additive manufacturing

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pages: 307 words: 92,165

Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing by Hod Lipson, Melba Kurman

3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, game design, global supply chain, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, lifelogging, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, Minecraft, new economy, off grid, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, the market place

The parts of a 3D printed air vent can be fabricated in a single, already assembled piece. Sizing the market It’s impossible to know how many small businesses, exactly, have gravitated towards the marketplace for nimble manufacturing services. However, some robust market data exists. Each year, additive manufacturing industry consultant and analyst Terry Wohlers puts together an annual Wohlers Report. The report features market and usage data, plus case studies gathered from roughly 100 of the larger companies worldwide that sell 3D printers, or provide or purchase printing services. The Wohlers Report is a goldmine of insight into the additive manufacturing industry. It has become the industry’s unofficial “state of the union” assessment for analysts, for executives and journalists alike. When Terry Wohlers interviews the world’s leading 3D printing companies, one of the questions he asks them is who’s buying their printers or hiring their printing services.

Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) 3DP, in yet another confusing naming convention, use a process called “three dimensional printing” where the print head squeezes adhesive—or some kind of glue—onto raw powdered material. 3DP was invented in the late 1980s by an MIT student named Paul Williams and his advisor Professor Eli Sachs. At that time, commercial additive manufacturing systems used lasers and sometimes toxic printing materials and were the size of a small truck. Early additive manufacturing machines were complicated to operate and expensive. Since 3DP was a welcome alternative, MIT would later patent the technology underlying 3DP and license it to several companies (where it became the foundation of many of the world’s commercial 3D printers). The color 3DP process inkjets colored glue onto a starch-based powder bed, then spreads a new layer of powder and repeats.

AMF: The new standard One possible way to replace and upgrade the STL file is with a new XML-based standard, the Additive Manufacturing Format (AMF). Full disclosure: I co-authored the AMF standard so, of course, I’m a fan. I worked on the AMF standard with a group of 3D printer manufacturers, CAD software vendors, and expert users. We teamed up under an international organization that manages the development and implementation of technology standards, the ASTM. AMF maintains the surface mesh structure of the STL format but has added capabilities to reflect advances in design software and 3D printers. For example, the AMF file format can handle different colors, different types of materials, the creation of lattices, and other detailed internal structures that are one of the huge benefits of additive manufacturing. Curved triangles can be used to describe curved surfaces more accurately and more compactly than the planar triangles used by STL.


pages: 286 words: 79,305

99%: Mass Impoverishment and How We Can End It by Mark Thomas

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, complexity theory, conceptual framework, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, gravity well, income inequality, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, wealth creators, working-age population

Additive manufacturing works the other way: you build up complex structures by adding material. Additive manufacturing is already well established in specialist areas and has even become available to consumers. You can buy a 3-D printer for under £400. Additive manufacturing has four main advantages over conventional manufacturing techniques: 1. it enables short production runs to be undertaken economically – and customized products can be mass-produced; 2. lead times from concept to product can be substantially reduced; 3. for some applications, costs of production can be reduced; 4. certain types of design – for example, lattices – become feasible with additive manufacturing which would just be too expensive using conventional techniques. Initially, the main application of additive manufacturing was in rapid prototyping, reducing a design process which might have taken weeks to days or even hours.

I would pick out the following technologies for special attention, because they seem to me to be harbingers of what is just around the corner: • additive manufacturing – for example, 3-D printing; • nanotechnology – for example, new processes like genetic editing and new materials like graphene; • new computing approaches – for example quantum computing, new applications of narrow artificial intelligence (AI) such as self-driving cars, and even full artificial intelligence (AI) capable of solving any problem a human can solve; • clean energy – possibly even nuclear fusion. Most of these technologies will have entered the mainstream by 2040, so over the next thirty-five years, you can expect to feel their impact. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Traditionally, to manufacture a complex structure, you would start with a block and machine away the material you didn’t want. Additive manufacturing works the other way: you build up complex structures by adding material.

