active measures

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Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

“The divisions of the KGB have acquired a certain taste [for active measures], and many now insist they can prepare and conduct them on their own,” he complained, his frustration that Service A had to defend its turf internally thinly veiled. Nonetheless, the KGB insisted on strict centralization when planning and executing active measures. Vladimir Kryuchkov, head of the First Chief Directorate since 1974, argued that active measures had taken “their rightful place in the overall enterprise of intelligence.”8 Kryuchkov issued a special order that governed the administrative setup of active measures in the KGB. Proposals that originated in the field would have to be authorized by the head of Service A or his deputies, and any active measures to be implemented in field residencies would have to be signed off by the head of the relevant regional unit at the KGB.

It will therefore be even more difficult to study and reconstruct the impact of active measures in the future. The internet, contrary to a popular misconception, forgets every day, especially on ephemeral social media platforms. Suspending accounts for coordinated inauthentic behavior, for example, means hiding the main records of that behavior, and potentially assisting adversaries in hiding their tracks. Accurately gauging impact becomes harder; understating and overstating impact becomes easier. Active measures will thus not only blur the line between fact and fiction in the present, but also in the past, in retrospect. Active measures, third, crack open divisions by closing distinctions. It is very hard to distinguish—for an activist, for the target of an active measures campaign, even for a large organization running its own active measures—between a cunning influence agent on the one hand, and a genuine activist on the other.

Ignoring the rich and disturbing lessons of industrial-scale Cold War disinformation campaigns risks repeating mid-century errors that are already weakening liberal democracy in the digital age. Recognizing an active measure can be difficult. Disinformation, when done well, is hard to spot, especially when it first becomes public. It will therefore be helpful to clarify what an active measure is, and what it is not. First, and most important, active measures are not spontaneous lies by politicians, but the methodical output of large bureaucracies. Disinformation was, and in many ways continues to be, the domain of intelligence agencies—professionally run, continually improved, and usually employed against foreign adversaries. Second, all active measures contain an element of disinformation: content may be forged, sourcing doctored, the method of acquisition covert; influence agents and cutouts may pretend to be something they are not, and online accounts involved in the surfacing or amplification of an operation may be inauthentic.


pages: 324 words: 96,491

Messing With the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News by Clint Watts

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Chelsea Manning, Climatic Research Unit, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Julian Assange, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

During the height of active measures, the KGB crafted and strategically placed thousands of forgeries in media outlets around the world, soiling the American brand with conspiracies of all types. Forgeries and provocateurs leveraged the useful idiots and fellow travelers promoting Kremlin propaganda, thus providing local credibility to what might otherwise be obvious foreign meddling. The more local it seemed to be, the more successful an active measures campaign would be. When successfully employed by the Soviets, white, gray, and black propaganda dissemination provided a holistic information bubble, consuming targeted audiences across all media with synchronized, repeated messaging that would be difficult not to believe in the absence of a strong countereffort from the West. Active measures propaganda didn’t simply promote Soviet policy positions the way America would play to patriotism or democracy.

No single effort likely demonstrates the longevity and pervasiveness of active measures like Operation Infektion. While individual campaigns like Operation Infektion achieved immeasurable results and a mix of intended and unintended consequences, the Soviet Union’s active measures never materialized as a sufficient asymmetric counter for U.S. might and NATO’s growth. Soviet propaganda outlets took many years or even decades to grow their audiences. Distributing messages and dollars to propel a Communist media insurgency in America required repetitive synchronization and significant resources in both manpower and production. Moreover, influencing populations in Western areas required layers of agents undertaking physical actions at the behest of the Kremlin. Exposure of Soviet operatives conducting active measures in the United States persistently jeopardized Kremlin foreign policy.

Allegations of government misconduct might be seeded to agitate antigovernment groups. Government standoffs at the Bundy ranch, in Oregon, Jade Helm 15, and abortion protests all were showcased to fuel contempt among competing American factions. Traditional lines of active measures attack were all there on social media: political, social, financial, and calamitous. We considered writing up our analysis of the active measures renaissance, but we kept arriving at the same question: Why? In the fall of 2015, we didn’t think Americans would understand Russia’s active measures. Even if they did understand what was happening, I didn’t think they would care. The same could be said for the U.S. government. In the early summer of 2014, I provided a snapshot of the Russian social media campaign with regard to Syria as I closed a briefing on the Islamic State’s rise.


pages: 330 words: 83,319

The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder by Sean McFate

active measures, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, hive mind, index fund, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero day, zero-sum game

Deny everything. Make counteraccusations.” The Kremlin funds RT’s $400 million annual budget to warp the truth for Russia’s strategic interests. Its spies even have a name for this kind of subversion—“active measures”—and it’s an example of how shadow wars are fought by weaponizing information. One reason why RT is effective is that it blends legitimate experts and journalists with crackpots, offering a plausible version of events that is nested within a larger global disinformation campaign. Think of RT as strategic storytelling. The “Troll Factory” is another component of Russia’s active measures against the West, revealing the true power of cyberwarfare. It’s not sabotage, like Stuxnet—it’s disinformation. Located in Saint Petersburg and officially called the Internet Research Agency, it’s where Russian operatives hack into websites, create phony news sites, and pump out fake news and bogus social media messages.

The objective is to manipulate the enemy’s decision-making calculus and sap its will to fight. To accomplish this, the West must develop its own active measures to gain information dominance. Myth-busting alone is insufficient. Setting the record straight is not enough to dispel the spin of Russia, China, and terrorists. Strategic influence is not the genteel art of debate. Instead, it is aggressive and devious, and it has to be. In poker, there is an adage: If you can’t spot the chump at the table, then you’re the chump. Too often, the West is the chump. It must overcome its aversion to knowledge manipulation and figure out how to fire nonlethal weapons. The mantra of active measures should be “To inform is to influence.” Examples include manufacturing dissent through trolls and bots, thereby leveraging the true power of cyberwar; clandestinely supporting dissenting voices in the enemy’s camp; and establishing front organizations to push one’s agenda or counter an enemy’s narrative.

Acapulco is but one example. Believers in conventional war are blind to this, because these conflicts do not look like regular wars, and this blindness leaves us dangerously exposed. If we are to win, we must expand our strategic thinking to encompass wars without states. Redefining War Experts no longer know what war is. Buzzwords have replaced ideas, as authorities bicker over hybrid warfare, nonlinear war, active measures, and conflict in the “gray zone.” There is no consensus about what these terms mean, other than that they refer to aspects of unconventional war. However, even this is dubious. As mentioned earlier, there is no such thing as conventional versus unconventional war—there is just war. “Conventional war” is a distinct type of warfare, just as “guerilla warfare” and “psychological warfare” are unique.


pages: 434 words: 117,327

Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America by Cass R. Sunstein

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, anti-globalists, availability heuristic, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Nate Silver, Network effects, New Journalism, night-watchman state, obamacare, Potemkin village, random walk, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

One possible source of our relative complacency now is that Russia’s attempts to meddle in our democracy proved largely unsuccessful during the Cold War. Back then, the short- and long-term aims of Soviet influence and disinformation operations—so-called active measures—were simple: discrediting, and weakening, countries with opposing political agendas. In 1982, just months before succeeding Leonid Brezhnev as leader of the Soviet Union, KGB chairman Yuri Andropov told Soviet foreign intelligence officers abroad to more directly incorporate these “active measures” into their standard work. As the officially designated “Main Adversary,” the United States was the top target, and the KGB followed up Andropov’s order by designating an ambitious priority for the stepped-up operations: preventing the 1984 reelection of Ronald Reagan.

Fake KGB documents spread word of a (nonexistent) CIA plot to give nuclear weapons to apartheid South Africa, for example, while Russia was also the source of a forged US embassy memorandum that led to erroneous press reports about a US plot to assassinate a Nigerian presidential candidate. A review of Soviet operations for 1982 and 1983 conducted by the KGB’s chief foreign operations arm noted that “the range of questions dealt with by means of active measures has been continually widening.”3 These types of activities were, of course, not unique to Moscow; the CIA’s own media interventions and manipulations during the Cold War have been well documented.4 Ultimately, the Soviets’ “active measures” did not penetrate American public consciousness in a material way in the 1984 election. Ronald Reagan handily defeated Walter Mondale, taking forty-nine states and 525 of the 538 electoral college votes. Analogous efforts aimed at Margaret Thatcher during the UK’s 1983 general election had also come up short, as she, too, won reelection in a landslide.

Reagan’s victory was obviously overdetermined, but, even had the US presidential election been close, the Soviet Union faced huge obstacles during the Cold War in influencing the American electorate—or voters in other democracies—with its propaganda and disinformation. Indeed, as historian Christopher Andrew and former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin observed in their definitive account of KGB activities in the West, Reagan’s landslide “was striking evidence of the limitations of Soviet active measures within the United States.”5 While it is not easy to quantify the impact of active measures, there is no question that foreign powers like Russia and China, or non-state actors like ISIS, today have a much greater ability to use “fake news” or “alternative facts” to influence a democratic electorate than they did during the Cold War. What exactly has changed in the three decades since the Soviet Union tried to thwart Reagan’s reelection, making foreign propaganda far more likely to penetrate in the United States and other democracies?


pages: 299 words: 88,375

Gray Day: My Undercover Mission to Expose America's First Cyber Spy by Eric O'Neill

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, computer age, cryptocurrency, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full text search, index card, Internet of things, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, ransomware, rent control, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, thinkpad, web application, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, young professional

At the same time, they were pioneering desinformatsiya practices that spread disinformation and disruption in order to shape American political decisions. These active-measure (aktivinyye meropriatia) disinformation campaigns included media manipulation; use of front organizations (like the US affiliate of the World Peace Council, a secret Soviet affiliate) to sway public opinion; kidnappings; and provision of funds, training, and support to terrorist organizations, to name a few. In 1980, the CIA estimated that the Soviets spent a conservative $3 billion per year pursuing active measures. In his February 6, 1980, congressional testimony, John McMahon, the CIA deputy director for operations, stated that the Soviets’ active-measures network was “second to none in comparison to the major world powers in its size and effectiveness.” The 1980s saw a number of audacious—and highly successful—disinformation campaigns.

One involved spreading rumors of CIA and FBI involvement in President John F. Kennedy’s assassination. Another seeded foreign newspapers with articles—purportedly written by American scientists—claiming that AIDS was the result of the Pentagon’s experiments to develop biological weapons. During the 1984 Summer Olympics in Moscow, KGB spies in Washington, DC, sent fake letters from the KKK threatening athletes from African countries, an active measure many believe was a response to President Jimmy Carter’s boycott of the 1980 Moscow Games. Yet for all its successes abroad, the Soviet Union was suffering from serious internal tensions. In the late 1980s, massive independence protests swept across the Caucasus and the Baltic states, and soon the USSR’s constituent republics began to secede. On August 18, 1991, military and government hardliners staged a coup against Mikhail Gorbachev.

Each line of activity came under the direction of the KGB rezident, a spy operating out of a KGB First Chief Directorate rezidentura, typically an embassy. In Washington, DC, the rezident was an official member of the ambassador’s staff who had the covert job of spymaster. He operated out of the Soviet embassy, and all espionage lines reported to him. Degtyar’s Line PR collected information about political, economic, and military strategic intelligence and conducted active measures. Other lines pursued different tasks. Line X sought to acquire American technology and implement technical spying. Line KR gave the FBI the biggest headache. KR intelligence officers were the ones who recruited American spies. The mere existence of the letter would inform the KGB that the FBI had uncovered Degtyar. He dismissed thoughts of opening the inner letter, or burning it in his fireplace.


pages: 525 words: 131,496

Near and Distant Neighbors: A New History of Soviet Intelligence by Jonathan Haslam

active measures, Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, falling living standards, John von Neumann, lateral thinking, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Valery Gerasimov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, éminence grise

Moreover, his son-in-law, working for an aerospace company in Britain, was threatened with dismissal on the grounds that he had placed the firm in jeopardy—until, that is, the leader of the Socialist Party, Bettino Craxi, intervened.30 Later Bohnsack reported that the HVA in Berlin was asked to circulate disinformation on behalf of the Bulgarians. Among other active measures, they “sent messages signed by Turkish terrorists.”31 When the Bild Zeitung sent a reporter and a historian to interview Antonov at his apartment in Sofia, they were greeted by his wife and two men, one of whom introduced himself as Marin Petkov, president of the Association of Ex–Intelligence Officials. Bohnsack later identified Petkov as having headed active measures in the Bulgarian secret service.32 On May 28, 1983, two Bulgarians, “Jordan” Ormankov and “Stefan” Petkov, arrived in Italy, claiming to be magistrates. They gained access to Ağca in October 1983. The meetings apparently gave Petkov the opportunity to threaten that if Ağca did not disrupt the forthcoming trial, the Russians would take revenge.33 Thereafter, Ağca wrecked any attempt to sort out the true facts of the case and to prosecute anyone other than himself by feigning madness, declaring himself to be Jesus Christ.

Pride Before the Fall Conclusion: Out from the Shadows Appendix 1: Soviet Foreign Intelligence Organisations Appendix 2: Operatives Who Betrayed the Régime, Including Defectors Notes Bibliography Index A Note About the Author Also by Jonathan Haslam Copyright Guide Cover Table of Contents Intelligence is for us sacred, a matter of ideals. —Stalin Fear has large eyes. —Russian proverb RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE IDIOM (SOVIET PERIOD) Agenturíst: operative responsible for running agents Aktívnaya razvédka/aktívka (active intelligence): terrorism and sabotage Aktívnye meropriyátiya (active measures): black propaganda, dirty tricks, etc. Boevýe shífry: working ciphers Bol’shói Dom (literally, the “Big House”): Comintern; later the Lubyanka Chertvyórtyi: the Fourth Directorate of the Staff/General Staff, later GRU Dezá (dezinformátsiya): disinformation Enkavedíst: employee of the NKVD (GUGB), state security Ente-eróvsev: scientific and technical intelligence operative Gámma: ciphering sequence/one-time pad Gebíst: state security operative Geberóvskii: state security operative Gereúshnik: GRU operative Kagebíst/kagebéshnik: KGB operative Kirpích (literally, “brick”): watchman on delegations abroad Komitétchik (literally, “committee man”): KGB operative Kontóra (literally, “office”): KGB First Main Directorate at Yasenevo Krokíst: counterintelligence operative, state security (OGPU) Krýsha (literally, “roof”): cover Lástochnik (swallow): female operative employed for seduction Lesá (the woods): KGB school, later the First Main Directorate at Yasenevo Lózung: a crib for breaking open a cipher Marshrútnyi agént: employee of state security handling communications Nevidímyi front (invisible front): secret intelligence Óboroten (literally, “shapeshifter”): turncoat/traitor Omsóvets: operative in Comintern’s department for international communications Opér: abbreviation for either Operatívnyi sotrúdnik/ofitsér or Operabótnik Operabótnik: KGB operative Operatívnyi sotrúdnik/ofitsér: GRU operative Opertékhnik: a technical operative Operupolnomóchennyi: one responsible for a particular operation Osobísty: GRU officers Osóbye meropriyátiya (special measures): assassination and other tasks approved only by the Politburo Osóbye zadáchi (special tasks): assassination and other tasks approved only by the Politburo Osvedomítel’: information operative Pe-eróvets: political intelligence operative Podkrýshnik: operative under deep cover Razvédupr’ (Razvedyvatel ’noe upravlenie): a generic term for military intelligence Rezident: chief of a secret intelligence station Rezidentura: secret intelligence station Sapogí (boots): KGB term for GRU counterparts S”em (literally, “removal”): seizure of a traitor Shifrográmma: ciphered telegram Svád’ba (literally, “wedding”): seizure of a traitor Tsereúshnik: CIA officer Verbóvshchik: operative specialising in recruitment Vorón (“raven”): male operative employed for seduction Zagrantóchka: overseas post PREFACE The role of secret intelligence in the history of international relations has long been a neglected one.

The fact that he had survived even the ill-fated Yagoda and the hated Yezhov did not help.5 Striking continuities persisted, even following the spring cleaning after Stalin’s death. On September 3, 1953, for example, proposals put forward by First Deputy Minister of the MVD Sergei Kruglov and by Panyushkin, “to recognise the value of engaging in acts of terrorism”—a term later euphemistically changed to aktivka, or “active measures”—were turned into a decree providing for the organisation of a twelfth (special) department within the MVD’s foreign directorate.6 These were plans carried over from Beria by the head of the MVD’s First Directorate, Pyotr Fyodotov, and his deputy, Oleg Gribanov.7 Yet the men of the greatest experience most capable of leading the campaign, Pavel Sudoplatov and Naum Eitingon, remained incarcerated under special interrogation for having been closely associated with Beria.


Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America by Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall

active measures, air freight, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing

Embassy in Costa Rica.”44 It is clear from an FBI teletype released belatedly by the Select Committees that Terrell had been interviewed by them about “alleged . . . smuggling o f weapons and narcotics”4s FBI Agent Kevin Currier confirmed that he had questioned Garcia about “ narcotics trafficking with the Cubans.”46 FBI Executive Assistant Director Oliver Revell also testified later that the investigation focused on “allegations o f drug smuggling and gun smuggling and so forth.”47 In short, the Iran-Contra committees misled the U.S. public by tacitly backing the administration’s denials that there was a drug investigation in Miami. One man who perceived that the Miami investigation did involve narcotics allegations was Oliver North. In a memo he drafted for the president about Terrell (whom he called “ an active participant in the disinform ation/active measures campaign” against the Contras), he also described Terrell as “a cooperating witness in a neutrality investigation concerning alleged activities o f the Civilian Military Assistance (CMA) group—involving weapons and narcotics smuggling, plotting the assassination o f . . . Tambs, and bombing his embassy.”48 The Administration Moves to Silence the Terrell Story By this time the Corvo investigation, mired in conspiratorial subplots, had attracted the hostile interest o f North and Poindexter at the NSC 134 / Exposure and Cover-Up and o f Attorney General Meese and his deputy Lowell Jensen at the Justice Department.

Asked by House Iran-Contra committee counsel 138 / Exposure and Cover-Up “why they felt it was being so slow,‫ ״‬Revell gave as the first reason, “ It seems to me there was a civil suit‫— ״‬the Christie Institute suit.76 On June 3, North asked the FBI to have its Intelligence Division investigate the Christie Institute, along with other aspects o f what he and the FBI called a “Nicaraguan Active Measures Program‫ ״‬directed against North. In the words o f the Iran-Contra report, North “complained that the FBI . . . had not investigated Daniel Sheehan o f the Christie Institute . . . [and] had not examined allegations made by Senator Kerry against North.‫ ״‬Specifically North complained that the FBI had not learned from Daniel Sheehan o f the Christie Institute “ the source [i.e., Terrell] o f the allegations he provided against North,‫ ״‬and had not obtained “ the information presently at the Department o f Justice [which would include the rewritten Feldman memo] involving Senator Kerry’s allegations.”77 In June 1986 North apparently tried, and failed, to have the FBI’s Intelligence Division investigate both the Christie suit and the Kerry investigation.

., Terrell] o f the allegations he provided against North,‫ ״‬and had not obtained “ the information presently at the Department o f Justice [which would include the rewritten Feldman memo] involving Senator Kerry’s allegations.”77 In June 1986 North apparently tried, and failed, to have the FBI’s Intelligence Division investigate both the Christie suit and the Kerry investigation. The FBI had already concluded that “there is a definite association between the dates o f the Congressional votes on Contra aide [sic] to the Nicaraguan rebels and the ‘active measures’ being directed against Lieutenant Colonel North,” but trying to stay out o f a sensitive political fight between the White House and Congress, they declined to pursue the matter.78 (One month later North succeeded in using counterterrorism powers to invoke a different part o f the FBI to the same end.) On June 25, 1986, Terrell aired his charges about the relationship o f North and Owen to the John Hull ranch in Costa Rica on the CBS show “West 57th.”


pages: 394 words: 117,982

The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age by David E. Sanger

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, computer age, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, ransomware, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Herszenhorn and Ellen Barry, “Putin Contends Clinton Incited Unrest over Vote,” New York Times, December 9, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/12/09/world/europe/putin-accuses-clinton-of-instigating-russian-protests.html?mcubz=2. The United States did not exactly have clean hands: Two informative sources on this history are Evan Osnos, David Remnick, and Joshua Yaffa, “Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War,” New Yorker, March 6, 2017, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/06/trump-putin-and-the-new-cold-war; and Calder Walton, “ ‘Active Measures’: A History of Russian Interference in US Elections,” Prospect, December 23, 2016, www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/science-and-technology/active-measures-a-history-of-russian-interference-in-us-elections. Putin’s moral equivalence: As Jackson Diehl of the Washington Post would later suggest of the 2016 US election: “Putin developed an obsession with ‘color revolutions,’ which he is convinced are neither spontaneous nor locally organized, but orchestrated by the United States…Putin is trying to deliver to the American political elite what he believes is a dose of its own medicine.

Though she was one of the State Department’s top diplomats, she also briefly wondered about her job, until a few days later when she attended a state dinner at the White House and, seeing President Obama, repeated her apology directly to him. When he smiled and said, in a low voice, “Fuck ’em,” a clear reference to the Russians, she knew she was OK. * * * — The broadcast of the Nuland-Pyatt phone call marked a turning point for Russian “active measures.” The public release of the recording was just the start. As the year wore on Russia kept pouring non-uniformed troops into parts of Ukraine, and accompanying the surge with what Gen. Philip Breedlove, the NATO commander, called “the most amazing information warfare blitzkrieg we have ever seen in the history of information warfare.” Ukraine and other states, he urged, needed plans to launch counter-propaganda efforts, and perhaps counter-cyberattacks.

For Putin, who looked at social media’s role in fomenting rebellion in the Middle East and organizing opposition to Russia in Ukraine, the notion of calling into question just who was on the other end of a Tweet or Facebook post—of making revolutionaries think twice before reaching for their smartphones to organize—would be a delightful by-product. It gave him two ways to undermine his adversaries for the price of one. It may be years, if ever, before there is any clear understanding of how large a role Putin himself played in developing and executing “active measures” for the Internet age. He is not known as a user of social media himself. But he had a KGB alumnus’s appreciation of its power. As start-ups go, the Internet Research Agency (called Glavset by the Russians) rose pretty fast. By sometime in 2013, it was getting its foothold in Saint Petersburg and began hiring. Soon it operated on a multimillion-dollar budget whose source is still murky.


The Road to Unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America by Timothy Snyder

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, crony capitalism, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Robert Mercer, sexual politics, Transnistria, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

* * * — The Soviet secret police—known over time as the Cheka, the GPU, the NKVD, the KGB, and then in Russia as the FSB—excelled in a special sort of operation known as “active measures.” Intelligence is about seeing and understanding. Counterintelligence is about making that difficult for others. Active measures, such as the operation on behalf of the fictional character “Donald Trump, successful businessman,” are about inducing the enemy to direct his own strengths against his own weaknesses. America was crushed by Russia in the cyberwar of 2016 because the relationship between technology and life had changed in a way that gave an advantage to the Russian practitioners of active measures. The cold war, by the 1970s and 1980s, was a technological competition for the visible consumption of attractive goods in the real world.

