pages: 696 words: 111,976

SQL Hacks by Andrew Cumming, Gordon Russell

bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, Erdős number, Firefox, full text search, Hacker Ethic, Paul Erdős, Stewart Brand, web application

Msg 105, Level 15, State 1, Server PUMA\SQLEXPRESS, Line 3 Unclosed quotation mark after the character string ', 1058997333) '. (1 row affected) (1 row affected) Notice that one of the films, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, includes an apostrophe that has caused an error. We'll fix that in the next section. First, look at the equivalent Linux commands for sending data from a web page to MySQL (be sure to replace GO with a semicolon [;] in gross.xsl before you try to run this): $ wget -O source.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_ films --23:17:49-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films => \Qsource.htm' Resolving en.wikipedia.org... Connecting to en.wikipedia.org||:80... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: unspecified [text/html] [ <=> ] 34,831 27.48K/s 23:17:50 (27.41 KB/s) - \Qsource.htm' saved [34831] $ xsltproc -o gross.sql gross.xsl source.htm $ mysql -u scott -ptiger dbname -e 'source gross.sql' ERROR 1064 (42000) at line 30 in file: 'gross.sql': You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 's Stone', 1058997333); INSERT INTO film VALUES ( 'Star ' at line 2 The preceding example uses the wget command to copy the web page to the filesystem and uses xsltproc to process the stylesheet (notice that the parameters are reversed compared to msxsl).

If you are processing several pages with the same structure you can reuse the sheet, but if the source format changes you will have to change the sheet to accommodate it. 6.1.2. The Input Document To extract data from an XHTML document you might need to use a little trial and error. You need to look at the raw HTML from the target page and identify the tag or tags that contain the data you are looking for. Look at the HTML from Wikipedia; this section is part of a much larger document (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films): <table class="wikitable"> <caption><b>List of highest-grossing films (adjusted)</b></caption> <tr> <th>Rank</th> <th>Movie name</th> <th>Worldwide Gross</th> </tr> <tr> <td>1</td> <td><i><a href="/wiki/Gone_with_the_Wind_%28film%29" title="Gone with the Wind (film)">Gone With the Wind</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/1939" title="1939">1939</a>)</td> <td>$2,699,710,936</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2</td> <td><i><a href="/wiki/Snow_White_and_the_Seven_Dwarfs_%281937_film%29" title="Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)">Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/1937" title="1937">1937</a>)</td> <td>$2,425,862,786</td> </tr> You must identify enough of the surrounding structure to uniquely identify the text that you need.

Most other systems require a semicolon in place of the word GO. 6.1.4. Running the Hack The XSLT processor will take a page directly from the Web, and you can store the results in the file gross.sql before loading it into SQL Server. In this example, the stylesheet, gross.xsl, is in the current directory, but it can be in any directory or even in a remote URL. You can run the hack from a Windows command prompt as follows: C:>msxsl http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films gross.xsl -o gross.sql C:>sqlcmd -E -S(local)\SQLExpress -d dbname 1> CREATE TABLE film (title VARCHAR(256), gross BIGINT) 2> GO 1> QUIT C:>sqlcmd -E -S(local)\SQLExpress -d dbname -i gross.sql (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) Msg 102, Level 15, State 1, Server PUMA\SQLEXPRESS, Line 3 Incorrect syntax near 's'.

pages: 206 words: 70,924

The Rise of the Quants: Marschak, Sharpe, Black, Scholes and Merton by Colin Read

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of penicillin, discrete time, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Henri Poincaré, implied volatility, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, martingale, means of production, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Works Progress Administration, yield curve

Jacob Marschak and Roy Radner, Economic Theory of Teams. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972. 8 The Early Years 1. www.rand.org/about/history.html, date accessed January 23, 2012. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Dantzig, date accessed January 23, 2012. 3. Ibid. 4. Harry Markowitz, “Portfolio Selection,” Journal of Finance, 7(1) (1952), 77–91. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_L._Treynor, date accessed January 23, 2012. 6. William Sharpe, “How to Rate Management of Investment Funds,” Harvard Business Review, 43 (1965), 63–75. 7. William Sharpe and Kay Mazuy, “Can Mutual Funds Outguess the Market?” Harvard Business Review, 44 (1966), 131–6. 9 The Times 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360, date accessed January 23, 2012. 10 The Theory 1. William F. Sharpe, “A Simplified Model for Portfolio Analysis,” Management Science, 9(2) (1963), 277–93. 2.

.), Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds; and Confusion de Confusiones (New York: Wiley, 1996). Notes 185 5. Isaac de Pinto (1771), An Essay on Circulation of Currency and Credit in Four Parts and a Letter on the Jealousy of Commerce, translated with annotations by S. Baggs (1774), London; reprinted by Gregg International Publishers (1969). 6. Robert J. Leonard, “Creating a Context for Game Theory,” History of Political Economy, 24 (Supplement) (1992), 29–76, at p. 39. 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bachelier, date accessed January 23, 2012. 8. Alfred Cowles and H. Jones, “Some A Posteriori Probabilities in Stock Market Action,” Econometrica, 5(3) (1937), 280–94. 9. Louis Bachelier, “Theorie de la speculation,” Annales scientifiques de l’Ecole Normale Superieure, 3rd series, 17 (1900), 21–86. 10. C.M. Sprenkle, “Warrant Prices as Indications of Expectations and Preferences,” Yale Economic Essays, 1(22) (1961), 178–231. 16 Applications 1.

Merton, “A ‘Motionless’ Motion of Swift’s Flying Island,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 27 (1966), 275–7. 20 The Theory 1. Robert C. Merton, “Theory of Rational Option Pricing,” Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 4(1) (1973), 141–83. 2. Robert C. Merton, “On the Pricing of Contingent Claims and the ModiglianiMiller Theorem,” Journal of Financial Economics, 5(3) (1977), 241–9. 21 Applications 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_International_Group, date accessed January 23, 2012. Notes 187 22 The Nobel Prize, Life, and Legacy 1. Paul Samuelson, “Mathematics of Speculative Price,” in R.H. Day and S.M. Robinson (eds), Mathematical Topics in Economic Theory and Computation, Philadelphia, PA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1972. Reprinted in SIAM Review, 15(1) (1973), 1–42. 2. Peter L.

pages: 233 words: 71,775

The Joy of Tax by Richard Murphy

banking crisis, banks create money, carried interest, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, land value tax, means of production, offshore financial centre, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, savings glut, seigniorage, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing

Exodus 30:15 and Nehemiah 10:33 6 Genesis 41:34 7 Amos 5:11 and 7:1 8 1 Kings 4:7 9 Leviticus 27:30–32 10 2 Kings 15:20 11 2 Kings 23:35 12 http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/v48/n28/AncientTaxes.html 13 Based on Clifford Ando, ‘The Administration of the Provinces’, in A Companion to the Roman Empire (Blackwell, 2010) as quoted on Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire#Taxation accessed 13 August 2014 14 13 August 2014 15 Matthew 17:27 16 Romans 13:7 17 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_of_Liberties 18 http://magnacarta.cmp.uea.ac.uk/read/magna_carta_1215/Clause_12 19 http://magnacarta.cmp.uea.ac.uk/read/magna_carta_1215/Clause_14 20 http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/citizen_subject/origins.htm 21 http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html 22 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0042/00422987.pdf 23 http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/cgmanual/cg22100.htm 24 For more ideas on this theme refer to Taxation and State-building in Developing Countries by Deborah Brautigam, Odd-Helgre Fjeldstad and Mick Moore, Cambridge University Press, 2008 Chapter 2: What is tax?

Kennedy, quoted at http://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/Ready-Reference/JFK-Quotations/Profiles-in-Courage-quotations.aspx based on page 265 of his posthumous book Profiles in Courage 7 http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/31/newsid_2530000/2530763.stm 8 http://economia.icaew.com/news/november-2012/tax-avoidance-schemes-no-go-area-for-firms 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_tax_revenue_as_percentage_of_GDP 11 https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/spending-taxpayers-money-responsibly Chapter 3: Why we tax 1 http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/monetarypolicy/Pages/qe/default.aspx accessed 20 August 2014 2 All data compiled by the author from HM Treasury budget reports over the years in question 3 http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/about/pages/default.aspx.

Galbraith, in Money: Whence it came, where it went, Houghton Mifflin, 1975, p. 29 9 It can be argued that there is a cost in paying interest at bank rate (currently 0.5%) on the new reserves created at the Bank of England as a result of the funds injected into the economy by the quantitative easing process, but as (Lord) Adair Turner has pointed out, the payment of this interest is optional and a choice by the Bank of England. http://www.socialeurope.eu/2014/03/monetization 10 http://budgetresponsibility.org.uk/pubs/March_2014_EFO_Charts_and_Tables.xls table T1.4 accessed 21 August 2014 11 Some of the author’s work on the issue of shadow economies worldwide is available at http://www.tackletaxhavens.com/Cost_of_Tax_Abuse_TJN%20Research_23rd_Nov_2011.pdf 12 Abstract of Lincoln’s Monetary Policy; Library of Congress No. 23, 76th Congress, 1st session, page 91; quoted at http://cpe.us.com/?article=famous-monetary-quotes. The rest is worth reading as well. 13 Sample measures of inequality – called the Gini coefficient – for a range of countries both before and after tax are available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_income_equality accessed 21 August 2014 Chapter 4: Dealing with the naysayers 1 http://www.iea.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/files/upldbook350pdf.pdf 2 http://www.adamsmith.org/blog/liberty-justice/democracys-not-all-its-cracked-up-to-be-you-know 3 http://www.adamsmith.org/blog/politics-government/democracy-must-restrain-the-mob-against-the-minority 4 http://www.2020tax.org 5 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/jan/08/climate-change-debt-inequality-threat-financial-stability 6 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_317365.pdf 7 http://www.ifs.org.uk/bns/bn43.pdf page 4 shows spending has not fallen below 36 per cent of GDP since 1948. 8 http://services.parliament.uk/bills/2009-10/fiscalresponsibility.html 9 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmhansrd/cm100105/debtext/100105-0012.htm 10 http://web.stanford.edu/~rabushka accessed 1 September 2014 11 Quoted at http://www.taxresearch.org.uk/Blog/2011/10/25/it-is-possible-to-have-a-flat-tax-or-to-have-democracy-but-not-both accessed 1 September 2014 12 Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney suggested at the TUC Congress on 9 September 2014 that on average incomes had declined by 10 per cent in the UK since 2009. 13 http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/quarterlybulletin/2014/qb14q102.pdf page 21 accessed 26 August 2014 14 Ibid., page 14 15 Ibid., page 15 16 From David Copperfield by Charles Dickens: ‘[Mr Micawber] solemnly conjured me, I remember, to take warning by his fate; and to observe that if a man had twenty pounds a year for his income, and spent nineteen pounds nineteen shillings and sixpence, he would be happy, but that if he spent twenty pounds one [shilling] he would be miserable.’ http://www.bartleby.com/380/prose/553.html 17 http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/about/pages/history/default.aspx#2 18 Current household savings ratio at the time of writing is about 6 per cent of income, which is well above the rate from 1997 to 2008 on average: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/personal-savings 19 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/feb/26/uk-business-investment-falls-at-fastest-rate-since-financial-crisis 20 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/1e1b9952-794f-11e3-91ac-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3d6hyf79D 21 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/feb/06/uk-trade-deficit-widens-four-year-high 22 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/personal-savings accessed 27 August 2014 23 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/elmr/an-examination-of-falling-real-wages/2010-to-2013/art-an-examination-of-falling-real-wages.html accessed 27 August 2014 24 http://budgetresponsibility.org.uk/economic-fiscal-outlook-march-2014/ accessed 28 August 2014 25 http://cdn.budgetresponsibility.independent.gov.uk/March2015EFO_18-03-webv1.pdf page 73 accessed 16 June 2015 26 http://cdn.budgetresponsibility.independent.gov.uk/March2015EFO_18-03-webv1.pdf page 55 27 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/balance-of-trade 28 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/budget/11465497/Budget-2015-There-are-two-versions-of-George-Osborne-and-the-radical-one-must-prevail.html accessed 16 June 2015 29 http://www.taxresearch.org.uk/Documents/Intheshade.pdf accessed 1 September 2014 30 Ibid. 31 http://www.taxresearch.org.uk/Documents/PCSTaxGap2014Full.pdf accessed 16 June 2015 32 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/345370/140819_Tackling_offshore_tax_evasion_-_A_new_criminal_offence.pdf 33 Scott Dyreng, Jeffrey L.

pages: 567 words: 122,311

Lean Analytics: Use Data to Build a Better Startup Faster by Alistair Croll, Benjamin Yoskovitz

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, bounce rate, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, constrained optimization, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, frictionless market, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Lean Startup, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, minimum viable product, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, platform as a service, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, sentiment analysis, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social software, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, web application, Y Combinator

Is that metric your One Metric That Matters? * * * [76] For full disclosure, it also hosts the companion website to this book. [77] http://www.startupcompass.co [78] http://paulgraham.com/growth.html [79] http://startup-marketing.com/authentic-growth-hacks/ [80] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_adoption_lifecycle [81] http://www.chasminstitute.com/METHODOLOGY/TechnologyAdoptionLifeCycle/tabid/89/Default.aspx [82] http://www.avc.com/a_vc/2011/07/301010.html/ [83] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_elasticity_of_demand [84] http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/oct/22/smartphone-patent-wars-explained [85] http://mailchimp.com/resources/research/ [86] http://mailchimp.com/resources/research/email-marketing-benchmarks-by-industry/ [87] http://mailchimp.com/resources/research/email-marketing-subject-line-comparison/ [88] The 2012 Digital Marketer: Benchmark and Trend Report, Experian Marketing Services (http://go.experian.com/forms/experian-digital-marketer-2012)

That means you really have two customers: the external one buying the product, and the internal one that has to make, sell, and support it. Ultimately, the intrapreneur must manage the relationship with the host organization as well as the relationship with the target market. Initially, this can be intentionally distant, but as the disruptive product becomes part of the host, the handoff must be graceful. * * * [151] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skunkworks_project [152] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/14/technology/at-google-x-a-top-secret-lab-dreaming-up-the-future.html?_r=2 [153] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_McCallum [154] http://beforeitsnews.com/banksters/2012/08/the-stanford-lectures-so-is-software-really-eating-the-world-2431478.html [155] Richard Templar, The Rules of Work (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2003), 142. [156] Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan, Confronting Reality (New York: Crown Business, 2004), 22–24

As you dig deeper and peel away more layers of what you’re doing—whether you’re looking at problems, solutions, customers, revenue, or anything else—you’re likely to find a lot more than you expected. If you’re opportunistic about it, you can expand your vision and understand how to get there faster, all at the same time. * * * [14] http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304458604577488822667325882.html [15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxima_and_minima Part II. Finding the Right Metric for Right Now You now have an understanding of analytics fundamentals. So let’s talk about the importance of focus, about specific business models, and about the stages every startup goes through as it discovers the right product and the best target market. Armed with this, you’ll be able to find the metrics that matter to you.

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Haskell Programming: From First Principles by Christopher Allen, Julie Moronuki

c2.com, en.wikipedia.org, natural language processing, spaced repetition, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, web application, Y Combinator

When we’re writing code we want people to be able to reuse in other projects, we make a library and choose which modules we want to expose. Where software libraries are code arranged in a manner so that they can be reused by the compiler in the building of other libraries and programs, executables are applications that the operating system will run directly. If you’d like to read further on this, here are a few links. 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_library 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable Editing the Cabal file Let’s get back to editing that cabal file a bit. Ours is named hellohaskell.cabal and is in the top level directory of the project. Right now, your cabal file should look something like : -- Initial hello-haskell.cabal generated by cabal init. -- For further documentation, -- see http://haskell.org/cabal/users-guide/ name: version: 1 2 3 4 5 hello-haskell lens library Github repository https://github.com/ekmett/lens Haddock website https://www.haskell.org/haddock/ Hackage guidelines https://wiki.haskell.org/Package_versioning_policy Pipes hackage page http://hackage.haskell.org/package/pipes Pandoc github repository https://github.com/jgm/pandoc/ CHAPTER 13.

The idea is to take a template of phrases, fill them in with blindly selected categories of words, and see if saying the final version is amusing. Using an example from the Wikipedia article on Mad Libs: "___________! he said ______ as he jumped into his car exclamation adverb ____ and drove off with his _________ wife." noun adjective We can make this into a function, like the following: 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mad_Libs CHAPTER 15. MONOID, SEMIGROUP 580 import Data.Monoid type type type type type Verb = String Adjective = String Adverb = String Noun = String Exclamation = String madlibbin' :: Exclamation -> Adverb -> Noun -> Adjective -> String madlibbin' e adv noun adj = e <> "! he said " <> adv <> " as he jumped into his car " <> noun <> " and drove off with this " <> adj <> " wife." Now you’re going to refactor this code a bit!

This is sometimes disambiguated by being referred to as abstract algebra. c) A third and final way algebra is used is to refer to a vector space over a field with a multiplication. When Haskellers refer to algebras, they’re usually talking about a somewhat informal notion of operations over a type and its laws, such as with semigroups, monoids, groups, semirings, and rings. 15.16 Follow-up resources 1. Algebraic structure; Simple English Wikipedia; https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_structure 2. Algebraic structure; English Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_structure Chapter 16 Functor Lifting is the ”cheat mode” of type tetris. Michael Neale 599 CHAPTER 16. FUNCTOR 16.1 600 Functor In the last chapter on Monoid, we saw what it means to talk about an algebra and turn that into a typeclass. This chapter and the two that follow, on Applicative and Monad, will be on a similar topic. Each of these algebras is more powerful than the last, but the general concept here will remain the same: we abstract out a common pattern, make certain it follows some laws, give it an awesome name, and wonder how we ever lived without it.