As the technology progressed, it became possible to produce working parts using additive manufacturing, initially in polymers and later in metals. 3-D printing has now entered the mainstream. What does this mean in practice? In the short term, it means that some manufactured products will become cheaper – in particular, customized products. When you need spare parts for your car or washing machine, they will no longer come from a warehouse but will be printed locally. In the medium term, your next house might be 3-D printed rather than built. If you would rather have curved walls than straight ones, that will be feasible. Within the next few years, we are likely to see an explosion of applications in the medical world, and by 2030 it is possible that additive manufacturing will allow new body parts to be built.5 For those with money, 3-D printing (and some of the other technologies in the pipeline) could be a lifeline.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Gartner has developed a “Hype Cycle” chart (Figure VI) showing the various stages of different 3D printing capabilities and their market impact, and plotting most business uses of the technology as entering the “slope of enlightenment”.95 Figure VI: Hype Cycle for 3D Printing Source: Gartner (July 2014) Positive impacts – Accelerated product development – Reduction in the design-to-manufacturing cycle – Easily manufactured intricate parts (not possible or difficult to do earlier) – Rising demand for product designers – Educational institutions using 3D printing to accelerate learning and understanding – Democratized power of creation/manufacturing (both limited only by the design) – Traditional mass manufacturing responding to the challenge by finding ways to reduce costs and the size of minimum runs – Growth in open-source “plans” to print a range of objects – Birth of a new industry supplying printing materials – Rise in entrepreneurial opportunities in the space96 – Environmental benefits from reduced transportation requirements Negative impacts – Growth in waste for disposal, and further burden on the environment – Production of parts in the layer process that are anisotropic, i.e. their strength is not the same in all directions, which could limit the functionality of parts – Job losses in a disrupted industry – Primacy of intellectual property as a source of value in productivity – Piracy – Brand and product quality Unknown, or cuts both ways – Potential that any innovation can be instantly copied The shift in action An example of 3D printing for manufacturing has been recently covered by FORTUNE: “General Electric’s Leap jet engine is not only one of the company’s bestsellers, it’s going to incorporate a fuel nozzle produced entirely through additive manufacturing. The process, popularly known as 3-D printing, involves building up layers of material (in this case alloyed metals) according to precise digital plans. GE is currently completing testing of the new Leap engines, but the benefit of additive manufactured parts has already been proven on other models.” Source: “GE’s first 3D-printed parts take flight”, Andrew Zaleski, FORTUNE, 12 May 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/05/12/ge-3d-printed-jet-engine-parts/ Shift 20: 3D Printing and Human Health The tipping point: The first transplant of a 3D-printed liver By 2025: 76% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred One day, 3D printers may create not only things, but also human organs – a process called bioprinting.

Aside from speed and breadth, the fourth industrial revolution is unique because of the growing harmonization and integration of so many different disciplines and discoveries. Tangible innovations that result from interdependencies among different technologies are no longer science fiction. Today, for example, digital fabrication technologies can interact with the biological world. Some designers and architects are already mixing computational design, additive manufacturing, materials engineering and synthetic biology to pioneer systems that involve the interaction among micro-organisms, our bodies, the products we consume, and even the buildings we inhabit. In doing so, they are making (and even “growing”) objects that are continuously mutable and adaptable (hallmarks of the plant and animal kingdoms).4 In The Second Machine Age, Brynjolfsson and McAfee argue that computers are so dexterous that it is virtually impossible to predict what applications they may be used for in just a few years.

As drones become capable of sensing and responding to their environment (altering their flight path to avoid collisions), they will be able to do tasks such as checking electric power lines or delivering medical supplies in war zones. In agriculture, the use of drones – combined with data analytics – will enable more precise and efficient use of fertilizer and water, for example. 3D printing Also called additive manufacturing, 3D printing consists of creating a physical object by printing layer upon layer from a digital 3D drawing or model. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing, which is how things have been made until now, with layers being removed from a piece of material until the desired shape is obtained. By contrast, 3D printing starts with loose material and then builds an object into a three-dimensional shape using a digital template.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar

The Digitization of the Physical Alongside the consumerization of digital, we are now also witnessing a parallel yet equally important shift: the digitization of the physical. Two contemporary developments illustrate how the same three invariant forces, and thus the same economics, that led to the consumerization of digital may reshape our everyday physical objects: the Internet of Things and the emergence of additive manufacturing. The Internet of Things In the not-so-distant future, every “thing” will have the potential to be digitized and networked. In an iconic example (although perhaps not the most cost-effective), a milk carton nearing or getting close to its expiration date will communicate with your refrigerator, which will in turn communicate with your FreshDirect grocery list. Cartons of fresh milk will subsequently be delivered to your home, allowing you to focus your attention on more important things.