Although Flynn had been the head of the Defense Intelligence Agency and was under consideration for national security advisor, he illegally took money from foreign governments without reporting that he had done so, while tweeting hither and thither various conspiracy theories. Flynn spread the idea that Hillary Clinton was a sponsor of pedophilia. He was also taken in by the story, enthusiastically spread by Russia, that Democratic leaders took part in Satanic rituals. He used his own Twitter account to spread that story, and thus, like a number of other American conspiracy theorists, became a participant in Russian active measures directed against the United States. In the fog of mental confusion that surrounded Flynn, it was easy to overlook his peculiar connections to Russia. Flynn was permitted to see the headquarters of Russian military intelligence, which he visited in 2013. When invited to a seminar on intelligence at Cambridge in 2014, he befriended a Russian woman, signing his emails to her “General Misha”—a Russian diminutive meaning “Mike.”


pages: 262 words: 80,257

The Eureka Factor by John Kounios

active measures, Albert Einstein, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Flynn Effect, functional fixedness, Google Hangouts, impulse control, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, US Airways Flight 1549, Wall-E, William of Occam

RANDOM HOUSE and the HOUSE colophon are registered trademarks of Penguin Random House LLC. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Kounios, John. The eureka factor: aha moments, creative insight, and the brain / John Kounios and Mark Beeman. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-1-4000-6854-8 eBook ISBN 978-0-679-64529-0 1. Insight. 2. Intuition. 3. Thought and thinking—Physiological aspects. 4. Higher nervous activity—Measurement. 5. Cognition—Physiological aspects. I. Beeman, Mark. II. Title. QP395.K65 2015 612.82332—dc23 2014022220 www.atrandom.com Illustrations on 2.1, 2.2, 4.1-4.3, 6.1, 7.2, and 10.2 are by Sharon O’Brien, and illustrations on 3.5 and 12.1 are by Casey Hampton. Book design by Casey Hampton v3.1 PREFACE “Eureka!” No one knows for sure whether Archimedes really shouted this word, jumped from his bathtub, and ran through the streets of ancient Syracuse proclaiming his latest discovery.

Sometimes you have to isolate yourself and focus your attention inwardly to allow a new idea to surface. The brain can achieve this state of inward focus in several ways. THE IDLING BRAIN * * * Our first neuroimaging study, which we described in Chapter 5, produced a finding that took us a while to understand. Recall that at the moment of insight there is a burst of EEG gamma waves in the right hemisphere. About a second before that, there is a burst of EEG alpha-wave activity measured on the right side of the back of the head (see figure 7.1). When neurons fire at the slower alpha frequency, they aren’t actively processing information. A useful analogy is that of idling your car by shifting the transmission into park. The car is working, but it isn’t going anywhere. Alpha is a neuron’s park. So, just before an insight, a region in the back of the brain downshifts into alpha.

This can make it difficult for them to shut out distractions, such as the sound of a nearby conversation, when they are trying to work. It’s not that they can’t focus when they need to. In fact, for relatively short periods, they can focus at least as well as other people, perhaps better. But this isn’t their natural state, so it’s a bit harder for them to sustain it. Our brain wave findings illustrate this principle. Figure 11.1 shows a map of EEG brain wave activity measured at the back of the head. It shows a major difference between our Insightfuls and Analysts. These electrodes (shown as dark dots) lie over the visual cortex, which is in the back of the brain. As shown by the white oval on the map, we detected more visual cortex activity for Insightfuls compared with the Analysts. Even in a resting state, the Insightfuls’ brains were doing more visual information processing.


pages: 476 words: 139,761

Kleptopia: How Dirty Money Is Conquering the World by Tom Burgis

active measures, Anton Chekhov, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Covid-19, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, energy security, Etonian, failed state, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Julian Assange, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, WikiLeaks

In his interview, he had claimed that McCormick had informed him that John Lough had been hired on the recommendation of Bob Dudley, a falsehood that could implicate the top BP man in Russia in the espionage narrative. Novosyolov accurately explained some insignificant aspects of Lough and Zaslavskiy’s work, but he also furnished the FSB’s investigators with several false details that could assist them as they conjured up a spy ring. Their case was taking shape like the best of the KGB’s ‘active measures’ from the Cold War: take a few threads of truth, stitch in the necessary fictions and weave it all together to form the lie you require. Ilya Zaslavskiy and his brother faced between five and twenty years in prison. Because they held their nerve and refused to confess, the best that a kangaroo court could concoct was a conviction for a failed attempt at industrial espionage. They were given a suspended sentence of a year’s imprisonment and two years’ probation, with a life of self-imposed exile to follow.

To help paint this picture, he revealed a dossier of secret documents outlining something called ‘Project Super Khan’. Some of the documents were clearly genuine; others were harder to authenticate. They showed that Nazarbayev was determined to bring the oligarchs to heel, as Putin had in Russia, to make the state itself the oligarch-in-chief, harnessing its powers to his private ambitions. Against any oligarch who failed to submit to this new order, Nazarbayev’s servants would use ‘active measures’, just as the Soviets had. They would turn the protections the exiles sought in the West against them by passing to Western law enforcement agencies evidence of the improper origins of the recalcitrant tycoons’ fortunes. Nazarbayev had reason to be disquieted. In his world, there were only two elements to power: money and, when that was insufficient, fear. Popular consent had nothing to do with it, even if you had to go through the occasional sham election so that you and your allies at home and abroad could pretend your rule was legitimate.

., 410n National Security Council (NSC) (USA), 17, 285 Nazarbayev, Nursultan, 106; and loyalty, 10–12, 67–9, 111–15, 116, 123–5, 127, 172–3, 303; and the Trio, 10–14, 94, 123–5, 127, 132, 158–9, 198, 210–12, 245, 294, 300; crushing of opposition, 12, 67–9, 111–15, 116, 127, 160–1, 166; secret bank accounts in West, 14, 112, 155–6, 160, 161, 226; designs on BTA, 61, 62, 64, 67–9, 110, 116; expropriation of BTA, 62–3, 64–6, 69, 103–5, 116–17, 144, 190–1, 205, 235; and Astana’s architecture, 63, 330; and oil industry, 78, 143–50, 156–7, 369n; assets in Britain, 107, 362n; ‘active measures’ against oligarchs, 115; use of British courts, 116–17, 159–60, 190–1, 192, 196, 237, 238, 246–8, 255–6, 296–7, 394n; Sasha as enforcer for, 123–5, 198, 235, 245; Zhanaozen massacre (December 2011), 140–53, 154–5, 163, 165–8, 195, 292, 297–8, 369–70n; mansion at Kendirli, 142; visit to Zhanaozen (December 2011), 148–9, 167; Tony Blair as consultant, 154–5, 161, 163, 165, 166, 372n; Cambridge speech (July 2012), 154–5, 163–6, 168–9, 372–3n; ‘Kazakhgate’ in USA, 156–7, 160; and propaganda, 161, 196, 256, 264; Aitken’s biography of, 162, 372n; and Third Way, 163, 372n; and ENRC buyout/delisting, 210, 211–12; use of US courts, 238, 244–9, 324, 395–6n; Kazaword material, 256–7, 258, 259–60, 264–5, 292; and Fraenkel’s Dual State, 268; Ablyazov’s opposition from France, 295–6; steps down from presidency (March 2019), 295, 409n; and Nicolas Sarkozy, 305–6 Nazi Germany, 26, 32; as Fraenkel’s Dual State, 37–8 Nemtsov, Boris, 34, 233–5, 236, 237, 321, 347n, 390–1n Netanyahu, Benjamin, 337 New Labour, 14, 163, 187, 372n New York: Russian mobsters in, 75–6, 77–87, 356–7n; Italian crime families, 76–7, 78–9, 83–4, 314, 338, 356–7n; Italian-Russian fuel scams, 77–9, 179, 201, 356n; criminal infiltration of Wall Street, 83–4; Bayrock Group, 84–5, 110, 126–7, 199–200, 314, 315, 357n, 362n, 366–7n; real estate market, 84–5, 87, 110, 126–7, 199–200, 314, 315; pursuit of Ablyazov in courts, 244–9, 324, 395–6n Nice (France), 205–6, 246–7, 252, 255 Nigeria, 273, 400n North Korea, 322 Northern Rock, 8, 29, 59 Novikova, Anastasiya, 113–14 Novosyolov, Sergei, 22, 342–3n, 345n Nurgaliyev, Nurlibek, 146, 147, 369n Nurkadilov, Zamanbek, 111 Obama, Barack, 274, 275, 321, 400n Obiang, Teodorin, 201 Occupy London camp, 136, 137, 369n Och, Daniel, 54, 56 ‘offshore’ system, 155, 176–7, 225–6, 240–1, 294, 387n; Swiss bankers establish, 26–7; size of, 27, 346n; and Nigel Wilkins, 28–9, 186–8, 215, 216–17, 271–2; ownership of commercial property, 29, 347n; and Fat Larry’s fuel stations, 77; and hedge funds’ money, 186–7 Ogay, Eduard, 157, 371n oil industry: Caspian Sea reserves, 10, 140–2, 156; TNK-BP joint venture, 16–23, 182, 285, 303, 342–5n; Yukos, 34, 35–6, 38–43, 64, 65; OzenMunaiGaz (OMG) labour strike, 140–53, 154–5, 163, 165–8, 195, 292, 297–8, 369–70n; American kickbacks to Nazarbayev, 156–7, 226; Mobil’s purchase of Tengiz field, 156–7; and dirty money, 201, 273, 320, 330, 338, 417n; and Equatorial Guinea, 201; and ‘Petro’ kleptocrats, 338; Chechen oil, 391n oligarchs: infiltration of City of London, 12–15, 16, 121–2, 128–31, 367n; TNK-BP joint venture, 16–23, 182, 285, 303, 342–5n; Yukos expropriation, 34, 35–6, 38–43, 64, 65; Khodorkovsky prosecution, 35–6, 38–9, 40–3, 64, 65; birth of in Yeltsin era, 35, 347n; Putin brings to heel, 35, 38–43, 65, 115; emergence of new crop loyal to Putin, 42–3; Nazarbayev’s ‘active measures’ against, 115; in Wilkins’ red boxes, 138, 330; in Ukraine, 224, 225, 289 see also the Trio and entries for individuals Olisa, Ken, 13, 210, 367n Omar, Mullah, 82 Opec, 338 Orange Revolution (2004–5), 224–5, 330 Osborne, George, 170, 187, 209, 241, 373n, 386n, 394–5n OzenMunaiGaz (OMG), 140–53, 154–5, 163, 165–8, 195, 292, 297–8, 369–70n Pacolli, Behgjet, 11–12, 330, 342n Panama, 28, 202, 315, 384–5n, 414n Panama Papers, 328, 403n, 419n Paris, 190–2; Ablyazov’s extradition case, 251–2, 255, 257–8, 260–70, 291, 297, 398–9n Parker, Judge Katharine H., 386n, 395n, 396n, 409–10n, 418n Patriot Act, US, 200 Pavlov, Alexandr (Ablyazov’s bodyguard), 191, 195, 263, 268, 291, 383n, 399n Persico, Danny, 83, 357n Petelin, Dimi, 109, 203, 205 Petelin, Gennady, 109, 205, 245, 386n Petropavlovsk (gold mining company), 394n Petrushova, Irina, 160–1, 371n Philippines, 50, 337, 350–1n Pinochet, Augusto, 50, 262, 351n, 398n platinum, 49, 56, 277, 351–2n Pluzhnikov, Igor, 330–1, 332 political power, privatisation of: and Russian capitalism, 9–12, 24, 35, 39–40, 95–6, 98–9, 100–2, 154–69, 370–3n; role of money, 24, 48, 54–7, 61–2, 73, 120, 137–9, 162–3, 183, 224–7, 296–7; and Yeltsin, 39–40, 100–2; in Mugabe’s Zimbabwe, 48, 52–4, 55–7, 73, 185–6, 277, 306–7, 336; in the Congo, 51–3, 56, 276, 277, 279, 280, 284, 306, 307–8, 413n; and City/hedge fund finance, 54–7, 120, 121, 137–9, 185–6, 280–1, 404–5n; the Trio in Africa, 73, 135, 173, 174, 275–87, 306, 308–9; Nazarbayev regime, 111–16, 154–69, 210–13, 236, 237–8, 291–8, 370–3n; use of Western courts, 116–17, 159–60, 190–1, 192, 196, 237, 238, 246–8, 255–6, 296–7, 394n; and consultancy work, 162–3, 211–12, 372n; ‘presumption of regularity’ concept, 195–6, 322; Ukraine as frontier/membrane, 221–2, 224–7, 316–17; Nemtsov’s stand against, 234–5, 236–7; enormous success of perpetrators, 275; truth as secondary, 295; and emergence of Trump, 312–16; end of Cold War as trigger, 314–16; by Trump administration, 316–24, 418–19n; global alliance of kleptocrats, 319–22, 324, 336, 416–17n, 423n; and selective justice, 327–9; and Panama Papers, 328; Soares de Oliveira’s use of term, 373n see also entries for individual kleptocrats and countries Portland (PR consultancy), 117, 196, 253, 383n Potanin, Vladimir, 35 precious stones, 9–10, 49 Presti, Karim, 353–4n, 353n Prince, Erik, 106, 274, 400n Private Eye, 136, 342n, 352n, 354n Proceeds of Crime Act (2002), 71 Prokhorov, Vadim, 390n, 391n Prosper, Pierre, 307, 413n prostitutes, use of, 15, 122 pump-and-dump schemes, 75, 81, 82, 83, 85–6, 204, 313 Putin, Vladimir, 342n; and Peter Sahlas, 33, 34; takes power (2000), 34; and Semyon Mogilevich, 184, 382n; and VEB, 225–6; golden presidential toilet, 233, 237, 390–1n Putin regime: arrest of Mogilevich (2008), 15–16, 182–3, 381n; as gangster state, 16, 182–4; FSB as central cog, 18–23; and Litvinenko murder, 18, 20–1, 344n, 382n; Khodorkovsky prosecution, 34, 35–6, 38–9, 40–3, 64, 65; and ‘the utility of legitimacy’, 38–9; and gas supply to Europe, 181–2, 222, 224, 289, 381n; conquest of eastern Ukraine (2014), 221, 233, 237, 311, 388n; economic base in eastern Ukraine, 225–7, 316; annexation of Crimea (2015), 242 PwC, 13, 65, 231, 342n Qatar, 330 Raffe, Victoria, 386n Raiffeisen (Austrian bank), 181, 182 Rakishev, Kenes, 235–6, 237, 238, 244, 324, 392n, 393n, 418n Rappo, Patrick, 173–4 Ratzel, Max-Peter, 365n Rautenbach, Billy, 350n; background of, 48–9; and the Crocodile, 49, 51, 53, 306–7; and Congolese mining rights, 51–3, 56, 280–3; at Elephant Hills (July 2000), 52–3, 306, 308, 351n; deal funding Mugabe’s 2008 election violence, 56–7, 73, 277, 336, 351–2n; resolves legal problems in South Africa, 72–3, 355n; and ENRC in Africa, 73, 276–8, 284, 285, 406n; sanctioned as Mugabe crony, 277, 278, 401n; sanctions on lifted, 306–7; as prosperous white farmer in Zimbabwe, 306 Raytheon (military contractor), 318 real estate: and money laundering, 76, 200–1, 202–5, 236, 245–7, 305, 314–16, 324–5, 384–5n, 384n, 392–3n; Bayrock Group, 84–5, 110, 126–7, 199–200, 314, 315, 357n, 362n, 366–7n; and Felix Sater, 84–5, 87, 110, 126, 199–200, 203–5, 313–14, 315, 324–5, 385–6n, 414–15n; and Iliyas Khrapunov, 199–200, 203–5, 245, 246–7, 314, 324, 385–6n; and peso scams, 202, 315, 384n; and Grenfell survivors in Kensington, 289, 408n; Sater and Trump, 313–14, 315, 324–5, 414–15n reality television, 312–13, 314 Red October steel mill (Ukraine), 223–4 Reed Smith (City lawyers), 257–8, 397n, 398n, 410n Reuben brothers, 132–3, 159, 175, 368n, 376n Rich, Marc, 51–2 Rights and Accountability in Development (Raid), 352n, 401–2n Risk Analysis (private intelligence agency), 29, 332–3, 346n Ritual Service (undertakers), 379n RJI Capital, 259, 362n, 398n Robertson, Patrick, 261–5, 294, 398n, 399n Rome, 191–4, 195–7, 198, 251, 252–5, 291–2, 397n Rosneft (Russian state oil company), 43 RosUkrEnergo, 181–2, 226, 331, 374–5n, 381n Rothschild, 13 Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), 62, 117, 177, 365n Rozenbaum, Vadim, 361n Rubio Holdings, 403n Rudny (Kazakh iron mine), 94–5, 128–31, 133–5 Russia (post-Soviet): Peter Sahlas in, 33–4, 69; Yeltsin’s reforms, 33–5, 100, 102, 361n; civil legal code for post-communist era, 33, 34, 36; and Fraenkel’s Dual State, 38–9; corruption under Yeltsin, 100–2, 330, 361n, 420n; ‘aluminium wars’, 132; Moscow police and Seva, 177–8, 180; conquest of eastern Ukraine (2014), 221, 233, 237, 311, 388n; Nemtsov murder (2015), 233–5, 237, 321, 390–1n; annexation of Crimea (2015), 242; demands Ablyazov’s extradition, 255, 265; Trump’s connections to, 303, 310, 311, 315, 325–6, 414–15n; interference in US election (2016), 310, 311; global alliance of kleptocrats, 319; interference in British politics, 337; as Ur of Kleptopia, 337 see also capitalism, Russian; Putin regime Rutskoi, Aleksandr, 100–2, 174, 361n Rwanda, 51, 328 Rybolovlev, Dmitry, 315 Sahlas, Peter, 347n, 354n; background of, 30–1; and Russian legal system, 30, 33, 34, 36, 38–9, 40, 42, 43; in Czechoslovakia (1990), 31–2; in Soviet Union (1991), 32–3; moves to Russia (1996), 33–4; and Fraenkel’s Dual State, 36, 38–9, 348n; and Yukos defence team, 36, 38–43, 64, 65, 190; and BTA case, 64–6, 69, 103–5, 160, 190–1; Tower 42 meeting with Ablyazov, 65–9, 103, 116, 255, 260; and role of psychology in history, 103; life in Paris, 190–2; and Ablyazov kidnapping, 192–7, 251, 252–5, 263, 291–2; ‘presumption of regularity’ concept, 195–6, 322; and Ablyazov extradition case, 251–2, 255, 257–8, 260–70, 291, 297; and Kazaword material, 256–7, 258, 259–60, 264–5; threats and abuse from Patrick Robertson, 260–5, 294, 398n; ‘The Dual State Takes Hold in Russia: A Challenge for the West’, 349n Sam Pa (Chinese businessman), 336 Sants, Hector, 342n Sapir, Tamir, 314 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 266, 305–6 Sarsenbayev, Altynbek, 111, 113 Sater, Felix, 355–6n, 366–7n; background of, 74–5; pump-and-dump fraud, 74, 75, 81, 82, 84, 85–7, 204; sentencing hearing before Judge Glasser (October 2009), 74, 75, 82–7, 355n, 357n; as US intelligence agent in Russia, 81–2; as FBI informant, 82–4, 86, 87, 199, 249, 313; New York Times reveals criminal record, 84–5, 199–200, 357n; and real estate, 84–5, 87, 110, 126, 199–200, 313–14, 315, 324–5, 414–15n; real estate project with Iliyas, 110, 198, 199–200, 203–5, 245, 246–7, 314, 324, 385–6n; and Ablyazov kidnapping, 198, 253, 383n; turns against Iliyas and Ablyazov, 204–5, 238, 244–9, 324, 395–6n; pursuit of Ablyazov in US courts, 244–9, 324, 395–6n; and Donald J.


pages: 443 words: 116,832

The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Nate Silver, “Donald Trump Had a Superior Electoral College Strategy,” FiveThirtyEight, February 6, 2017. For a discussion of turnout in various demographic groups, see Bernard L. Fraga, Sean McElwee, Jesse Rhodes, and Brian Schaffner, “Why Did Trump Win? More Whites—and Fewer Blacks—Actually Voted,” Washington Post Monkey Cage Blog, May 8, 2017. 84. For the definitive history of Soviet active measures, see Thomas Rid, Active Measures: The Secret History of Disinformation and Political Warfare (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2020). 85. Mueller, “Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election,” 42. 86. The phrase “de facto instrument of Russian intelligence” originates with Scott Shane, a New York Times reporter who reflected after the election on how the Russians had managed to “hack journalism.”

Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, Boris Alekseyevich Antonov, Dmitriy Sergeyevich Badin, Ivan Sergeyevich Yermakov, Aleksey Viktorovich Lukashev, Sergey Aleksandrovich Morgachev, Nikolay Yuryevich Kozachek, Pavel Vyacheslavovich Yershov, Artem Andreyevich Malyshev, Aleksandor Vladimirovich Osadchuk, Aleksey Aleksandrovich Potemkin, and Anatoliy Sergeyevich Kovalev, US District Court, District of Columbia, indictment filed July 13, 2018, 8. 14. Lipton, Sanger, and Shane, “The Perfect Weapon.” 15. For the seminal analysis of this activity, see Thomas Rid, “Disinformation: A Primer in Russian Active Measures and Influence Campaigns,” Hearing before Select Committee on Intelligence, US Senate, March 30, 2017, 4. 16. Thomas Rid, “How Russia Pulled Off the Biggest Election Hack in U.S. History,” Esquire, October 20, 2016. 17. United States of America v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho et al., 7. 18. United States of America v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho et al., 4–5; “En Route with Sednit,” research paper series, ESET [IT security company], October 20, 2016. 19.


The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew

active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

It was best and simplest, from the Chilean point of view, to keep the CIA on a string with the occasional piece of intelligence, but otherwise to keep them shut out.60 Though the revelations of the ‘Year of Intelligence’ exposed undoubted serious abuses, they also gave rise to best-selling conspiracy theories – chief among them the unfounded claim, which a majority of Americans believed and the KGB did its best to encourage, that the CIA was responsible for the assassination of John F. Kennedy.61* If the CIA had been involved in killing its own President, it was reasonable to conclude that there were no limits to which the Agency would not go to subvert foreign regimes and assassinate other statesmen who had incurred its displeasure. KGB ‘active measures’ (influence operations) successfully promoted the belief that the methods which the CIA had used to attempt to kill Castro and destabilize his regime were being employed against ‘progressive’ governments around the world. One Soviet active-measure operation in the Middle East in 1975 named forty-five leading statesmen who had, allegedly, been the victims of successful or unsuccessful Agency assassination attempts over the past decade. Indira Gandhi was one of a number of Third World leaders preoccupied by supposed CIA plots against them.62 In November 1973 she told Fidel Castro: ‘What they [the CIA] have done to Allende they want to do to me also.