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Political Ponerology (A Science on the Nature of Evil Adjusted for Political Purposes) by Andrew M. Lobaczewski

anti-communist, corporate raider, en.wikipedia.org, John Nash: game theory, means of production, phenotype, Project for a New American Century

From this he theorized an historical law of “three phases” of the history of sciences. These were: Theological, Metaphysical, and Positive. He also created a universal hierarchy of all previous sciences, which he classified as organic or inorganic. Comte viewed “social physics” or sociology as the greatest of these; the science that would integrate all previous scientific knowledge. (See: Wikipedia, Auguste Comte, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguste_Comte) (All online sources retrieved on January 10, .) [Editor’s note.] * * * [5]: John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory that was systemised by his godfather Jeremy Bentham. During his time as an MP, Mill advocated easing the burdens on Ireland, and became the first person in parliament to call for women to be given the right to vote.

He argued that we could never be sure if a silenced opinion did not hold some portion of the truth. Ingeniously, he also argued that even false opinions have worth, in that in refuting false opinions the holders of true opinions have their beliefs reaffirmed. Without having to defend one’s beliefs, Mill argued, the beliefs would become dead and we would forget why we held them at all. (Wikipedia, John Stuart Mill, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill) [Editor’s note.] * * * [6]: See: “A Mess in Psychiatry”, an interview with Robert van Voren, General Secretary of the Geneva Initiative on Psychiatry, published in the Dutch newspaper De Volkskrant on August 9, 1997, in which he says: “Since 1950 Soviet psychiatry has not just been standing still, but has gone downhill. Absolutely nothing has changed. The bulk of the [Russian] psychiatrists could never find a job as a psychiatrist in the West.

When accepting the Nobel Prize, he apologized for a 1940 publication that included Nazi views of science, saying that “many highly decent scientists hoped, like I did, for a short time for good from National Socialism, and many quickly turned away from it with the same horror as I.” It seems highly likely that Lorenz’s ideas about an inherited basis for behavior patterns were congenial to the Nazi authorities, but there is no evidence to suggest that his experimental work was either inspired or distorted by Nazi ideas. (Wikipedia, Konrad Lorenz, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Konrad_Lorenz) [Editor’s note.] * * * [8]: Relating to or marked by sthenia; strong, vigorous, or active. [Editor’s note.] * * * [9]: Conversive thinking: using terms but giving them opposing or twisted meanings. Examples: peacefulness = appeasement; freedom = license; initiative = arbitrariness; traditional = backward; rally = mob; efficiency = small-mindedness. Example: the words “peacefulness” and “appeasement” denote the same thing: a striving to establish peace, but have entirely different connotations which indicate the speaker’s attitude toward this striving toward peace.

pages: 161 words: 51,919

What's Your Future Worth?: Using Present Value to Make Better Decisions by Peter Neuwirth

backtesting, big-box store, Black Swan, collective bargaining, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Long Term Capital Management, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, the scientific method

Among other things, David’s most important work on the appropriate way of funding a pension plan (“Objectives and methods for funding defined benefit pension schemes,” Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, September 1987: 155–225) was never, in my opinion given the credit it deserves, and to this day very few actuaries have heard of the DABM (Defined Accrued Benefit Method). 23. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_System 24. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Econometric_model 25. Nassim N. Taleb, Fooled by Randomness, Random House (Trade Paperback Edition), 2005. 26. Ibid. pp. 113–115. 27. Ibid. pp. 116–131. 28. Ibid. pp. 126–127. 29. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_equilibrium_theory 30. See FCC Record, Volume 07, No. 09, p. 2724, April 20–May 1, 1992. 31. Nassim N. Taleb, The Black Swan (Random House [Trade Paperback edition], 2010). 32. From 1/1/1982 to 1/1/2000 the S&P 500 rose from 122.55 to 1469.25, a return of almost 15%/year 33.

This is not just with respect to applications for disability benefits, as one would expect when people experience economic hardship and seek income from other sources, but it turns out that when times are tough, the actual rates of disability increase as well. See for example the Statement of Stephen Goss (Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration) given before the House Committee on Ways and Means on March 14, 2013 (www.ssa.gov/legislation/testimony_031413a.html). Chapter 10 39. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discounted_cash_flow 40. Nassim N. Taleb, The Black Swan (Random House [Trade Paperback edition], 2010). 41. Frederick, Shane, George Lowenstein, and Ted O’Donoghue, “Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review.” Journal of Economic Literature 40: 351–401. 42. See, for example www.forbes.com/sites/joannmuller/2014/02/21/pensions-spared-worst-pain-in-detroit-recovery-plan/. 43.

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The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, post-work, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

Notes 1 For the quote, famous in geek circles, go to “The Science in Science Fiction,” Talk of the Nation, November 30, 1999, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1067220. 2 A. J. Jacobs, The Year of Living Biblically (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007). 3 The full list of commandments in the Old Testament can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/613_commandments. 4 Jody Thompson and Cari Ressler proposed a concept called ROWE, or Results Only Work Environment, at Best Buy, and they consult with companies on the concept (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROWE). However, ROWE was never mentioned once at Automattic. 5 See Alex Williams, “Working Alone, Together,” New York Times, May 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/05/fashion/solo-workers-bond-at-shared-workspaces.html?_r=0 for background. For a directory of spaces around the world, see http://wiki.coworking.com/w/page/29303049/Directory. 6 Tracy Kidder, The Soul of a New Machine (New York: Back Bay Books, 2000), 63. 7 Valve Handbook for New Employees (Bellevue, WA: Valve Corporation, 2012), http://www.valvesoftware.com/company/Valve_Handbook_LowRes.pdf. 8 Franz Kafka, The Trial (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

It felt great to stand in front of the company as a team and show what we'd put together. There were plenty of questions about Hovercards and how they'd work in different situations. Most of what I remember are the notable oohs and aahs as we did our demonstration, sounds I hadn't heard about software I'd worked on with a team of people for far too long. Notes 1 A good overview of the history of fire teams is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireteam. 2 David McCullough, The Great Bridge (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983), 381. Chapter 8 The Future of Work, Part 1 Books about the future of work make the same mistake: they fail to look back at the history of work or, more precisely, the history of books about the future of work and how wrong they were. Few visions of the future come true, as we're very bad at predicting much of anything.

Notes 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992; originally published 1961). The theory was developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, “Broken Windows,” Atlantic Monthly (March 1982). 2 Just as a broken leg will take more time to fix than a scratch, a simple incoming-versus-fix chart discounts possibly important details such as the scope of each issue. 3 A good summary of the problems with evaluating programming work based on lines of code is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_lines_of_code#Disadvantages. Chapter 11 Real Artists Ship In September 1983, the Apple Macintosh project was far behind schedule. The team was burning out but still had significant work left to do. Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple and visionary leader of the project, walked by the team's main hallway and wrote on a nearby easel what would become one of his best-known sayings: “Real Artists Ship.”

Beautiful Visualization by Julie Steele

barriers to entry, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, database schema, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, index card, information retrieval, iterative process, linked data, Mercator projection, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, semantic web, social graph, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, web application, wikimedia commons

[6] For a thorough survey of tag cloud designs, with thoughtful commentary, see http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2007/11/07/tag-clouds-gallery-examples-and-good-practices/. [7] See http://manyeyes.alphaworks.ibm.com/manyeyes/page/Tag_Cloud.html. [8] See http://www.citeulike.org/user/andreacapocci/article/1326856. [9] See http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-cumulus/. [10] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_packing_problem. [11] See http://levitated.net/daily/levEmotionFractal.html. [12] See http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap-history/. [13] See http://github.com/vcl/cue.language. [14] For an illuminating demonstration of this craft, see Peter Norvig’s chapter on natural-language processing in the sister O’Reilly book Beautiful Data

Department of Statistics, University of Auckland. http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~ihaka/120/lectures.html. Sarkar, Deepayan. 2008. Lattice: Multivariate Data Visualization with R. New York: Springer-Verlag. Tufte, Edward. 2001. Envisioning Information, Chapter 4. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. Ware, Colin. 2000. Information Visualization, Chapter 4. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. [1] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIELUV_color_space. [2] See http://processing.org. Chapter Five Mapping Information: Redesigning the New York City Subway Map Eddie Jabbour, as told to Julie Steele Maps are one of the most basic data visualizations that we have; we’ve been making them for millennia. But we still haven’t perfected them as a tool for understanding complex systems—and with 26 lines and 468 stations across five boroughs, the New York City subway system certainly is complex.

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://polarizedamerica.com. Wilson, Chris. 2009. “The Senate Social Network: Slate presents a Facebook-style visualization of the Senate.” http://bit.ly/FD5QY. [1] I should note here that in this context, “graph” means a collection of nodes and edges, not an x, y data plot. [2] See http://bit.ly/4iZib. [3] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washingtons_Farewell_Address. [4] See http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp. Chapter Nine The Big Picture: Search and Discovery Todd Holloway Search and discovery are two styles of information retrieval. Search is a familiar modality, well exemplified by Google and other web search engines. While there is a discovery aspect to search engines, there are more straightforward examples of discovery systems, such as product recommendations on Amazon and movie recommendations on Netflix.

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Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Clay Shirky wrote about Christopher Alexander’s “A City Is Not a Tree” in the Many to Many blog on April 26, 2004, at http://many.corante.com/archives/2004/04/26/a_ city_is_not_a_tree.php. Alexander’s article was originally published in Architectural Forum, April–May 1965. It is available online at http://www.arquitetura.ufmg.br/rcesar/alex/_city index.cfm. The story of Donn Denman and the cancellation of MacBasic is at Folklore.org, at http://www.folklore.org/StoryView.py?project=Macintosh& story=MacBasic.txt. Wikipedia defines Foobar at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foo_bar, and fubar at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FUBAR. “because people read these names”: Ward Cunningham’s talk at the OOPSLA Conference, October 2004, Vancouver, B.C. Alec Flett first posted his parody of Hungarian notation on a Mozilla newsgroup in 1999. He repeated it in a blog posting from June 14, 2004, at http://www.flett.org/archives/2004/06/14/16.34.17/ index.htm. Joel Spolsky traced the forking of Hungarian notation in “Making Wrong Code Look Wrong,” May 11, 2005, at http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/Wrong.htm.

“Three years” represents the time I spent observing the Chandler project from January 2003 through December 2005. “4,732 bugs” is the number of bugs entered into the Chandler Bugzilla database on the date I completed writing the manuscript for this book; the number has since climbed. CHAPTER O SOFTWARE TIME The game Sumer (also known as Hamurabi or Hammurabi) is documented in Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamurabi. Full Basic code for the game can be found in David H. Ahl, ed., BASIC Computer Games (Creative Computing, 1978). Salon’s content management software is documented in an article in the online magazine Design Interact at http://www.designinteract.com/features_d/salon/index.htm. Chad Dickerson wrote about it in his InfoWorld blog at http://weblog.infoworld.com/dickerson/000170.htm.

Bill Gates’s comments on the GPL as Pac-Man were widely reported in 2001, for instance on CNET News.com at http://news.com.com/2100-1001-268667.htm. Torvalds’s “Just a hobby” quotation is from his 1991 message announcing the Linux project to the comp.os.minix newsgroup. It is archived many places online, e.g. at http://www.linux.org/people/linus_post.htm. “that purists call GNU-Linux”: a good account of this issue is in Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU/Linux_naming_ controversy. The “Free speech” vs. “Free beer” argument is outlined at http://www.gnu.org/ philosophy/free-sw.htm. All quotations from “The Cathedral and the Bazaar” may be found in the online version at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/index.htm. Apache market share is tracked by the Netcraft survey at http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_server_ survey.htm.

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Work Rules!: Insights From Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead by Laszlo Bock

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, citizen journalism, clean water, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, helicopter parent, immigration reform, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, nudge unit, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, random walk, Richard Thaler, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tony Hsieh, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Whitman, and Chockalingam Viswesvaran, “Employee Proactivity in Organizations: A Comparative Meta-Analysis of Emergent Proactive Constructs,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83, no. 2 (2010): 275–300. (A meta-analysis of 103 samples.) 225. Wikipedia, “Poka-yoke,” last modified May 11, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poka-yoke. 226. Steven F. Venti and David A. Wise, “Choice, Chance, and Wealth Dispersion at Retirement,” in Aging Issues in the United States and Japan, eds. Seiritsu Ogura, Toshiaki Tachibanaki, and David A. Wise (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), 25–64. 227. Wikipedia, “Household Income in the United States,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Household_income_in_the_United_States. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011,” US Census Bureau (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2012).

Sounds familiar, right? 41. “IBM Mission Statement,” http://www.slideshare.net/waqarasif67/ibm-mission-statement. 42. “Mission & Values,” McDonald’s, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/our_company/mission_and_values.html. 43. “The Power of Purpose,” Proctor & Gamble, http://www.pg.com/en_US/company/purpose_people/index.shtml. 44. Wikipedia, “Timeline of Google Street View,” last modified May 19, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Google_Street_View. 45. South Base Camp, Mt. Everest, https://www.google.com/maps/@28.007168,86.86105,3a,75y,92.93h,87.22t/data=!3m5!1e1!3m3!1sUdU6omw_CrN8sm7NWUnpcw!2e0!3e2. 46. Heron Island, https://www.google.com/maps/views/streetview/oceans?gl=us. 47. Philip Salesses, Katja Schechtner, and César A. Hidalgo, “The Collaborative Image of the City: Mapping the Inequality of Urban Perception,” PLOS ONE, July 24, 2013, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068400. 48.

Swider, “Candidate Characteristics Driving Initial Impressions During Rapport Building: Implications for Employment Interview Validity,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 85, no. 2 (2012): 330–352. 81. J. T. Prickett, N. Gada-Jain, and F. J. Bernieri, “The Importance of First Impressions in a Job Interview,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL, May 2000. 82. Wikipedia, “Confirmation bias,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias#CITEREFPlous1993, citing Scott, Plous, The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 233. 83. Gladwell, “The New-Boy Network, The New Yorker, May 29, 2000: 68–86. 84. N. Munk and S. Oliver, “Think Fast!” Forbes, 159, no. 6 (1997): 146–150. K. J. Gilhooly and P. Murphy, “Differentiating Insight from Non-Insight Problems,” Thinking & Reasoning 11, no. 3 (2005): 279–302. 85.

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Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

May 11, 2010, http://blogs.hbr.org/imagining-the-future-of-leadership/2010/05/whats-your-primary-focus-leade.html. 8 From the Wikipedia entry “Virginia Tech Massacre,” http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virginia_Tech_massacre&oldid=4183 36016. 9 Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus: Increasing Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance,” Proceedings of HICSS [Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences], Waikoloa, Hawaii, January 2008, http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/5638/ForteBruckmanScalingConsensus.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1. 10 “Virginia Tech Massacre,” http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virginia_Tech_massacre&oldid=418336016. 11 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:NOT. 12 Quoted in Forte and Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus,” p. 6. 13 See http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Notability&oldid=386469793. 14 Interview with Jimmy Wales, October 1, 2010. 15 Ibid. 16 Kristie Lu Stout, “Reclusive Linux Founder Opens Up,” World Business section of CNN.com, May 29, 2006, http://edition.cnn.com/2006/BUSINESS/05/18/global.office.linustorvalds/.

See Jacob Jacoby, “Perspectives on Information Overload,” Journal of Consumer Research (March 1984): 432–435 at 432. 18 Richard Saul Wurman, Information Anxiety (Doubleday, 1989), p. 35, citing Peter Large, The Micro Revolution Revisited (F. Pinter, 1984). 19 Wurman, Information Anxiety, p. 34. 20 Roger E. Bohn and James E. Short, “How Much Information? 2009 Report on American Consumers,” Global Information Industry Center, University of California–San Diego (2009), p. 7, http://hmi.ucsd.edu/howmuchinfo.php. 21 This figure is cited at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zettabyte. 22 Quoted in Ann Blair, “Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload ca. 1550–1700,” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 11–28 at 15. 23 Quoted in Daniel Rosenberg, “Early Modern Information Overload,” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 1–9. at 1, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654292. 24 Quoted in Richard I. Yeo, “A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers’s ‘Cyclopedia’ (1728) as ‘The Best Book in the Universe,’” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 61–72 at 62. 25 Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Dialogues and Letters, translated by Charles Desmond Nuttall Costa (Penguin, 1997), p. 45. 26 Quoted in Yeo, “A Solution to the Multitude of Books,” p. 62. 27 Bohn and Short, “How Much Information?”