Put differently, a physical object will know where it is, how much it is being used, and will be able to arrange automated, digitally enabled transport for itself to its renter without human intervention.8 A physical object becomes, in a sense, like an intelligent iTunes movie file. As a consequence, the “rentability” of objects also expands. On-demand services of all kinds become more viable, more efficient, and more ubiquitous with the Internet of Things. 3-D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Until recently, if you wanted to get into the business of making and selling physical objects, you had to acquire the capabilities of manufacturing and find some way of distributing and selling objects (by connecting, for example, with a wholesaling or retailing network). We are now entering a world where you no longer need a factory or warehouse or distribution network to be engaged in the sale of physical objects.

You no longer need a distribution network to get spare parts to machines in remote locations. All you need is a design. The game-changing technology at work here is 3-D printing. Industrial era–manufacturing is typically “subtractive”; it starts with physical material—wood, metal, heated resin—and removes portions of it to create the components of the eventual product, using tools, machines, or a mold. Additive manufacturing is the opposite. It starts with a design, and uses a “printer” to additively construct the physical object. How might this reshape the economy? Let’s consider a digital analogue. (I enjoy having that pair of words next to each other.) Twenty years ago, most cities and towns had numerous music retailers with physical storefronts. Records and CDs, having been centrally manufactured and distributed to these stores, were sold from bins and shelves.


pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

Banning Garrett, founding director of the Atlantic Council’s Strategic Foresight Initiative, asserts that additive manufacturing “is likely to play a significant role in dramatically increasing the efficiency of resource use and in lowering overall carbon emissions, from the process of manufacturing and to delivering products to the end user. As only the material needed for parts is used, there is nearly zero waste.” The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office noted, “Additive manufacturing has the potential to vastly accelerate innovation, compress supply chains, minimize materials and energy usage, and reduce waste.” Additive manufacturing is also known as 3-D printing; machines build up new items one layer at a time. The Advanced Manufacturing Office suggested that additive manufacturing can reduce material needs and costs by up to 90 percent.

Next Nature, June 28, 2013. www.nextnature.net/2013/08/meat-grown-in-labs-is-the-next-logical-step-for-food-production/. “building a progressive food system”: New Harvest, www.new-harvest.org/. “is likely to play a significant role”: Banning Garrett, “3D Printing: New Economic Paradigms and Strategic Shifts.” Global Policy 4.1 (February 2014): 70–75. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1758-5899.12119/full. “Additive manufacturing”: Advanced Manufacturing Office, “Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise.” US Department of Energy, August 2012. “Sustainable development”: Gro Harlem Brundtland, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. economic growth proceeded: Angus Maddison, The Maddison Project, Original Maddison Home Page, January 2013. www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm.

Northeastern Naturalist, Vol.5, No. 2 (1988), 165–174, biophilosophy.ca/Teaching/2070papers/kricher.pdf. INDEX The index that appeared in the print version of this title does not match the pages in your e-book. Please use the search function on your e-reading device to search for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below. Acemoğlu, Daron additive manufacturing ADHD. See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Adler, Jonathan Africa biotech crops for fertility rates in oil production in population projections in rewilding from water privatization in aging. See life expectancy agriculture. See biotech crops; food production; pesticides air pollution. See also emissions Akins, James algae Allen, Robert P. aluminum Anderson, Daniel W.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

For example, the Fund played a critical role in helping the region win a $30 million federal grant to start a new National Manufacturing Innovation Institute for additive manufacturing, also known as 3-D printing, which could revolutionize manufacturing by making it faster and cheaper to create prototypes and new products.29 The grant was awarded in 2012 to a huge consortium of universities, businesses, and nonprofit groups (including three Fund grantees) in Northeast Ohio and two neighboring regions, southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Additive manufacturing works somewhat like inkjet printing, but instead of ink, the printer uses polymers to create 3-D objects based on digital designs. Prices for 3-D printers and materials have dropped sharply in the past few years, and some observers believe that additive manufacturing will become a truly “disruptive technology,” with applications across industry and even for individual consumers.30 The Economist recently noted that “some people think additive manufacturing will overturn many of the economics of production because it pays no heed to unit labour costs or traditional economies of scale.