., 295, 435, 680, 688 Kennedy, Captain Malcolm, 635–6 Kent, Sherman, 1, 9, 10, 745* Kent, Tyler, 592 Kenya, 719–20, 735 Keppel, Alice, 433 Kerensky, Alexander, 504, 549, 552–3 Kernochan, Frederic, 605 Kerrigan, John, 265 Keynes, John Maynard, 517 KGB ‘active measures’ in Third World, 8, 688, 689–91 agents in Cold War USA, 684–7, 709, 711 Bakatin as last chairman of, 704–5 Cheka as forerunner, 7, 110–11 Cold War penetration of embassies in Moscow, 674–5 covert actions during Cold War, 8, 680–82, 688, 689–91 covert activity as ‘active measures’, 2 cryptanalysis during Cold War, 674 First Chief (Foreign Intelligence) Directorate (FCD), 689, 692, 693–4, 698, 712–13, 714 Gordievsky as agent of SIS, 696, 713–14 and ‘ideological subversion’, 4, 100, 105, 107–8, 130†, 698–700, 751 ignorance of Western society, 697–8 illegals, 593–4, 622, 626, 665, 666, 673, 681–2, 699, 714–15, 751 as immune from domestic criticism in 1970s, 687 informers, 107–8, 698–9 and Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories, 688 and Mitrokhin (FCD) archive, 712–13, 714–15, 747‡, 750–51 network of informers, 107–8 officers as more influential than diplomats, 689–90 subversion in India, 64, 690 Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, 87, 88 Khalid ibn al-Walid, 93–4, 95 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, 718, 729, 758 Khan, Dr A.

George Tenet, director of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) at the beginning of the twenty-first century, summed up the Agency’s main mission in three words: ‘We steal secrets.’3 During the Cold War, Allen Dulles, the longest-serving CIA director, wrote that, over the centuries, intelligence organizations had also shown themselves ‘an ideal vehicle for conspiracy’.4 From earliest times, intelligence has often involved covert operations intended to influence the course of events by methods ranging from deception to assassination – ‘active measures’, as the twentieth-century KGB called them. Deception involving a bogus defector played a key role in the Athenian victory at the naval Battle of Salamis in 480 BC, at a critical moment during the invasion of Greece by the Persian Empire. For the next two and a half millennia, however, the Salamis deception attracted only a tiny fraction of the interest aroused by the fictional deception of the Trojan Horse, which first featured in Homer’s Odyssey and later, in greater detail, in the Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil.5 Even in the twenty-first century, public understanding of intelligence operations is frequently coloured – if not confused – by spy fiction.


pages: 240 words: 74,182

This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality by Peter Pomerantsev

"side hustle", 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, citizen journalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, mega-rich, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, South China Sea

This was where BBC Monitoring was based, where eighty monitors, all fluent linguists, would listen to the output of Soviet media in forty-two languages, which it broadcast no less intently than the BBC. Radio Moscow’s usual style was so stiff it made the BBC feel informal. It would reel off statistics from Communist Party plenums about the supposed success of the Soviet Economy, the Onward March of Socialism across the world; state that the Objective, Scientific Progress of History was still inevitable … Even when it peddled what the KGB called ‘active measures’ – disinformation campaigns that claimed, for instance, that the US had invented AIDS as a weapon – it would do so with a Soviet seriousness, including interviews with fake scientists providing fake evidence, but all determined to keep up a facade of factuality. In 1983 BBC Monitoring noticed something most unusual: a presenter on Radio Moscow’s English Service began to call Soviet soldiers who had invaded Afghanistan ‘occupiers’ rather than the official ‘limited contingent’ of ‘internationalist warriors’ bringing help to the ‘fraternal people of Afghanistan’.17 What the presenter, a previously unassuming man called Vladimir Danchev, was doing was unheard of.

In Russia, Kremlin-controlled media heads and stars insist that broadcasters such as the BBC can’t be trusted as they all have hidden agendas,3 that ‘objectivity is a myth that is proposed and imposed on us’.4 It’s a far cry from Radio Moscow, with its commitment to upholding scientific, Marxist truth. And you can see the difference in the content. When, in the 1980s, Radio Moscow broadcast ‘active measures’ claiming that the CIA had invented AIDS as a weapon against Africa, the lies were carefully curated over many years. They involved scientists in East Germany who had supposedly found the evidence. An effort was made to make the elaborate lie look real. Today the Russian media and officials push similar stories, claiming that American factories were pumping out the Zika virus in East Ukraine to poison ethnic Russians, that the US is harvesting Russian DNA to create gene weapons,5 that the US is encircling Russia with secret biological warfare labs.


The End of the Cold War: 1985-1991 by Robert Service

active measures, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier

Soviet military analysts denied that Warsaw Pact forces had numerical superiority over NATO.28 The Committee of Soviet Scientists for Peace Against the Nuclear Threat took the same line – Roald Sagdeev and Andrei Kokoshin warned that the idea of a ‘limited nuclear war’ was a dangerous nonsense.29 The American political establishment accepted such tracts as unavoidable in a free society, and everyone in Washington recognized that it was impossible to insist upon publishing pro-Reagan booklets in Moscow. The Reagan administration did, however, take exception to the Kremlin’s continuing campaigns of disinformation. ‘Soviet active measures’ were spreading downright lies about America’s foreign policy. Republican Congressman Dan Lungren was emphatic that this activity had to stop if the Soviet leaders truly hoped for a rapprochement with America. The Party Secretariat and KGB made use of a range of outlets, including the Western peace movement, to undermine NATO’s purposes.30 CIA Director Casey pointed out that international friendship societies and various other ‘front organizations’ were favourite means for disseminating the contents of Politburo policies.

Reagan, Speaking My Mind, pp. 178–9. 5. Ibid., pp. 176–7. 6. Ibid. 7. C. Weinberger (interview), HIGFC (HIA), box 3, folder 4, p. 40. 8. P. Robinson in his interview with G. P. Shultz, 10 June 2002, p. 5: Peter Robinson Papers (HIA), box 21. 9. Author’s interview with Charles Hill, 22 July 2011. 10. Ibid. 11. C. Weinberger, Report to Defense Department, 25 November 1983, pp. 1–4: RRPL, John Lenczowsky Files, box 1, Active Measures. 12. E. Teller to R. Reagan, 23 July 1983: Jim Mann Papers (HIA), box 55. 13. W. D. Suit to G. H. Bush, 5 March 1981, pp. 1–2: William J. Casey Papers (HIA), box 566, folder 10. 14. US Embassy (Islamabad) to Secretary of State, 4 October 1983: ISLAMA 17012: Digital National Security Archive. 15. Interview with A. G. Kovalëv: Novaya gazeta, July 1996. 16. V. N. Tsygichko (testimony), in Military Planning for European Theatre Conflict During the Cold War: An Oral History Roundtable, Stockholm, 24–25 April 2006, p. 184. 17.

Evans, Soviet Marxism: The Decline of an Ideology, pp. 105–6. 6. Memorandum on ‘hostile aspirations and anti-Soviet actions of the Lithuanian reactionary emigration against the Lithuanian SSR’, 15 April 1985: Lithuanian SSR KGB (HIA), K-1/3/784, p. 4; P. Goble and A. Worobij to National Security Council, ‘USSR: The Counterpropaganda Apparatus in the Ukraine’ 12 October 1983, pp. 1–2: RRPL, John Lenczowsky Files, box 1, Active Measures. See also A. A. Snyder, Warriors of Disinformation: American Propaganda, Soviet Lies, and the Winning of the Cold War: An Insider’s Account, pp. 26–7. 7. USPS booklet (1985), pp. 17–18: Center for International Civil Society (HIA), box 88, folder 1. 8. USSR KGB to Comrade Zvezdenkov, 7 January 1983: Lithuanian SSR KGB (HIA), K-1/3/775. 9. USSR KGB to the KGB leaderships in Tallinn, Vilnius, Riga, Grodno and Pskov, 9 March 1983: ibid. 10.


pages: 438 words: 146,246

Next Stop Execution: The Autobiography of Oleg Gordievsky by Oleg Gordievsky

active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban sprawl, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, working poor

My task was to acquire contacts in places like the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other government departments, as well as in the political parties, the trade unions and the media — any organization through which the KGB might be able to influence public opinion. I might, for example, cultivate the head of an organization opposed to the European Common Market, because the policy of the Kremlin and the KGB was to split Europe and prevent its consolidation. This kind of manoeuvring could be quite stimulating and yet, perhaps because I was older and more experienced, I saw how ineffective the bulk of KGB work was. Most of it was what we called ‘active measures’, and amounted to no more than attempts at manipulating public opinion through speeches, newspaper articles and brochures. There was practically no real intelligence work, in the form of recruiting agents: although we continued to hunt for contacts, the Danes proved exceptionally resistant to our overtures. Prosperous, fired by patriotism, a sense of duty and integrity, they did not want to be recruited.

His career went off to a flying start when he recruited, as agent, the bearded left-wing Danish photographer Jacob Holdt, who had worked in the United States and specialized in taking pictures of slums and drug-addicts, presenting them as the true face of America. Holdt’s work had already appeared in exhibitions and in books, but Gribin cultivated him assiduously. He then had the nerve to inform the Centre that all Holdt’s photographs derived from active measures of the KGB, which had been carrying on its normal task of running down America. The Centre swallowed this, and gave Gribin high credit. Thereafter he withdrew from operational work, and concentrated exclusively on administration, taking infinite pains to please his bosses in Moscow. He studied their habits and preferences minutely, and, whenever he went home on leave, took them presents of things that they particularly coveted, something optical for one, something electronic for another, books for a third, medicine for a fourth, pornographic videos for a fifth.

I also revealed that it was the International Department of the Central Committee which dictated Soviet foreign policy. (Until then, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office had believed that policy was set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.) I provided much information about Soviet policy towards numerous other nations and geographical areas, not least the Arctic, the Antarctic, and the world’s oceans. My revelations about the KGB’s ‘active measures’ — attempts to manipulate Western public opinion — helped Britain and the United States to make sound judgements. Through my activities, the British government and MI5 received confirmation that their policy towards Soviet espionage in Britain was proving effective. Their new policy of setting a ‘diplomatic ceiling’, and fixing a limited number of ‘slots’ for Soviet diplomats, critically weakened the KGB in Britain.


pages: 571 words: 111,306

The Design and Engineering of Curiosity: How the Mars Rover Performs Its Job by Emily Lakdawalla

3D printing, active measures, centre right, data acquisition, Kuiper Belt, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii

DAN cannot be used in active mode at the same time as some other rover activities because of the neutrons it generates. Examples include ChemCam observations, CheMin analyses, and driving or arm motion. There were nearly 500 DAN active experiments performed over the course of the mission up to sol 1417. DAN has operated throughout the mission with no significant gaps in coverage; nearly every rover stop is documented with a DAN active measurement. DAN active measurements have fed back into tactical planning. DAN measurements of abundant thermal neutrons on sol 991, combined with unusual ChemCam measurements of rocks in the same area, led to the drilling of the high-silica target Buckskin below Marias pass on sol 1060. DAN had the opportunity to experiment on silica-rich materials at the Greenhorn and Lubango sites on sols 1144 and 1329. 8.3.4 Anomalies The three-year expected lifetime of DAN’s neutron generator ran out at the end of 2014, but DAN continues to operate normally.


pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, post-work, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

On the first Commonwealth Security Conference, see above, pp. 371–2. 15 ‘Sir Percy Sillitoe’s Visit to South Africa’, 14 Nov. 1949, TNA PREM 8/1283; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 16 Sillitoe to SLO Central Africa, 20 Dec. 1951, TNA KV 2/2053, s. 148a; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 17 De Quehen to DG, 31 Dec. 1951, TNA KV 2/2053, s. 152a; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 18 Security Service Archives. 19 Security Service Archives. 20 Security Service Archives. 21 Security Service Archives. 22 Security Service Archives. 23 Security Service Archives. 24 Security Service Archives. 25 Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, pp. 323, 330. 26 Security Service Archives. 27 Security Service Archives. 28 Security Service Archives. 29 Security Service Archives. 30 On KGB operations in India, see Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, chs 17, 18. 31 DG (Hollis) to Sir Burke Trend (cabinet secretary), 18 Nov. 1965, TNA CO 1035/187, no serial number. Freeman was concerned by news that budget cutbacks, imposed by the Treasury, might put the SLO’s post at risk. Freeman was himself one of the targets of KGB active measures in India aimed at discrediting US and British policy. Before the 1967 Indian elections a bogus letter from Freeman forged by the KGB, claiming that the CIA was secretly giving vast sums to right-wing parties and politicians, appeared in the press. On this occasion, however, Service A (the KGB active measures department) slipped up. The latter wrongly identified Mr Freeman as Sir John Freeman. Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, pp. 317–18. 32 Rimington, Open Secret, pp. 66–7. 33 Louis and Robinson, ‘The Imperialism of Decolonisation’. 34 In some posts SLOs/DSOs answered to the heads of SIME and SIFE. 35 A rare exception to the goodwill usually engendered by Sillitoe’s imperial tours was a bad-tempered clash in 1948 with the head of the Malayan Security Service from which he eventually emerged victorious.

Its residency in New Delhi was rewarded for its operational successes by being upgraded to the status of ‘main residency’. Oleg Kalugin, who became head of counter-intelligence in KGB foreign intelligence (and its youngest general) in 1973, remembers India as ‘a model of KGB infiltration of a Third World government’. India under Nehru’s daughter and successor, Indira Gandhi, was probably also the arena for more KGB ‘active measures’ than anywhere else in the world.30 Successive SLOs’ close relations with the DIB made their inside information on Indian politics and government policy of increasing value to the British high commission at a time when the Soviet Union, through KGB as well as overt channels, was attempting to establish a special relationship with India. In 1965, a year after Nehru’s death, the high commissioner, John Freeman, wrote to Hollis to say how much he valued the SLO’s information: ‘his liaison is one which continues unaffected by changes in Indo-British relations.’31 Most of the SLOs appointed to New Delhi were gregarious people, fond of India and good at getting on with both the DIB and their high commission colleagues.

You can see from this what the facts really were and how, by careful reporting, success can be created out of very little.23 Though the KGB was believed to have assessed Jones’s motives as ideological during the period when it regarded him as an agent, Gordievsky found him willing to accept gifts, some of them in cash.24 The DG, Sir Tony Duff, reported to the cabinet secretary in October 1985 that Jones ‘last received money (£250) from his case officer [Gordievsky] on the instructions of the KGB Centre in May 1984’. Thereafter the Centre issued instructions that, given Jones’s lack of access to confidential information, he was to be contacted only at six-monthly intervals.25 Unlike Jack Jones, the veteran KGB agent Bob Edwards MP was almost unknown outside Westminster and the ranks of the hard left. He remained, however, an enthusiastic participant in Soviet ‘active measures’ (influence operations). Though there is no evidence that these had any significant impact, the KGB rated him highly and awarded him the Order of the People’s Friendship, the third-highest Soviet decoration, in 1980.26 The medal remained in his file at the Centre but on one occasion was taken by his case officer, Leonid Zaitsev, to show him at a meeting in Brussels. Zaitsev, who had run Edwards while he was stationed at the London residency in the 1960s, was by then head of FCD Directorate T (science and technology) but continued as his controller – partly, Gordievsky believed, because he regarded Edwards as an old friend, partly because he liked trips to the West as an operations officer.27 Remarkably, the KGB made arrangements to stay in contact with Edwards by radio and dead letter-box (DLB) in the event of war.28 Gordievsky reported that most of Line PR’s political reporting from London to the Centre was based not on secret sources but on the press and conversations with journalists and politicians – though some contacts received substantial payments.29 Though the arrival of Gordievsky at the London residency in 1982 and the remarkable quality of the intelligence he supplied marked one of the high points of British intelligence during the Cold War, the public image was one of Soviet rather than British intelligence successes.


pages: 667 words: 149,811

Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Several business leaders told me there was no way their firms used screening that would hurt the unemployed, but within hours they called me to say that they were wrong and wanted to be involved with fixing it. Many didn’t realize that employment status was a negative screening criterion or that other criteria—like a sudden drop in credit scores—would de facto penalize the long-term unemployed. About three hundred businesses—including twenty Fortune 50 companies—signed a pledge to take active measures not to weed out the long-term unemployed during their hiring processes. Yet many major companies never signed up. And in the negotiations on the pledge, to my great frustration, we were not able to include an explicit ban on the use of credit scores. I found this maddening, as it could not be more clear that screening workers for falls in credit scores during a major recession was like refusing an emergency flood loan to homeowners because their house was wet.

Doty, Ruth Robertson, and Tracy Garber, Realizing Health Reform’s Potential—When Unemployed Means Uninsured: The Toll of Job Loss on Health Coverage, and How the Affordable Care Act Will Help (New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2011), https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2011/aug/realizing-health-reforms-potential-when-unemployed-means. 31. “Fact Sheet: President Obama’s Plan to Help Responsible Homeowners and Heal the Housing Market,” White House Office of the Press Secretary, February 1, 2012, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2012/02/01/fact-sheet-president-obama-s-plan-help-responsible-homeowners-and-heal-h. 32. Referring to the “spending on active measures to help unemployed and at-risk workers, per unemployed person, as a share of per-capita economic output, 2015.” Andrew Van Dam, “Is It Great to Be a Worker in the U.S.? Not Compared with the Rest of the Developed World,” Washington Post, July 4, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2018/07/04/is-it-great-to-be-a-worker-in-the-u-s-not-compared-to-the-rest-of-the-developed-world. 33.


Designing Web APIs: Building APIs That Developers Love by Brenda Jin, Saurabh Sahni, Amir Shevat

active measures, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, blockchain, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Google Hangouts, if you build it, they will come, Lyft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, pull request, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software as a service, the market place, uber lyft, web application, WebSocket

After a design sprint (a structured activity in which the team brainstorms and prototypes solutions), you can measure whether the partner has actually implemented the sprint’s recommendation, thus improving or extending their API usage. Some activities are more difficult to track, but it is critical to try to measure each of the activities and to evaluate whether they’ve moved the needle. Table 8-5 lists a few examples of key performance indicators (KPIs) and how you can connect them to activities. Table 8-5. Developer activities measurement report Measurement KPI Current Goal Developer awareness Proficiency Website entry Token created 10,000 5,000 Activity Expected impact 100,000 Speak at SXSW 5,000 new developers 10,000 Run a technical 5,000 new webcast tokens Actual 7,000 3,000 You can be creative with your activities and explore many ways to affect your KPIs, but we recommend keeping them consistent so that you can track your impact over time. 160 | Chapter 8: Building a Developer Ecosystem Strategy Pro Tip Building a thriving ecosystem is like gardening.


pages: 285 words: 58,517

The Network Imperative: How to Survive and Grow in the Age of Digital Business Models by Barry Libert, Megan Beck

active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversification, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Oculus Rift, pirate software, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Wall-E, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Building a new business model within a portion of your existing operation means reallocating some of your capital to a different mix of assets. Most organizations know very well what their physical, tangible assets are. They carefully track revenues, cash, inventory, property, plant, and equipment. In contrast, intangible assets, such as human and intellectual capital, usually get less focus. Your company probably has a portfolio of intangible assets, but it’s likely you don’t fully utilize, activate, measure, or, in some cases, even view them as assets. In this step, you will review these assets to identify the most promising place to build a new network initiative. Understanding your complete, current asset base will help you understand your organization’s focus and main capabilities, as well as identify gaps and opportunities. The Inventory step will help you determine what you have and what you need to build or acquire in order to create a network initiative.


pages: 292 words: 62,575

97 Things Every Programmer Should Know by Kevlin Henney

A Pattern Language, active measures, business intelligence, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, database schema, deliberate practice, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fixed income, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, index card, inventory management, job satisfaction, loose coupling, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, The Wisdom of Crowds

Commented-out code is not executable code, so it has no useful effect for either reader or runtime. It also becomes stale very quickly. Version-related comments and commented-out code try to address questions of versioning and history. These questions have already been answered (far more effectively) by version control tools. A prevalence of noisy comments and incorrect comments in a codebase encourages programmers to ignore all comments, either by skipping past them or by taking active measures to hide them. Programmers are resourceful and will route around anything perceived to be damage: folding comments up; switching coloring scheme so that comments and the background are the same color; scripting to filter out comments. To save a codebase from such misapplications of programmer ingenuity, and to reduce the risk of overlooking any comments of genuine value, comments should be treated as though they were code.


pages: 281 words: 72,885

Stuff Matters: Exploring the Marvelous Materials That Shape Our Man-Made World by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, active measures, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, liquidity trap, New Urbanism, stem cell, trade route

David Lewis recruited pairs of passionate lovers, whose brain activity and heart rate were monitored first while they kissed each other and then while they ate chocolate (separately). The researchers found that although kissing set the heart pounding, the effect did not last as long as when the participants ate chocolate. The study also showed that when the chocolate started melting, all regions of the brain received a boost far more intense and longer lasting than the brain activity measured while kissing. Although this is just a single study, it does give credibility to the hypothesis that for many the sensory experience of eating chocolate is better than kissing. This association of chocolate with extreme sensory pleasure has been energetically promoted by chocolate manufacturers, most notably, perhaps, in the long-running television adverts for Cadbury’s Flake chocolate bar.


pages: 246 words: 70,404

Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

Wiki Weapon attracted a stable of soon-familiar suspects: THE SOVEREIGN CITIZEN: Your main problem right now is that you are owned by the aristocrats, your title was freely given to the gov by YOU. We can fix this. THE MYSTIC OF SPIRIT: Due to your catalytic tendency of disseminating objectives adverse to the Jurisdiction . . . of OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, you are therefore ordered to discontinue your illegal profession. Failure to do so will result in proactive, responsive, and co-active measures. THE CHASTE PROGRESSIVE: It is not too late to turn back, to return your donations, to renounce your lust for blood. THE TOLERANT LIBERAL: I hope a hammer comes down on you . . . but I’d just as soon take the hammer of a gun pointed at your heart. I toyed with them sparingly. At Jim’s I followed up on every lead. Some were obviously problematic, but I pursued them anyway. An oilman had engaged me for over a week on the phone, his speech frequently broken.


pages: 281 words: 69,107

Belt and Road: A Chinese World Order by Bruno Maçães

active measures, Admiral Zheng, autonomous vehicles, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, cloud computing, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, global value chain, industrial cluster, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, one-China policy, Pearl River Delta, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade liberalization, trade route, zero-sum game

Until recently these tensions might be regarded as little more than peripheral skirmishes, but as the Chinese and Indian economies have grown in size and global economic integration has deepened, they are now highly dependent on each other and, together, represent a critical percentage of global economic growth. Whether the two governments are able to reach a stable economic order, and which form it will take, cannot but dramatically impact the rest of the world. Their rivalry is no longer a strictly Asian affair. Calculating the global economy’s center of gravity—the average location of economic activity measured on a globe across different geographies—provides further clues to what is going on. In the three decades after 1945 this was located somewhere in the middle of the Atlantic, reflecting how Europe and North America concentrated a large majority of global economic activity. That Washington saw itself as leading a bloc encompassing the Atlantic is, from an economic point of view, what you would expect.


pages: 352 words: 80,030

The New Silk Roads: The Present and Future of the World by Peter Frankopan

active measures, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, cashless society, clean water, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, ransomware, Rubik’s Cube, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Fortunately,’ he said, ‘their time has passed.’30 This is part of a wider pattern of Moscow trying to present itself as a reliable and calming force, as well as an independent international arbiter.31 The presentation of Russia, Turkey and Iran as pacific and seeking to find peaceful ways to reach settlements comes as a surprise to those who have followed the annexation of Crimea, the presence of Russian troops in Ukraine, the attempted assassination of a former intelligence officer in the UK and claims by the British MP Bob Seely that Russia is using ‘active measures practised by the KGB during the Cold War’ to undermine the stability of the British political system.32 A report by the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee in the early summer of 2018 not only found that the ‘use of London as a base for the corrupt assets of Kremlin-connected individuals’ was so important that it ‘has implications for our national security’, but that ‘combating it should be a major UK foreign policy priority’.33 Turkey is hardly static either in its aims and actions.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

The largest in terms of population is the Shanghai-Nanking-Hangzhou triangle (Shan-Nan-Han), home to more than 66 million people and $130 billion in LRP. To the north, greater Beijing houses 43 million people, generating $110 billion in LRP. To the south, the Hong-Zhen corridor encompasses about 45 million people and produces $220 billion in LRP. These three megas account for $460 billion in LRP, 43 percent of the country’s total economic activity measured as LRP. And when we add up all of China’s megaregions, they produce $735 billion in LRP, 68 percent of the country’s total. Boasting massive investment in new universities, increasing flows of global research and development, and a seemingly unlimited talent pool, these three megaregions are likely to transform quickly from their current status as the world’s factory into an emerging center for innovation and creativity.


pages: 278 words: 74,880

A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus

active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional

Gross domestic product (GDP) measures the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period. GDP is carefully measured by government agencies and widely reported in the news media. It is often treated as a measurement of the success of a country’s economic system. Governments have even fallen as a result of perceived shortfalls in GDP growth. Yet human society is an integrated whole. It consists of much more than the economic activity measured by GDP. Its success or failure should be measured in a consolidated way, not purely on the basis of an aggregate of narrowly selected economic information about individual performance. GDP does not and cannot tell the whole story. Activities that do not require money changing hands are not counted as part of GDP—which means that, in effect, many of the things real human beings cherish most are treated as having no value.