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Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, post-work, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Penguin Press 2008 Chapter 8 David Sarno: “Twitter creator Jack Dorsey illuminates the site’s founding document. Part I” latimes.com, February 18, 2009. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/02/twitter-creator.html “Twitter” retreived from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter Kevin O’Keefe: “Twitter’s growth continues at super-linear rate: Powerful professional and business development tool for lawyers” kevin.lexblog.com, July 5, 2010. http://kevin.lexblog.com/2010/07/articles/twitter-1/twitters-growth-continues-at-superlinear-rate-powerful-professional-and-business-development-tool-for-lawyers/ “Esther Dyson” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Dyson James Turner: “Tim O’Reilly - Why Twitter Matters for News” radar.oreilly.com, May 7, 2009. http://radar.oreilly.com/2009/05/tim-oreilly-why-twitter-matt.html Rachel Sklar “Fair Use: Okay, Let’s Talk About It” mediaite.com, August 13, 2010. http://www.mediaite.com/online/fair-use-okay-lets-talk-about-it/ Chapter 9 Dylan Stableford: “Jay Rosen on Content Farms: Demand Media Not Evil, But Still Demonic” thewrap.com, July 7, 2010. http://www.thewrap.com/media/column-post/jay-rosen-content-farms-demand-media-not-evil-still-demonic-19027 “Web Site Interest: curation.” http://www.google.com/insights/search/#q=curation&cmpt=q Kara Swisher: “Demand Media Is Mad as Hell and, Well, Pens a Manifesto (And Here It Is!)”

from=hp.featured Additional material from Amy Wilson re: StreamingGourmet from an interview with the author, July 2010 “Wallace, DeWitt—Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Chronology: DeWitt Wallace, Social and Economic Impact.” http://encyclopedia.jrank.org. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6384/Wallace-DeWitt.html#ixzz175HPPn00 Michael Kinsley: “Advice for Newsweek from Henry Luce” theatlanticwire.com, May 21, 2010. http://www.theatlanticwire.com/editor-at-large/view/article/Advice-for-Newsweek-from-Henry-Luce-11 “Cable Television History” retrieved from inventors.about.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcabletelevision.htm Diane Makar Murphy: “The History of Cable TV” ehow.com. http://www.ehow.com/about_5068693_history-cable-tv.html “Wallace, DeWitt—Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Chronology: DeWitt Wallace, Social and Economic Impact” retrieved from encyclopedia.jrank.org. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6384/Wallace-DeWitt.html Alan Brinkley: “What Would Henry Luce Make of the Digital Age?” time.com, April 8, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1978794,00.html#ixzz0n9k5AEGK “Reader’s Digest” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reader%27s_Digest Steven Rosenbaum: “What Susan Boyle Taught Me About Advertising” mediabizblogger.com, May 4, 2009. http://www.jackmyers.com/commentary/media-business-bloggers/44299967.html Andrew LaVallee: “The Susan Boyle Bubble” blogs.wsj.com, April 16, 2009. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/04/16/the-susan-boyle-bubble//?from=hp.featured Steven Rosenbaum: “The Conundrum of Costs: Ava Seave on Moguls and Curation” huffingtonpost.com, February 18, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steve-rosenbaum/the-conundrum-of-costs-av_b_467978.html Janet Maslin: “A Magazine Master Builder” nytimes.com, April 19, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/books/20book.html?

Penguin Group 2009 Josh Halliday, “Forbes to launch ‘major upgrade’ of social media” guardian.co.uk, August 3, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2010/aug/03/forbes-social-media Jeff Bercovici: “Lewis Dvorkin on the Future of Forbes: More ‘Entrepreneurial,’ ‘Scalable’” dailyfinance.com, July 1, 2010. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/lewis-dvorkin-on-the-future-of-forbes-more-entrepreneurial-an/19537682/ Marshall Kirkpatrick: “Google CEO Schmidt: ‘People Aren’t Ready for the Technology Revolotion’” readwriteweb.com, August 4, 2010. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/google_ceo_schmidt_people_arent_ready_for_the_tech.php Dan Tynan: “Prepare for Data Tsunami, Warns Google CEO” pcworld.com, August 6, 2010. http://www.pcworld.com/article/202817/prepare_for_data_tsunami_warns_google_ceo.html?tk=hp_new “Jeff Jarvis” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Jarvis David Chase: “Forbes Magazine, The History” ezinearticles.com. http://ezinearticles.com/?Forbes-Magazine,-The-History&id=88697 David Carr: “A Gamble on a Weekly That Paid Off” nyimes.com, August 8, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/09/business/09carr.html?_r=1&ref=david_carr Steven Rosenbaum: “Fast Company Founder on future of Curation & Magazines” huffingtonpost.com, January 30, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steve-rosenbaum/fast-company-founder-on-f_b_443152.html Steven Rosenbaum: “Is ‘Everyone’ the Media now?”

Exploring ES6 - Upgrade to the next version of JavaScript by Axel Rauschmayer

anti-pattern, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, web application, WebSocket

. • hex() turns a number into a string with two hexadecimal digits. decodeSOF0() parses the segment SOF0: Typed Arrays 327 function decodeSOF0(dv, start) { // Example (16x16): // FF C0 00 11 08 00 10 00 10 03 01 22 00 02 11 01 03 11 01 var data = {}; start += 4; // skip marker 0xFFC0 and segment length 0x0011 var data = { bitsPerColorComponent: dv.getUint8(start), // usually 0x08 imageHeight: dv.getUint16(start+1, IS_LITTLE_ENDIAN), imageWidth: dv.getUint16(start+3, IS_LITTLE_ENDIAN), numberOfColorComponents: dv.getUint8(start+5), }; return JSON.stringify(data, null, 4); } More information on the structure of JPEG files: • “JPEG: Syntax and structure²⁴” (on Wikipedia) • “JPEG File Interchange Format: File format structure²⁵” (on Wikipedia) 20.8 Availability Much of the Typed Array API is implemented by all modern JavaScript engines, but several features are new to ECMAScript 6: • • • • • Static methods borrowed from Arrays: TypedArray<T>.from(), TypedArray<T>.of() Prototype methods borrowed from Arrays: TypedArray<T>.prototype.map() etc. Typed Arrays are iterable Support for the species pattern An inheritance hierarchy where TypedArray<T> is the superclass of all Typed Array classes It may take a while until these are available everywhere. As usual, kangax’ “ES6 compatibility table²⁶” describes the status quo. ²⁴https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG#Syntax_and_structure ²⁵https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG_File_Interchange_Format#File_format_structure ²⁶https://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/#typed_arrays 21. Iterables and iterators ECMAScript 6 introduces a new interface for iteration, Iterable. This chapter explains how it works, which language constructs consume data via it (e.g., the new for-of loop) and which sources provide data via it (e.g., Arrays). 21.1 Overview The following two entities play important roles in iteration: • Iterable: An iterable is a data structure that wants to make its elements accessible to the public.

Such a media type can be associated with a file via an HTTP header: Content-Type: application/ecmascript;version=6 It can also be associated via the type attribute of the <script> element (whose default value² is text/javascript): <script type="application/ecmascript;version=6"> ··· </script> This specifies the version out of band, externally to the actual content. Another option is to specify the version inside the content (in-band). For example, by starting a file with the following line: ¹http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type ²http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/scripting-1.html#attr-script-type 13 One JavaScript: avoiding versioning in ECMAScript 6 14 use version 6; Both ways of tagging are problematic: out-of-band versions are brittle and can get lost, in-band versions add clutter to code. A more fundamental issue is that allowing multiple versions per code base effectively forks a language into sub-languages that have to be maintained in parallel.

. • You can split code into multiple modules and it will continue to work (as long as you don’t try to change the values of imports). 17.3.5 Support for cyclic dependencies Two modules A and B are cyclically dependent⁵ on each other if both A (possibly indirectly/transitively) imports B and B imports A. If possible, cyclic dependencies should be avoided, they lead to A and B being tightly coupled – they can only be used and evolved together. Why support cyclic dependencies, then? Occasionally, you can’t get around them, which is why support for them is an important feature. A later section has more information. Let’s see how CommonJS and ECMAScript 6 handle cyclic dependencies. ⁵http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_dependency 253 Modules Cyclic dependencies in CommonJS The following CommonJS code correctly handles two modules a and b cyclically depending on each other. //------ a.js -----var b = require('b'); function foo() { b.bar(); } exports.foo = foo; //------ b.js -----var a = require('a'); // (i) function bar() { if (Math.random()) { a.foo(); // (ii) } } exports.bar = bar; If module a is imported first then, in line i, module b gets a’s exports object before the exports are added to it.

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Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Live Aid, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Make the cycle stop. The best time to plant a tree is twenty years ago. The second-best time is now. African proverb Notes Preface 1. For details of the Battle of Adowa see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BattleofAdowa. Introduction 1. The 2001 Labour Party Conference was held in the City of Brighton and Hove. 1. The Myth of Aid 1. Various UNAIDS reports on the global AIDS epidemic. 2. Freedom House: http://www.freedomhouse.org; and International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance: http://www.idea.int/. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSESecuritiesExchange; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZimbabweStockExchange. 4. In terms of Price/Earnings (essentially a measure of how much value investors predict in the future of African companies), African P/Es, at 15 times, have been roughly commensurate with the emerging economies’ (Brazil, Russia, India and China) average of 19 times. 5.

Studies on the impact of democracy on economic growth are cautious in their conclusions and suggest no direct link per se between democracy and development. 10. Interview with Rwanda’s President Kagame, Time, September 2007, at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1666064,00.html. 11. From Brenthurst Foundation July 2007 Discussion Paper: ‘Speech by His Excellency President Paul Kagame’. 3. Aid Is Not Working 1. Details of the 1885 Berlin Conference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BerlinConference. 2. ‘Institutions that provide dependable property rights, manage conflict, maintain law and order, and align economic incentives with social costs and benefits are the foundation of long-term growth. The quality of institutions is key: good institutions are those that provide public offcials with the incentives to provide market-fostering public goods at least cost in terms of corruption and rent seeking.

pages: 292 words: 66,588

Learning Vue.js 2: Learn How to Build Amazing and Complex Reactive Web Applications Easily With Vue.js by Olga Filipova

Amazon Web Services, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, pull request, side project, single page application, Skype, source of truth, web application

Maybe I would like to have 15-minute periods of working Pomodoros. Or maybe I want to have bigger working Pomodoros, let's say 25 or 30 minutes. It should definitely be configurable. Let's thoroughly check the description of the Pomodoro technique in Wikipedia to see if we are missing something: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomodoro_Technique . I'm pretty sure we are. Check this point at the underlying principles: "After four pomodoros, take a longer break (15-30 minutes), reset your checkmark count to zero, then go to step 1." --https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomodoro_Technique Aha! Something should happen after four Pomodoros. Bigger interval, more time staring at cats (or doing whatever you want to do). Hmm, probably it would be nice to be able to configure this period of time as well! There's another important thing.

Of course, it differs according to each person's musical preferences. That's why I decided to add some neutral sound to our application during the working period of time. It was proven by some studies that different noises (white, pink, brown, and so on) are good for the kind of work where a high level of concentration is required. The Wikipedia entry about these studies can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_masking . And some Quora experts talking about this can be found at http://bit.ly/2cmRVW2 . In this section, we will use the Web Audio API ( https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/Web_Audio_API ) to create a plugin for Vue that generates white, pink, and brown noises. We will provide a mechanism to instantiate one noise or another using Vue directives and we will also provide global Vue methods that will start and pause these sounds.

With this in mind, in this chapter, we are going to do the following: Set up a continuous integration process using Travis Set up a continuous deployment using Heroku Software deployment Before starting to deploy our applications, let's first try to define what it actually means: "Software deployment is all of the activities that make a software system available for use." – Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_deployment This definition means that after we perform all the necessary activities, our software will be accessible to the public. In our case, as we are deploying web applications, it means that there will be a public URL, and any person will be able to type this URL on their browser and access the application. How can this be achieved? The simplest way is to provide your own IP address to your friends and run the application.

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With Liberty and Dividends for All: How to Save Our Middle Class When Jobs Don't Pay Enough by Peter Barnes

Alfred Russel Wallace, banks create money, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the map is not the territory, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy

Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), 153. 14. “Robots don’t complain, or demand higher wages, or kill themselves,” Economist, August 6, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21525432. 15. Harold Meyerson, “Back from China?” American Prospect, December 2011, 43. Chapter 3: Fix the System, Not the Symptoms 1. “Pareto principle,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle. 2. Joshua M. Epstein and Robert L. Axtell, Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996). 3. Chuck Collins, 99 to 1: How Wealth Inequality Is Wrecking the World and What We Can Do about It (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2012). 4. Leo Barnes, “The Economic Equivalent of War,” Antioch Review, Summer 1944. 5.

Drug companies claim that they use the extra money for research, but in fact they spend far more on marketing than on research. Dean Baker, “Reducing Waste with an Efficient Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit,” Center for Economic and Policy Research Issue Brief, Washington, DC, January 2013, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publica-tions/medicare-drug-2012-12.pdf. 11. For an explanation of fractional reserve banking, see “Fractional reserve banking,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractional_reserve_banking. 12. For data on financial-industry profits, see Sameer Khatiwada, “Did the financial sector profit at the expense of the rest of the economy? Evidence from the United States,” Discussion paper 206, International Institute for Labour Studies, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010, figure 1, p. 2, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---inst/documents/publication/wcms_192804.pdf.

Social Security and Medicare Boards of Trustees, A Summary of the 2013 Annual Reports, http://www.ssa.gov/oact/trsum/; US Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Financial Data Handbookfor 2012, http://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/hb394/hndbkrpt.asp. 3. When applied to nature, co-owned wealth user fees can be thought of as value subtracted fees—that is, compensation for harm done. They both internalize and discourage externalities, a benefit that value added taxes don’t provide. 4 “European Union value added tax,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_value_added_tax. Philippe van Parijs calculates that an EU-wide dividend of about $3,250 per year would require an increase in EU VAT rates of about 20 percent. Social European Journal, July 3, 2013, http://www.social-europe.eu/author/philippe-van-parijs. 5. CLEAR Act text, http://www.cantwell.senate.gov/issues/Leg_Text.pdf. 6. Robert Pollin and James Heintz, Transaction Costs, Trading Elasticities, and the Revenue Potential of Financial Transaction Taxes for the United States, Political Economy Research Institute (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts/Amherst, 2011), http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/research_brief/PERI_FTT_Research_Brief.pdf.

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The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

See: https://www.cnet.com/roadshow/news/will-you-be-able-to-afford-uberairs-flying-car-service/. For its 2020 launch: Ibid. eVTOLs are being developed: Ibid. They’ve also teamed up with: For a full breakdown of Uber’s partners, see: https://www.uber.com/us/en/elevate/partners/. Vehicles capable of flight: “Vimana” is the name of the mythological flying chariots describe in early Hindu texts. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vimana. Even the more modern incarnations: Steven Kotler, Tomorrowland (New Harvest, 2015), pp. 97–105. Converging Technology Moore’s Law: See: https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/silicon-innovations/moores-law-technology.html. as a human brain: Ray Kurzweil, How to Create a Mind (Viking, 2012), pp. 179–198. “Law of Accelerating Returns”: Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns,” March 7, 2001.

“Faster than anyone expects”: Author interview, 2019. 80 percent cheaper than individual car ownership: Ibid. average U.S. roundtrip commute: U.S. Census Bureau, “Average One-Way Commuting Time by Metropolitan Areas,” December 7, 2017. See: https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/travel-time.html. there were a hundred plus automotive brands: You can find an aggregated list of car brands, both in service and retired, at this Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_car_brands. the average car owner: Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking (Routledge, 2011), p. 624. America has almost half-a-million parking spaces: Richard Florida, “Parking Has Eaten American Cities,” CityLab, July 24, 2018. MIT professor of urban planning: Eran Ben-Joseph, ReThinking a Lot (MIT Press, 2012), pp. xi–xix. Hyperloop is the brainchild: For the original whitepaper: https://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha.pdf.

Dragon TV: Matt McFarland, “What Happened When a Chinese TV Station Replaced Its Meteorologist with a Chatbot,” Washington Post, January 12, 2016. consider the service economy: John Ward, “The Services Sector: How Best to Measure It?,” International Trade Organization, October 2010. forty-three different types of traffic signs: To track the progress in machine learning, Wikipedia has a useful chart here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_machine_learning. See also: Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson, Machine Platform Crowd (Norton, 2017), pp. 66–86. AI-piloted drone: For a demo, see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gsfkGlSajHQ. AI assistant named Duplex: See: https://ai.googleblog.com/2018/05/duplex-ai-system-for-natural-conversation.html. Google’s Talk to Books: See: https://experiments.withgoogle.com/talk-to-books.

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Mind in Motion: How Action Shapes Thought by Barbara Tversky

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, clean water, continuous integration, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, fundamental attribution error, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Snow's cholera map, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, neurotypical, patient HM, Richard Feynman, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, theory of mind, urban planning

he came up with not only several examples but also more subtle phenomena I hadn’t yet thought about. He taught me how rich and funny and clever and beautiful the medium is. Cartoon guides: Larry Gonick: http://www.larrygonick.com Comics for kids: Toon Books: http://www.toon-books.com Journalism: Archcomix: http://www.archcomix.com; Palestine (comics) in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine_(comics); The Influencing Machine: Brooke Gladstone on the Media: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influencing_Machine_(book) Compendium of excellent examples of comics art: Carlin, J., Karasik, P., & Walker, B. (2005). Masters of American comics. Los Angeles, CA: Hammer Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, in association with Yale University Press. Some lovely visual poetry expressing some of these ideas can be found in Nick Sousanis’s (2015).