Prices for 3-D printers and materials have dropped sharply in the past few years, and some observers believe that additive manufacturing will become a truly “disruptive technology,” with applications across industry and even for individual consumers.30 The Economist recently noted that “some people think additive manufacturing will overturn many of the economics of production because it pays no heed to unit labour costs or traditional economies of scale. Designs can be quickly changed, so the technology enables flexible production and mass customisation.”31 As exciting as the prospect of 3-D printing was, getting more than forty institutions and organizations to agree on a vision and codify that vision in a grant application was still a significant undertaking. The Fund for Our Economic Future and other philanthropies spent $425,000 over four years to facilitate meetings, organize grant application reviews, conduct relevant research, and generally do what it takes to hold dozens of partners together.

For our purposes, what matters is that urban universities account for roughly 74 percent (about $27 billion in 2006–07) of all research expenditures at U.S. research universities.14 Brookings has also found a high correlation between the nation’s leading biotech clusters and the strength (as judged by, for example, medical research capacity, National Institutes of Health grants, number of PhDs) of local universities.15 06-2151-2 ch6.indd 118 5/20/13 6:53 PM THE RISE OF INNOVATION DISTRICTS 119 The technology- and knowledge-driven sectors’ renewed emphasis on density is a far cry from the closed innovation spaces of the previous century, isolated labs, and research parks, such as General Electric’s Global Research Center in Niskayuna, New York, and Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey.16 As the economy evolves and 3-D printing and other disruptive technology enables small-scale manufacturing, the concentration may even extend to the important interplay of innovation and production. It is revealing that the first National Manufacturing Innovation Institute, described briefly in chapter 4, focused on additive manufacturing, is located in the downtown of Youngstown, Ohio, close to the existing base of small and medium-size manufacturing firms. The midtown Detroit location of the watch- and bicycle-making firm Shinola, described later in this chapter, is further evidence of this trend. In many respects, the rise of innovation districts embodies the very essence of cities: an aggregation of talented, driven people, assembled in close quarters, who exchange ideas and knowledge in what the urban historian Sir Peter Hall calls “a dynamic process of innovation, imitation and improvement.”17 Beyond physical location, innovation districts embrace the broader trends in work that are driving the redesign of buildings and office spaces in support of collaboration and open innovation.


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Dual Transformation: How to Reposition Today's Business While Creating the Future by Scott D. Anthony, Mark W. Johnson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversified portfolio, Internet of things, invention of hypertext, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, obamacare, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, pez dispenser, recommendation engine, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, the market place, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transfer pricing, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Bigger doesn’t always mean better, however, and the industry slumped significantly in 2016, dragged down by overcapacity. More ominously, three broad disruptive trends—additive manufacturing (or 3-D printing), drone-based delivery, and smart, connected devices—promise to change the face of the industry. As the name describes, additive manufacturing involves building things from materials up rather than traditional manufacturing, which involves cutting, molding, and piecing things together. Traditional manufacturing works best at massive scale; additive manufacturing can be done effectively at very small scales. As of 2016, additive manufacturing is used primarily by hobbyists or commercially for customized parts. But it is simultaneously getting better and cheaper. As manufacturing decentralizes, additive manufacturing clearly has the potential to have a huge impact on companies whose entire business model rests on moving something from point A to point B.