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game

In short, the state must assume a new active role in the development of a societal project, where a new opportunity bargain takes center stage.20 Smarter Government Relying on market forces is no way to run an economy. The state must extend its role to become a strategic economic partner if America is to stand any chance of tackling the reverse auction and improving the quality of life for American workers and their families. America and Britain have been outsmarted by other nations that understand markets cannot be left to their own devices. East Asian economies have taken active measures to govern markets in the national interest. China, in particular, has mobilized huge resources investing in roads, airports, research facilities, and energy supplies. They insisted on joint ventures between foreign and domestic companies as a way of transferring technologies and know-how in exchange for access to its huge domestic market. They also targeted major R&D investments in fields offering potential for employment growth, including green technologies.


pages: 555 words: 80,635

Open: The Progressive Case for Free Trade, Immigration, and Global Capital by Kimberly Clausing

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, investor state dispute settlement, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, zero-sum game

In other words, the sellers and buyers of currency determine the value of exchange rates in the foreign currency markets, leaving little room for the Federal Reserve and other central banks to affect exchange rates in these countries. This is likely for the best, since monetary policy (the actions of the central bank) can then be devoted to more useful ends, like working to counter recessions. The fact that other countries, including China and Switzerland, have managed exchange rate systems causes some observers to suggest that the US government take more active measures to deter foreign currency manipulation. To be sure, there are arguments for discouraging foreign currency manipulation. Interestingly, however, China’s latest currency interventions have actually been aimed at keeping the Chinese currency’s value higher, not lower—and have thus reduced the competitiveness of Chinese exports!4 Figure 6.4: Protection Doesn’t Help the Trade Balance Note: The correlation between the two variables is –0.34.


The Rise of Carry: The Dangerous Consequences of Volatility Suppression and the New Financial Order of Decaying Growth and Recurring Crisis by Tim Lee, Jamie Lee, Kevin Coldiron

active measures, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, backtesting, bank run, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, diversification, financial intermediation, Flash crash, global reserve currency, implied volatility, income inequality, inflation targeting, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, margin call, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, negative equity, Network effects, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk/return, sharing economy, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, yield curve

See also specific currencies alternative, 211 asset bases for, 211 availability of, 4 in carry regime, 108–113 creation of, 109 INDEX defining, 109 Divisia, 111 statistical measures of, 109 US household holdings of, 117, 117f VIX and value of, 100, 122 volatility and value of, 98–101, 122 money market funds, government guarantee for, 113 money supply, 20, 21 business cycle and, 125–126 carry crashes and, 122–123 monopoly power, 176 natural, 186 moral hazard central banks and, 195, 200 globalization of, 195–200 monetary policy and, 208 mortgage bubble, 36 movie stars, 184–186 multiple equilibria, 183 natural monopolies, 186 negative yields, 70 net claims Australia, 40, 40f currency carry trade measurement and, 41 Turkey, 43, 43f net foreign assets, 14, 16, 29 network effects, 185 New Zealand, interest rate spreads and, 60–61 New Zealand dollar, capital flows into, 62 nonbank financial sector, 137 nonmonetary assets carry bubbles and, 169 carry regime and, 112, 114, 122 Norway, sovereign wealth fund, 75 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), 115 oil carry trade, 128–133, 132f oil prices, 129f, 131 oil producers, debt levels of, 130 “The Optimal Design of Ponzi Schemes in Finite Economies” (Bhattacharya), 142 optionality buying, 146 227 selling, 152, 153 volatility and, 93–95 options delta hedging, 149–151 delta of, 149 gamma of, 149–150 pricing of, 149 unhedged, 150 volatility and, 146–148 volatility bets with, 89 volatility implied by, 57 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 115 output gap, 125 Panic of 1907, 218 personal net worth, 137, 138f photosynthesis, 189 pi Economics, 27–29 Piketty, Thomas, 219 poker, 182–183 Polish zloty, 34 Ponzi schemes, 140–143 Pope, Alexander, 179 popularity, 181–182, 184 populist political movements, 1 portfolio insurance, 155 portfolio volatility, 159 power, carry as, 191–192 pricing kernel, 99 private equity leveraged buyouts, as carry trades, 78–80 productivity, 115 profit share, 82, 137, 138f, 139 proprietary trading, compensation incentives and, 77 public intellectuals, 186 put options, 34, 89 selling fully collateralized, 156n4 QE. See quantitative easing QE3, 101, 103 quantitative easing (QE), 101, 105, 127, 136, 196, 209, 219 BOJ and, 31 real economic activity, measures of, 56 real estate booms, currency carry trades contributing to, 13 228 realized volatility, 90, 164, 167–168 anti-carry regime and, 172 implied volatility relationship to, 158 recessions, carry and consequences of, 6 recipient currencies, 10–11, 13, 65 crashes in, 23 volatility in, 215 regulatory capture, 176 rent-seeking carry as, 175–177 defining, 175 reporting horizons, 70–71 reserve balances, 109–110 resource allocation, carry regime and, 114–115 return, risk and, 99 risk carry trade profit explanations and, 48 of carry trades, 3, 5 of CDOs, 36–37 currency, 12 exchange rate, 12–13 market, 99 mispricing of, 21, 35–37, 132, 134–140, 142 return and, 99 ruin, 65, 72 selling optionality and, 153 socialization of, 136 spreading, 35 risk controls, 65 risk premium, 148, 152 portfolio volatility and, 159 roll yield, 91 rubisco, 189 ruin risk, 65, 72 sawtooth patterns, 96–97, 97f shadow banks, 137 Shin, Hyun Song, 22, 80–81 short squeezes on liquidity, 165 short-term reporting horizons, 70–71 social hierarchies, 187 social networks, 187 social realities, 184 socialization of risk, 136 South Africa, 55n6 sovereign bonds, 162 equity indexes correlation to, 161 Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute, 75 INDEX sovereign wealth funds, 75–76 growth of, 83 S&P 500, 53–55, 55n6, 56, 95 carry regime importance of, 86–87, 87f as carry trade, 160–162 equity risk trade correlation with, 99 gamma for, 154, 154f liquidity premiums for, 161 market corrections and, 79 mean reversion of, 154f, 155 quantitative easing and, 103 selling volatility on, 98 volatility of, as global volatility risk factor, 99 volatility selling in, 89–92 volatility trading on, 85, 86 S&P 500 front e-mini future, 159 stagflation, 217 stochastic discount factor, 99 stock buybacks, 82, 83f stock market crashes, of 1987, 155 stock markets carry and structures of, 7 emerging currency stability compared with, 55 performance of, 1 recessions and crashes in, 6 volatility bets in, 89 stocks, put options against, 34 stopped out, 94 structured finance, 135 subprime mortgages, 36 superstar effects, 186 Swiss franc, 29, 31, 33, 34 taxi licensing, 175 Thai baht, 25 Thailand, balance of payments current account deficit, 25 Theron, Charlize, 185 trading frequency, 74 tulip bulbs, 133 Turkey, 19, 20, 23, 39, 202 balance of payments, 45 carry bubble and bust, 42–46 consumer price index, 44 credit and claims data for, 43, 43f GDP growth, 45 interest rates, 12–13 INDEX Turkish lira, 11, 13, 20, 21, 23, 44, 55n6 carry crash of 2018 in, 45, 65 Twitter, 186 uncovered interest rate parity (UIP), 47, 48 United States capital flows into, 18 carry trade funding and, 17–20 current account deficit, 17 personal net worth in, 137, 138f savings rates, 18, 19 US Federal Reserve, 14, 26 balance sheet of, 101–102 carry crashes limited by, 127 carry regimes and, 107, 208 carry trades by, 103 creation of, 218 interest rates and, 14, 137, 208 liquidity swaps by, 104–105, 196–198 quantitative easing and, 101, 105 US household financial assets, 117–120, 117f–120f valuation metrics, 204 vanishing point, 116, 195, 209–210 variance, 94 VIX, 85, 95, 99 forward curve average, 92, 92f money value and, 100, 122 shorting, 96 spikes in, 98 VIX futures, 90–92 selling volatility using, 156, 158 shorting, 148, 157 VIX futures rolldown, 59, 96 VIX index, 53n5 volatility, 3 currency, 62 currency carry trade collapse signs from, 215 direct bets on, 89 equilibrium structure of premiums for, 156–160, 157f equity, 59 financial crises and spikes in, 52 in funding currencies, 215 global, 99, 101 implied, 57, 90 market making as premium for, 158–159 229 negatively priced liquidity and, 166 optionality and, 93–95 options and, 146–148 portfolio, 159 realized, 90 in recipient currencies, 215 selling, as short position, 156 selling, by receiving implied and paying realized, 148–150 selling, by receiving realized and paying realized, 151–156 short, 4 signs of carry regime ending and, 214–218 spikes in, 98 time horizons of, 152, 153f, 154, 154f value of money and, 98–101, 122 of volatility, 90 volatility carry, 86 volatility selling, 86, 96 central banks and, 101–105 in S&P 500, 89–92 volatility shock, 161 volatility-selling trades, 33–35, 57, 69 Volcker Rule, 77 Volmageddon, 98, 161 VXO index, 53, 53n5, 54, 55n6, 90n2 VXX, 92 wealth distribution, carry and, 2 wealth inequality, central bank stabilization actions and, 6 “What Explains the Persistence of Global Imbalances?”


The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Definitive Guide to Dimensional Modeling by Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross

active measures, Albert Einstein, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, data acquisition, discrete time, inventory management, iterative process, job automation, knowledge worker, performance metric, platform as a service, side project, zero-sum game

This is a messy situation because you have to search back in history to decide which dimension keys were in effect when the activity occurred. In addition, you may need to adjust any semi-additive balances in subsequent fact rows. In a heavily compliant environment, it is also necessary to interface with the compliance subsystem because you are about to change history. Late arriving dimensions occur when the activity measurement (fact record) arrives at the data warehouse without its full context. In other words, the statuses of the dimensions attached to the activity measurement are ambiguous or unknown for some period of time. If you are living in the conventional batch update cycle of one or more days' latency, you can usually just wait for the dimensions to be reported. For example, the identification of the new customer may come in a separate feed delayed by several hours; you may just be able to wait until the dependency is resolved.


pages: 345 words: 84,847

The Runaway Species: How Human Creativity Remakes the World by David Eagleman, Anthony Brandt

active measures, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, haute couture, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, lone genius, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, microbiome, Netflix Prize, new economy, New Journalism, pets.com, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, X Prize

Müller [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons National Football Stadium of Brasilia, Brazil (No attribution required) Stadion Miejski, Poznan, Poland By Ehreii – Own work, CC BY 3.0, http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10804159 Stadium of SC Beira-Mar at Aveiro, Portugal CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=139668 Saddledome, Calgary, Alberta, Canada By abdallahh from Montréal, Canada (Calgary Saddledome Uploaded by X-Weinzar) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography showing diminishing response to a repeated stimulus Courtesy of Carles Escera, BrainLab, University of Barcelona Skeuomorph of a digital bookshelf By Jonobacon Apple Watch By Justin14 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Chapter 2 An advertisement for the Casio AT-550-7 © Casio Computer Company, Ltd. IBM Simon (No attribution required) Data Rover Photo: Bill Buxton Palm Vx Photo: Bill Buxton Radio Shack advertisement Courtesy of Steve Cichon/BuffaloStories archives Kane Kramer schematics for the IXI Courtesy of Kane Kramer Apple iPod, 1st generation Photo: Jarod C.


pages: 394 words: 85,734

The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason

active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

It is no coincidence that both periods led to catastrophic events – 1929 and 2008, respectively. Reading the 1999 Economic Report of the President, we come across the following passage: The value of all mergers and acquisitions announced in 1997 was almost $1 trillion, and activity in 1998 was over $1.6 trillion… Measured relative to the size of the economy, only the spate of trust formations at the turn of the century comes close to the level of current merger activity. Measured relative to the market value of all U.S. companies, however, the 1980s boom was roughly comparable in size. Both ‘consolidation’ waves (of the 1900s and the 1990s) had momentous consequences on Wall Street, effectively multiplying by a considerable factor the capital flows that the banks and other financial institutions were handling. However, the 1990s version was more explosive because of the effects of two new phenomena: the Minotaur-induced capital flight toward America, and the way in which the so-called New Economy, and predominantly the prospects for e-commerce, mesmerized investors.


pages: 287 words: 95,152

The Dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order by Bruno Macaes

active measures, Berlin Wall, British Empire, computer vision, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, digital map, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global value chain, illegal immigration, intermodal, iterative process, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, open borders, Parag Khanna, savings glut, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, speech recognition, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, young professional, zero-sum game, éminence grise

It is no surprise that they will prefer to side with China, or that the United States will feel considerable pressure to take a more flexible approach, which it could regard as balanced between the rigid ideology of the Europeans and the soulless pragmatism of the Chinese. Calculating the global economy’s centre of gravity provides further clues to what is going on. This centre of gravity is simply the average location of economic activity measured on a globe across different geographies. Interestingly, in the three decades after 1945 this was located somewhere in the middle of the Atlantic, reflecting how Europe and North America concentrated a large majority of global economic activity. That Washington saw itself as leading a bloc encompassing the Atlantic is, from an economic point of view, what you would expect. By the turn of the century, however, the centre of gravity had shifted so far eastwards it was now located east of the borders of the European Union.


pages: 338 words: 92,465

Reskilling America: Learning to Labor in the Twenty-First Century by Katherine S. Newman, Hella Winston

active measures, blue-collar work, business cycle, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, deindustrialization, desegregation, factory automation, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job-hopping, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, performance metric, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

Math on the Job Education researchers have looked at the kinds of math people use on the job and how they use it. For example, John P. Smith III, professor of educational psychology at Michigan State University, studied seventy-five hundred autoworkers in sixteen plants, including facilities that supply Japanese factories. According to the American Association of Mathematicians, he “found three kinds of mathematical domains embedded in workers’ activities: measurement, numerical and quantitative reasoning, and spatial and geometric reasoning.” Ten sites involving high-volume assembly work required only minimal mathematics; most workers repeatedly did the same small set of actions, such as bolting on components using air-pressure wrenches, with manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and visual acuity being very important. The mathematical demands on the majority of these workers were limited to counting, measurement, arithmetic with whole numbers or decimals, and interpreting numerical information; only a small number of quality control workers did jobs with more mathematical content.


Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming by Stephen Laberge PHD

active measures, Albert Einstein, Howard Rheingold, Menlo Park, the map is not the territory

The differences in mental activity during sleep depend largely upon differences in the state of the sleeper’s brain. Sleep is not a uniform state of passive withdrawal from the world, as scientists thought until the twentieth century. There are two distinct kinds of sleep: a quiet phase and an active phase, which are distinguished by many differences in biochemistry, physiology, psychology, and behavior. Changes in brain waves (electrical activity measured at the scalp), eye movements, and muscle tone are used to define the two states. The quiet phase fits fairly well with the commonsense view of sleep as a state of restful inactivity –– your mind does little while you breathe slowly and deeply; your metabolic rate is at a minimum, and growth hormones are released facilitating restorative processes. When awakened from this state, people feel disoriented and rarely remember dreaming.


pages: 295 words: 90,821

Fully Grown: Why a Stagnant Economy Is a Sign of Success by Dietrich Vollrath

"Robert Solow", active measures, additive manufacturing, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, falling living standards, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, old age dependency ratio, patent troll, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, women in the workforce, working-age population

There was no jump-start. The experience of Kansas is instructive but perhaps not universal. Ufuk Akcigit, John Grigsby, Tom Nicholas, and Stefanie Stantcheva examined the effect of corporate and personal taxation on innovation in the United States during the twentieth century. They found that there are statistically significant effects of tax rates on the location and amount of innovative activity—measured by patenting—across states. Corporations, in particular, appear to move their innovative activity from state to state in response to tax rates. The effects are weaker when there are agglomeration effects in innovation; the clear example of this is Silicon Valley, where firms have remained in a relatively high-tax state because the benefits of being close to one another outweigh the tax costs.


The End of Accounting and the Path Forward for Investors and Managers (Wiley Finance) by Feng Gu

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, value at risk

These changes are affected by varying estimates of future energy prices, in addition to acquisitions, production, and disposals. Interestingly, despite the decrease in the quantity of proved reserves during 2014, Devon reported a 31 percent increase in discounted cash flows. Obviously, this indicator is very sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions. Yet another important indicator of the potential value-creation of the company’s properties is the extent of its productive (energy extraction) activities, measured by the number of wells and rigs operating on the properties, and classified by oil and gas, as well as by geographic areas. Summarizing, the three indicators reported in the Strategic Resources top box—acreage, proved reserves, and productive activity—classified by major geographic areas and types of energy, as well as the forward-looking 188 SO, WHAT’S TO BE DONE? discounted cash flows metric, provide a succinct and comprehensive picture of the company’s major strategic asset, namely its mineral resources.


Learn Algorithmic Trading by Sebastien Donadio

active measures, algorithmic trading, automated trading system, backtesting, Bayesian statistics, buy and hold, buy low sell high, cryptocurrency, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, Flash crash, Guido van Rossum, latency arbitrage, locking in a profit, market fundamentalism, market microstructure, martingale, natural language processing, p-value, paper trading, performance metric, prediction markets, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Sharpe ratio, short selling, sorting algorithm, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, survivorship bias, transaction costs, type inference, WebSocket, zero-sum game

These indicators are measured, researched, and released by different entities. Some of these entities are government agencies and some are private research firms. Most of these are released on a schedule, known as an economic calendar. In addition, there is plenty of data available for past releases, expected releases, and actual releases. Each economic indicator captures different economic activity measures: some might affect housing prices, some show employment information, some affect grain, corn, and wheat instruments, others affect precious metals and energy commodities. For example, possibly the most well-known economic indicator, Nonfarm Payrolls in America, is a monthly indicator released by the US Department of Labor (https://www.bls.gov/ces/) that represents the number of new jobs created in all non-agricultural industries.


pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts

active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, business cycle, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

The outcome of our experiment suggests that they would not. But if so, then you have to wonder how much influence employers can have on worker performance simply by changing financial incentives. A number of studies, in fact, have found that financial incentives can actually undermine performance. When a task is multifaceted or hard to measure, for example, workers tend to focus only on those aspects of their jobs that are actively measured, thereby overlooking other important aspects of the job—like teachers emphasizing the material that will be covered in standardized tests at the expense of overall learning. Financial rewards can also generate a “choking” effect, when the psychological pressure of the reward cancels out the increased desire to perform. Finally, in environments where individual contributions are hard to separate from those of the team, financial rewards can encourage workers to ride on the coattails of the efforts of others, or to avoid taking risks, thereby hampering innovation.


pages: 417 words: 103,458

The Intelligence Trap: Revolutionise Your Thinking and Make Wiser Decisions by David Robson

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, cognitive bias, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, deliberate practice, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fundamental attribution error, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, lone genius, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, pattern recognition, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Dweck found that students with the fixed mindset were less enthusiastic about the possibility of taking an English course, as they were afraid it might expose their weakness, even though it could increase their long-term chances of success.25 Besides determining how you respond to challenge and failure, your mindset also seems to influence your ability to learn from the errors you do make – a difference that shows up in the brain’s electrical activity, measured through electrodes placed on the scalp. When given negative feedback, people with the fixed mindset show a heightened response in the anterior frontal lobe – an area known to be important for social and emotional processing, with the neural activity appearing to reflect their bruised egos. Despite these strong emotions, however, they showed less activity in the temporal lobe, associated with deeper conceptual processing of the information.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

From the first time a bomb was dropped out of a plane by the Italian pilot Giulio Gavotti in Libya in 1911, through the Blitz of the Second World War and the carpet-bombing of North Vietnam in 1965–8, this has always been a form of warfare that targets the mind as much as the body. For the nation being bombed, the morale of civilians is therefore a valuable source of resistance. Politicians began actively measuring and influencing public sentiment in the build-up to the Second World War, as the mood of the civilian population came to be viewed as a crucial resource in the war effort. Propaganda can be seen as the logical extension of advertising techniques into politics, much as Edward Bernays argued. But it also represents the expansion of military techniques of emotional coordination into the civilian sphere.


pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

The IMF’s remedy was that the Iceland government should assume liability for the bank’s losses (as happened in Ireland), which would have resulted in 50 per cent of the national income between 2016 and 2023 being paid to the UK and Dutch governments, holders of much of the debt.10 The President put it to the people in a referendum and 93 per cent of the population rejected the package. Why did Iceland’s health apparently not suffer as a result of their economic crisis? Here is a plausible account: First, Iceland ignored the advice of the IMF, and instead invested in social protection. This investment was coupled with active measures to get people back into work. Second, diet improved. McDonald’s pulled out of the country because of the rising costs of importation of onions and tomatoes (the most expensive ingredients in its burgers). Icelanders began cooking at home more (especially fish, boosting the income of the country’s fishing fleet). Third, Iceland retained its restrictive policies on alcohol, again contrary to the advice of the IMF.


pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Intelligence researchers say that test scores for cognitive g are more or less stable across a lifetime—unlike, for example, the Myers-Briggs personality tests—and that IQ performance has strongly predictive powers in many areas of life, including educational and career success. They point to the several cognitive domains underlying the tests, such as verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, processing speed, and working memory. And researchers typically claim that tests based on these domains are among the most accurate in all of psychology. The critics, mainly outside the field of intelligence research, point to the narrowness of the activities measured by IQ and the potential circularity of the claims, arguing that IQ tests have evolved to measure a form of ability that is defined by the tests themselves. Many critics also question the degree of innateness of g and want to place much more emphasis on the plasticity of intelligence and the importance of social class and other environmental factors, including pure chance, in shaping it. They point, for example, to the likelihood that a family history of being read to and talked to when young (or not) is likely to have a significant impact on verbal abilities.


pages: 602 words: 120,848

Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer-And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class by Paul Pierson, Jacob S. Hacker

accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, affirmative action, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business climate, business cycle, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, desegregation, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, moral hazard, Nate Silver, new economy, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

Its situation must always savor of weakness, sometimes border upon anarchy.7 Of course, among the leading Founders, Hamilton was the most anxious to create a robust capacity for governance. Madison, however, agreed. In Federalist #58, he acknowledged that supermajority rules might create an “obstacle generally to hasty and partial measures,” but went on to insist that “these considerations are outweighed by the inconveniences in the opposite scale. In all cases where justice or the general good might require new laws to be passed, or active measures to be pursued, the fundamental principle of free government would be reversed. It would be no longer the majority that would rule: the power would be transferred to the minority.”8 In ways the Founders could not have anticipated, Madison’s “fundamental principle of free government” is in jeopardy. The United States has developed a combination of features that imperil our government’s capacity to deal with formidable collective challenges—and, indeed, if climate change is as threatening as most scientists believe, imperil the planet on which we live.


pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Sometimes concerns about slowing population and ethnicity led to tensions between the quantitative and what was considered the qualitative. On the one hand, a large population was seen as a ‘good thing’ for a country, particularly given the need to make up numbers from war losses and a fear of the ‘next round’. On the other hand, not just any numbers would do, and some people were infinitely to be preferred to others. The eugenics movement, proposing active measures to improve the ‘quality’ of the population ‘stock’, was closely associated with the birth control movement. Marie Stopes, for example, urged the forcible sterilisation of those deemed unfit for parenthood and propagation of the race. Concerns for the supposed quality of the population were particularly prevalent in the United States, where immigration restrictions rolled out after the First World War explicitly aimed to preserve the country’s ethnic mixture and were in particular focused on reducing migration from southern and eastern Europe, which had been so predominant at the turn of the century.


pages: 428 words: 121,717

Warnings by Richard A. Clarke

active measures, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bernie Madoff, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Elon Musk, failed state, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forensic accounting, friendly AI, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge worker, Maui Hawaii, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mouse model, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y2K

Determining responses, figuring out how much they might cost, and developing an understanding of when they might need to be implemented are equally important parts of the surveillance strategy. *HEDGING: These actions flow immediately into the next category of responses to a potential disaster: hedging. It coexists with surveillance, but is specifically focused on investing resources into getting ready for more robust mitigation or prevention responses. It’s an interim phase that consists of ongoing monitoring with preparation until the surveillance system determines that active measures must begin. In addition to knowing when to pull the trigger, in a hedging strategy the key question becomes, as Alain Enthoven asked in the title of his groundbreaking book on defense budgeting in 1971, How Much Is Enough? When determining how much is enough, governments turn to analysts who do cost-effectiveness studies, usually placing a monetary value on human lives. In making these kinds of resource decisions, it is also useful to inject a little real-world thinking regarding politics, the media, and public reaction.


pages: 400 words: 121,708

1983: Reagan, Andropov, and a World on the Brink by Taylor Downing

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear paranoia, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Stanislav Petrov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Yom Kippur War

However, Brown had such a strong Scottish accent that Gordievsky could barely understand anything he said. When they met, he had no idea whether he was being given a rundown on events in Parliament or a description of the weather in Scotland. Nevertheless, after each meeting he would still put together a lively report, possibly including some gossip he had read in the newspapers, to keep the Centre happy. There were various ‘active measures’ the residency in London were engaged in. Many of these related to the mission set by the Centre to try to prevent the deployment of Pershing II and Cruise missiles in western Europe, the weapons so feared by Moscow. As Britain’s Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was a well-established protest group, the London residency naturally showed an interest in the group’s leadership. But the CND leaders were reluctant to meet with Soviet officials for fear of being compromised and thereby losing support.


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

I figured if I could be honest with anyone, it would be him, so after he had explained to me how the timesheet worked I asked, “So how much can I lie? How many hours is it okay to just make up?” He looked at me as if I’d just said I was a starseed from another galaxy so I quickly changed the subject and assumed the answer was “a discrete amount.” 6. Many workplaces are keenly aware of the dangers of easygoing supervisors and take active measures to head them off. Those who work counters in fast-food chains, which, of course, are in my terms generally shit jobs and not bullshit jobs, often tell me that each branch is carefully wired by closed-circuit TV to ensure that workers with nothing to do are not allowed to just sit around relaxing; if they are observed to do so by those monitoring in some central locations, their supervisor is called up and chewed out. 7.


pages: 442 words: 127,300

Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams by Matthew Walker

A. Roger Ekirch, active measures, clockwatching, Dmitri Mendeleev, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, impulse control, lifelogging, longitudinal study, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, placebo effect, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method

If there is a red-thread narrative that runs from our waking lives into our dreaming lives, it is that of emotional concerns. Counter to Freudian assumptions, Stickgold had shown that there is no censor, no veil, no disguise. Dream sources are transparent—clear enough for anyone to identify and recognize without the need for an interpreter. DO DREAMS HAVE A FUNCTION? Through a combination of brain activity measures and rigorous experimental testing, we have finally begun to develop a scientific understanding of human dreams: their form, content, and the waking source(s). There is, however, something missing here. None of the studies that I have described so far proves that dreams have any function. REM sleep, from which principal dreams emerge, certainly has many functions, as we have discussed and will continue to discuss.


Gorbachev by William Taubman

active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, haute couture, indoor plumbing, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Stanislav Petrov, trade liberalization, young professional

Shultz’s improvised train ride from Helsinki (the Moscow airport was fogged in) was positively festive, and it was matched by his reception at the train station in Moscow on October 21. His preliminary talks with Shevardnadze went well. So he wasn’t prepared for what happened in St. Catherine’s Hall. Gorbachev greeted him warmly and spoke positively about the INF treaty, but then suddenly turned cold. He waved a State Department document, “Soviet Intelligence Activities: A Report on Active Measures and Propaganda, 1986–87,” published in October in conformity with a 1985 law. It was “shocking,” he said. It alleged that a “Mississippi Peace Cruise” Gorbachev had hailed during his 1985 summit with Reagan was “being used by the Soviets to deceive Americans.” “So it turns out,” Gorbachev continued sarcastically, that “all social movements in the USSR are agents of the KGB” and “perestroika itself is only a means to deceive the West and insidiously prepare the ground for further Soviet expansion.”