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Defehrt_epinglier_pl2.jpg Figure 8.13. Source: Tversky, B., & Lee, P. (1999). Pictorial and verbal tools for conveying routes. In C. Freksa & D. M. Mark (Eds.), Spatial information theory. Cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 1661). Berlin, Germany: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Figure 8.14. Source: Fibonacci. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illusory_contours#/media/File:Kanizsa_triangle.svg Figure 8.15. Source: Zacks, J., & Tversky, B. (1999). Bars and lines: A study of graphic communication. Memory & Cognition, 27(6), 1073–1079. Figure 8.17. Source: Heiser, J., & Tversky, B. (2006). Arrows in comprehending and producing mechanical diagrams. Cognitive Science, 30(3), 581–592. Figure 8.18. Visual notes courtesy of Yoon Bahk.

The Pleiades in the “Salle des Taureaux,” grotte de Lascaux. Does a rock picture in the cave of Lascaux show the open star cluster of the Pleiades at the Magdalénien era (ca 15.300 BC)? In C. Jaschek & F. Atrio Barendela (Eds.), Proceedings of the IVth SEAC Meeting “Astronomy and Culture” (pp. 217–225). Salamanca, Spain: University of Salamanca. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Star chart. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_chart Native American hand maps, annotated with gestures Finney, B. (1998). Nautical cartography and traditional navigation in Oceania. In D. Woodward & G. M. Lewis (Eds.), The history of cartography. Vol. 2, Book Three: Cartography in the traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific societies (pp. 443–492). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Lewis, G.

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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Jan Krikke, “The Most Popular Operating System in the World,” Linux Insider, October 3, 2003, http://www.linuxinsider.com/story/31855.html. 29.  “Asking the Project Leader: Where's TRON Headed in the Future?” 1996, http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/sakamurainterview_tw42.html. Images of TRON diagrams can be found most easily on Wikipedia, but are also on this book's companion website, thestack.org. See http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/tronlogo.html; http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/homepage.html; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRON_Project. 30.  As discussed, the four-layer TCP/IP “won,” but for purposes of explication, the open systems interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model provides a more detailed profile. As indicated, the OSI model is a standardized subdivision of component zones and functions of information networks into logical discrete layers, each of which provides specific “services” to the layer just beneath in the stack and receives services from the layer just above it.

New York University economist Paul Romer is a leading advocate for the vision. 6.  See this discussion of Gelernter's influence on the conceptual development of the Cloud: David Gelernter, John Markoff, and Clay Shirky, “Lord of the Cloud,” Edge, April 29, 2009, http://edge.org/conversation/lord-of-the-cloud. For a sense of Gelernter's political conservatism, see http://www.nationalreview.com/author/david-gelernter. 7.  See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_time. 8.  Sun Microsystems’ old tagline, “the network is the computer” has been realized, especially if the definition of network is expanded to include both the physical computing network and the network of users providing content and feedback. 9.  See Stu Woo, “Welcome to Amazon Town,” Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204058404577108821485438232. 10. 

See the white paper studies by Cisco: “The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis,” June 10, 2014, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.pdf, and “Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2013–2018” http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/Cloud_Index_White_Paper.pdf. 27.  For a basic definition and explanation, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization-division_multiplexing. 28.  See Eric Price and David P. Woodruff, “Applications of the Shannon-Hartley Theorem to Data Streams and Sparse Recovery,” 2012, retrieved from IBM Watson researcher site May 8, 2015, http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-dpwoodru/pw12.pdf. 29.  For the OptIPuter project, for example, each major component could be on a different continent, but they all work together as if it were a single self-contained machine.

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The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

Page 68 The photo of the cave, entitled “Lechuguilla Cave Pearlsian Gulf,” comes from Wikipedia and was uploaded by Beyond Science, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lechuguilla_Cave#/media/File:Lechuguilla_Cave_Pearlsian_Gulf.jpg, accessed August 7, 2015. Page 72: Photo of Sir William Osler. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 73: Caricature of Sir William Osler. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 74: My Osler residency team. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 96–100: Examples of the Bills of Mortality. Courtesy of Jay Walker, the Walker Library of the History of Human Imagination. Used with permission. Page 106: The illustration of the mitochondria comes from Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrion_structure.svg. Page 110: The illustration of new reproductive techniques is an adaptation of a similar illustration featured in the article.

Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/Dr_Metchnikoff_in_his_Laboratory.jpg. Page 35: Caricature of Metchnikoff. Reprinted with permission of the Institut Pasteur—Musée Pasteur. Page 39: “End of History” illustration. Courtesy of author. Page 42: The Hydra image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Hydra_magnipapillata.jpg. Page 44: The killifish image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothobranchius_furzeri#/media/File:Nothobranchius_furzeri_GRZ_thumb. Page 46: Quantification of biological aging graphic. Duke University School and Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. Used with permission. Page 50: Tumor sequencing results (lung cancer). Courtesy of Foundation Medicine, Inc. Page 51: Paraffin blocks. Courtesy of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), the oldest and largest breast and colorectal cancer research group in the world.

Adapted from the Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2015. Courtesy of author. Pages 130–132: Charts and Figures from the Task Force Report on Noncommunicable Diseases, copyright 2015 by the Council on Foreign Relations. Reprinted with permission. The data source is Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Page 161: Cartoon of Jenner’s inoculations. Public Domain. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_cow_pock.jpg. Page 189: Physical activity and life expectancy. Data from S. C. Moore et al., “Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis,” PLOS Medicine 9, no. 11 (2012): E1001335. Graphic courtesy of author and based on similar graphic in paper. National Cancer Institute and the Public Library of Sciences. Used with permission.

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The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Larry Sanger, “Origins of Wikipedia,” Sanger user page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Larry_Sanger/Origins_of_Wikipedia; Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution, 1049. 96. Ben Kovitz, “The Conversation at the Taco Stand,” Kovitz user page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:BenKovitz. 97. Jimmy Wales, “Re: Sanger’s Memoirs” thread, Apr. 2005, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2005-April/021463.html. 98. Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, “Re: Sanger’s Memoirs” thread, Apr. 2005, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2005-April/021460.html, http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2005-April/021469.html, and subsequent. See also Larry Sanger, “My Role in Wikipedia,” http://larrysanger.org/roleinwp.html; “User:Larry Sanger/Origins of Wikipedia,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Larry_Sanger/Origins_of_Wikipedia; “History of Wikipedia” and its talk page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia, along with Jimmy Wales edit changes to the article, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?

See also Larry Sanger, “My Role in Wikipedia,” http://larrysanger.org/roleinwp.html; “User:Larry Sanger/Origins of Wikipedia,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Larry_Sanger/Origins_of_Wikipedia; “History of Wikipedia” and its talk page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia, along with Jimmy Wales edit changes to the article, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jimmy_Wales&diff=next&oldid=29849184; Talk: Bomis, revisions made by Jimmy Wales, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?diff=11139857. 99. Kovitz, “The Conversation at the Taco Stand.” 100. Larry Sanger, “Let’s Make a Wiki,” Nupedia message thread, Jan. 10, 2001, http://archive.is/yovNt. 101. Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution, 1422. 102. Clay Shirky, “Wikipedia—An Unplanned Miracle,” Guardian, Jan. 14, 2011; see also Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (Penguin, 2008) and Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (Penguin, 2010). 103.

Larry Sanger, “Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism,” Dec. 31, 2004, www.LarrySanger.org. 105. Wikipedia press release, Jan. 15, 2002, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Press_releases/January_2002. 106. Author’s interview with Jimmy Wales. 107. Shirky, “Wikipedia—An Unplanned Miracle.” 108. Yochai Benkler, “Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm,” Yale Law Journal (2002), http://soc.ics.uci.edu/Resources/bibs.php?793; Yochai Benkler, The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest (Crown, 2011). 109. Daniel Pink, “The Buck Stops Here,” Wired, Mar. 2005; Tim Adams, “For Your Information,” Guardian, June 30, 2007; Lord Emsworth user page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Lord_Emsworth; Peter Steiner, New Yorker cartoon, July 5, 1993, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Internet,_nobody_knows_you’re_a_dog. 110. Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (Yale, 2008), 147. 111.

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Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

“A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder.” Nature 413, 519–23 (October 4, 2001). 11. Enard W., Przeworski M., Fisher S.E., Lai C.S., Wiebe V., Kitano T., Monaco A.P., Pääbo S. “Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language.” Nature 418, 869–872 (August 22, 2002). 12. Today we refer to such overconfidence as the Dunning-Kruger effect, a form of cognitive bias. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunning–Kruger_effect. 13. Christiansen, M.H., Kirby, S. “Language evolution: consensus and controversies.” TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, Vol.7 No.7. July 2003. 14. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. “The neural and cognitive correlates of aimed throwing in chimpanzees: a magnetic resonance image and behavioural study on a unique form of social tool use,” January 12, 2012, vol. 367 no. 1585 37–47. 15.

Dissertation: “The Quiet Professional: An investigation of U.S. military Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel interactions with everyday field robots.” 2013. Carpenter, J. University of Washington. 2. “Soldiers are developing relationships with their battlefield robots, naming them, assigning genders, and even holding funerals when they are destroyed.” Reddit, 2013. 3. Ibid. 4. “Personal Robot That Shows Emotions Sells Out in One Minute.” Gaudin, S. ComputerWorld. June 22, 2015. 5. Theory of mind. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_mind. 6. Reductionism in this context being the idea that the mind is reducible to a set of physical processes that could then be emulated or replicated in an alternate substrate or environment, given sufficiently advanced technology. Ney, A. Reductionism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. IEP, University of Tennessee. 7. This assumes ToM is internalized and experienced on the part of the robot or AI and not merely emulated algorithmically. 8.

“Humanoid Robot Used to Treat Autism.” DesignNews, August 13, 2012. 5. Leyzberg, D., Spaulding, S., Toneva, M., Scassellati, B. “The Physical Presence of a Robot Tutor Increases Cognitive Learning Gains.” CogSci 2012 Proceedings. 6. Bloom, B. “The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Researcher, 13:6(4–16), 1984; Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom’s_2_Sigma_Problem. 7. In normal distributions, two sigma or two standard deviations is equal to about 95.45 percent. However, in his paper, Bloom references several data sources that exceed 90 percent and focuses on results of 98 percent. 8. Leyzberg, D., Spaulding, S., Scassellati, B. “Personalizing Robot Tutors to Individuals’ Learning Difference.” Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE International conference on Human-robot Interaction, March 3–6, 2014, Bielefeld, Germany. 9.

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Solr in Action by Trey Grainger, Timothy Potter

business intelligence, cloud computing, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, glass ceiling, information retrieval, natural language processing, openstreetmap, performance metric, premature optimization, recommendation engine, web application

In contrast to the default scorer, which counts the frequency of query terms in each fragment, BM25 is a state-of-the-art tf-idf scoring function for calculating the similarity between a document or fragment and a query.[3] The BM25 scorer gives a natural boost to fragments containing terms that occur less frequently in the index. We see evidence of this in the results for the second document where rain stands out because it’s a less frequent term in the index than blue or fireball, so it’s given more weight by BM25 scoring. 3 The mathematics behind BM25 are beyond the scope of this book, so we’ll refer you to the Wikipedia page for BM25; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okapi_BM25. The primary drawback of PostingsHighlighter is that it requires accurate term offsets to be set on terms during indexing. Let’s use the Solr Analysis form we worked with in chapter 6 to see how term offsets are calculated during text analysis. Figure 9.8 shows term offsets calculated during analysis of the example sighting we’ve been working with throughout this chapter.

One way to think about distance between two terms is by considering how many changes you have to make to one of the terms to change it to the other term. For example, the distance between atmosphear and atmosphere is 2: one change to remove the a and another to add an e on the end. A well-known algorithm for calculating the string distance between two terms is the Levenshtein distance;[2] setting distanceMeasure to internal uses the Levenshtein distance algorithm. 2 “Levenshtein distance,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance. The accuracy parameter is a floating value between 0 and 1 that determines how accurate the suggestions need to be. The higher the number, the more accurate the suggestions will be, but you will also have more misses, cases for which no suggestions are available. If you set accuracy too low, Solr will generate more suggestions but they may not always make sense to your users.

Once you’ve finished your Solr development (or downloaded the most recent official release to use out of the box), you’ll be ready to build Solr and deploy it to a production environment, which is covered in the following section. 12.2. Deploying Solr Solr builds into a standard Java web application archive (WAR file), which means it can be deployed in any modern servlet container. If you are unfamiliar with how WAR files integrate into Java servlet containers to power web applications, you can check out http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAR_file_format_(Sun) for a quick introduction. When you launch the example Solr application (using start.jar as we have throughout the book), an embedded version of Jetty, a Java servlet container, is launched to run the solr.war file, though many users choose to deploy Solr into Apache Tomcat or other servlet containers. If you’re writing another Java application, it’s also possible to add direct code references to the Solr libraries and embed Solr within your application.

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Getting Started with Pyparsing by Paul McGuire


Getting Started with Pyparsing 6 Best Practice: Start with a BNF Before just diving in and writing a bunch of stream-of-consciousness Python code to represent your grammar, take a moment to put down on paper a description of the problem. Having this will: • Help clarify your thoughts on the problem • Guide your parser design • Give you a checklist of things to do as you implement your parser • Help you know when you are done Fortunately, in developing parsers, there is a simple notation to use to describe the layout for a parser called Backus-Naur Form (BNF). You can find good examples of BNF at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/backus-naur_form. It is not vital that you be absolutely rigorous in your BNF notation; just get a clear idea ahead of time of what your grammar needs to include. For the BNFs we write in this book, we'll just use this abbreviated notation: • ::= means "is defined as" • + means "1 or more" • * means "0 or more" • items enclosed in []are optional • succession of items means that matching tokens must occur in sequence • | means either item may occur Use the Grammar to Parse the Input Text In early versions of pyparsing, this step was limited to using the parseString method, as in: assignmentTokens = assignmentExpr.parseString("pi=3.14159") to retrieve the matching tokens as parsed from the input text.

Here is a sample S-expression describing an authentication certificate: (certificate (issuer (name (public-key rsa-with-md5 (e |NFGq/E3wh9f4rJIQVXhS|) (n |d738/4ghP9rFZ0gAIYZ5q9y6iskDJwASi5rEQpEQq8ZyMZeIZzIAR2I5iGE=|)) aid-committee)) (subject (ref (public-key rsa-with-md5 (e |NFGq/E3wh9f4rJIQVXhS|) (n |d738/4ghP9rFZ0gAIYZ5q9y6iskDJwASi5rEQpEQq8ZyMZeIZzIAR2I5iGE=|)) tom mother)) (not-after "1998-01-01_09:00:00") (tag (spend (account "12345678") (* numeric range "1" "1000")))) The attraction of S-expressions is that they consist purely of lists of basic character or numeric strings, with structure represented using nested parentheses. The languages Lisp and Scheme use S-expressions as their actual program syntax. Here is a factorial function written in Common Lisp: (defun factorial (x) (if (zerop x) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1))))) The online Wikipedia article (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/s-expression) has more background and additional links for further information on S-expressions. In computer science classes, it is common to assign as homework the development of an S-expression parser. Doing so with pyparsing is actually a fairly straightforward task. This is also our first case of a recursive grammar, in which some expressions can be written in terms of other expressions of the same type.

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Personal Finance with Python by Max Humber

asset allocation, backtesting, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, passive income, web application

The space is crazy, and if I’m honest, you’re probably going to get burned playing with the stuff. If you want to get into mining, do your homework! It’s possible that you’re thinking, “That was a lot of work to calculate the IRR when Excel does it for free. Why do I need Python?” That’s a super-fair question. Although Python has a steep learning curve, the payoffs are huge. My hope is that the need for Python will become self-evident in the chapters to follow. Footnotes 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogecoin 2 https://gph.is/1VRbuEc 3 https://www.quora.com/Computer-Science-Where-did-the-phrase-Roll-your-own-come-from-and-why-is-it-used-in-CS?share=1 4 https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_method © Max Humber 2018 Max HumberPersonal Finance with Pythonhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-3802-8_3 3. Convert Max Humber1 (1)Toronto, Ontario, Canada All this foreign money I can’t count what I’m making.

Conclusion I hope you had fun with this chapter. I had a bunch of fun writing it. But a word of caution: although this budget tool can be incredibly powerful, if you do decide to use it, don’t be obsessive about it. Update your .yaml file every quarter to see where you’re at and where you’re headed. Otherwise, if you try to update it every day, you’re going to go crazy. Footnotes 1 https://i.stack.imgur.com/uiXQd.png 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601 3 https://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/timeseries.html#offset-aliases 4 https://github.com/kvh/recurrent 5 https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2445.txt 6 https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12265451/ask-forgiveness-not-permission-explain © Max Humber 2018 Max HumberPersonal Finance with Pythonhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-3802-8_6 6. Invest Max Humber1 (1)Toronto, Ontario, Canada Invest in your future, don’t dilute your finances.

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The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

The world’s arbiter of truth: “Wikipedia: List of Hoaxes on Wikipedia,” accessed January 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:List_of_hoaxes_on_Wikipedia. Four years later, I asked: “Who is Erica Feldman . . . ?,” snapshot from January 6, 2014, via Google’s cache, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q77Wj1JfErsJ:wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_is_erica_feldman_the_one_that_invented_the_hair_straightnener+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-a. There are even hoaxes about hoaxes: “List of Fictitious People,” Wikipedia.com, accessed January 15, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_fictitious_people&diff=211003619&oldid=205705808. I see there are currently: “Wikipedia:Statistics,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics. Printing Wikipedia in a book: “Wikipedia:Size in Volumes,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_in_volumes.