Jobs Are Vulnerable to Computerization,” Technology Review, September 12, 2013, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/519241/report-suggests-nearly-half-of-us-jobs-are-vulnerable-to-computerization/. Index AbbVie, 19 Ablaza, Gerry, 111, 127–128, 142, 184–185, 189 on aligning leadership and boards, 193 on importance of senior support, 192–193 acquisitions for capability development, 66–69 crises of commitment and, 158–163 pharmaceutical industry, 22–23 at SingPost, 51, 52–53 at Singtel, 145 ACS, 67 additive manufacturing, 202–203 adjacencies, 22–23 Adobe acquisitions and partnerships at, 67 business model innovation at, 40, 42 commitment to transformation A at, 44 experimentation at, 148–149 focus at, 117 postdisruption job to be done at, 39 transformation A at, 31–32, 33 transformation journey at, 181 AdSense, 48 Adult Rock Band, 186 advertising at Google, 48, 61, 77 at Manila Water, 127 newspapers and, 3, 77 at Turner, 96, 99 AdWords, 48, 61 Aetna, 23, 87, 182–183 crises of conflict at, 168 decision making at, 99–102 early warning signs at, 108 purpose at, 177 Affiliated Computer Services (ACS), 14, 64 Affordable Care Act, 100 Alibaba Group, 52–53, 67, 201–202, 203 “aliens,” in transformations, 68–69 alignment, 193–194 overestimation of, 119 transformation blurbs and, 129 Alipay, 201–202 Alliance Boots, 60 Alphabet, 47–48, 54 Altman, Elizabeth, 62 Amara, Roy, 104 Amazon, 53–55, 66 business model of, 106 drone-based deliveries, 203 statement of purpose, 178 Amazon Web Services (AWS), 53–55 America Online, 27 Amobee, 145, 188 Andreessen, Marc, 2–3, 206 Andreessen Horowitz, 206 Android, 4, 92 Anthony, Scott D., 62–63, 72–73, 81 on disruptive potential of YouTube, 108 on risk management, 65 Apple, 4, 8 acquisitions and partnerships at, 67 developer kit, 152 focus at, 116, 132 influence of Xerox on, 13 iPhone, 4, 92–93 transformation journey at, 181–182 arbitration, 86–87 Arizona State University (ASU), 56–57, 59, 183–184 partnerships with, 67 Arrested Development, 35 Ayala Corporation, 117, 143–144 Ayala Group, 184 Aztec empire, conquest of, 43 Baffrey, Robert “Boogz,” 127 Baier, Wolfgang, 52, 53 balance in capabilities link, 75 crises of commitment and, 158–160 curiosity to explore and, 139 between transformations A and B, 173–175 Balsillie, Jim, 4 banking, 151–152, 200–202 Barnes & Noble, 12–13 barriers to consumption, identifying, 61–62 Baxter International, 64, 86 behavior celebrating desired, 149–150 changes in customer, 105 predictors of, 63 Bell Labs, 115 Benioff, Marc, 27–28, 151 Berkshire Hathaway, 156 Berners-Lee, Tim, 3 Bertolini, Mark, 23, 87, 100–102, 168, 182–183 on aligning leadership and boards, 193 on communication, 195 on crises of commitment, 187 on crises of conflict, 190 on focus, 194 on quieting critics, 191–192 Bezos, Jeff, 53–55 BlackBerry, 4 Blank, Steve, 65, 153 Blockbuster Video, 32–33, 34 boards, 11, 166–167, 193–194 Boeing Planner, 78 Bohm, David, 130 Borders, 12–13 Boston Red Sox, 1, 3 boundaries, determining, 121–123, 215 Brigham Young University-Idaho (BYU-Idaho), 9, 59 business model at, 41, 42 commitment to transformation A at, 44 exchange team at, 84 identity change at, 170 the job to be done at, 37–38 postdisruption job to be done at, 39 superheroes at, 174–175 transformation B at, 57–58 Bryan, J.