Gorbachev), 86 Slyunkov, Nikolai, 353 Snegurochka (The Snow Maiden) (Ostrovsky), 32, 37–38 Sobchak, Anatoly, xxiii, 245, 431, 437, 575 Social Democratic Party of Russia, 652, 677–79, 678 Social Democrats, 548 “socialist camp,” 267–68, 464–65 “socialist competition,” 107 Socialist Democracy (Shakhnazarov), 224 Social Science Institute, 639–40, 657, 665 Society for Friendship with the Soviet Union, 280 Soiuz (Union), 532, 533, 536 Sokoloniki district, 50, 68 Sokolov, Sergei, xxiii, 206, 273, 376, 394, 397 Solidarity, 170, 267–68, 465, 482 Solomentsev, Mikhail, xxiii, 176, 176, 210, 221, 232, 233, 239, 244, 318, 320, 347, 371 Solovyov, Yuri, xxiii, 433–34 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 10, 91, 185, 340, 572 Sorbonne, 478 Sotsialisticheskaya industriya, 350 Sovetskaya kultura, 309, 342, 344, 345, 347, 348, 356, 586 Sovetskaya Rossiya, 342, 347, 349–50, 586 Soviet Academy of Sciences, 116–17, 141, 186, 207, 370, 429, 430, 444, 457, 511, 523 Soviet Culture Foundation, 373, 484 “Soviet Intelligence Activities: A Report on Active Measures and Propaganda, 1986–87,” 398 Soviet Union: agricultural development of, 7, 12, 14, 17, 21, 23, 34, 35, 53, 73, 82, 85, 87, 94, 105–8, 109, 110, 111, 115, 116, 124, 128, 129, 132, 133, 137, 146, 158, 160, 161, 169, 173, 175, 176–78, 179, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 192, 217, 222, 227, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 243, 250, 253, 287, 333, 349, 371, 372, 434, 435, 451, 586, 595, 632, 695, 718n alcoholism in, 47, 89, 99, 118, 128, 169, 231–34, 245, 288, 373 apparatchiki in, 91, 93, 95, 123, 145, 223, 227, 237, 245, 341, 346, 357, 371, 431, 444, 540, 605, 648, 693 biological weapons of, 549, 557, 558, 564, 641 bureaucracy of, 72, 92, 100, 116, 128, 147, 178, 181, 216, 236, 237, 243, 252, 254, 256, 259, 266, 283, 305, 317, 352, 357, 430, 439, 462, 506, 521, 522, 560, 571, 684 centralized economy of, 27–30, 190, 198–99, 216, 219, 236–38, 310 collapse of, 1, 29, 180, 268, 378, 379, 382, 435, 436, 452, 456, 460, 464, 465, 481, 503, 506, 528, 530, 531, 543, 558, 571, 589, 618, 645–46, 658, 660–61, 668, 674, 680, 685, 690, 693, 757n–58n collectivization in, 7, 8, 12–19, 21, 22, 23, 50, 53, 55, 57, 64, 74, 87, 94, 97, 100, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 129, 133, 169, 177, 178, 217, 231, 239, 245, 250, 265, 317, 320, 338, 347, 355, 454, 467, 497, 530, 655, 695 communist party of, see Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) competition in, 57, 94, 107, 160, 199, 245, 257, 263, 308, 311, 360, 400, 404, 429, 431, 489, 505, 524 confederation of states in, 492, 493, 525, 581, 624, 627 constitution of, 47, 144, 363, 372, 455, 456, 507, 510, 579, 582, 616, 624, 631, 635, 658, 659, 660, 680 consumer goods in, 167, 168, 169, 170, 217, 232, 238, 311–12, 313, 434–35, 438, 450, 522, 569 corruption in, 94, 128, 129, 134, 135, 160, 177, 180–81, 221, 237, 244, 274, 323, 366, 447, 624, 643, 663, 689 Council of Ministers of, 130, 355, 434, 490–91, 533, 695 crime rate in, 18, 52, 56, 94, 99, 118, 181, 232–33, 246, 264, 275, 331, 394, 529, 533, 584, 610, 661 currency of (ruble), 28, 68, 81, 96, 111, 214, 232, 239, 310, 378, 393, 434, 546, 549, 575, 591, 594, 639 Defense Ministry of, 282, 572, 575, 603, 635–36 democratization in, xi, 3, 4, 92, 117, 119, 126, 127, 128, 144, 150, 153, 184, 195, 196, 212, 215, 216, 217, 224, 225, 229, 242, 245, 253, 267, 306, 307, 309, 310, 316, 327, 329, 331, 333, 337, 338, 351, 352, 354, 358, 360, 361, 368, 370, 384, 385, 390, 406, 407, 409, 416, 427, 429, 433, 444, 447, 451, 452, 462, 463, 468, 479, 483, 484, 487, 489, 490, 491, 498, 501, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 515, 519, 521, 523, 530, 534–36, 542, 548, 553, 571, 575, 576, 579, 587, 591, 604, 616, 617, 621, 624, 627, 629, 633, 640, 646, 648, 649, 652, 654, 655, 676–79, 681, 686–88, 690, 691, 693 demonstrations and protests in, 43, 52, 70, 98, 101, 123, 124, 143, 151, 228, 321, 325, 327, 346, 359, 367, 368, 379, 430, 436, 437, 441, 462, 479, 480, 486, 488, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 518, 519, 523, 532, 533, 535, 548, 561, 562, 575–78, 597, 613, 617, 657, 659, 660, 662, 678, 681, 684 deportations from, 317, 367, 451 diplomatic relations of, 41, 89, 110, 144, 197, 201, 220, 247, 253, 254, 255, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 266, 280, 281, 286, 292, 304, 377, 387, 390, 392, 396, 405, 408, 414, 415, 434, 441, 480, 491, 502, 564, 589, 598, 631, 633 dissidents in, 10, 47, 53, 91, 123, 140, 143, 144, 180, 185, 196, 201, 210, 214, 250, 294, 328, 339, 340, 415, 445, 465, 487, 746n droughts in, 122, 129, 130–33, 176 Eastern bloc of, 149, 267, 386, 390, 414, 471, 483, 485, 661, 663 economy of, 1–3, 52, 91–93, 94, 100, 102, 115, 116, 120, 127, 144, 145, 147, 168, 169, 179, 181, 185, 186, 187, 188, 216–19, 230, 232, 233, 236–39, 244, 246, 252, 253, 254, 263, 267, 275, 282, 287, 293, 295, 306, 310–13, 319, 339, 352, 355, 360, 371, 372, 378, 383, 388, 400, 403, 428, 434, 435, 439, 448–52, 466, 467, 471, 473, 477–80, 481, 492, 497, 498, 499, 500, 503, 505, 509, 521, 522, 524, 528–30, 540, 546, 549, 550, 551, 554, 555, 557, 568, 570, 571, 575, 584, 587, 588–97, 616, 623, 624, 625, 626, 631, 632, 646, 648, 651, 652, 655, 658, 677, 678, 690, 693, 720n, 776n education in, 14, 15, 28, 31, 40, 42, 44, 52, 64, 65, 67, 73, 79, 80, 84, 91, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 109, 118, 124, 133, 141, 145, 151, 154, 155, 167, 183, 186, 197, 220, 235, 262, 333, 388, 402, 415, 491, 584, 652, 662, 678, 680, 689 elections in, 29, 46, 121, 122, 131, 159, 170, 192, 202, 203, 210, 212, 222, 228, 245, 247–49, 272, 275, 284, 304, 308, 309, 338, 351, 353, 354, 359, 360, 361, 363, 372, 373, 384, 387, 394, 411, 419, 427–35, 441, 442, 444, 450, 465, 482, 483, 490, 496, 501, 508, 509, 513, 516, 517, 519, 530, 533, 536, 548, 556, 580, 581, 588, 624, 628, 629, 632, 642, 652, 658, 660, 661, 663, 676, 678, 679, 680, 681, 688, 691, 695 emigration from, 57, 123, 173, 180, 287, 340, 343, 377, 398, 554, 555, 606, 629, 683 environmental issues in, 50, 91, 94, 169, 239, 246, 265, 467, 497, 539, 651, 652, 687, 689 espionage and spies in, 180, 183, 201, 250, 292–93, 294, 394, 398, 400 ethnic minorities of, 10, 151, 218, 317, 343, 365, 366, 368–70, 428, 434–36, 448, 451, 452, 529, 599, 629 as “evil empire,” 170, 242, 275, 416–17, 599 expansionism of, 255, 398, 415, 541, 547, 548, 564, 685, 692 farmers and farming in, 8, 12–15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 55, 57, 74, 80, 87, 97, 100, 102, 103, 106, 107, 110, 112, 114, 116, 124, 129, 131, 132, 133, 146, 151, 154, 169, 177, 178, 184, 185, 217, 218, 239, 245, 288, 339, 347, 355, 403, 454, 511, 517, 530, 633, 655, 695 federation organization for, 3, 365, 366, 388, 436, 466, 487, 492, 500, 503, 512, 514, 522, 525, 527, 528, 533, 580, 581, 623, 624, 633, 652, 658 film industry in, 80, 247–49, 341 Five-Year Plan (1986–1990) of, 236–37, 243 flag of, 137, 365, 404, 416, 423, 500, 509, 518, 519, 551, 561, 586, 638, 645, 647, 648 foreign embassies of, 143, 151, 201, 262, 275, 280, 298, 346, 394, 399, 405–7, 445, 486, 551, 558–60, 571, 677 Foreign Ministry of, 93, 141–42, 205, 207, 253, 257, 259, 265–66, 282, 294, 345, 379, 398, 418, 470, 491, 499, 545, 564, 567, 626, 627, 631–32, 635–36, 752n foreign trade of, 23, 35, 103, 120, 194, 232, 238, 244, 246, 287, 328, 425, 429, 467, 482, 496, 497, 536, 554, 555, 570, 571, 591 freedom in, 4, 14, 92, 119, 122, 144, 178, 215, 218, 219, 245, 246, 314, 338, 343, 376, 382, 414, 422, 453, 459, 560, 580, 599, 614, 618, 646, 679, 680, 686, 688, 693 grain production of, 9, 11, 12, 15–19, 22, 32, 35, 36, 68, 110, 131, 132, 133, 157, 160, 163, 164, 169, 170, 176, 177, 238, 246, 312, 451, 503, 570, 590 harvests in, 8, 9, 18, 20, 22, 23, 34, 35, 36, 44, 57, 68, 72, 94, 106, 131, 132, 133, 137, 155, 169, 175–77, 185, 243, 280, 485 health care and hospitals in, 94, 232, 236, 246, 338, 680 history of, 2, 4, 27, 36, 41, 44, 46–48, 57, 66, 67, 80, 86, 99, 100, 121, 127, 183, 200, 216, 227, 255, 260, 263, 265, 272, 283, 291, 306, 314, 316–19, 322, 337, 338, 340–42, 345, 353, 356, 359, 360, 362, 388, 390, 392, 403, 410, 427, 449, 452, 456, 467, 481, 487, 489, 491, 496, 517, 523, 526, 544, 546, 560, 567, 596, 637, 644, 654, 659, 663, 692, 693 human rights in, 201, 259, 266, 286, 287, 398, 401, 402, 406, 414 independence movements in, 14, 30, 112, 116, 118, 185, 195, 220, 245, 265, 267, 269, 279, 352, 368, 381, 451, 452, 473, 481, 490, 493, 503, 525, 540, 541, 546, 550, 599, 625, 626–29, 630, 634, 640, 645, 658, 677, 679, 684 industrialization of, 30, 41, 86, 89, 90, 94, 107, 129, 145, 161, 169, 186, 188, 197, 227, 233, 235, 236, 237, 239, 243, 247, 296, 299, 310, 319, 345, 350, 369, 395, 431, 432, 450, 503, 518, 557, 570, 591, 659 intelligentsia of, 16, 29, 30, 41, 44, 46, 52, 90, 91, 92, 109, 115, 118, 119, 122, 128, 139, 143, 144, 149, 200, 210, 221, 223, 227, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 280, 282, 317, 319, 340, 342, 343, 352, 353, 365, 368, 371, 372, 373, 392, 396, 405, 416, 429, 438, 439, 446, 478, 511, 512, 517, 531, 536, 541, 559, 576, 577, 579, 607, 635, 637, 654, 659, 689, 713n Interior Ministry of, 369–70, 436, 516, 578 journalism in, 13, 83, 91, 92, 100, 116, 123, 131, 141, 184, 195, 247, 250, 294, 302, 309, 313, 314, 317, 319, 324, 338, 339, 346, 357, 360, 368, 373, 379, 408, 409, 410, 442, 463, 475, 479, 480, 512, 621, 627, 648–50, 655, 659, 661, 671, 677, 684 labor strikes in, 30, 119, 170, 250, 450, 464, 533, 579 laws and legal system of, 3, 41, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 60, 65, 72–74, 89, 94, 100, 141, 185, 195, 217, 223, 233, 234, 244, 245, 267, 313–14, 321, 348, 350, 352, 354, 372, 398, 431, 438, 482, 502, 508, 555, 659, 679, 696 literature of, 30, 91, 93, 127, 142, 164, 167, 171, 183, 223, 247, 317, 339, 368, 399, 416, 457, 458, 528, 534, 637 manufacturing in, 169, 281, 395, 407 market-based reforms in, xi, 3, 51, 80, 81, 88, 89, 151, 194, 214, 217, 383, 451, 454, 467, 473, 479, 497, 505, 521, 522, 523, 524–26, 533, 540, 546, 555, 569, 571, 587, 591, 624, 631, 646, 648, 678 military establishment of, 10, 20–27, 41, 50, 55, 122, 143, 147, 170, 180, 217, 222, 227, 234, 237, 241, 242, 254, 255, 256, 266, 271, 274, 275, 293, 296, 299, 321, 343, 377, 382, 383, 388, 393, 395, 397, 398, 401, 403, 411, 414, 420, 433, 442, 467, 471, 484, 488, 499, 502, 518, 525, 530, 535, 541, 542, 544, 546, 549–52, 555, 558, 563, 564, 566, 569, 570, 576, 577, 578, 586, 600, 605, 621, 635, 636, 642, 657–59, 661, 662, 763n, 767n mining strikes in, 450, 452, 464, 510, 579 museums of, 43, 49, 66, 80, 151, 166, 197, 262, 280, 335, 410, 476, 560, 654 nationalism in, 62, 91, 184, 270, 310, 325, 338, 343, 365, 366, 367, 368, 370, 373, 435, 436, 439, 444, 451, 452, 454, 462, 470, 481, 490, 500, 503, 525, 547, 555, 576, 580, 586, 599, 624, 629, 631, 640 Nazi invasion of, 7, 8, 20–27, 42, 55, 56, 149, 287, 299, 318, 387, 452, 487, 596, 640, 641, 777n newspapers and reporters in, 18, 21, 28, 36, 58, 65, 73, 100, 107, 116, 132, 149, 151, 195, 247, 264, 272, 289, 301, 309, 314, 317, 324, 337, 339, 340, 343, 344, 347, 360, 374, 401, 405, 407, 408, 410, 416, 418, 432, 440, 442, 445, 457, 460, 469, 475, 476, 520, 525, 536, 545, 548, 559, 561, 585, 586, 606, 607, 642, 671, 677 nuclear disarmament and, 256, 259, 276, 287, 292, 299, 305, 389, 391, 393, 397, 402, 411, 430, 465, 468, 469, 496, 558 nuclear energy in, 240–42, 263, 430 nuclear weapons of, 144, 170, 171, 199, 240, 241, 242, 250, 252, 256, 259, 263–66, 275, 276, 279, 286, 287, 291, 292, 295–300, 304, 305, 366, 389, 391–94, 396, 397, 401, 402, 411, 412, 415, 419, 430, 445, 465, 468, 469, 471, 472, 474, 476, 477, 496, 549, 555, 557, 558, 564, 566, 597, 609, 624, 638, 645, 647, 652, 682, 686, 688, 693 oil reserves of, 170, 238, 246, 298, 383, 434, 504 parliamentary reforms in, 184, 196, 197, 201, 206, 222, 245, 264, 427, 428, 429, 431, 432, 434, 449, 507, 508, 513–15, 528, 529–31, 533, 556, 575, 576, 578, 580, 581, 584, 586, 587, 608, 610, 613, 614, 617, 624, 627, 628, 630, 634, 637, 649, 658, 661, 667, 678, 680, 681, 688 peasantry in, 2, 7, 10–13, 16, 18, 23, 24, 34, 40, 41, 43, 44, 52, 55, 63, 74, 89, 95, 97, 105, 110, 112, 114, 129, 217, 304, 317, 318, 320, 376, 435, 494, 520, 539, 628, 689, 710n pluralism in, 58, 144, 215, 218, 321, 342, 354, 438, 479 police forces of, 18, 22, 58, 74, 81, 89, 99, 119, 140, 151, 181, 227, 357, 367, 380, 397, 407, 421, 460, 461, 495, 506, 552, 566, 576–78, 611, 619, 640, 657, 662, 677 political situation in, 2, 4, 44, 47, 53, 55, 94, 141, 162, 163, 183, 184, 185, 194, 197, 219, 220, 224, 226, 228, 261, 262, 263, 274, 281, 293, 309, 331, 332, 335, 336, 340, 341, 365, 366, 383, 387, 402, 405, 408, 416, 420, 428, 431, 440, 445, 452, 455, 472, 486, 502, 507, 509, 513, 518, 527, 549, 563, 568, 574, 584, 586, 637, 642, 652, 656, 657, 672, 688, 690–92 population of, 231–32, 339, 352, 500, 629, 658, 710n power struggles in, 1–4, 12, 16, 19, 35, 36, 55, 80, 88, 90, 92, 99, 100, 108, 109, 120, 127, 135, 144, 147, 157, 160, 161, 168, 169, 172, 174, 180, 196, 205, 209, 210, 216, 218, 219, 220, 229, 231, 240, 241, 245, 248, 250, 252, 255, 256, 261, 262, 263, 267, 272, 276, 305, 308, 319, 322, 339–41, 343, 344, 346, 351–54, 366, 373, 381, 382, 391, 397, 400, 409, 411, 420, 428, 432, 435, 439, 440, 446, 448, 454, 458, 465, 466, 469, 479, 482, 483, 487, 490, 502, 506–11, 512, 513, 519, 524, 526, 529–31, 533, 540, 543, 546, 548, 558, 565, 579, 581, 584–86, 597, 603, 623, 624, 635, 636, 643, 645, 648, 654, 656, 663, 671, 678, 679, 681, 684, 688, 689, 690–93 premiership of, 92, 145, 349, 353, 437, 445, 452, 511, 568, 571, 575, 617, 650, 657, 671, 676, 683 Presidium of, 36, 211, 326, 362, 430, 443 price levels in, 108, 150, 152, 168–70, 177, 232, 238, 278, 292, 311, 316, 383, 405, 434, 454, 474, 487, 524, 527, 546, 559, 591, 594, 655, 688 prime minister of, 575, 591–92, 622 prisons in, 12, 18–19, 23, 50, 92, 104, 127, 180, 201, 242, 243, 251, 294, 365, 382, 397, 482, 509, 518, 635, 640, 641 procurators and prosecutors in, 18, 41, 52, 56, 72–74, 75, 77, 81, 116, 120, 160, 639, 658, 659, 696 production levels in, 33, 96, 100, 110, 115, 170, 187, 188, 194, 200, 213, 232, 236, 238, 239, 310 productivity in, 131, 169, 175, 177, 184, 232, 243, 297, 310, 311–12, 400, 472, 496, 623 proletariat of, 18, 41, 43, 52, 143, 216, 235, 358, 365, 404, 437, 438, 511 propaganda in, 44, 46, 57, 78, 79, 79, 91, 93, 98, 107, 128, 160, 168, 183, 194, 244, 247, 249, 263, 264, 265, 279, 291, 292, 315, 343–45, 387, 388, 398, 413, 432, 467, 469, 512, 526, 578, 707n property ownership in, 12, 13, 18, 167, 194, 245, 319, 354, 438, 446, 455, 505, 537, 592, 623, 647, 663, 693 purges in, 4, 18–19, 40, 52, 54, 97, 98, 181, 219, 259, 317, 323, 326, 337, 350, 355, 371, 372, 416, 452, 621, 626 reform movement in, 1–4, 51, 53, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 99, 116, 117, 119, 123, 124, 125, 143, 144, 145, 147, 153, 179, 180, 181, 182, 186, 188, 189, 190, 196, 215, 216–18, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 230, 244–46, 248, 250, 252, 253, 257, 268, 270, 306, 307, 310–17, 330, 337, 345, 350, 352, 353, 355, 358–60, 361, 362, 366, 368, 369, 371, 379, 380, 381, 383–85, 386, 391, 393, 400, 418, 427, 433, 435, 439, 451, 458, 465, 466, 469, 471, 472–81, 482, 483, 486, 487, 494, 496, 499, 501, 503, 506, 507, 508, 516, 519–21, 522, 524, 530, 534, 535, 542, 557, 571, 583, 584, 590–92, 594, 605, 606, 617, 621, 632, 640, 646, 649, 655, 681, 686, 690, 693 republics of, 23, 55, 120, 150, 151, 170, 183, 201, 203, 231, 274, 276, 279, 282, 292, 293, 296, 298, 299, 305, 321, 337, 351, 353, 355, 357, 358, 363, 365, 377, 394, 396, 398, 409, 421, 428, 435, 543, 547, 554, 557, 566, 588, 596, 625–30, 631, 635; see also specific republics revolutionary traditions of, 12, 42, 43, 68, 82, 91, 132, 140, 143, 182, 213, 216, 218, 219, 245, 260, 266, 272, 273, 275, 278, 284, 299, 305, 306, 308, 313, 315, 317, 318, 320, 321, 326, 331, 334, 357, 365, 381, 391, 413, 427, 429, 478, 480, 492, 494, 506, 509, 517, 532, 551, 619, 679, 688, 691 separatist movements in, 338, 370, 428, 435, 451, 452, 504, 505, 508, 628 socialism in, 29, 36, 52, 55–57, 92, 99, 107, 113, 114, 117, 119, 124, 125, 127, 132, 153, 168, 180, 194, 215, 218, 219, 224, 239, 243, 244, 245, 248, 255, 265–71, 272, 275, 307, 311, 315, 318, 343, 344, 350, 354, 356, 358, 365, 366, 371, 378, 380, 382, 392, 464, 481, 483, 484, 486, 500, 506, 524, 525, 527, 537, 542, 571, 580, 633, 690, 693, 284, 537 soviets (councils) in, 353, 355, 357–58, 363, 428, 696 stagnation in, 161–62, 190–91, 201–2 state-controlled television in, 115, 168, 202, 214, 225, 226, 228, 229, 239, 240, 280, 303, 316, 324, 340, 350, 351, 359, 374, 385, 398, 403, 404, 411, 418, 426, 431, 435, 442, 449, 450, 456, 460, 475, 489, 506, 519–21, 531, 538, 545, 560, 575, 578, 606, 610, 611, 614, 622, 625, 626, 637, 638, 642, 643, 645–47, 655, 663, 677 State Council of, 624–30, 642, 650, 696 state of emergency in, 533, 576, 583, 599–600, 608, 610, 611, 617, 618, 619 statistical surveys of, 112, 125, 238, 246, 321, 434, 710n as superpower, 1, 122, 294–95, 499, 568, 597, 680 Supreme Soviet of, 36, 131, 202, 203, 207, 313, 321, 333, 354, 371, 372, 427, 429, 433–35, 442, 444, 445, 451, 461, 501, 507, 511, 514, 521, 526, 529, 530, 533, 574, 583, 585, 586, 622, 623, 635, 637, 695, 696 technological development in, 91, 120, 151, 169, 177, 183, 193, 236, 263, 287, 295, 296, 384, 393, 415 territories of, 170, 190, 281, 366, 367, 369, 378, 397, 422, 428–30, 433, 500, 546, 549, 564, 578, 582 textiles industry of, 129, 145, 239, 262, 309 “thaw” period in, 91–93, 112, 126, 128, 183, 275, 346 as totalitarian state, 3, 66, 155, 216, 249, 338, 352, 366, 370, 599, 646, 648, 652, 661, 688 tractors manufactured in, 14, 17, 18, 28, 35, 98, 101, 446 trade unions in, 120, 247–49, 328, 384, 391, 410, 419, 429, 500, 544, 569, 594 unemployment in, 56, 85, 279, 357, 512, 530 U.S. relations of, 123, 170, 197, 255, 257, 259, 263, 264, 276, 278, 281–87, 290–92, 294–97, 299, 303, 304, 387, 389, 391, 393, 396–99, 402, 403, 408, 409, 410, 411–13, 414, 415, 418, 423, 457, 465, 469, 472, 474, 477, 481, 493–96, 499, 541, 546, 551, 554, 556, 557, 568, 571, 588, 596, 598, 599, 638, 686 Western relations of, 1, 2, 4, 11, 16, 27, 29, 66, 75, 91, 102, 114, 121, 122, 123, 127, 143, 144, 149–52, 160, 169–71, 187, 198, 201, 212, 233, 238, 240, 250, 253–59, 263–73, 277, 279, 280, 281, 283, 292, 293, 318, 320, 338, 341, 352, 353–55, 361, 366, 374, 379, 384–98, 400, 409, 414, 419, 420, 422, 431, 435, 442, 460, 463–69, 470, 474–78, 483, 484–98, 506, 539–53, 558, 564–71, 575, 579, 587, 589, 590–93, 596, 597, 602, 611, 617, 633, 636, 638, 640, 643, 655, 660, 680, 685, 687, 690, 691, 692, 693, 696 women in, 16, 102–3, 112–13, 114, 200, 416 working class in, 44, 72, 94, 103, 107, 124, 128, 129, 143, 146, 235, 245, 266, 313, 345, 352, 355, 384, 392, 431, 437, 438, 476, 511, 517, 518, 539, 659, 720n see also Russia Soviet Writers’ Union, 249 Spain, 223, 571, 632, 656, 657 Spaso House, 415, 416, 746n Spiegel, 657, 681, 686 Sputnik launching (1957), 91 SS-18 missiles, 295 SS-20 missiles, 391 SS-23 (“Oka”) missiles, 395 Stalin, Joseph, xxiii, 2, 7, 8, 17, 18, 19, 28, 35, 36, 42–46, 51–58, 65, 67, 73, 90–98, 103, 112, 126–28, 140–46, 150, 158, 164, 168, 174, 182, 183, 190, 191, 196, 201, 207, 215–18, 245, 248–50, 254, 256, 259–66, 306, 308, 317–25, 334, 338–45, 348, 350, 352, 356, 366, 367, 372, 400, 429, 430, 438, 444, 451, 452, 487, 518, 519, 552, 602, 603, 606, 640, 641, 651, 661, 681, 689, 744n, 756n Stalingrad, 28, 43, 190 see also Volgograd Stalinism, 8, 18, 19, 28, 35, 42, 44, 47, 51, 53, 57, 58, 65, 90, 93, 94, 97, 98, 143, 191, 249, 317, 318, 321, 338, 348, 400, 430, 444, 661, 689 “Stalin Is Our Wartime Glory, Stalin Gives Flight to Our Youth” (Gorbachev), 56–57 “Stalinist 6” combines, 35 Stanford University, 562 Stankevich, Sergei, xxiii, 431, 437 Starkov, Vladislav, xxiii, 344, 454–55 Starodubtsev, Vasily, xxiii, 586 starosta (elder), 51–52 Starovoitova, Galina, 441, 444, 616 START treaty, 412, 419, 423, 468, 472, 597, 598 “Star Wars” (Strategic Defense Initiative) program, 170, 263, 275, 276, 278, 279, 282, 285–87, 291, 293, 295–302, 305, 388, 393, 394, 401, 403, 414 State Acceptance Commission, 237 State Commission on Economic Reform, 521–22 State Committee on Emergency Rule, 599–600, 608, 610, 611, 617, 618, 619 State Department, U.S., 281–82, 398, 400, 405 State Planning Commission, 188 State Technical School (Piatigorsk), 104 Stavropol (city), 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 33, 35, 41, 43, 73, 75, 77–82, 79, 84–87, 84, 87, 89, 90, 93–95, 97, 98, 100–112, 115–33, 135, 137, 138, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 155–58, 160–66, 174, 177, 189, 195, 208, 215, 220, 226, 227, 233, 237, 259, 322, 335, 364, 446, 447, 449, 554, 565, 653, 661, 662, 666 Stavropol Agricultural Institute, 87, 137 Stavropol Agro-Economic Institute, 662 Stavropol Teachers College, 98–99 steel industry, 169, 239, 450, 476, 485 steppes, 11, 13, 21, 41, 55, 78, 81, 130, 163, 164, 314 Stettinius, Edward, 469 Stevenson and Baird amendments, 497 Strauss, Franz Joseph, 569 Strauss, Robert S., xxiii, 458 Strizhament (nature preserve), 81 Štrougal, Lubomír, xxiii, 379, 381 Struve, Peter, 53 Stupino (city), 74–75 Sumgait massacre (1988), 369, 370 Summers, Lawrence, 762n Sumtsova, Yulia, 32, 36–37 Suri, Jeremi, 690 Suslov, Maya, 148 Suslov, Mikhail, xxiii, 121, 133, 147, 148, 148, 173–76, 176, 197, 267, 689 Sverdlov Hall, 326 Sverdlovsk (city), 222, 322, 328, 333, 356, 361, 461, 513, 517–18 Sweden, 240 Switzerland, 419 Syria, 273 Taganka Theater, 138, 166–67, 713n Tajikistan, 74, 628 Talbott, Strobe, 636, 638 Tallinn, 228, 452 tamizdat publications, 339 Tarasenko, Sergei, xxiii, 268, 470, 499, 535, 563, 567 tariffs, 496, 497 TASS, 332, 345, 459 Tatars, 325, 367 Tbilisi (city), 436, 437, 441–43, 535 Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich, 66 “team system,” 133 Telen, Ludmila, 680 Teltschik, Horst, xxiii, 491, 492, 545, 549, 565 Tereshchenko, Nikolai, 110 Thatcher, Denis, 197, 199, 200 Thatcher, Margaret, xxiii, 196–201, 198, 252, 253, 261, 269, 304, 387, 388, 390–92, 423, 464, 468, 475, 488, 494, 544, 558, 570, 595, 596, 671, 685, 719n “Theses” (Gorbachev), 413 “think tanks,” 639, 651–52, 654 Third World, 170, 259, 371, 400 see also specific countries Thirteenth Komsomol Congress (1958), 100 Three Sisters (Chekhov), 66 “three Yegors,” 342 Tiananmen Square protests (1989), 478, 479, 619 Tikhonov, Nikolai, xxiii, 147, 175, 176, 176, 180, 181, 191–93, 205, 210, 212, 219 Tikhoretsky Station, 43 Time, 264, 408, 517 Times (London), 476 Timiryazov Agricultural Academy, 105, 178 Titarenko, Aleksandra Petrovna, xxiii, 63, 64, 65, 71–72, 82, 85, 114 Titarenko, Yevgeny, xxiii, 65 Titarenko, Ludmila, xxiii, 65, 82, 82, 102, 146, 190, 226, 234, 280, 666, 671, 672, 675, 680 Titarenko, Maksim Andreyevich, xxiii, 63–64, 65, 71–72 Titarenko, Zhenya, 234 Tito (Josip Broz), 117 Titov, Konstantin, 678 Tizyakov, Aleksandr, xxiii, 586 Today, 476 Togliatti, Palmiro, 127, 195 Togliatti (city), 239–40 Tolstoy, Leo, 56, 184, 260, 286, 339 Tomsk (city), 74, 187, 322 Topilin, Yura, xxiii, 59, 60 totalitarianism, 3, 66, 155, 216, 249, 338, 352, 366, 370, 599, 646, 648, 652, 661, 688 tractors, 14, 17, 18, 28, 35, 98, 101, 446 treason, 1, 91, 261, 329, 348, 663 Tretyakov Gallery, 417–18 Trilateral Commission, 466 Tripoli, 292–93 Trotsky, Leon, 18, 53, 64, 117, 320, 321, 340, 343 Trowbridge, Alexander, 407 Trudeau, Pierre Elliott, xxiii, 184, 185 Trukhachev, Andrei, 156, 674, 674, 682, 682, 684, 687 Truman, David B., 183 Trump, Donald, 405, 421 Tselina (Brezhnev), 716n Tsinev, Georgy, 144 Tsvetaeva, Marina, 91 Tsvigun, Semyon, 144 Tucker, Robert C., 606 Tupolev 134 airliners, 614 Turgenev, Ivan, 165 Turin, 150, 682 Turkmenistan, 628 Turner, Ted, 665, 683 Turovskaya, Maya, 247–48 Tvardovsky, Aleksandr, xxiv, 91, 123, 317 “Two-plus-Four” talks, 548, 563 “Two Thousand Words” manifesto, 123 uchilka (“blue nose”), 85 Ukraine, xiii, 10, 13, 20, 63, 166, 188, 206, 221, 226, 237, 240, 249, 349, 369, 438, 451, 464, 520, 582, 583, 599, 605, 606, 613, 625, 628, 629, 631, 635, 637, 685, 691, 692–93 Ulyanov, Mikhail, xxiv, 309, 345–46, 361, 429 “unearned income,” 244–45 Union of Sovereign States, 579–81, 582, 608–9, 623, 624–30, 631, 638, 648 Unità, 149 United Nations (UN), 207, 271, 294, 377, 386, 414, 419–21, 423, 426, 469, 472, 567–68, 596 United Russia, 679–80, 681, 685 United States: arms control agenda of, 263–64, 412, 419, 423, 468, 472, 597, 598 capitalist system of, 56, 128, 149, 150, 183, 184, 217, 218, 262–63, 371, 382, 392, 505, 571, 656 détente policy of, 123, 170, 172, 263, 264, 275, 279, 421, 491 imperialism of, 143, 262, 263, 265, 273, 572, 606 nuclear weapons of, 144, 170, 171, 199, 240, 241, 242, 250, 252, 256, 259, 263–66, 275, 276, 279, 286, 287, 291, 292, 295–300, 304, 305, 366, 389, 391–94, 396, 397, 401, 402, 411, 412, 415, 419, 430, 445, 465, 468, 469, 471, 472, 474, 476, 477, 496, 549, 555, 557, 558, 564, 566, 597, 609, 624, 638, 645, 647, 652, 682, 686, 688, 693 peaceful coexistence policy of, 257, 263, 414 Soviet relations of, 123, 170, 197, 255, 257, 259, 263, 264, 276, 278, 281–87, 290–92, 294–97, 299, 303, 304, 387, 389, 391, 393, 396–99, 402, 403, 408, 409, 410, 411–13, 414, 415, 418, 423, 457, 465, 469, 472, 474, 477, 481, 493–96, 499, 541, 546, 551, 554, 556, 557, 568, 571, 588, 596, 598, 599, 638, 686 as superpower, 1, 122, 294–95, 499, 568, 597, 680 Unity of the People and the Contradictions of Socialism, The (Sadykov), 124–26 Upper Volta, 338 Uralmash industrial plant, 517 U.S.


No Slack: The Financial Lives of Low-Income Americans by Michael S. Barr

active measures, asset allocation, Bayesian statistics, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market friction, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, p-value, payday loans, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked

Consider, for example, two individuals with no access to credit cards: one person has a bank account and has his or her paycheck directly deposited into a savings account; the other person is unbanked and receives a paper check and cashes it. Whereas cash is not readily available to the first person, who needs to take active steps to withdraw it, cash is immediately available to the second, who 12864-11_CH11_3rdPgs.indd 250 3/23/12 11:57 AM behaviorally informed regulation 251 must take active measures to save it. The greater tendency to spend cash in the wallet compared with funds deposited in the bank (Thaler 1999) suggests that the banked person will spend less on impulse and save more easily than the person who is unbanked. Holding risk- and saving-related propensities constant, the first person is likely to end up a more active and efficient saver than the second. Direct deposit is an institution that can have a profound effect on saving and is increasing in usage (American Payroll Association 2002).


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

Neil Macfarquhar, “A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories,” New York Times, August 28, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/29/world/europe/russia-sweden-disinformation.html. 17. Jon Henley, “Russia Waging Information War against Sweden, Study Finds,” Guardian, January 11, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/11/russia-waging-information-war-in-sweden-study-finds; Martin Kragh and Sebastian Åsberg, “Russia’s Strategy for Influence through Public Diplomacy and Active Measures: The Swedish Case,” Journal of Strategic Studies (2017): 1–44. 18. Christopher Paul and Miriam Matthews, “The Russian ‘Firehose of Falsehood’ Propaganda Model: Why It Might Work and Options to Counter It,” Rand Corporation, 2016, http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE198/RAND_PE198.pdf. 19. Giorgio Bertolin, “Conceptualizing Russian Information Operations: Info-War and Infiltration in the Context of Hybrid Warfare,” IO Sphere (Summer 2015): 10. 20.


Adam Smith: Father of Economics by Jesse Norman

"Robert Solow", active measures, Andrei Shleifer, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, loss aversion, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, scientific worldview, seigniorage, Socratic dialogue, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Veblen good, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working poor, zero-sum game

It reminds us that no two markets are the same; that markets have no divine right to exist, but serve a public as well as a private function; that regulation may be required to ensure their effective and competitive operation, but that regulation itself carries potential costs; that the lobbying power of corporate interests is a serious risk both to effective markets and to legitimate government; that crony capitalism flourishes where markets are not competitive; that crony capitalism can be understood in terms of the three key ideas of economic rent-seeking, asymmetries of power and information, and agency costs; and that unless active measures are taken, there is a serious risk that it will escalate. Yet a Smithian viewpoint carries with it at least three wider implications for understanding our modern world as well. First, Smith’s economic egalitarianism anticipates recent academic work which suggests that great inequality, far from creating incentives that boost economic growth, can actively undermine it. Secondly, Smith underlines the degree to which different forms of modern mercantilism—the strategic use of trade surpluses and tariff and non-tariff barriers, the hollowing out of labour markets in developing countries as their most mobile talent is drawn into advanced economies, the competitive withdrawal by nations from shared environmental costs—can be read not merely in terms of a retreat from the responsibilities of a globalizing world but as the plain old-fashioned pursuit of political power by a form of economic nationalism, a modern ‘jealousy of trade’, in Hume’s memorable phrase.