Printing Wikipedia in a book: “Wikipedia:Size in Volumes,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_in_volumes. “I guess we will just have to accept”: Roger C. Schank, Making Minds Less Educated Than Our Own (Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008), vii. In 2013, only 12 cases: Dave Craven, e-mail messages to author, June 26, 2013, and January 22, 2014. a stunning 91 percent of Wikipedia editors: “Editor Survey 2011,” Wikipedia: Meta-Wiki, accessed January 15, 2014, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Editor_Survey_2011. “the actual inventor” of the hair iron: “Hoaxes, or Why Wikipedia Needs Flagged Revisions,” accessed January 15, 2014, http://wikipediocracy.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=647&p=12233. She died in New York: “Madame C. J. Walker,” MIT Inventor of the Week Archive, accessed January 15, 2014, http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/cjwalker.html.

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The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, commoditize, desegregation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Skype, women in the workforce

Kameron Hurley, “What living in South Africa taught me about racism in America,” kameronhurley.com, http://www.kameronhurley.com/what-living-in-south-africa-taught-me-about-racism-in-america/. 2. “History of slavery in California,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_California. 3. Greg Nokes, “Black Exclusion Laws in Oregon,” The Oregon Encyclopedia, http://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/exclusion_laws/#.VSfNvPnF-So. 4. Elizabeth McLagan, “The Black Laws of Oregon, 1844–1857,” BlackPast.org, http://www.blackpast.org/perspectives/black-laws-oregon-1844-1857. 5. “The Eye of the Beholder,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Eye_of_the_Beholder. 6. John Rudolf, “Where Mental Asylums Live On,” The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/03/opinion/sunday/where-mental-asylums-live-on.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1. 7.

“Bury Your Gays,” TV Tropes, http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/BuryYourGays. I’ll Make the Pancakes: On Opting In—and Out—of the Writing Game 1. Christine Miserandino, “The Spoon Theory,” butyoudontlooksick.com, http://www.butyoudontlooksick.com/articles/written-by-christine/the-spoon-theory/. PART II: GEEK Some Men Are More Monstrous Than Others: On True Detective’s Men and Monsters 1. “Dale Cooper,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dale_Cooper. Die Hard, Hetaerae, and Problematic Pin-Ups: A Rant 1. “Clarion’s 2014 Literary Pin-up Calendar,” The Clarion Foundation, https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/clarion-s-2014-literary-pin-up-calendar#/story. 2. James M. Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. University of Chicago Press, 2011. 3. Justin Landon, “Do the successful get a free pass?”

“Slavery Takes Root in Colonial Virginia,” Digital History, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3576. What Living in South Africa Taught Me About Being White in America 1. “A Matter of Color: African Americans Face Discrimination,” Oregon State Archives, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/exhibits/ww2/life/minority.htm. 2. “History of African Americans in Chicago,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_African_Americans_in_Chicago. 3. Aura Bogado and Voting Rights Watch, “Watch a Colorado GOP Poll Watcher Report a ‘High Concentration of People of Color,’” The Nation, http://www.thenation.com/article/watch-colorado-gop-poll-watcher-report-high-concentration-people-color/. It’s About Ethics in Dating 1. Zachary Jason, “Game of Fear,” Boston Magazine, http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/article/2015/04/28/gamergate/. 2.

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Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us Into Temptation by Chris Nodder

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, game design, haute couture, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, late fees, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Netflix Prize, Nick Leeson, Occupy movement, pets.com, price anchoring, recommendation engine, Rory Sutherland, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile

“The Influence Of Product Variety On Brand Perception And Choice.” Marketing Science 26.4 (2007): 460–472. Recommendation engines: Xavier Amatriain and Justin Basilico. “Netflix Recommendations: Beyond the 5 stars (Part 1)” (techblog.netflix.com). April 6, 2012. Retrieved December 2012. Pre-pick your preferred option Priming: Wikipedia provides a great introduction and launching off point at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priming_(psychology). Disclosure: I worked on the user experience for XP Service Pack 2, used as an example here. Make options hard to find or understand PC Pitstop EULA: Larry Magid. “It Pays To Read License Agreements.” (pcpitstop.com). Undated. Retrieved December 2012. NebuAd: Ed Markey. “Key Lawmakers Question Local Provider Over Use of NebuAd Software Without Directly Notifying Customers” (markey.house.gov).

Loss twice as “powerful” as gain: Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 47 (1979): 263–291. The Tom Sawyer effect Tom Sawyer quotes: Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens). The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The American Publishing Company, 1884. Instill doubt to prevent cancellations Statistics on BSE: Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_spongiform_encephalopathy. Retrieved December 2012. Nearly 50 billion burgers/year in the USA: Ellen Rolfes. “The Hidden Costs of Hamburgers.” PBS Newshour“The Rundown” blog (pbs.org). August 2, 2012. Retrieved December 2012. Impatience leads to compliance People become more conservative under time pressure: Mark Hwang. “Decision making under time pressure: A model for information systems research.”Information & Management 27 (1994): 197–203.

“Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99.5 (2010): 771–784. Higher social classes are more selfish: Jennifer E. Stellar, Vida M. Manzo, Michael W. Kraus, and Dacher Keltner. “Class and compassion: Socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering.” Emotion 12.3 (2012): 449–459. Learning from casinos Monty Hall Problem: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monty_Hall_problem. Lottery sales and gambling income data: North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries. Lottery Sales and Profits (naspl.org). 60 percent of adults report playing at least once per year: National Gambling Impact Study Commission staff-generated report on lotteries (1999). 72 percent of all gambling: The majority of gambling income comes from casinos (41 percent) and lotteries (31 percent).

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What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Hardy Eshbaugh. (1995) “Systematics Agenda 2000: An Historical Perspective.” Biodiversity and Conservation, 4 (5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056336. 105 “Evolution is remarkably reproducible”: Sean Carroll. (2008) “The Making of the Fittest DNA and the Ultimate Forensic Record of Evolution.” Paw Prints, p. 154. 106 evolution is hundreds long and counting: (2009) “List of Examples of Convergent Evolution.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_examples_of_convergent_evolution&oldid=344747726. 107 many of which evolved independently: John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary. (1997) The Major Transitions in Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 107 which uses a bubble to breathe: Richard Dawkins. (2004) The Ancestor’s Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 592. 109 “independently reevolved fins”: George McGhee. (2008) “Convergent Evolution: A Periodic Table of Life?”

Nature, 410 (6827). http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35068645. 120 “encoded implicitly in the genome”: Lynn Helena Caporale. (2003) “Natural Selection and the Emergence of a Mutation Phenotype: An Update of the Evolutionary Synthesis Considering Mechanisms That Affect Genomic Variation.” Annual Review of Microbiology, 57 (1). 121 from the same starting point: (2009) “Skeuomorph.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeuomorph&oldid=340233294. 122 “the embodiment of contingency”: Stephen Jay Gould. (1989) Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and Nature of History. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 320. 123 The Triad of Evolution: Inspired by Stephen Jay Gould. (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 1052; designed by the author. 124 “walk through genetic drift”: Simon Conway Morris. (2004) Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe.

Film Junk. http://www.filmjunk.com/2007/03/07/when-movies-come-in-pairs-examples-of-hollywood-deja-vu/. 145 a device called Toto: Tad Friend. (1998, September 14) “Copy Cats.” New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1998/09/14/1998_09_14_051_TNY_LIBRY_000016335. 146 simultaneous spontaneous creation: (2009) “Harry Potter Influences and Analogues.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Potter_influences_and_analogues&oldid=330124521. 148 Parallels in Blow Gun Culture: Collage by the author from archival materials. 149 the exquisite timing of when to blow: Robert L. Rands and Caroll L. Riley. (1958) “Diffusion and Discontinuous Distribution.” American Anthropologist, 60 (2), p. 282. 149 what we call abacus: John Howland Rowe. (1966) “Diffusionism and Archaeology.”

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The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, loose coupling, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

A simple blood test by your doctor can verify the levels of many essential nutrients—always consult with your MD before making any major changes to your diet or supplement intake. 4 For more on the neurophysiology of the brain, check out Kluge: The Haphazard Construction of the Human Mind by Gary F. Marcus (Faber & Faber, 2008). 5 http://macfreedom.com. 6 http://www.proginosko.com/leechblock.html. 7 http://www.timessquarenyc.org/facts/PedestrianCounts.html. 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_business_cycle_theory. 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulip_mania. 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot-com_bubble. 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_housing_bubble. CHAPTER 8: WORKING WITH YOURSELF 1 http://www.pomodorotechnique.com/. 2 http://www.pnas.org/content/103/31/11778.abstract. 3 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hf/2006/00000048/00000002/art00014. 4 http://www.paulgraham.com/makersschedule.html. 5 http://crashcourse.personalmba.com. 6 Personally, I work with the folks at Timesvr.com—they’re skilled, fast, friendly, and cost effective. 7 http://davidseah.com/pceo/etp. 8 http://govleaders.org/powell.htm. 9 For a complete look at my personal productivity system, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 10 http://www.markforster.net/autofocus-system/. 11 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/.

CHAPTER 2 : VALUE CREATION 1 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 2 A legally binding contract or promise not to share information about a business or business idea with others. 3 Louviere called the approach “MaxDiff ” testing: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MaxDiff. 4 For an example of how to conduct Relative Importance Testing for your business idea, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 5 http://www.kifaru.net/radio.htm. 6 http://www.youtube.com/user/miguelcaballerousa. CHAPTER 4: SALES 1 http://www.petradiamonds.com/im/press_display.php?Id=2010/26feb10. 2 You can find the formulas at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discounted_cash_flow. CHAPTER 5: VALUE DELIVERY 1 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 2 Before the advent of the printing press, bibles were copied and illuminated (decorated and illustrated) by cloistered monks, who spent years working on a single copy. 3 http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/01/better_than_fre.php. 4 We’ll discuss Toyota’s recall woes later in “The Paradox of Automation.” 5 “Inside the Box,” Wired, March 2010.

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The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, clean water, commoditize, corporate raider, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joan Didion, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, William Langewiesche

See also the History Channel, “Sandhogs”: http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/shows/tunnellers/episode-guide.html. 123 tunnel-boring machines: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/tbmfactsheet.pdf. See also Sewell Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big: A Milestone,” New York Times, August 10, 2006. 123 corruption plagued the Board of Water Supply: Grann, “City of Water.” This was confirmed to me by a source who asked not to be identified. 123 $4 billion to the new tunnel: Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big.” 124 the world had 18 “megacities”: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megacity. 124 In 2007, 336 cities worldwide: Ibid., and Thomas Brinkhof, “The Principal Agglomerations of the World,” www.citypopulation.de. 124 in 2008, for the first time in history: UN Population Fund (UNFPA): State of World Population 2007: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html. 124 As of 2010, China alone had 43 cities: Christina Larson, “Chicago on the Yangtze,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2010. 125 Bruce Rolen: “As supplies dry up, growers pass on farming and sell water,” US Water News Online, February 2008. 125 Perth, Australia: Patrick Barta, “Amid Water Shortage, Australia Looks to the Sea,” Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2008. 125 America’s total water use: Susan S.

Paul Dalby: David Beasley, “Lessons from Australia: Drought Can Help Georgia Economy,” GlobalAtlanta, February 2, 2009. 137 “virtual water”: Stockholm International Water Institute, 2008: http://www.siwi.org/sa/node.asp?node=282. 138 Senator Bill Heffernan: Tim Johnston, “A drought alters Australian ideas on global warming,” International Herald Tribune, November 7, 2006. 138 Lisa Jackson: John M. Broder, “E.P.A. Clears Way for Greenhouse Gas Rules,” New York Times, April 17, 2009. CHAPTER 13: REVENUE STREAMS 139 In its water laws: For an overview, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_law_in_the_United_States. 141 NAWAPA: Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. 487–94. Michael Campana, “Canadian Water Exports: Will NAWAPA Return?” WaterWired, January 25, 2008: http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/2008/01/kennedy-to-cana.html?cid=119725788. 141 approximately 1 million miles of pipeline: “Water Trivia Facts,” US Environmental Protection Agency: http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/water_trivia_facts.cfm. 142 Roberts Tunnel: Chris Woodka, “Plumbing the Rockies,” Pueblo Chieftain, December 21, 2009. 142 national water fees average about $458: “Water on Tap: What You Need to Know,” US Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/wot/pdfs/book_waterontap_full.pdf. 142 Denver’s expanding suburbs charge $10,000: David Olinger and Chuck Plunkett, “Suburban aggression,” Denver Post, November 22, 2005. 142 Dave Miller: “Gunnison River Basin: Union Park Reservoir,” Coyote Gulch blog, August 20, 2010: http://coyotegulch.wordpress.com/2010/08/20/gunnison-river-basin-union-park-reservoir/. 143 Bob Moran: Author’s interviews with Robert Moran, 2006–10. 143 Maurice Strong (pronounced “Morris”): Moran interviews.

See also Leslie Carlson, “Water Colors,” Los Angeles Times, November 22, 2005. 157 dust storms are said to remove: Molly Peterson, “Owens Lake dust kicks up questions about DWP’s eastern Sierra efforts,” Southern California Public Radio, December 12, 2010. 157 LADWP has built a $500 million sprinkler system: “DWP Chief seeks delay in Owens Valley dust clean-up,” Sierra Wave, March 16, 2010. 157 mayor Antonio Villaraigosa: Deborah Amos, “LA Returns Water to the Owens Valley,” National Public Radio, December 7, 2006. 158 Michael Prather: Author’s tour with Michael Prather, May 5, 2007. 158 sixty thousand acre-feet of water a year: Louis Sahagun, “Bird Census at Owens Lake shows nature returning,” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2009. 158 Los Angeles’s population: “List of most highly populated countries,” Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_ highly_populated_countries. 159 In 1990, citizens in the Sierra foothills: John Walton, “Another Owens Valley,” Owens Valley Committee, vol. 5, no. 1 (Summer 2009). 159 Honey Lake Valley fought against: Ibid. 159 Fish Springs Ranch, Dr. Harry Brown and Franklin Raines: Author’s tour of the pipeline with Dr. Harry Brown, May 8, 2007. CHAPTER 15: THE CITY THAT WASN’T SUPPOSED TO BE 160 starting in 1999, the Southwest: US Global Change Research Program: http://downloads.climatescience.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/southwest.pdf. 160 Lake Mead was formed in 1935: Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region: http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/faqs/lakefaqs.html.

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Beautiful Architecture: Leading Thinkers Reveal the Hidden Beauty in Software Design by Diomidis Spinellis, Georgios Gousios

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, continuous integration, corporate governance, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, linked data, locality of reference, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, smart cities, social graph, social web, SPARQL, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, web application, zero-coupon bond

With the ability to address and resolve arbitrary resources, the ability to retrieve them in different forms and the ability to describe them in Open World and mixed-vocabulary ways, we are now ready to apply these ideas in the Enterprise. We will describe an information-driven architecture that supports “surfing” webs of data like you might “surf” the Web of documents. * * * [13] http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-tag/2005Jun/0039 [14] http://rest.blueoxen.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?RestTriangle [15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST [16] http://1060.org [17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memoization [18] http://dublincore.org [19] http://creativecommons.org/ns [20] http://mulgara.org [21] http://openrdf.org [22] http://talis.com Resource-Oriented Architectures The resource-oriented style is marked by a process of issuing logical requests for named resources. These requests are interpreted by some kind of engine and turned into a physical representation of the resource (e.g., HTML page, XML form, JSON object, etc.).

We have created tools and protocols that simultaneously support knowledge transfer between the leading scientific minds of the world as well as allowing our grandmothers to connect to their families and find content and communities that interest them. This is no small feat, and we would do well to consider the confluence of ideas that led to these realities. We have to live within the architectures we build, so we should build architectures that simultaneously satisfy and inspire us. * * * [11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Silver_Bullet Conventional Web Services Before we begin looking at a new architecture for our information-driven environments, we should take a brief look at how we have been building similar systems recently and see what might be done better. We have been pitched a dominant vision for Enterprise Architecture for the last (nearly) 10 years that is built around the notion of reusable business services.

We will very likely use SOAP in the doc/lit style in the resource-oriented architectures I am about to describe; we just do not have to accept them as the only solution. Nor will we always need to advertise that we are using them behind the scenes if there is no need to do so. In order to take this next step, we need to look at the Web and why it has been so successful as a scalable, flexible, evolvable information-sharing platform. Implementation details are often not relevant to our information consumers. * * * [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtles_all_the_way_down The Web The prevailing mental model for the Web is document-centric. In particular, when we think about the Web, we think about consuming documents in web browsers because that is how we experience it. The real magic, however, is the explicit linkage between publicly available information, what that linkage represents, and the ease with which we can create windows into this underlying content.

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The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability by Lierre Keith

British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, longitudinal study, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, peak oil, placebo effect, Rosa Parks, the built environment

Adam, B.D. “Age, Structure, and Sexuality: Reflections on the Anthropological Evidence on Homosexual Relations.” Journal of Homosexuality 11, 1985: pp. 19-33. Adolescent Medicine Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society, “Eating Disorders in Adolescents: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment.” Paediatrics and Child Health 3, no. 3, 1998: pp. 189-92. “Agricultural Policy.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_policy#Dumping_is_harmful_to_developing_world_farmers (accessed on April 3, 2007). Aldana, Steven G. The Culprit and the Cure: Why Lifestyle Is the Culprit Behind America’s Poor Health and How Transforming That Lifestyle Can Be the Cure. North Mapleton, UT: Maple Mountain Press, 2005. Allport, Susan. The Primal Feast: Food, Sex, Foraging and Love. New York: Harmony Books, 2000.

Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Hornbacher, Marya. Wasted: A Memoir of Anorexia and Bulimia. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999. Horwich, T.B., M.A. Hamilton, and G.C. Fonarow . “Low Serum Cholesterol Is Associated with Marked Increase in Mortality in Advanced Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure 8, no. 4, 2002: pp. 216-224. “Inedia.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inedia (accessed on July 16, 2007). Jackson, Wes. New Roots for Agriculture. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1981. Jacobs D., et al. “Report of the Conference on Low Blood Cholesterol: Mortality Associations.” Circulation 86, no. 3, September 1992: pp. 1046-60. Jeffreys, Sheila. The Industrial Vagina: The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge, 2008. ----”Sado-Masochism: The Erotic Cult of Fascism.”

The Great Cholesterol Con: The Truth About What Really Causes Heart Disease and How To Avoid It. London: John Blake Publishing Ltd., 2007. Key, T.J., M. Thorogood, P.N. Appleby, and M.L. Burr. “Dietary Habits and Mortality in 11,000 Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies.” British Medical Journal, no. 313, 1996: pp. 775-9. “Keystone Species.” Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_species (accessed on November 12, 2008). Krech, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1999. Kunstler, James Howard. The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil, Climate Change, and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Grove Press, 2006. ----”Speech to Second Vermont Republic.” http://www.kunstler.com/spch_Vermont%20Oct%2005.htm (accessed December 14, 2007).

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Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game

page=0%2C0 93 Duke Nukem Forever was never finished: Clive Thompson, ‘Learn to let go’, Wired, January 2010, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2009/12/fail_duke_nukem/all/1 93 Gamers have been eagerly awaiting Elite 4: ‘Frontier reveals Elite 4’, http://uk.pc.ign.com/articles/092/092218p1.html 93 The plane took a quarter of a century to enter service: measuring time from original government specification. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-22_Raptor; Ben Rich & Leo Janos, Skunk Works (New York: Sphere, 1994), p. 350; Samuel H. Williamson, ‘Six ways to compute the relative value of a U.S. dollar amount, 1790 to present’, MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.mea-suringworth.com/uscompare/ 93 You will discover that by the year 2000: The Hudson Institute, The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next 33 Years, Herman Kahn & Anthony J.

Economy, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703344704574610350092009062.html 104 ‘Firms are reluctant to risk their money’: McKinstry, Spitfire, pp. 34–5. 105 There is an inconvenient tale behind this: I have drawn much of this account from Dava Sobel’s Longitude (London: Fourth Estate, 1996). 106 Compared with the typical wage of the day: Officer, ‘Purchasing power of British pounds’, cited above, n. 10. 107 In 1810 Nicolas Appert: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Appert 107 Ultimately the Académie began to turn down: Maurice Crosland, ‘From prizes to grants in the support of scientific research in France in the nineteenth century: The Montyon legacy’, Minerva, 17(3) (1979), pp. 355–80, and Robin Hanson, ‘Patterns of patronage: why grants won over prizes in science’, University of California, Berkeley, working paper 1998, http://hanson.gmu.edu/whygrant.pdf 108 Innovation prizes were firmly supplanted: Hanson, ‘Patterns of patronage’. 109 The prize was eventually awarded in September 2009: a follow-up prize was announced and then cancelled following a lawsuit over privacy.

fta=y&pagewanted=all; and a press release from the Taiwan International Orchid Show 2010, http://www.tios.com.tw/tios_test/eng/5_2taiwan.php 148 Silicon Valley venture capitalists need lose little sleep: Jim Pickard, ‘Venture capital fund turned £74m into £5m’, Financial Times, 9 March 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/76859892-2ae1-11df-886b-00144feabdc0.html; and Josh Lerner’s opening statement in The Economist debate on Industrial Policy: http://www.econo-mist.com/debate/overview/177/Industrial%20policy 149 The Holy Roman Emperor himself: Sebastian Mallaby, ‘The politically incorrect guide to ending poverty’, The Atlantic, July/August 2010, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-politically-incorrect-guide-to-ending-poverty/8134/1/; Wikipedia; Simon Heffer, ‘Lübeck: the town that said no to Hitler’, Daily Telegraph, 2 June 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/city-breaks/5428909/Lübeck-The-town-that-said-no-to-Hitler.html 151 Romer has pushed the charter city concept: Paul Romer, ‘For richer, for poorer’, Prospect, issue 167, 27 January 2010. 151 Before turning down the job of Chief Economist of the World Bank: David Warsh, ‘Learning by doing’, Economic Principals, 19 July 2009, http://www.economicprincipals.com/issues/2009.07.19/571.html 151 He argues that foreign ownership: author interview with Paul Romer, 20 September 2010. 152 It’s a free economic zone: Sean Campbell, ‘Metropolis from scratch’, Next American City, issue 8, April 2005, http://americancity.org/magazine/issue/i08/; and Greg Lindsay, ‘Cisco’s big bet on New Songdo: creating cities from scratch’, Fast Company, 1 February 2010, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/142/the-new-new-urbanism.html 5 Climate change or: Changing the rules for success 154 ‘I think we’re going to find’: Prince Charles, interview with the BBC, October 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4382264.stm 154 ‘Evolution is cleverer than you are’: obituary: Professor Leslie Orgel, The Times, 6 December 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article3006557.ece 154 A dazzling lecturer at London’s Royal Insttution: Gabrielle Walker & Sir David King, The Hot Topic (Bloomsbury, 2008), pp. 14–18; Wikipedia entry on John Tyndall, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyndall; & James Rodger Fleming, Historical Perspectives on Climate Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 68–71. 155 Earth’s atmosphere contains traces of other gases: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report, Table 6.1, http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?src=/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/221.htm#tab61 156 ‘Comparing a single atom of oxygen’: cited in Fleming, Historical Perspectives, pp. 70–1. 156 Richard Lindzen, a contrarian meteorologist: ‘350 science’ at 350.org http://www.350.org/about/science; and ‘Top climate scientists share their outlook’, FT Magazine, 20 November 2009. 158 But that is what has just happened to Geoff: Geoff Mason is fictional.

PostGIS in Action by Regina O. Obe, Leo S. Hsu

call centre, crowdsourcing, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Earth, job automation, McMansion, Mercator projection, Network effects, openstreetmap, planetary scale, profit maximization, Ruby on Rails, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, traveling salesman, web application

You’ll be hard pressed to find the following features in other spatial databases: Functions to work with GeoJSON and Keyhole Markup Language (KML), allowing web applications to talk directly to PostGIS without the need for additional serializing schemes or translations Comprehensive geometry-processing functions that go far beyond basic geometric operations, including functions for fixing invalid geometries and for simplifying and deconstructing geometries Built-in 3D and topology support Over 150 seamless operations for working with vectors and rasters in tandem, as well as for converting between the two families GeoJSON and KML data formats Geographic JavaScript Object Notation (GeoJSON; http://geojson.org) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyhole_Markup_Language) are two of the most popular vector formats used by web-mapping applications: GeoJSON is an extension of JSON that’s used for representing JavaScript objects. It adds to the JSON standard support for geographic objects. KML is an XML format developed by Keyhole (which was purchased by Google), first used in Google’s mapping products and later supported by various mapping APIs.

TINs are widely used to describe terrain surfaces. Recall from basic geometry (or common sense) the minimum number of points needed to form an area? Three—a triangle. The mathematical underpinning of TINs is based on triangulating key peak and valley point locations of a surface to form non-overlapping connected area pockets. The most common form of triangulation used in GIS is Delaunay triangulation (explained on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaunay_triangulation). PostGIS 2.1 specifically added a powerful ST_DelaunayTriangles function to convert a “well-behaved” polygon collection into a TIN. But one shortcoming of ST_DelaunayTriangles is that it can’t convert polyhedral surfaces to TINs. For that conversion, you need to use ST_Tesselate, which is packaged with SFCGAL and will convert polygon collections as well. PostGIS 2.0 added many new functions specifically for use with polyhedral surfaces and TINS; go to http://postgis.net/docs/PostGIS_Special_Functions_Index.html#PostGIS_TypeFunctionMatrix to find the full list.

uDig can’t handle heterogeneous geometry columns. It allowed us to pick a column with mixed subtypes, but it was never able to display it. Although uDig allows you to write queries, uDig doesn’t understand SQL. Instead, you have to resort to a more obscure web query standard called Common Query Language (CQL). CQL As of version 1.2, CQL renamed itself Contextual Query Language. You can learn more about CQL on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contextual_Query_Language. 5.4.2. Connecting to PostGIS uDig has the easiest interface for connecting to PostGIS. Choose Layer > Add from the menu, and PostGIS appears as a data source (shown at the left in figure 5.13). Figure 5.13. Adding database connections in uDig You can alternatively use the GeoTools built into uDig to connect. Instead of choosing PostGIS, click on DataStore.

pages: 185 words: 52,089

Mastering Digital Photography: Jason Youn's Essential Guide to Understanding the Art & Science of Aperture, Shutter, Exposure, Light, & Composition by Jason Youn

en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, Wall-E

Thank you, Jason Youn Please take a moment and review this book :) If you have any questions please feel free to email me directly. My contact information can be found at www.JasonYoun.com or at Amazon's webpage. References This book references these people, books, blogs, and organizations: View from the Window at Le Gras (La cour du domaine du Gras) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/View_from_the_Window_at_Le_Gras Chase Jarvis - The Best Camera Is The One That's With You http://amzn.com/0321684788 The Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov Alfred Hitchcock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Hitchcock Mark Rothko http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Rothko Through Each Others Eyes http://www.teoe.org Arizona Highways Magazine http://www.arizhwys.com DIY Photography http://www.diyphotography.net Kolari Vision http://www.kolarivision.com LightStalking http://www.lightstalking.com PetaPixel http://petapixel.com Ian Ruhter http://www.ianruhter.com Chadwick Fowler http://www.chadwickfowler.com Patrick Madigan http://www.patrickmadigan.com Garry Ladd http://www.garyladdphotography.com Gregory Colbert https://gregorycolbert.com Hollye Schumacher http://www.hollye.com Roy Coulliette of Turf Soaring School http://turf-soaring.com Jason Youn http://JasonYoun.com

pages: 76 words: 20,238

The Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

Asian financial crisis, Bernie Madoff, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, income inequality, indoor plumbing, life extension, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, school choice, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban renewal

FRBSF Economic Letter 2005-05, March 11, 2005, www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2005/el2005-05.pdf. For the chart on the U.S. health care system, I drew from R. Glenn Hubbard and Peter Navarro, Seeds of Destruction: Why the Path to Economic Ruin Runs Through Washington, and How to Reclaim American Prosperity, FT Press: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2010, p. 177. For one look at life expectancy figures, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_life_expectancy. There are differing measures of life expectancy, but it is well established that quite a few poorer countries do as well, or just about as well, as the United States. On the difficulties of measuring the value of health care spending, see Robin Hanson, “Showing that You Care: The Evolution of Health Altruism,” Medical Hypotheses, 2008, 70, 4, pp. 724-742, www.overcomingbias.com/2008/03/showing-that-yo.html.

Hanushek and Alfred A. Lindseth, Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America’s Public Schools, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. That same book, on p.298, offers the statistic on U.S. educational spending as a percentage of GDP and the comparison with Iceland. In 2006, government spending at all levels was 36.1 percent of U.S. GDP; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_spending. I am using a pre-crisis number to adjust for the fall in GDP from the financial crisis; in that sense, this number is an approximate one and thus a more conservative estimate than what a completely current calculation would yield. For one example of Michael Mandel’s writings, see “Official GDP, Productivity Stats Tell a Different Story of U.S. Economy,” Seeking Alpha, May 10, 2010, http://seekingalpha.com/article/204083-official-gdpproductivity-stats-tell-a-different-story-of-u-s-economy.

Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

On the edgelessness of digital objects generally, see Craig Mod, “The Digital-­Physical: On Building Flipboard for iPhone & Finding the Edges of Our Digital Narratives,” March 2012, accessed 25 May 2013, http://craigmod.com/journal/digital _physical/. For an extended inquiry into this point, see Alexander R. Galloway, The Interface Effect (Cambridge: Polity, 2012), chapter 1. “Portable Document Format,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDF, accessed 31 July 2012. N OT E S TO I N T R O D U C T I O N 66. The executability of code is discussed in detail in Alexander R. Galloway, Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006), e.g., 165; Anne Eisenberg, “Hot off the Presses, Conductive Ink,” New York Times, 30 June 2012. 67. See M. Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (New York: Viking, 2001), 449. 68.

Lions, “Preface,” in “A Commentary on the Sixth Edition unix Operating System,” 1977, accessed 24 June 2013, http://warsus.github.io/lions-/. 61. Douglas C. Engelbart, “Quarterly Technical Letter Report 6,” 28 November 1967, Box 2, Douglas C. Engelbart Papers, 1953–1998 (MO638), Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA. See also Kelty, Two Bits, 198. 62. Wikipedia, “Living Document,” accessed 1 July 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Living _document. “Functional documents” is the phrase used in Request for Comments 115: R. W. Watson and J. B. North, “Some Network Information Center Policies on Handling Documents,” April 1971, accessed 24 June 2013, http://www.rfc-­editor.org/rfc/rfc115.txt. 63. J. Brooks, “Profiles,” 47. 64. I’ve written elsewhere on documents as distinct from format, as Latourian “matters of concern,” made meaningful in the social networks of their potential circulation (Lisa Gitelman, Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture [Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006], chapter 4). 65.

David Paul Nord, Joan Shelley Rubin, and Michael Schudson (Chapel Hill: published in association with the American Antiquarian Society by the University of North Carolina Press, 2009), 62. Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1999). pdfs can of course be edited and revised using software designed for that purpose. Kenneth Goldsmith, Uncreative Writing: Managing Language in the Digital Age (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 156. Wikipedia, “Portable Document Format,” accessed 17 July 2012, http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_Document _Format. I explore this question in Lisa Gitelman, Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006), chapter 4. “Processural,” I believe, is a coinage by N. Katherine Hayles. See “Materiality Has Always Been in Play, An Interview with N. Katherine Hayles by Lisa Gitelman,” 2002, accessed 26 June 2013, http://iowareview.uiowa.edu/TIRW/TIRW _ Archive/tirweb/feature/hayles/interview.htm.

pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, post-work, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

Adam Smith was professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow University and is supposed to have fallen into a tanning pit while focusing on a conversation with a friend about economics. Author Isaac Asimov claimed, almost certainly apocryphally, that Gauss was interrupted in the middle of solving a mathematics problem to be told his wife was dying. “Tell her to wait a moment ’til I am done” was his reply. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Friedrich_Gauss. 7. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbos 31a. 8. En.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith. 9. Pitt speech on introducing his budget, February 17, 1792, quoted in John Kenneth Galbraith, A History of Economics (Hamish Hamilton, 1987), 61. 10. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Oxford University Press, 2008), bk 1, chap 2. 11. Smith claimed that 240 times the number of pins could be created in this way than by an artisan working alone. 12.

Coase might also have noted that in making this bimodal distinction, economists were separating away those parts of the economy (what they called public goods) where economic models do not predict at all well, thus leaving economic models to cover “private goods.” They chose this route rather than noting that transaction costs in all goods complicated the economic models they were using. 32. Coase, The Firm, the Market, and the Law, 15. 33. Andrew Scott, private interview for this book, October 2014. 34. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/There_are_known_knowns. 35. Some economists, notably Frank Knight at the University of Chicago, have written extensively about the dichotomy between predictable risk and uncertainty, which cannot be calculated. But many continue to focus only on risk. 36. Nassim Nicholas Taleb, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Random House, 2010), xxxix. 37. Andrew G. Haldane, “Tails of the Unexpected,” speech given at University of Edinburgh, June 8–9, 2012, p. 20, http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/speeches/2012/speech582.pdf. 38.

Programming Android by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application

It isn’t a formal protocol the way that HTTP is. It is more of a conceptual framework for using HTTP as a basis for easy access to data. While REST implementations may differ, they all strive for simplicity. Android’s content provider API formalizes REST-like operations into an API and is designed in the spirit of REST’s simplicity. You can find more information on REST on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST. Content provider components are the heart of the Android content model: by providing a ContentProvider, your application can share data with other applications and manage the data model of an application. A companion class, ContentResolver, enables other components in an Android system to find content providers. You will find content providers throughout the platform, used both in the operating system and in applications from other developers.

Database Transactions Database transactions make sequences of SQL statements atomic: either all statements succeed or none of them have any effect on the database. This can be important, for instance, if your app encounters an unfortunate occurrence such as a system crash. A transaction will guarantee that if the device fails partway through a given sequence of operations, none of the operations will affect the database. In database jargon, SQLite transactions support the widely recited ACID transaction properties: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID. With SQLite, every database operation that modifies a database runs in its own database transaction, which means a developer can be assured that all values of an insert will be written if the statement succeeds at all. You can also explicitly start and end a transaction so that it encompasses multiple statements. For a given transaction, SQLite does not modify the database until all statements in the transaction have completed successfully.