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Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

These are tasks that computers are perfectly suited to accomplish once a programmer has created the appropriate software, leading to a drastic reduction in the numbers of routine manual and cognitive jobs over the past four decades.22 The result has been a polarisation of the labour market, since many middle-wage, mid-skilled jobs are routine, and therefore subject to automation.23 Across both North America and Western Europe, the labour market is now characterised by a predominance of workers in low-skilled, low-wage manual and service jobs (for example, fast-food, retail, transport, hospitality and warehouse workers), along with a smaller number of workers in high-skilled, high-wage, non-routine cognitive jobs.24 The most recent wave of automation is poised to change this distribution of the labour market drastically, as it comes to encompass every aspect of the economy: data collection (radio-frequency identification, big data); new kinds of production (the flexible production of robots,25 additive manufacturing,26 automated fast food); services (AI customer assistance, care for the elderly); decision-making (computational models, software agents); financial allocation (algorithmic trading); and especially distribution (the logistics revolution, self-driving cars,27 drone container ships and automated warehouses).28 In every single function of the economy – from production to distribution to management to retail – we see large-scale tendencies towards automation.29 This latest wave of automation is predicated upon algorithmic enhancements (particularly in machine learning and deep learning), rapid developments in robotics and exponential growth in computing power (the source of big data) that are coalescing into a ‘second machine age’ that is transforming the range of tasks that machines can fulfil.30 It is creating an era that is historically unique in a number of ways.

A series of emerging contemporary phenomena must be thought through carefully: for instance, the causes and effects of secular stagnation; the transformations invoked by the shift to an informational, post-scarcity economy; the changes wrought by the introduction of full automation and a universal basic income; the possible approaches to collectivising automated manufacturing and services; the progressive potentials of alternative approaches to quantitative easing; the most effective ways to decarbonise the means of production; the implications of dark pools for financial instability – and so on. Equally, research should be revived on what postcapitalism might look like in practice. Beyond a few outdated classics, very little research has been done to think through an alternative economic system – even less so in the wake of emerging technologies like additive manufacturing, self-driving vehicles and soft AI.68 What role, for instance, could non-state cryptocurrencies have? How does one measure value if not by abstract or concrete labour? How can ecological concerns be fully accounted for in a postcapitalist economic framework? What mechanism can replace the market and overcome the socialist calculation problem?69 And what are the likely effects of the possible tendency for the rate of profit to fall?

Logistics provides a particularly significant example, insofar as it simultaneously exploits wage differentials, enables global production and is at the leading edge of automation. Without denying the significance of logistics to the project of exploiting cheap labour across the world, it is possible to see that logistics would be useful to postcapitalism in a variety of ways.107 Its uses, in other words, go far beyond just capitalist ones. First, any postcapitalist economy will require flexibility in both production (for example, additive manufacturing) and distribution (for example, just-in-time logistics). This enables an economy to be responsive to changes in individual consumption, unlike the grand and inflexible planning efforts of the Soviet era. Without these technologies, postcapitalism would risk repeating all the economic problems already seen in the first communist experiment.108 Second, global logistics makes possible the use of a wide array of comparative advantages – not simply wage differentials.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

The company has built a full-scale facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to develop and scale up new alloys, processes and parts for use in additive manufacturing. GE has a global team of 600 engineers at 21 sites that is focused on additive manufacturing. Moreover, GE is committed to developing parts and components using additive techniques in several of its business lines and scaling up in a smart way based on early successes. For instance, GE Aviation plans to manufacture 100,000 additive parts by 2020. One application will be a fuel nozzle for the company’s CFM LEAP jet engine. In health care, GE researchers can print ultrasound transducers faster and more cheaply than using standard manufacturing techniques. GE does not do all this in-house. It works with innovators outside the group, with a view to building a global additive manufacturing ecosystem to spread the use of the technology.

It is increasingly used in planes and space travel, and can be produced in large single-piece sections, eliminating the need to rivet individual components together, and making overall construction more robust and secure. New tools for manufacturing 3D printers are responsible for a major breakthrough in manufacturing. When combined with computer-aided design and other digital tools, 3D printers can dramatically reduce manufacturing costs while increasing the capacity to customise products. 3D printers’ additive manufacturing involves adding several successive layers of a material until the product in question is finalised. This resource-efficient approach contrasts with the subtractive method used since the 19th century, in which a larger block of material, usually hard metal, is reduced, hammered, shaved or twisted into shape. Subtractive processes use more energy and waste at least half of the materials used.

PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. Index 3D printers 18, 47–9, 50, 128, 132, 134, 152, 166 3D printing 9, 47–9, 50, 51, 52, 132, 151–2, 206 4D revolution 53–4 A Accor 172–6 Accountable Care Solutions 211 Active Health Management 211 adaptability 90, 154 additive manufacturing 47–9 ADEO Group 127, 128 advertising 24, 61–3, 71–2 aerosols 95, 96 Aetna 32, 208–13, 213, 215 Affinnova 31, 141 affordability 3, 82, 136, 153, 161, 172, 194, 216 in emerging markets 4, 56, 120, 198, 206 health-care innovations 202–3 and quality 1, 3, 9, 12, 75, 120–1, 198, 206 affordances 120–1 Africa 40, 56, 146, 161, 164, 197 financial services 198, 201 IBM in 200–2 innovation potential 200–2 as market 12, 169, 197–8, 199 ageing populations 109, 194 ageing workforce 13, 29, 49, 153 agility 26, 41, 69, 75, 143, 169–70 in innovation 21, 27, 33–4, 42–3, 72, 154, 167, 173, 176, 206 in manufacturing 44–5, 49, 52 Akerman, Dave 136 Air Liquide 205–7 air pollution 74, 78, 187, 200 Airbnb 10, 17, 85, 136, 140, 163, 173, 175 aircraft 68, 149 parts 48–9, 49, 121, 151–2 airlines 60, 121 Alteryx 32 Amazon 46, 60–1, 150 Amelio, Gil 68–9 AmEx (American Express) 161–2, 167, 215 Amgen 45 Anderson, Chris 18 Android operating system 130, 172 AOL 42 Apple 17, 24, 68–9, 71, 99, 150, 155, 172 Apple TV 62 apps 99, 106, 107, 108, 111–12, 124–5, 148 Arduino 135 Ariely, Dan 132 Arla Foods 37 artists 88, 93 ASDA 158–9, 159 Asia 161, 164, 200 aspirations 88–9, 119–20, 198 assets digitising 65–6 flexing see flexing assets reusing 92–3 sharing 159–61, 167 AT&T 21 ATMI 88 Auchan 13, 126, 128, 215 austerity 5, 6–7, 23 Australia 5, 62, 146, 200 Autodesk 48, 92, 132, 196–7 Automatic 131 automation 49–50 Avon 146 AXA 116 Ayed, Anne-Christine 75, 76 B B Corps (Benefit Corporations) 82 B2B (business-to-business) sectors 25–6, 34, 57, 142, 161, 175, 212 B2C (business-to-consumer) companies 25, 34, 212 Badrinath, Vivek 174 BAE Systems 48–9 Ban, Shigeru 93 Bangladesh 66 Bank of America 155 banking services 13, 17, 57, 161–2, 198 see also financial services Banner Health Network 210 Banzi, Massimo 135 Barber, Michael 181 Barclays 100, 115, 117, 215 Barry, Mike 183–4, 187 Bayer 66–7 Bazin, Sébastien 173 BBVA 125 Béhar, Yves 110 Belgium 103 Benefit Corporations (B Corps) 82 Benelux countries 7, 103 Benetton 67 Benoît, Paul 89 Berg 89 Bergh, Chip 122–3 Bertolini, Mark 208–9, 212, 213, 217 BHAGs (“big, hairy audacious” goals) 90–1, 158–9, 179, 191–2 Biasiotta, Bruno 123 big data 32–3, 117, 150 big-box retailers 9, 18, 137 “bigger is better” 2, 8, 14–15, 104 biomimetics (or biomimicry) 84 Birol, Jacques 163–4 BlaBlaCar 10, 85, 163 Blanchard, David 94, 96 Bloomberg, Michael 18, 79, 133 BMI (business model innovation) 192 BMW 47, 62–3, 86 BNP Paribas 168–9 Boeing 92, 144 Bolland, Marc 180–1, 186 Bontha, Ven 59 Booz & Company (now Strategy&) 6, 22, 23, 28, 171 Bosch 156 Boston Consulting Group 55, 64, 116, 145, 217 Botsman, Rachel 10 bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers 161, 203, 207 Bouygues Immobilier 90 BP 169 BPS (by-product synergy) 159 Brabeck-Letmathe, Peter 44, 78 brand ambassadors 143, 145 brand loyalty 46, 100, 204, 215 branding 15, 