Construction Project Management by S. Keoki Sears

8-hour work day, active measures, air freight, inventory management, Parkinson's law, supply-chain management, zero day

This chapter begins by looking at detailed schedules used by the field supervisor to plan crew work on specific activities in the near term. It then moves on to measurement and reporting of progress. Progress reporting provides the opportunity to analyze the current status of the project. Often, this will lead to rescheduling and corrective action to bring the project back within specified time parameters. This cycle of planning and executing activities, measuring and reporting progress, revising the plan based on current status, and updating the schedule is continued repetitively throughout the project. Learning objectives for this chapter include: ❑ Recognize the role of the field supervisor in planning and executing day‐to‐day activities. 241 242 10 Project Coordination ❑ Gain an introductory understanding of the application of lean principles to improve production. ❑ Learn about progress measurements and progress reporting. ❑ Understand the importance of continually updating the plan and schedule to reflect current job status. 10.2 Schedule Information on the Job Although the project manager is responsible for the overall application and direction of the project time management system, field supervisors also play key roles in keeping the project on schedule.


Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project by Karl Fogel

active measures, AGPL, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, collaborative editing, continuous integration, corporate governance, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, natural language processing, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pull request, revision control, Richard Stallman, selection bias, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, SpamAssassin, web application, zero-sum game

It causes only a couple of extra lines per message, in a harmless location, and it can save you a lot of time, by cutting down on the number of people who mail you—or worse, mail the list!—asking how to unsubscribe. The Great Reply-to Debate Earlier, in the section called “Avoid Private Discussions”, I stressed the importance of making sure discussions stay in public forums, and talked about how active measures are sometimes needed to prevent conversations from trailing off into private email threads; furthermore, this chapter is all about setting up project communications software to do as much of the work for people as possible. Therefore, if the mailing list management software offers a way to automatically cause discussions to stay on the list, you would think turning on that feature would be the obvious choice.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

, Irfan Asrar, 13 July 2009, http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/could-sexy-space-bebirth-sms-botnet. [247] “Sexy Space Threat Comes to Mobile Phones”, George Lawton, August 2009, http://www.computer.org/portal/web/computingnow/archive/news027. [248] “EFF/iSEC’s SSL Observatory slides available”, Chris Palmer, posting to the cryptography@metzdowd.com mailing list, message-ID 20100804193654.GU45390@noncombatant.org, 4 August 2010. [249] “An Observatory for the SSLiverse”, Peter Eckersley and Jesse Burns, presentation at Defcon 18, July 2010, http://www.eff.org/files/DefconSSLiverse.pdf. [250] “Unqualified Names in the SSL Observatory”, Chris Palmer, 5 April 2011, http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2011/04/unqualified-names-sslobservatory. [251] “The Problem of Issuing Certs For Unqualified Names”, Dennis Fisher, 6 April 2011, https://www.threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/problem-issuingcerts-unqualified-names-040611. [252] “Wow, That’s a Lot of Packets”, Duane Wessels and Marina Fomenkov, Proceedings of the 4th Passive and Active Measurement Workshop (PAM’03), April 2003, http://www.caida.org/publications/papers/2003/dnspackets/wessels-pam2003.pdf. [253] “Unqualified and Local Names and RFC 1918 Private IP Addresses”, George Macon, posting to the observatory@eff.org mailing list, message-ID 4D30FE88.3030904@gmail.com, 14 January 2011. [254] “Fully-qualified Nonsense in the SSL Observatory”, Chris Palmer, 7 April 2011, http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2011/04/fully-qualifiednonsense-ssl-observatory. [255] “Equifax not conforming to Mozilla CA Certificate Policy (7)”, Markus Stumpf, 10 February 2009, https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?

This is consistent with surveys of user attitudes which show that almost all users think that their ISP should alert them to malware infections and provide assistance in removing them [690][691], as well as related surveys showing that users expect service providers to take care of security issues in general [692] because it’s something that the service providers are in a position to do and that users shouldn’t have to bother with. This in turn follows expectations set by real-world experience where consumer protection legislation and liability issues require that vendors take active measures to safeguard consumers. The same effect has been found in surveys of smartphone users, who in the case of Android users expected Android market to “screen not just for viruses or malware, but running usability tests, […] they believed that Android was checking for copyright or patent violations, and overall expected Android to be protecting their brand” [401]. In other words they expected Android (whoever that might be, most users had no idea who was responsible for it) to do more or less what Apple was 51 Calling it a leper colony is frowned upon.

“It’s Not Stealing If You Need It: A Panel on the Ethics of Performing Research Using Public Data of Illicit Origin”, Serge Egelman, Joseph 798 Testing [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] Bonneau, Sonia Chiasson, David Dittrich and Stuart Schechter, Proceedings of the 2012 Workshop on Usable Security (USEC’12), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.7398, March 2012, p.124. “Spamming for Science: Active Measurement in Web 2.0 Abuse Research”, Andrew West, Pedram Hayati, Vidyasagar Potdar and Insup Lee, Proceedings of the 2012 Workshop on Usable Security (USEC’12), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.7398, March 2012, p.99. “A Conversation with Werner Vogels”, ACM Queue, Vol.4, No.4 (May 2006), p.14. “Sharing The Customer’s Pain”, Jeff Atwood, 5 December 2007, http://www.codinghorror.com/blog/archives/001013.html.


pages: 485 words: 148,662

Farewell by Sergei Kostin, Eric Raynaud

active measures, car-free, cuban missile crisis, index card, invisible hand, kremlinology, Lao Tzu, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier

It is undoubtedly the good relations between the DST and its American colleagues built at that time that would play a role later in the Farewell affair. It was only at the end of the sixties and in the early seventies that the DST started in earnest to develop counterintelligence strategies against Eastern Bloc secret services. The DST, however, was not qualified to handle agents or implement active measures outside of France. It had no presence at all in Moscow, and neither did French intelligence. The office of French intelligence that existed at some point in the Russian capital (usually staffed by two or three persons) had been closed down by Alexandre de Marenches, director of the agency called the SDECE at the beginning of the seventies. Although an authorized and credible source claims that French intelligence kept handling Russian agents during their trips outside of the Soviet Union, France gave up secret activities in its main enemy’s territory.


pages: 385 words: 117,391

The Complete Thyroid Book by Kenneth Ain, M. Sara Rosenthal

active measures, follow your passion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, place-making, placebo effect, post-materialism, randomized controlled trial, upwardly mobile

This test involves the patient resting comfortably in bed, preferably 22 TEST S AN D L ABS: DIAGNOSI NG THYROI D DISE ASE TABLE 2.2 Lab Tests Used to Measure Thyroid Function Laboratory Tests Normal Range Common Units (International Units) How It’s Used (Condition) Free T4 0.9–1.6 ng/dL (12–21 pmol/L) Measures thyroid hormone available to enter cells (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis) T3 80–180 ng/dL (1.2–2.8 nmol/L) Measures total T3 (thyrotoxicosis) Free T3 2.2–4.0 ng/L (3.4–6.1 pmol/L) Measures free (unbound) T3 (thyrotoxicosis) Reverse T3 90–350 pg/mL (140–538 pmol/L) Measures reverse T3, an inactive degradation product of T4, increased in illness (not used) TSH 0.6–4.5 µU/mL (0.6–4.5 mU/L) Most sensitive measure of thyroid status (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid cancer care) Thyroglobulin (TG) less than 35 ng/mL (less than 35 µg/L) Measures thyroglobulin, a unique protein from thyroid cells (thyroiditis, thyroid cancer care) Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 13–30 µg/mL (13–30 mg/L) Measures TBG, a protein in blood, made in the liver, that sticks to thyroid hormone (not used) TPO antibody 0–70 IU/mL Measures TPO, an autoimmune antibody in thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s, Graves’ disease, pregnancy) Thyroglobulin antibody 0–2.2 IU/mL Measures autoimmune antibody to thyroglobulin (Hashimoto’s, thyroid cancer—check TG) Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI or TSA) Less than 130% of basal activity Measures autoimmune antibody to TSH receptor (Graves’ disease) 23 THE BASICS early in the morning, and then having a plastic hood placed over his or her head. A machine would then sample air from the hood and measure the rate that oxygen was used up, providing a rough estimate of the person’s metabolic rate. Unfortunately, many, many things can affect the BMR that have nothing to do with thyroid hormone.


pages: 852 words: 157,181

The Origins of the British by Stephen Oppenheimer

active measures, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Eratosthenes, gravity well, mass immigration, out of africa, phenotype, the scientific method, trade route

Once settled, a founding population is hard to dislodge.7 The pioneers achieved this just after 16,000 years ago, when Scandinavia and the Baltic were still covered in ice, by demonstrating, in both the archaeological and the genetic record,8 possibly the highest rate of population expansion Europe would see until modern times. Archaeological records for this Late Palaeolithic period show evidence of twice as much human activity (measured in radiocarbon dates), lasting for longer (about 3,000 years) than either the Mesolithic or the Neolithic expansion, which began respectively around 6,000 and 8,000 years later (Figure 3.2). The earliest archaeological evidence for the recolonization of north-west Europe comes from the Rhineland and southern Germany, to where Magdalenian cultures (see p. 125) had spread shortly before 16,000 years ago.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The United Nations projects that if population growth and consumption trends continue, even without an appreciable change in the quality of life of the world’s poor, by 2030 we will need the equivalent of two Earths to support our resource appropriations.5 Abundance, then, is in the eye of the beholder. The sustainability of the planet, however, is not. When it comes to reconciling abundance and sustainability, Gandhi’s observation, cited in chapter 6, that the “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need but not for every man’s greed” remains the gold standard.6 Gandhi had an instinctual understanding of sustainability. Today, however, we can actively measure it with sophisticated metrics. It is called ecological footprint. Sustainability is defined as the relative steady state in which the use of resources to sustain the human population does not exceed the ability of nature to recycle the waste and replenish the stock. Ecological footprint is a direct measure of the demand human activity puts on the biosphere. More precisely, it measures the amount of biologically productive land and water that is required to produce all the resources an individual or population consumes and to absorb the waste they generate, given prevailing technology and resource-management practices.


Foundation and Earth by Isaac Asimov

active measures, cognitive dissonance, Magellanic Cloud

“I had to wait for Gaia to be fully established, despite the unanticipated difficulties that arose. By the time a human being—Mr. Trevize—was located who was capable of making the key decision, it was too late. Do not think, however, that I took no measure to lengthen my life span. Little by little I have reduced my activities, in order to conserve what I could for emergencies. When I could no longer rely on active measures to preserve the isolation of the Earth/moon system, I adopted passive ones. Over a period of years, the humaniform robots that have been working with me have been, one by one, called home. Their last tasks have been to remove all references to Earth in the planetary archives. And without myself and my fellow-robots in full play, Gaia will lack the essential tools to carry through the development of Galaxia in less than an inordinate period of time.”


pages: 590 words: 152,595

Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War by Paul Scharre

active measures, Air France Flight 447, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, brain emulation, Brian Krebs, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, DevOps, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, Flash crash, Freestyle chess, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, ImageNet competition, Internet of things, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, pattern recognition, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sensor fusion, South China Sea, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Turing test, universal basic income, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, William Langewiesche, Y2K, zero day

Self-adapting software that can modify itself, rather than wait on updates from its human controllers, would be a significant evolution. The result could be robust cyberdefenses . . . or resilient malware. At the 2015 International Conference on Cyber Conflict, Alessandro Guarino hypothesized that AI-based offensive cyberweapons could “prevent and react to countermeasures,” allowing them to persist inside networks. Such an agent would be “much more resilient and able to repel active measures deployed to counter it.” A worm that could autonomously adapt—mutating like a biological virus, but at machine speed—would be a nasty bug to kill. Walker cautioned that the tools used in the Cyber Grand Challenge would only allow a piece of software to patch its own vulnerabilities. It wouldn’t allow “the synthesis of new logic” to develop “new code that can work towards a goal.” To do that, he said, “first we’d have to invent the field of code synthesis, and right now, it’s like trying to predict when time travel’s going to be invented.


pages: 474 words: 149,248

The Blood of Heroes: The 13-Day Struggle for the Alamo--And the Sacrifice That Forged a Nation by James Donovan

active measures, colonial rule, El Camino Real, financial independence, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, invention of gunpowder

The colonists established in Texas have recently given the most unequivocal evidence of the extremity to which perfidy, ingratitude, and the restless spirit that animates them can go, since—forgetting what they owe to the supreme government of the nation which so generously admitted them to its bosom, gave them fertile lands to cultivate, and allowed them all the means to live in comfort and abundance—they have risen against that same government, taking up arms against it under the pretense of sustaining a system which an immense majority of Mexicans have asked to have changed, thus concealing their criminal purpose of dismembering the territory of the Republic. The statement went on to say that “the most active measures” would be taken to rectify this “crime against the whole nation. The troops destined to sustain the honor of the country and the government will perform their duty and will cover themselves with glory.” His Excellency’s dislike of Americans was made even more apparent a few months later. In Mexico City, before an audience of several foreign ambassadors, he talked at length of the United States’ involvement in Texas.


pages: 811 words: 160,872

Scots and Catalans: Union and Disunion by J. H. Elliott

active measures, agricultural Revolution, banking crisis, British Empire, centre right, land tenure, mass immigration, mobile money, new economy, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, sharing economy, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban renewal

Catalans regarded both as fundamental to their successes, whereas royal ministers had more dirigiste ideas for the attainment of economic growth. 82 Yet there was sufficient identity of interests between Barcelona and Madrid for Antoni de Capmany, the great Catalan economic thinker and writer at the turn of the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, to be happy to speak of Bourbon Spain as his ‘nation’ – a nation of which his native Catalonia, his pàtria , formed an integral part. 83 Yet, in comparison with what was happening in the British Isles, Catalonia can hardly be said to have been integrated into an especially dynamic economic complex. It is true that in the late seventeenth century the economy of the interior saw the beginnings of Castilian recovery from its long stagnation, and it showed further signs of improvement over the course of the eighteenth. It is true, also, that the peripheral regions of the peninsula, like Catalonia itself, were displaying a new vitality, and that the government in Madrid was taking active measures to encourage agrarian, commercial and industrial development. There were important changes, too, in social attitudes, as local and regional societies – most notably the ‘Societies of Friends of the Country’ (Amigos del País) – were founded to promote improvements and economic growth. 84 Yet the government was constantly obstructed in its reforming efforts by entrenched opposition to its projects and by its inability to impose its policies on a peninsula poorly integrated in its economy and in its transportation networks, in spite of the administrative reforms initiated by Philip V.


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

Secretaries were “charming little nobodies,” as one consultant charmingly put it, invisible on the organizational chart (this last was indeed true, in accordance with standard management practice).27 “They lack supervision,” lamented the AMA. “And their productivity is thereby in the main beyond accurate measurement and control.”28 There is a linguistic irony here: “executive” derives from the verb “to execute” whose Latin root, exsequi, means to follow up, to carry out, and even to punish—all active measures that, as we have seen, would soon be literalized as an actual key on the word processor’s keyboard. Yet it is the secretary who “executes” on her boss’s decisions, transmuting his ideas and dictates into the tangible end-products of modern knowledge work. “The work done by the secretary is often more visible than that done by her boss,” notes one contemporary commentator, pace the AMA. “She at least produces a pile of neatly typed papers to be signed at the end of the day; there is often some question about just what he has produced.”29 Women in the office were all too visible in certain ways, even as they managed to stay invisible—and supposedly unaccountable—in all the ways that ostensibly mattered.


Not Working by Blanchflower, David G.

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clapham omnibus, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, job satisfaction, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Own Your Own Home, p-value, Panamax, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, quantitative easing, rent control, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, urban planning, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

Private-sector non-farm payrolls over this period have fallen by three hundred thousand with a decline of more than 60 percent of the job loss from construction, even though it accounted for only 6.5 percent of the stock at the start of the period. I then showed similar evidence for the UK, with the data presented in the appendix (table A.2). Phase 1 (August 2007–October 2007). House prices start to slow in 2007 Q2 and 2007 Q3 (columns 1, 2, and 3). Housing activity measures also slow (columns 4 and 5) from around October 2007. Phase 2 (November 2007–January 2008). Consumer confidence measures start slowing sharply also from around October 2007 (columns 6, 7, 8, and 9). The qualitative labor market measures such as the REC Demand for Staff index also start slowing from around October 2007. Phase 3 (February 2008–). In early 2008 the Halifax index and the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) survey both suggest that house-price falls have started to accelerate.


pages: 562 words: 153,825

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

And we wouldn’t stop, we shouldn’t stop, doing them.” Alexander complained, as other officials had, that reporters were writing about things we did not understand. “It’s absurd,” he said. “They get it wrong. . . . The reporters who got this see this data and quickly run to the wrong conclusion.” But his more urgent complaint had to do with accurate disclosures. And here came the striking departure: he called for active measures to put a halt to our work. “What they’re doing will do grave harm to our country and our allies,” Alexander said. “So we gotta figure out how to fix that. . . . I think it’s wrong that newspaper reporters have all these documents, fifty thousand or whatever they have, and are selling them and giving them out as if these—you know it just doesn’t make sense. We ought to come up with a way of stopping it.


pages: 609 words: 159,043

Come Fly With Us: NASA's Payload Specialist Program by Melvin Croft, John Youskauskas, Don Thomas

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, Elon Musk, gravity well, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Ronald Reagan, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

They would repeat the experiment at roughly the same time on each day of the flight. Data were also collected prior to the mission, and this would be collated once they were back on Earth, comparing it to the data Chrétien had collected on his Russian Soyuz T-6 mission. Baudry and Al-Saud took great pride in completing their assignments to the best of their abilities. As part of the French postural experiment, Baudry carried out investigations that tested an array of activities measuring the electrical activity of muscles based on a variety of well-orchestrated body movements. Following fifteen minutes spent retrieving all the necessary equipment from out of stowage compartments in the middeck and then hooking up the biochemical electronic sensors to his body, Baudry began to conduct one phase of the experiment. As he stood perfectly erect in the middeck, with both arms by his sides as if at military attention, he swiftly thrust his arms outward, perpendicular to the length of his body.


pages: 497 words: 161,742

The Enemy Within by Seumas Milne

active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, éminence grise

Next day, the front page of the Daily Mirror triumphantly reported that these Soviet ‘miners’ leaders’ had confirmed its allegations about the Soviet money. In fact, they were in no position to do any such thing. Massalovitch and Terokin were neither leaders of the official nor of the ‘independent’ Soviet miners’ unions. But they were both members of NTS. While in London, Miller took the two men round to see his old friend Brian Crozier, to brief him about what Crozier described as ‘this particular “Active Measure” ’. Before they flew back to the Soviet Union, Massalovitch and Butchenko also took the opportunity to appear on the second Cook Report programme on the Scargill Affair. Butchenko knew not a word of English, but was nevertheless shown self-consciously studying the Lightman Report. ‘I’m disgusted,’ he said of what he hadn’t read. ‘I will be very annoyed if Scargill is not brought to account for this criminal act.’26 The NUM executive’s legal action against Scargill, Heathfield, Simon and West ground on.


Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, Sixth Edition by Kindleberger, Charles P., Robert Z., Aliber

active measures, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, break the buck, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency peg, death of newspapers, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, edge city, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Honoré de Balzac, Hyman Minsky, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, large denomination, law of one price, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price stability, railway mania, Richard Thaler, riskless arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, telemarketer, The Chicago School, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, very high income, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

The Radcliffe Commission did not use the concept of velocity of money because it ‘could not find any reason for supposing, or any experience in monetary history indicating, that there is any limit to the velocity of circulation’.10 The commission recommended that a complex of controls of a wide range of financial institutions be developed as a substitute for the traditional control of the money supply: ‘Such a prospect would be unwelcome except as a last resort, not mainly because of its administrative burdens, but because the further growth of new financial institutions would allow the situation continually to slip out from under the grip of the authorities.’11 Economists have debated which assets should be included in ‘money’ for more than two centuries. One view is that the most appropriate definition is the one that provides the strongest correlation with changes in economic activity. Measuring economic activity is relatively unambiguous. The identification of the monetary variables that have the highest correlation with the economic activity variable might change over time and differ across countries. ‘In common parlance, bank currency means circulating bank notes – “paper money.” Yet some writers include checks and promissory notes, if not also loans and deposits’ (italics in original) in their measure of money.12 The debate was neatly summarized by John Stuart Mill: The purchasing power of an individual at any moment is not measured by the money actually in his pocket, whether we mean by money the metals, or include bank notes.


Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas

active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The Other Side of Deception. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. Ostrovsky, Victor, and Claire Hoy. By Way of Deception. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990. Parritt, Lt. Col. B. A. H. The Intelligencers: The Story of British Military Intelligence up to 1914. Ashford, England: Templer Press, 1971. Penkovsky, Oleg. The Penkovsky Papers. New York: Avon, 1965. Pincher, Chapman. The Secret Offensive, Active Measures: A Saga of Deception, Disinformation, Subversion, Terrorism, Sabotage, and Assassination. London, England: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985. Popplewell, Richard. Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire, 1904–1924. London: Frank Cass, 1995. Power, Thomas. The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA. New York: Knopf, 1979. Prados, John.


pages: 757 words: 193,541

The Practice of Cloud System Administration: DevOps and SRE Practices for Web Services, Volume 2 by Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Hogan

active measures, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, correlation coefficient, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, delayed gratification, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, load shedding, longitudinal study, loose coupling, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, place-making, platform as a service, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sorting algorithm, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Toyota Production System, web application, Yogi Berra

• There is an SLA defined for alert response: initial, hands-on-keyboard, issue resolved, postmortem complete. Level 4: Managed • The oncall pain is shared by the people most able to fix problems. • How often people are oncall is verified against the policy. • Postmortems are reviewed. • There is a mechanism to triage recommendations in postmortems and assure they are completed. • The SLA is actively measured. Level 5: Optimizing • Stress testing and failover testing are done frequently (quarterly or monthly). • “Game Day” exercises (intensive, system-wide tests) are done periodically. • The monitoring system alerts before outages occur (indications of “sick” systems rather than “down” systems). • Mechanisms exist so that any failover procedure not utilized in recent history is activated artificially


pages: 615 words: 187,426

Chinese Spies: From Chairman Mao to Xi Jinping by Roger Faligot

active measures, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business intelligence, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, housing crisis, illegal immigration, index card, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, union organizing, young professional, éminence grise

The Guoanbu’s 10th Bureau, headed by an expert named Liu Zhisheng, covers the scientific and technological field and thus acts as the interface with the Ministry of Science and Technology, led in the early 2000s by an automobile industry expert who is not a member of the CCP, Wan Gang. The 10th Bureau has many highly aggressive structures responsible for collecting information, patents and reports, as well as for other active measures including the recruitment of scientists, of both Chinese and non-Chinese origin. Subsidiary to the Executive Bureau headed by Li Chaocheng, MOFCOM’s Research and Investigation Departments 1 and 2 are responsible for internet research carried out by the e-documentation division—online intelligence-gathering done via artificial intelligence. Led by Jin Xiaoming, the International Cooperation Division is, of course, the most active abroad, establishing scientific research agreements between institutions and laboratories at global, inter-state and sub-state levels.


pages: 719 words: 209,224

The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman

active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, standardized shipping container, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game

He is believed to have told them about other spies, and some of the CIA's most sophisticated technical means for spying. 26 On Casey, see Gates, p. 363. Howard slipped the FBI and fled the country. See David Wise, The Spy Who Got Away (New York: Random House, 1988), chs. 24-26. 27 Within a KGB residency, Line X referred to scientific and technical intelligence and Line PR to political, economic and military strategic intelligence and active measures. See Appendix E, "The Organization of a KGB Residency," in Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West (London: Allan Lane/The Penguin Press, 1999), p. 743. 28 "Affidavit in support of criminal complaint, arrest warrant, and search warrants," United States of America vs. Robert Philip Hanssen, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, pp. 20-21.