Finally, let’s delete a record using its ID: sqlite> DELETE FROM video WHERE _id = 1; sqlite> SELECT _id, description FROM videos; 2|Epic Fail Bicycle 3|Epic Fail Wagon 4|Epic Fail Sidewalk 5|Epic Fail Motorcycle SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications Now that you have some basic SQL programming knowledge, we can start thinking about how to put it to use in an Android application. Our goal is to create robust applications based on the popular Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern that underlies well-written UI programs, specifically in a way that works well for Android. Wikipedia has background information on MVC at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_view_controller. One fundamental difference between mobile phone apps and desktop apps is how they handle persistence. Traditional desktop-based applications—word processors, text editors, drawing programs, presentation programs, and so on—often use a document-centric form of the MVC pattern. They open a document, read it into memory, and turn it into objects in memory that form the data model.

Beautiful Data: The Stories Behind Elegant Data Solutions by Toby Segaran, Jeff Hammerbacher

23andMe, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, bioinformatics, Black Swan, business intelligence, card file, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, database schema, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fault tolerance, Firefox, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, information retrieval, lake wobegon effect, longitudinal study, Mars Rover, natural language processing, openstreetmap, prediction markets, profit motive, semantic web, sentiment analysis, Simon Singh, social graph, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, Vernor Vinge, web application

Without this, integration with other data sets will be difficult or impossible. In chemistry, some would argue that CAS Registry Numbers (http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/CAS_registry_number) would be ideal for identifying chemical entities. However, CAS numbers are proprietary in nature, cannot be converted to the chemical structure, are a lookup only, and are dependent on an external organization to issue. We would prefer identifiers that are open in nature, freely available for exchange, and can be converted to and from a chemical connection table. The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI, pronounced “INchee”) provides a nonproprietary standard and algorithms along with supporting open source software (http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Inchi) that enable the generation of identity strings that can be converted BEAUTIFYING DATA IN THE REAL WORLD Download at Boykma.Com 263 back to structures (see http://www.qsarworld.com/INCHI1.php for a recent review).

The resulting data extract was a 520-megabyte GZIP file that decompressed into a 3.3-gigabyte text file. THE DESIGN OF SENSE.US Download at Boykma.Com 187 I will largely spare you the details of what happened next. A straightforward yet tedious process of data processing, cleaning, and import ensued, ultimately resulting in a MySQL database containing the census data extract in queryable form. To facilitate analysis, we organized the data using a star schema (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_schema): we stored the census measures in a large fact table containing a column for each demographic variable, with compact keys used to indicate categorical variable values. A collection of dimension tables then stored the text labels and descriptions for the values taken by each demographic variable. This setup provided a base for conducting exploratory analysis. We generated data summaries by issuing queries that “rolled up” the data along chosen dimensions.

The first stage in creating our data set therefore required the creation of a detailed record of how each and every measurement was made. The measurement techniques, precision, and accuracy of different contributions all vary, but all the background information is provided in human-readable form. This “radical sharing” approach of making the complete research record available as soon as the experiments are done, called Open Notebook Science (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Notebook_Science), is not common amongst professional researchers, but it is a good fit with our desire to make a complete and transparent data set available. We utilize a Wiki, hosted on Wikispaces (http://onschallenge.wikispaces. com) to hold these experimental records, and other services such as GoogleDocs (http://docs. google.com) and Flickr (http://flickr.com) to hold data (Figure 16-1).

pages: 618 words: 146,557

Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979-89 by Rodric Braithwaite

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, clean water, en.wikipedia.org, friendly fire, full employment, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, trade route, V2 rocket

Sources: ‘Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century’ (http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat3.htm) contains tables and bibliographical references for a wide range of estimates of casualties in Indo-China and Algeria, and for the casualties in the civil wars and mass repressions that followed the American departure from Vietnam; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War_casualties) gives figures, with references, for losses on both sides in the US war in Vietnam; see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War_casualties#United_States_Armed_Forces); for statistical information about casualties of the Vietnam War see the National Archive (http://www.archives.gov/research/vietnam-war/casualty-statistics.html); G. Krivosheev, Rossia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil (Moscow, 2001), is reliable on Soviet losses; Dr Antonio Giustozzi, conversation, London, 5 December 2010; A.

Lyakhovski, Cold War International History Working Paper No. 51: Inside the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the Seizure of Kabul, December 1979, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, January 2007, p. 27. 37 Lyakhovski, Tragedia i doblest Afgana, 1995, Chapter II. 4: The Storming of the Palace 1 A. Lyakhovski, Cold War International History Working Paper No. 51: Inside the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the Seizure of Kabul, December 1979, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, January 2007, pp. 30 and 32. 2 Yevgeni Kiselev, interview, Moscow, 24 March 2010. 3 Figures from http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ _« ». 4 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_war_in_Afghanistan. 5 A. Savinkin, Afganskie uroki: Vyvody dlya budushchego v svete ideinogo nasledia A. E. Snegareva (Moscow, 2003), p. 755. 6 L. Shebarshin, Ruka Moskvy: zapiski nachalnika sovetskoi razvadki (Moscow, 2002), p. 195. 7 Directive No. 312/12/001, signed by Ustinov and Ogarkov and despatched on 24 December. See A. Lyakhovski, Tragedia i doblest Afgana (Moscow, 2004), p. 252. 8 Order No. 312/1/030, 25.12.79, is referred to ibid., p 258; it is quoted in full there in Chapter 2. 9 D.

See, for example, Rasskazy ob operatsiakh – Baikal (http://antiterror.ru/to_profs/tales/71898035). 6 Greshnov, Afganistan: Zalozhniki vremeni, p. 42. 7 A. Sukhoparov, ‘Afganski sindrom’ (www.russia-today.ru/2009/no_02/02_world_02.html). 8 A. Belofastov and A. Rebrik (eds.), Mushavery (Moscow, 2005), p. 44. 9 The Americans lost twenty-four soldiers dead and 325 wounded. The Panamanian military lost about 205 dead. US military estimates of civilian casualties range from 200 to 1,000. Other estimates range from 2,000 to 5,000 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_invasion_of_Panama). 10 Dmitri Ryurikov, interview, Moscow, 24 July 2009. 11 The Bonner and Sakharov texts are at www.hro.org-editions-karta. 12 M. Galeotti, Afghanistan: The Soviet Union’s Last War (London, 1995), pp. 139–54. 13 Lyakhovski, Tragedia i doblest Afgana, p.19; interview with Oleg Bogomolov, Moscow, May 2007. 14 Information from Dr Galina Yemelyanova, a former scholar from the institute, 6 June 2009. 15 Information from Sir Christopher Mallaby, who was serving in the Foreign Office at the time. 16 A.

pages: 95 words: 23,041

Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski

augmented reality, en.wikipedia.org, RFID, Steve Jobs, web application

_While_Mobile_Email_Usage_on_the_Rise 7http://news.bango.com/2010/02/16/600-percent-growth-in-mobile-web-usage/ 8http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats 9http://www.morganstanley.com/institutional/techresearch/pdfs/MS_Economy_Internet_Trends_102009_FINAL.pdf 10http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?fa=Articles.showArticle&art_aid=120590 11http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1361 12http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1269 13http://techcrunch.com/2010/12/13/google-mobile-searches-grew-130-percent-in-q3/ 14http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=5133 15http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aaOtVJQcg0 16http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T9_(predictive_text) 17http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html 18http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/3/Facebook_and_Twitter_Access_via_Mobile_Browser_Grows_by_Triple-Digits 19http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/ekits/Cisco_VNI_Global_Mobile_Data_Traffic_Forecast_2010_2015.pdf 20http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?

mt=8 36http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1649086/detect-rotation-of-android-phone-in-the-browser-with-javascript 37http://mail.glustech.com/SnowGlobe/ 38http://thenextweb.com/apps/2010/12/21/hidden-safari-mobile-feature-reveals-augmented-reality-capability/ Chapter 4 39http://www.dmolsen.com/mobile-in-higher-ed/2011/02/07/the-university-home-page-mobile-first/ 40http://xkcd.com/773/ Chapter 5 41http://paidcontent.org/article/419-pontiflex-about-half-of-mobile-app-clicks-are-accidental/ 42http://developer.apple.com/library/ios/#documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/MobileHIG/Introduction/Introduction.html 43http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1085 44http://go.microsoft.com/?linkid=9713252 45http://www.lukew.com/touch 46http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1197 47http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_enhancement Chapter 6 48http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1198 49http://mashable.com/2010/08/07/ebay-facts/ 50http://mashable.com/2011/01/07/40-of-all-tweets-come-from-mobile/ 51http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?691 52http://www.medien.ifi.lmu.de/pubdb/publications/pub/deluca2007pmc/deluca2007pmc.pdf 53http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1235 54http://diveintohtml5.org/ 55http://www.quirksmode.org/html5/inputs_mobile.html Chapter 7 56http://www.quirksmode.org/blog/archives/2010/09/combining_meta.html 57http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?

Trend Commandments: Trading for Exceptional Returns by Michael W. Covel

Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business cycle, buy and hold, commodity trading advisor, correlation coefficient, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, family office, full employment, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market microstructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Sharpe ratio, systematic trading, the scientific method, transaction costs, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, Y2K, zero-sum game

The index was first published in 1957 and includes 500 leading companies. Moving Average: A moving average series can be calculated for any time series, but is most often applied to market prices. Moving averages are used to smooth out short-term fluctuations, thus highlighting potentially longerterm trends. A Vulcan mind-meld allows the sharing of thoughts, experiences, memories, and knowledge with another individual—via touch. Average True Range: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_True_ Range (look this one up if you don’t know it!). There’s no earthly way of knowing, Which direction we are going, There’s no knowing where we’re rowing, Or which way the rivers flowing, Is it raining? Is it snowing? Is a hurricane a-blowing? Not a speck of light is showing, So the danger must be growing, Are the fires of hell a-glowing? Is the grisly reaper mowing? Yes, the danger must be growing, Cause the rowers keep on rowing, And they’re certainly not showing, Any signs that they are slowing!

Francis Storrs, “The 50 Wealthiest Bostonians.” Boston Magazine, May 15, 2006. See http://www.bostonmagazine.com/articles/the_50_wealthiest_bostonians/. 4. Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, “How to Make $80 Million in a Brutal Bear Market.” Daily Wealth, April 11, 2009. See http://www.Dailywealth.com. 5. Martin Schwartz, Pit Bull: Lessons from Wall Street’s Champion Day Trader. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. 6. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Harding (mathematician). 7. Jack D. Schwager, Market Wizards. New York: NYIF Corp., 1989. 8. See http://www.absolutereturn-alpha.com. 9. Jack D. Schwager, The New Market Wizards. New York: HarperBusiness, 1992. 247 10. See http://www.forbes.com/profile/louis-bacon. 11. See http://www.forbes.com/profile/paul-tudor-jones. 12. Man Group front page, March 23, 2011. See http://www.mangroupplc.com/. 13. 2008 Sunrise Capital Chart. 14. 2009 Sunrise Capital Chart. 15. 2010 Sunrise Capital Chart. 16.

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “China Leaves Small Investors Behind on Road to Capitalism.” Washington Post Foreign Service, May 3, 2008. See http://www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/02/AR2008050204009.html. Crowded House 1. Zen proverb. 2. Keith Campbell, Campbell & Co., Managed Account Reports. Black Box 1. South Park, “Chief Aid,” episode 27, October 7, 1998. 2. “Black box.” See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box. 3. Ben Hogan. 4. Shaun Jordan video interview, “Managed Futures with Abraham Trading Co.” March 8, 2011. See http://www.cmegroup.com/education/managed-futures-with-abrahamtrading-co.html. Endnotes 259 5. Blog entry. See http://www.michaelcovel.com. 6. Blog response to “The reason people gave Madoff money; same reason they don’t give it to Trend Followers.” January 5, 2011.

pages: 713 words: 93,944

Seven Databases in Seven Weeks: A Guide to Modern Databases and the NoSQL Movement by Eric Redmond, Jim Wilson, Jim R. Wilson

AGPL, Amazon Web Services, create, read, update, delete, data is the new oil, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, full text search, general-purpose programming language, Kickstarter, linked data, MVC pattern, natural language processing, node package manager, random walk, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, Skype, social graph, web application

Footnotes [9] http://allthingsdistributed.com/files/amazon-dynamo-sosp2007.pdf [10] http://www.basho.com/ [11] http://www.erlang.org/ [12] http://ruby-lang.org [13] http://rubygems.org [14] http://rubygems.org/gems/riak-client [15] http://research.google.com/archive/mapreduce.html [16] http://wiki.basho.com/Replication.html [17] http://wiki.basho.com/MapReduce.html [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce [19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_clock [20] http://wiki.basho.com/Vector-Clocks.html [21] http://lucene.apache.org/solr/ [22] http://code.google.com/p/leveldb/ [23] http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ [24] http://wiki.basho.com/Loading-Data-and-Running-MapReduce-Queries.html [25] http://code.google.com/p/protobuf/ Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 4 HBase Apache HBase is made for big jobs, like a nail gun.

Several open source projects rely on Redis, from Resque, a Ruby-based asynchronous job queueing service, to session management in the Node.js project SocketStream. Regardless of the database you choose as your SOR, you should certainly add Redis to the mix. Footnotes [53] http://redis.io [54] http://www.memcached.org/ [55] http://download.freebase.com/datadumps/latest/browse/book/isbn.tsv [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom_filter [57] http://martinfowler.com/bliki/DatabaseThaw.html [58] http://download.freebase.com/datadumps/latest/browse/music/group_membership.tsv [59] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_warehouse Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 9 Wrapping Up Now that we’ve made it through the databases, congratulations are in order! We hope you’ve gained an appreciation for these seven databases. If you use one in a project, we’ll be happy. And if you decide to use multiple databases, like we saw at the end of the Redis chapter, we’ll be ecstatic.

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Varian, Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998), p. 3. 5. Jules Verne, Works of Jules Verne (New York: V. Parke, 1911), http://archive.org/details/worksofjulesvern01vernuoft. 6. Shapiro and Varian, Information Rules, p. 21. 7. “Friendster,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friendster&oldid=559301831 (accessed June 27, 2013); “History of Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Wikipedia&oldid=561664870 (accessed June 27, 2013); “Blogger (service),” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blogger_(service)&oldid=560541931 (accessed June 27, 2013). 8. “Top Sites,” Alexa: The Web Information Company, http://www.alexa.com/topsites (accessed September 8, 2012). 9. “IBM Watson Vanquishes Human Jeopardy Foes,” PCWorld, February 16, 2011, http://www.pcworld.com/article/219893/ibm_watson_vanquishes_human_jeopardy_foes.html. 10.

Joel Waldfogel, “Copyright Protection, Technological Change, and the Quality of New Products: Evidence from Recorded Music Since Napster,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2011), http://www.nber.org/papers/w17503. 2. Albert Gore, The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change (New York: Random House, 2013), p. 45. 3. The English Wikipedia has over 2.5 billion words, which is over fifty times as many as Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Wikipedia: Size Comparisons,” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 4, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Size_comparisons&oldid=562880212 (accessed August 17, 2013). 4. Actually, 90 percent of apps on smartphones are now free. Alex Cocotas, “Nine Out Of Ten Apps On Apple’s App Store Are Free,” Business Insider, July 19, 2013, http://www.businessinsider.com/nine-out-of-10-apps-are-free-2013-7#ixzz2cojAAOCy (accessed August 17, 2013). 5. Cannibalization of SMS services by free over-the-top (OTT) service is estimated to cost telephone companies over $30 billion in 2013, according to the analyst group Ovum.

pages: 502 words: 82,170

The Book of CSS3 by Peter Gasston

centre right, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, web application, wikimedia commons

The effects of different values on the box-sizingproperty Please note that although I only discuss the width property in all of these examples, the exact same rules apply to an element’s height property. (You may also note that this works in exactly the same way as a browser that is put into “quirks” mode.) Note If you’re a younger developer you may not remember “quirks” mode. It’s a system that emulates the incorrect way that Internet Explorer 5.5 used to lay out web pages; you can read more about it on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quirks_mode). I use the box-sizing property in a few examples throughout this book, so if the effects (and benefits) aren’t immediately apparent right now, they should become clearer as you work through the rest of the chapters. Browser-Specific Prefixes In the previous section, I briefly discussed using browser-specific prefixes on the box-sizing property. As CSS3 is still in a state of change and revision, you’ll see these mentioned a lot throughout the rest of this book, so I’ll take some time to talk about these in more detail.

In this example, I don’t have to use an extra rule—without it, I would have to use something like this: p abbr { border-bottom: 6px double black; } p:last-child abbr { border-bottom-color: white; } Although this may not seem like a big savings, it means I can update the parent element color and not have to worry about setting the color on any relevant children. On a large site with many different color combinations, you can see that currentColor would be extremely handy. The currentColor value is currently implemented in Firefox, WebKit, and Opera, and is planned for inclusion in IE9. * * * [4] This image is taken from Wikimedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HSL_color_solid_cylinder_alpha_lowgamma.png) and is published under a Creative Commons Attribution license. Matching the Operating System’s Appearance In CSS2, you could use colors from different aspects of your operating system to give websites a more “native” appearance. You could, for instance, match the background color of a button element on a web page with that of a button element on your system by using the following code: button { background-color: ButtonFace; } This functionality has been deprecated in CSS3 and has been replaced by the appearance property, which is introduced in the Basic User Interface Module.