The Cardinal of the Kremlin by Tom Clancy

active measures, airport security, cuban missile crisis, invisible hand, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Stephen Hawking

She was sure of it as she and Bea walked back away from the stores to where the cars were. "What are you going to do with him?" Bea asked. "What do you care?" Bisyarina replied quickly. "You're not going-" "No, we're not going to kill him." Ann wondered if that were true or not. She didn't know, but suspected that a murder was not in the cards. They'd broken one inviolable rule. That was enough for one day. * * * 22. Active Measures LEONID, whose current cover required him to say, "Call me Bob," headed for the far end of the parking lot. For an operation with virtually no planning, its most dangerous phase had gone smoothly enough. Lenny, in back, had the job of controlling the American officer they'd just kidnapped. A physical type, he'd once been part of the Soviet "special-purpose" forces, known by the abbreviation Spetznaz.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The renegade flying robot was only stopped when U.S. jet fighters intervened and shot it down before it entered the airspace of Tajikistan. Closer to home, nearly fifty drones have crashed in the United States, including a 375-pound army drone that smashed into the ground next to a Pennsylvania elementary school, “just a few minutes after students went home for the day.” Robotic accidents are the exception, occurring relatively infrequently, and active measures are being taken to arm robots with collision detection and avoidance systems to prevent many of the industrialtype accidents. Nevertheless, given the expected tremendous growth in home bots, work bots, factory bots, doc bots, and war bots, the potential for harm is far from trivial—a risk that will grow significantly when robots join the IoT and can be hacked from afar by malicious actors. Hacking Robots In the future, when Microsoft leaves a security-flaw in their code it won’t mean that somebody hacks your computer.


pages: 637 words: 199,158

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J. Mearsheimer

active measures, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, deindustrialization, discrete time, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War

A close look at the cases that might seem to be prime examples of aberrant strategic behavior—the final twenty-five years of the nuclear arms race, imperial Japan, Wilhelmine Germany, and Nazi Germany—suggests otherwise. Although domestic politics played some role in all of these cases, each state had good reason to try to gain advantage over its rivals and good reason to think that it would succeed. For the most part, the cases discussed in this chapter involve great powers taking active measures to gain advantage over their opponents—exactly what offensive realism predicts. Let us now turn to the American and British cases, which seem at first glance to provide evidence of great powers ignoring opportunities to gain power. As we shall see, however, each of these cases in fact provides further support for the theory. 7 The Offshore Balancers I have reserved discussion of the American and British cases for a separate chapter because they might appear to provide the strongest evidence against my claim that great powers are dedicated to maximizing their share of world power.


pages: 636 words: 202,284

Piracy : The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates by Adrian Johns

active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, commoditize, Corn Laws, demand response, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Marshall McLuhan, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, software patent, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Whole Earth Catalog

That is the common thread that ties together all our most important piracy debates, whether the specific allegations relate to gene patents, software, proprietary drugs, books, ballet steps, or digital downloading. What is at stake, in the end, is the nature of the relationship we want to uphold between creativity, communication, and commerce. And the history of piracy constitutes a centurieslong series of conflicts – extending back by some criteria to the origins of recorded civilization itself – that have shaped this relationship. Those conflicts challenged assumptions of authenticity and required active measures to secure it. They provoked reappraisals of creative authorship and its prerogatives. They demanded that customs of reception be stipulated and enforced. Above all, they forced contemporaries to articulate the properties and powers of communications technologies themselves – the printing press, the steam press, radio, television, and, now, the Internet. Yet setting out to rescue the history of piracy from obscurity may still seem a quixotic quest.


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

It means corporate decisions about wages and job security go hand in hand with the urgency of upskilling, investing in R&D, turning a profit, and remaining competitive over the longer term in the most hostile and unforgiving economic marketplace in the world. Economists have explored the effect of codetermination on enterprise research investments. For example, Kornelius Kraft and Jörg Stank published research in 2004 in which they concluded that R&D activity measured by patents is modestly higher with codetermination. Their subsequent 2009 analysis in conjunction with Ralf Dewenter found activity would at worst be unaffected.82 Returning to the point drawn from the Bowles’ Castle lectures at Yale during the winter of 2009–2010, the future winners in capitalism will be firms that best operate on the frontiers of science and technology. These are firms in environments requiring abnormally high coordination of labor and management, an integration of activities such as production and research, and, above all, maximization of specialized employee skill sets.


pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin

accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

The dense linkages binding these states to the American empire were also institutionalized, of course, through NATO and the hub-and-spokes networks of intelligence and security apparatuses between Washington and the other capitalist states. The containment of Communism, whether in the Cold War in Europe or the very hot wars in East Asia, was largely about ensuring that as many of the world’s states as possible would be open to the accumulation of capital. As Bacevich has put it: “US grand strategy during the Cold War required not only containing communism but also taking active measures to open up the world politically, culturally, and, above all, economically—which is precisely what policymakers said they intended to do.”27 They made this quite clear, moreover, as is now widely accepted among historians, “well before the Soviet Union emerged as a clear and present antagonist.”28 This was not, as has often been suggested, an extension of the old Open Door policy.29 That earlier policy had been conceived as securing equal treatment for American products and businessmen within the rival capitalist imperial spheres of influence, whereas the central strategic concern of those who planned the new American empire during World War II was to do away with discrete capitalist spheres of influence altogether.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K

Rob Goldman, the Facebook ad executive who was in charge of Business Integrity, would later try to explain: Every day, thousands of Russian advertisers were spending tens of thousands of dollars for ads shown outside of Russia. The IRA ads were only around $100,000 total, spent over the course of eight months. Goldman, though, recognizes that those figures, and the technological blind spot, in no way excused the oversight. After the revelation about the IRA, Goldman became obsessed with the subject of Russian disinformation campaigns, which were referred to by its intelligence agencies as “active measures.” “I became a bit of a Russian scholar,” he says. He read history and shared findings, such as the memoir of KGB defector Oleg Kalugin, with what had become kind of a masochistic book club of Facebook executives belatedly learning what they should have been paying attention to earlier. “The Russians have been doing this for a hundred-plus years,” he says. “There are people who knew that they would try to do something like this.


pages: 795 words: 212,447

Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood

active measures, affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

Also called volcanic pyroclastic or welded tuff—essentially, compacted layers of volcanic rock. That’s good. Providing the overstructure is thick enough, the shock wave should be directed downward with minimal attenuation. The penetration requirements you gave me will be met.” “I’ll take your word for that. Is it ready for transport?” “Of course. It has a relatively low output signature, so passive detection measures won’t be your worry. Active measures are a different story altogether. I assume you’ve taken steps to—” “Yes, we have.” “Then I’ll leave it in your good hands,” the engineer said, then stood up and headed toward the office at the rear of the warehouse. “I’m going to sleep now. I trust the remainder of my fee will be deposited by morning.” 63 THEIR CONTACT MET THEM near Al Kurnish Road on the east side of Sendebad Park, within a stone’s throw of the Australian consulate.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

,” ACM Queue, volume 9, number 4, pages 44–48, April 2011. doi: 10.1145/1966989.1967009 [46] Nelson Minar: “Leap Second Crashes Half the Internet,” somebits.com, July 3, 2012. [47] Christopher Pascoe: “Time, Technology and Leaping Seconds,” googleblog.blog‐ spot.co.uk, September 15, 2011. [48] Mingxue Zhao and Jeff Barr: “Look Before You Leap – The Coming Leap Second and AWS,” aws.amazon.com, May 18, 2015. [49] Darryl Veitch and Kanthaiah Vijayalayan: “Network Timing and the 2015 Leap Second,” at 17th International Conference on Passive and Active Measurement (PAM), April 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-30505-9_29 [50] “Timekeeping in VMware Virtual Machines,” Information Guide, VMware, Inc., December 2011. [51] “MiFID II / MiFIR: Regulatory Technical and Implementing Standards – Annex I (Draft),” European Securities and Markets Authority, Report ESMA/2015/1464, September 2015. [52] Luke Bigum: “Solving MiFID II Clock Synchronisation With Minimum Spend (Part 1),” lmax.com, November 27, 2015. [53] Kyle Kingsbury: “Call Me Maybe: Cassandra,” aphyr.com, September 24, 2013. [54] John Daily: “Clocks Are Bad, or, Welcome to the Wonderful World of Dis‐ tributed Systems,” basho.com, November 12, 2013. [55] Kyle Kingsbury: “The Trouble with Timestamps,” aphyr.com, October 12, 2013.


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MONEY Master the Game: 7 Simple Steps to Financial Freedom by Tony Robbins

3D printing, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, backtesting, bitcoin, buy and hold, clean water, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Dean Kamen, declining real wages, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, estate planning, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial independence, fixed income, forensic accounting, high net worth, index fund, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Lao Tzu, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, money market fund, mortgage debt, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, optical character recognition, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, riskless arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, telerobotics, the rule of 72, thinkpad, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, World Values Survey, X Prize, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

We all want to believe that by hiring the smartest and most talented mutual fund manager, we will achieve financial freedom more quickly. After all, who doesn’t want a shortcut up the mountain? And here is the crazy thing: As much as everyone is entitled to his own opinion, nobody is entitled to his own facts! Sure, some mutual fund managers will say, “We may not outperform on the upside but when the market goes down, we can take active measures to protect you so you won’t lose as much.” That might be comforting if it were true. The goal in investing is to get the maximum net return for a given amount of risk (and, ideally, the lowest cost). So let’s see how the fund managers did when the market was down. And 2008 is as good a place to start as any. Between 2008 and early 2009, the market had its worst one-year slide since the Great Depression (51% from top to bottom, to be exact).


The Rise and Fall of the British Nation: A Twentieth-Century History by David Edgerton

active measures, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, Donald Davies, double helix, endogenous growth, Etonian, European colonialism, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, imperial preference, James Dyson, knowledge economy, labour mobility, land reform, land value tax, manufacturing employment, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, packet switching, Philip Mirowski, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, trade liberalization, union organizing, very high income, wages for housework, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor

More than 8 per cent of GDP was spent on debt interest in the 1920s, some 40 per cent of the state budget, and three times the defence budget. The British taxpayer therefore owed the British rentier a living. This generosity to the rentiers was the result of choice and dramatic economic actions. Rather than inflate that debt away (as for example the Germans did, though with terrible consequences) from 1920, the British government took active measures to drive down the level of prices, to match the pre-1914 level of relative prices with the USA (where prices rose much less) and thus return to the pre-war sterling-dollar parity.43 This reduced the cost of loans owed to the USA, taken out during the war at the gold standard rate, but increased the value of the much larger domestic loans and the income from them. (The United Kingdom had no net overseas debt – in the war it had lent more (to Europe) than it had borrowed (from the USA), and the payments roughly balanced out in the 1920s; however, much debt was cancelled in 1931, resulting in a (technical) loss to the United Kingdom).


pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

The threat from jazz, swing, and big band music was “just as dangerous as a military attack with poison gases,” since it reflected “the degenerate ideology of American monopoly capital with its lack of culture … its empty sensationalism and above all its fury for war and destruction … We should speak plainly here of a fifth column of Americanism. It would be wrong to misjudge the dangerous role of American hit music in the preparation for war.”19 In the wake of this conference, the East German state took active measures to fight against this new scourge. Around the country, regional governments began to force dance bands and musicians to obtain licenses. Some banned jazz outright. Though the enforcement was irregular, there were arrests. The writer Erich Loest remembered one jazz musician who, when told to change his music selection, pointed out that he was playing the music of the oppressed Negro minority.


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

,” ACM Queue, volume 9, number 4, pages 44–48, April 2011. doi:10.1145/1966989.1967009 [46] Nelson Minar: “Leap Second Crashes Half the Internet,” somebits.com, July 3, 2012. [47] Christopher Pascoe: “Time, Technology and Leaping Seconds,” googleblog.blogspot.co.uk, September 15, 2011. [48] Mingxue Zhao and Jeff Barr: “Look Before You Leap – The Coming Leap Second and AWS,” aws.amazon.com, May 18, 2015. [49] Darryl Veitch and Kanthaiah Vijayalayan: “Network Timing and the 2015 Leap Second,” at 17th International Conference on Passive and Active Measurement (PAM), April 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-30505-9_29 [50] “Timekeeping in VMware Virtual Machines,” Information Guide, VMware, Inc., December 2011. [51] “MiFID II / MiFIR: Regulatory Technical and Implementing Standards – Annex I (Draft),” European Securities and Markets Authority, Report ESMA/2015/1464, September 2015. [52] Luke Bigum: “Solving MiFID II Clock Synchronisation With Minimum Spend (Part 1),” lmax.com, November 27, 2015


pages: 914 words: 270,937

Clear and Present Danger by Tom Clancy

active measures, affirmative action, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, card file

Something fundamental. It had to be. But what? There were a number of well-paid and highly reliable informants throughout the American government, in Customs, DEA, the Coast Guard, none of whom had reported a single thing. The law-enforcement community was in the dark - except for the FBI Director, who didn't like it, but would soon go to Colombia… Some sort of intelligence operation was - no. Active Measures? The phrase came from KGB, and could mean any of several things, from feeding disinformation to reporters to "wet" work. Would the Americans do anything like that? They never had. He glowered at the passing scenery. He was an experienced intelligence officer, and his profession was to determine what people were doing from bits and pieces of random data. That he was working for someone he detested was beside the point.


pages: 1,164 words: 309,327

Trading and Exchanges: Market Microstructure for Practitioners by Larry Harris

active measures, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, automated trading system, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, compound rate of return, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, data acquisition, diversified portfolio, fault tolerance, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, High speed trading, index arbitrage, index fund, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, invention of the telegraph, job automation, law of one price, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, market fragmentation, market friction, market microstructure, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, open economy, passive investing, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-materialism, price discovery process, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, selection bias, shareholder value, short selling, Small Order Execution System, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, survivorship bias, the market place, transaction costs, two-sided market, winner-take-all economy, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

They are especially volatile when they are perishable, when the costs of storage are high, when inventories are low, or when the supply depends on weather conditions. Currencies are volatile when traders are uncertain about political stability, inflation, and interest rates. Finally, bonds are volatile when traders are uncertain about inflation, interest rates, and credit quality. These factors all cause spreads to be wide when they are significant. 14.6.2.3 Proxies for Utilitarian Trading Interest Trading Activity Measures of trading activity such as traded volumes and numbers of transactions are good proxies for utilitarian trading interest. Markets cannot sustain high volumes without traders who are willing to trade even when they do not expect to profit from trading. Markets that have high volumes therefore have many such traders. Actively traded markets usually have narrow spreads. Firm Size Large firms’ stocks tend to have smaller relative spreads than do small firms’ stocks.


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

She wrote later: I now fully understood the practical difficulties most women had to contend with in the isolated household, and the impossibility of woman’s best development if, in contact, the chief part of her life, with servants and children. . . . The general discontent I felt with woman’s portion as wife, mother, housekeeper, physician, and spiritual guide, the chaotic condition into which everything fell without her constant supervision, and the wearied, anxious look of the majority of women, impressed me with the strong feeling that some active measures should be taken to remedy the wrongs of society in general and of women in particular. My experiences at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, all I had read of the legal status of women, and the oppression I saw everywhere, together swept across my soul. . . . I could not see what to do or where to begin—my only thought was a public meeting for protest and discussion. An announcement was put in the Seneca County Courier calling for a meeting to discuss the “rights of woman” the 19th and 20th of July.


pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, Kickstarter, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

Images of some of the Americans being dragged through the streets were broadcast around the globe and ultimately spurred a US withdrawal. “The Mogadishu disaster spooked the Clinton administration as well as the brass, and confirmed the Joint Chiefs in the view that SOF should never be entrusted with independent operations,” the Shultz report asserted. “After Mogadishu, one Pentagon officer explained, there was ‘reluctance to even discuss pro-active measures associated with countering the terrorist threat through SOF operations. The Joint Staff was very happy for the administration to take a law enforcement view. They didn’t want to put special ops troops on the ground.’” General Peter Schoomaker, who commanded JSOC from 1994 to 1996, said that the presidential directives under Clinton, “and the subsequent findings and authorities, in my view, were done to check off boxes.


Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

In fact, the Soviet leadership immediately launched “an extensive worldwide effort of psychological warfare” using “a classical strategy”: “First, to disqualify the Israeli military operation (‘bloody war,’ etc.); second, to provoke a vast reaction of disgust, triggering a peripheral pacifist reaction; and third, to search for ways of disseminating this pacifist reaction to vital Israeli centres, leading to a general paralysis and a closing of the options supposedly opened up by the operation itself.” “These ‘active measures’ (a code word used by the Soviet leaders) were carried out through the vast network of organizations operated by the international section of the party and the International News Services of the Central Committee of the Communist Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Peace for Galilee 500 Party of the Soviet Union,” abetted by an alliance with the powerful and nefarious organization Wafa (the official PLO news agency).


Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy

active measures, air freight, airport security, centre right, clean water, computer age, Exxon Valdez, Live Aid, old-boy network, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rolodex, superconnector, urban sprawl

Besides, it had turned out, the elderly married couple they'd used as couriers to the West, delivering cash to Soviet agents in America and Canada, had been under FBI control almost the entire time! Popov had to shake his head. Excellent as the KGB had been, the FBI was just as good. It had a long-standing institutional brilliance at false-flag operations, which, in the case of the couriers, had compromised a large number of sensitive operations run by the "Active Measures" people in KGB's Service A. The Americans had had the good sense not to burn the operations, but rather use them as expanding resources in order to gain a systematic picture of what KGB was doing-targets and objectives-and so learn what the Russians hadn't already penetrated. He shook his head again, as he walked off to the gate. And he was still in the dark, wasn't he? The questions continued to swarm: Exactly what was he doing?


Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C by Bruce Schneier

active measures, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, dark matter, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, fault tolerance, finite state, invisible hand, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, MITM: man-in-the-middle, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, software patent, telemarketer, traveling salesman, Turing machine, web of trust, Zimmermann PGP

Both of these initiatives try to ensure the government’s ability to conduct electronic surveillance. Some dangerously Orwellian assumptions are at work here: that the government has the right to listen to private communications, and that there is something wrong with a private citizen trying to keep a secret from the government. Law enforcement has always been able to conduct court–authorized surveillance if possible, but this is the first time that the people have been forced to take active measures to make themselves available for surveillance. These initiatives are not simply government proposals in some obscure area; they are preemptive and unilateral attempts to usurp powers that previously belonged to the people. Clipper and Digital Telephony do not protect privacy; they force individuals to unconditionally trust that the government will respect their privacy. The same law enforcement authorities who illegally tapped Martin Luther King Jr.’s phones can easily tap a phone protected with Clipper.


Thomas Cromwell: A Life by Diarmaid MacCulloch

active measures, distributed generation, failed state, land tenure, wikimedia commons

In the end, in a revealing display of hyperbole, he affirmed that his Majesty would thus ‘do the most profitable and beneficial thing that ever was done to the Common wealth of this your realm, and shall thereby increase such wealth in the same amongst the great number and multitude of your subjects as was never seen in this Realm since Brutus’.8 Landowners in both Houses in March 1534 will have remembered that this was the Cardinal’s man pushing a programme which had already thoroughly infuriated them in previous years, and they combined to wreck Cromwell’s bill. After a great deal of to-and-fro emendment, it emerged toothless and peppered with provisos, and it may have survived on the statute book as an occasionally activated measure only because it had little actual effect. Thereafter, Cromwell kept away from the enclosure issue for some years, and maybe his lack of success there is why he turned to weirs and water engineering. Fifteen-thirty-five saw Henry VIII and Cromwell embarking on further sewer-related adventures, in which both men invested a great deal of time and worry. The most spectacular single project was their effort to build an effective harbour for Dover, England’s principal crossing-point to mainland Europe, a scheme which gobbled up money all through the 1530s and 1540s, only to face repeated disasters.


pages: 1,194 words: 371,889

The scramble for Africa, 1876-1912 by Thomas Pakenham

active measures, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, God and Mammon, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

As she put it, ‘affairs are so different from what they so used to be’.3 The advent of the global telegraph, mass-circulation newspapers and household suffrage seemed to have ended the age of gentlemen. International statesmen echoed the malevolent tone of the popular press. Fists were shaken at Britain by President Grover Cleveland of America (denouncing Britain for refusing arbitration in the Venezuela/British Guiana frontier dispute), by France (in a state of chronic indignation at Britain’s occupation of Egypt), and by Russia (threatening India and egging on the French to take more active measures against England’s intransigence in Egypt). Was it not time to abandon Britain’s traditional foreign policy of isolation – ‘splendid isolation’4 as it was called by Chamberlain in a speech on 21 January, borrowing the phrase from a Canadian politician – in favour of joining some kind of alliance? Salisbury respectfully pointed out to the Queen that this was indeed the purpose of the Kaiser’s belligerent telegram.


pages: 623 words: 448,848

Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives by Dean D. Metcalfe

active measures, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, impulse control, life extension, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, statistical model, stem cell, twin studies

Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31:1464–9. 8 Fasano A, Catassi C. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of CD: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology 2001; 120:636–51. 27 Crespo JF, Pascual C, Ferrer A, et al. Egg white-specific IgE level as a tolerance marker in the follow up of egg allergy. Allergy Proc 1994;15:73–6. 9 Moneret-Vautrin DA, Sainte-Laudy J, Kanny G, Fremont S. Human basophil activation measured by CD63 expression and LTC4 release in IgE-mediated food allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:33–40. 28 Soderstrom L, Kober A, Ahlstedt S, et al. A new approach to the evaluation and clinical use of specific IgE antibody testing in allergic diseases. Allergy 2003;58:921–8. 10 Gietkiewicz K, Wrzyszcz M. Comparative study between skin prick tests and TOP-CAST allergen leukocyte stimulation in diagnosis of allergic status.