Mozilla has suggested the specification be modified to support their proposed change, as the current spec means only pixel values can be used for matrix transformations. This is the key difference among the different browsers’ implementations. In the examples in the rest of this chapter I’ll use unitless values, because they are more common. If you want to skew an element, well, this is where it becomes a lot more complex—here’s where I need to introduce the trigonometric functions. You can read a full explanation of these functions on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions#Sine.2C_cosine_and_tangent), but here’s a quick and dirty summary: The trigonometric functions are ratio values used to calculate angles in a triangle. The first trigonometric function I’ll use is tan (tangent), which is required to skew an element along the x- or y-axis. Referring to the original matrix syntax, the x-axis is supplied as a value to b and the y as a value to c.

pages: 320 words: 33,385

Market Risk Analysis, Quantitative Methods in Finance by Carol Alexander

asset allocation, backtesting, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, constrained optimization, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, implied volatility, interest rate swap, market friction, market microstructure, p-value, performance metric, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, value at risk, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-sum game

Another useful law of matrix algebra is that the transpose of a product of two matrices is the product of the transposes in reverse order: AB = B A (I.2.1) A similar change of ordering is necessary when we take the inverse of a product of two square matrices – see below. I.2.2.3 Singular Matrices The unit or identity matrix I is a special square matrix with 1s along the main diagonal and 0s everywhere else. For instance, the 4 × 4 identity matrix is ⎛ ⎞ 1 0 0 0 ⎜0 1 0 0⎟ ⎟ I=⎜ ⎝0 0 1 0⎠ 0 0 0 1 4 See http://en.wikipedia.org for more information. For instance, the associative law is ABC = ABC. Thus, to multiply three matrices together, we can do the products in either order, provided we do not change the order of the matrices in the product. Essential Linear Algebra for Finance 41 It acts like the number 1 in ordinary algebra, i.e. AI = A and IA = A. The inverse of a square matrix A is denoted by A−1 . It has the property that AA−1 = −1 A A = I, where I is the n × n identity matrix.

One such add-in, developed by Leonardo Volpi of the Foxes team, Italy, has plenty of matrix functions including eigenvector and eigenvalue routines, Cholesky decomposition, covariance and correlation and so forth. It has been used for the examples in this book where Excel cannot perform the exercise without an add-in.7 6 7 For more details on this and other eigenvalue algorithms, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenvalue_algorithm. This add-in should be loaded just like any other Excel add-in: under ‘Tools’ select ‘Add-Ins’ and then browse to locate the add-in as you have placed it on your machine. Having added this in once, you should not need to do so again. 54 Quantitative Methods in Finance Example I.2.10: Using an Excel add-in to find eigenvectors and eigenvalues Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the correlation matrix ⎛ ⎞ 1 05 02 1 03 ⎠ C = ⎝ 05 02 03 1 Solution The power iteration method has been used for this example.

In the spreadsheet for this example we use the add-in command MLU to obtain the matrices ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 1 0 0 0 2 2 2 −3 ⎜ 05 ⎜ 1 0 0⎟ −2 7 −05 ⎟ ⎟ U = ⎜0 ⎟ L=⎜ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ −05 1 0 0 0 65 775 ⎠ 05 −05 038 1 0 0 0 −073 and then we verify the relationship (I.2.33). We cannot always guarantee the existence of an LU decomposition for a square matrix, but there are various alternatives that may be used. For instance, any square matrix will have an LU decomposition if we permute of the rows or columns of L and U. Further details can be found on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LU_decomposition. I.2.6 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS Principal component analysis is based on the spectral decomposition of a covariance matrix or a correlation matrix. That is, we use the relationship A = WW where A is either a covariance matrix or the corresponding correlation matrix. If PCA is performed on a correlation matrix then the results will only be influenced by the correlations of returns, but if the input to PCA is a covariance matrix then the results will be influenced by the volatility of the returns as well as the correlations of returns.

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Tremoglie, “Terrorist Tracking Technology,” American Daily, September 3, 2004, http://www.americandaily.com/article/2048. 277 “cannot guarantee the software” Graham-Rowe, “Intelligence Analysis Software to Predict Terrorist Attacks in the Future”; Applied Systems Intelligence, ASI Continues Growth by Putting Brains in Army’s Robots; Eng, Digital Warriors Artificial Intelligence May Help Spot Future Terrorism Attacks; Tremoglie, “Terrorist Tracking Technology.” 277 “is more terrifying than losing one’s privacy” Graham-Rowe, “Intelligence Analysis Software to Predict Terrorist Attacks in the Future”; “Orwellian” quote from Wikipedia, “Information Awareness Office,” December 25, 2007 (cited January 11, 2008); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Awareness_Office. 14. LOSERS AND LUDDITES: THE CHANGING BATTLEFIELDS ROBOTS WILL FIGHT ON AND THE NEW ELECTRONIC SPARKS OF WAR 279 “Technological progress” “Albert Einstein Quotes,” Brainy Quote, 2008 (cited January 31, 2008); available at http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins164554.html. 279 “Increasingly, we live in a world” Ralph Peters, “The Culture of Future Conflict,” Parameters 25, no. 4 (1995). 279 “I am a miner’s son” “Ralph Peters,” Wikipedia, August 3, 2007 (cited August 3, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Peters. 280 “simply one of the most creative” Ralph Peters, Beyond Baghdad: Postmodern War and Peace, 1st ed.

Singer, March 22, 2007. 35 “it was a big problem” Ibid. 35 “It saddens me to know” Ibid. 35 In the words of one U.S. officer Boot, War Made New, 383. 35 Predators carried out 2,073 missions Bill Sweetman, “USAF Predators Come of Age in Iraq and Afghanistan as Reaper Waits in the Wings,” Jane’s International Defence Review 39, no. 6 (2006): 52. 36 Global Hawk can fly “RQ-4 Global Hawk,” Wikipedia, March 24, 2007 (cited March 30, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Hawk. 36 “you basically hit the land button” Air force officer, interview at Pentagon, Peter W. Singer, March 31, 2008. 36 The plane itself costs some $35 million Renae Merle, “Price of Global Hawk Surveillance Program Rises,” Washington Post, 2004, A17. 36 the U.S. Air Force plans to spend Bill Sweetman, “Long Range Endurance UAS Targets the Adversary,” Jane’s International Defence Review 39, no. 8 (2006): 41. 37 “It is more of a rush” Kevin Maurer, “Pilotless Plane Guides 82nd,” Fayetteville (NC) Observer, August 13, 2004. 37 “You throw the bird up” Noah Shachtman, “Attack of the Drones,” Wired 13.06 (2005), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.06/drones.html. 37 the number of Ravens in service Ibid. 37 “reconnaissance with firepower” Owen West and Bing West, “Lessons from Iraq,” Popular Mechanics 182, no. 8 (2005): 50. 37 there were 5,331 drones Tom Vanden Brook, “Report: Insurgents Benefit from Drone Shortage,” USA Today, March 25, 2008. 37 “given the growth trends” David A.

See also Robert Capps, “The 50 Best Robots Ever,” Wired 14.01 (2006), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.01/robots.html?pg=2&topic=robots&topic_set=. 45 the field of modern chemistry J. Boone Bartholomees Jr., “The Heirs of Archimedes: Science and the Art of War through the Age of Enlightenment,” Parameters 35, no. 4 (2005): 136. 46 “to see what would happen” “Charles Babbage,” Wikipedia, April 20, 2007 (cited April 20, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage. 46 “I called an official” Robert Finkelstein, “Military Robotics: Malignant Machines or the Path to Peace,” paper presented at the Military Robotics Conference, Institute for Defense and Government Advancement, Washington, DC, April 10-12, 2006. 47 the Germans protected their coast Steven M. Shaker and Alan R. Wise, War Without Men : Robot on the Future Battlefield (Washington, DC: Pergamon Brassey’s International Defense Publishers Inc., 1988). 48 load them up with twenty-two thousand pounds of Torpex Anthony J.

PostGIS in Action, 2nd Edition by Regina O. Obe, Leo S. Hsu

call centre, crowdsourcing, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Earth, job automation, McMansion, megacity, Mercator projection, Network effects, openstreetmap, planetary scale, profit maximization, Ruby on Rails, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, traveling salesman, web application

Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info Introducing PostGIS 9 You’ll be hard pressed to find the following features in other spatial databases:  Functions to work with GeoJSON and Keyhole Markup Language (KML), allow- ing web applications to talk directly to PostGIS without the need for additional serializing schemes or translations  Comprehensive geometry-processing functions that go far beyond basic geometric operations, including functions for fixing invalid geometries and for simplifying and deconstructing geometries  Built-in 3D and topology support  Over 150 seamless operations for working with vectors and rasters in tandem, as well as for converting between the two families GeoJSON and KML data formats Geographic JavaScript Object Notation (GeoJSON; http://geojson.org) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyhole_Markup_Language) are two of the most popular vector formats used by web-mapping applications:  GeoJSON is an extension of JSON that’s used for representing JavaScript objects. It adds to the JSON standard support for geographic objects.  KML is an XML format developed by Keyhole (which was purchased by Google), first used in Google’s mapping products and later supported by various mapping APIs.

Recall from basic geometry (or common sense) the minimum number of points needed to form an area? Three—a triangle. The mathematical underpinning of TINs is based on triangulating key peak and valley point locations of a surface to form non-overlapping connected area pockets. The most common form of Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info 43 Geometry triangulation used in GIS is Delaunay triangulation (explained on Wikipedia: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaunay_triangulation). PostGIS 2.1 specifically added a powerful ST_DelaunayTriangles function to convert a “well-behaved” polygon collection into a TIN. But one shortcoming of ST_DelaunayTriangles is that it can’t convert polyhedral surfaces to TINs. For that conversion, you need to use ST_Tesselate, which is packaged with SFCGAL and will convert polygon collections as well. PostGIS 2.0 added many new functions specifically for use with polyhedral surfaces and TINS; go to http://postgis.net/docs/PostGIS_Special_Functions_Index.html #PostGIS_TypeFunctionMatrix to find the full list.

It seemed to display the first geometry column of a table. uDig can’t handle heterogeneous geometry columns. It allowed us to pick a column with mixed subtypes, but it was never able to display it. Although uDig allows you to write queries, uDig doesn’t understand SQL. Instead, you have to resort to a more obscure web query standard called Common Query Language (CQL). CQL As of version 1.2, CQL renamed itself Contextual Query Language. You can learn more about CQL on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Contextual_Query_Language. Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info 134 5.4.2 CHAPTER 5 Using PostGIS on the desktop Connecting to PostGIS uDig has the easiest interface for connecting to PostGIS. Choose Layer > Add from the menu, and PostGIS appears as a data source (shown at the left in figure 5.13). Figure 5.13 Adding database connections in uDig You can alternatively use the GeoTools built into uDig to connect.

pages: 448 words: 71,301

Programming Scala by Unknown

domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, loose coupling, type inference, web application

[SXR] A Scala source code browser, http://github.com/harrah/browse/tree/master. [Szyperski1998] Clemens Szyperski, Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming, Addison-Wesley Longman Limited, 1998. [TDD] Test-Driven Development, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test-driven_develop ment. [Terracotta] Terracotta, http://terracotta.org/. [TestNG] TestNG, http://testng.org/. [Turbak2008] Franklyn Turbak, David Gifford, and Mark A. Sheldon, Design Concepts of Programming Languages, The MIT Press, 2008. [TypeInference] Type inference, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_inference. [VanRoy2004] Peter Van Roy and Seif Haridi, Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming, The MIT Press, 2004. [Wampler2008] Dean Wampler, Traits vs. Aspects in Scala, http://blog.objectmentor .com/articles/2008/09/27/traits-vs-aspects-in-scala.

[Cucumber] Cucumber - Making BDD Fun, http://cukes.info. [DesignByContract] Building bug-free O-O software: An introduction to Design by Contract™, http://archive.eiffel.com/doc/manuals/technology/contract/. 387 Download at WoweBook.Com [Deursen] Arie van Deursen, Paul Klint, and Joost Visser, Domain-Specific Languages: An Annotated Bibliography, http://homepages.cwi.nl/~arie/papers/dslbib/. [EBNF] Extended Backus-Naur Form, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Backus– Naur_Form. [Eiffel] Eiffel Software, http://eiffel.com. [Ford] Bryan Ford, The Packrat Parsing and Parsing Expression Grammars Page, http: //pdos.csail.mit.edu/~baford/packrat/. [Ford2009] Neal Ford, Advanced DSLs in Ruby, http://github.com/nealford/presenta tions/tree/master. [Fowler2009] Martin Fowler, Domain Specific Languages (forthcoming), http://martin fowler.com/dslwip/.

References | 389 Download at WoweBook.Com [Okasaki1998] Chris Okasaki, Purely Functional Data Structures, Cambridge University Press, 1998. [Ortiz2007] Jorge Ortiz, Fun with Project Euler and Scala, http://scala-blogs.org/2007/ 12/project-euler-fun-in-scala.html. [Ortiz2008] Jorge Ortiz, Manifests: Reified Types, http://scala-blogs.org/2008/10/mani fests-reified-types.html. [OSullivan2009] Bryan O’Sullivan, John Goerzen, and Don Steward, Real World Haskell, O’Reilly Media, 2009. [PEG] Parsing Expression Grammar, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsing_expression _grammar. [Pierce2002] Benjamin C. Pierce, Types and Programming Languages, The MIT Press, 2002. [Pollak2007] David Pollak, The Scala Option class and how lift uses it, http://blog.lostlake .org/index.php?/archives/50-The-Scala-Option-class-and-how-lift-uses-it.html. [QuickCheck] QuickCheck, Automated Specification-Based Testing, http://www.cs .chalmers.se/~rjmh/QuickCheck/.

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If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan

Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, hedonic treadmill, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

., “Immune Neglect: A Source of Durability Bias in Affective Forecasting,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(3) (1998): 617. For misforecasting in consumer contexts, see V. M. Patrick, D. J. MacInnis, and C. W. Park, “Not as Happy as I Thought I’d Be? Affective Misforecasting and Product Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research 33(4) (2007): 479–89. For a more reader-friendly version, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affective_forecasting. we . . . give . . . negative events from . . . past a positive spin: See A. Keinan and R. Kivetz, “Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences,” Journal of Consumer Research 37(6) (2011): 935–50. It is precisely because: For findings on how women are less willing to have another child during childbirth, but change their mind later, see J.

Norton, 2012), and J. M. Schwartz, and S. Begley, The Mind and the Brain (New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2009). 100,000 students on January 1, 2016: Projection based on expected growth in number of enrolled learners in the course. the world’s most popular MOOC: Coursera is an initiative of Stanford University to democratize education. You can learn more about it by going to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coursera. top-ten list of Coursera courses: In terms of number of “active learners” (which refers to the number of students who have watched at least one lecture). class-central.com: See https://www.class-central.com/provider/coursera?sort=rating-up. As of October 27, 2015, the course ranked #4 of all Coursera courses offered up until that point. I regularly get e-mails from students: You can read many of the reviews for the course by going to www.class-central.com/mooc/2860/coursera-a-life-of-happiness-and-fulfillment#course-all-reviews.

the field of positive psychology: For more on the origins and objectives of positive psychology, see M. E. Seligman, T. A. Steen, N. Park, and C. Peterson, “Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions,” American Psychologist 60(5) (2005): 410–21, and S. L. Gable and J. Haidt, “What (and Why) Is Positive Psychology?” Review of General Psychology 9(2) (2005): 103–10. For a more user-friendly version, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive_psychology. the tendency to find closure or meaning: Work by Pennebaker and others suggests that the attempt to find meaning and closure for events, even negative ones, helps improve happiness levels. See J. W. Pennebaker, “Putting Stress into Words: Health, Linguistic, and Therapeutic Implications,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 31(6) (1993): 539–48. For related research, see J.

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Moonshot: The Inside Story of Mankind's Greatest Adventure by Dan Parry

Charles Lindbergh, en.wikipedia.org, low earth orbit, Norman Mailer, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, undersea cable, white flight

See NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a12/a12_lmpcuff.pdf 2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire. 3 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon; and http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/ 4 http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/ 5 David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon 6 Harland, op. cit. 7 Collins, op. cit. 8 Ibid. 9 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid.; http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/specials/space/article2582966.ece; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin 13 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:13:01:17. 14 Harland, op. cit. 15 Neil Armstrong in conversation with Eric Jones, at NASA's Lunar Surface Journal http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html 16 BBC News, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2272321.stm; and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2410431.stm GLOSSARY AGS Abort Guidance System AOS Acquisition of Signal BIG Biological Isolation Garment CapCom Spacecraft Communicator CMP Command Module Pilot CSM Command and Service Module DAP Digital Autopilot DOI Descent Orbit Insertion DPS Descent Propulsion System DSKY [Computer] Display and Keyboard EASEP Early Apollo Surface Experiment Package EMU Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit EVA Extra-vehicular Activity FIDO Flight Dynamics Officer GET Ground Elapsed Time IMU Inertial Measurement Unit LEB Lower Equipment Bay LES Launch Escape System LEVA Lunar Extra-vehicular Visor Assembly LLTV Lunar Landing Training Vehicle LM Lunar Module LMP Lunar Module Pilot LOI Lunar Orbit Insertion LOS Loss Of Signal LRL Lunar Receiving Laboratory RRR Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector MCC Mid-Course Correction MESA Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly MOCR Mission Operations Control Room MQF Mobile Q