108, 119–20, 156 brands 1, 71, 139, 141, 143, 154, 165–6, 215 “conversations” with 129, 131–2 working together 154, 156–7 Braungart, Michael 82 Brazil 40, 74, 102, 146, 188, 199 emerging market 4, 12, 38, 146, 197, 199 Bretton Woods Conference (1944) 104 Brin, Sergey 63 BringBee 85 Bross, Matt 37–8, 171 Brown, Tim 121 Brusson, Nicolas 163 BT 37–8, 171 BTG (British Technology Group) 171 budgeting, personal 124–5 budgets 6–7, 36, 42 Buffett, Warren 138 buildings 196–7 bureaucracy 36, 63–4, 65, 70, 165, 169, 173, 182 business, primary purpose of 14 business model innovation (BMI) 192 business models 2, 34, 38, 80, 118, 205, 216, 217 changing 190–3, 213 business opportunities 36, 188–9, 190 business process re-engineering 192 business strategy 34 business-to-business see B2B business-to-consumer see B2C by-product synergy (BPS) 159 C C2C (cradle-to-cradle) design 75, 77, 82, 84, 97 Cacciotti, Jerry 22, 23 CAD (computer-aided design) 47, 65, 132, 165 California 79, 99 Calmes, Stéphane 127, 128 Camp, Garrett 163 Canada 5, 102 cannibalisation conundrum 15, 117–18 capital costs 45 car insurance 116 car sharing 10, 17, 85, 86, 108, 123, 163 car-related services 62–3, 116 Caravan Shop 89 carbon emissions 102, 103, 196 reducing 78–9, 106–7, 159, 160, 174 stabilising 184, 186 carbon footprint 94, 100, 102, 156, 184, 186 Carrefour 121–2, 157, 174 cars 89, 92, 116, 119–20, 144, 155, 156 electric 47, 86, 172 emissions 47, 106–7 fuel consumption 47, 106–7 fuel efficiency 8, 12, 24, 47, 78, 131, 197 low-cost 2–4 personalisation 129–30 related services 62–3 standards for 78–9 see also BMW; Ford; Nissan; Renault; Tesla; Toyota Caterpillar 31, 55 CellScope 110 Cemex 59 centralisation 9, 44, 51 CEOs 34, 40, 168, 203–5, 204 certification, sustainability 84 Chaparral Steel 159 chemical industry 33, 58, 66–7 chemical usage, reducing 79 Cheshire, Ian 185–6 Chesky, Brian 163 Chevron 170 China 44, 83, 102, 144, 213, 216 air pollution 187, 200 emerging market 4, 38, 169, 197, 205 innovation in 169, 200 mobile phones 198 R&D 40, 188, 206 selling into 187–8 shifting production from 55, 56 Christchurch (New Zealand) 93 Chrysler 166 circular economy 9, 76–7, 80–4, 159–60, 195–6 “Circular Economy 100” 76–7, 86 circular supply chains 193 Cisco 17, 29, 65, 110 CISL (University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership) 158–9 cities 107, 153 Citigroup 161 climate change 8, 100 closed-loop products 86, 91, 185, 192–3 cloud computing 60, 61, 157, 169 CMF-A car platform 4–5, 198–9 CNC (computer numerical control) cutters 128, 134, 152 co-branding 143 co-creation 126–9, 202–3, 206–7 see also collaboration; horizontal economy; prosumers co-distribution 143 co-marketing 143 co-operation 64–5, 69, 70–1 co-opetition 158–9 Coase, Ronald 133 Coca-Cola 57, 62, 142, 154 “cold chains” 57 CoLearnr 114 Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP) 193–4 collaboration 76, 114, 138–9, 176, 211, 217–18 cross-functional 36–8, 39, 71–2 see also hyper-collaboration; TechShop collaborative consumption see sharing economy collaborative manufacturing 50–1 collective buying platforms 137 Commonwealth Fund 110 communities of customers 129, 131, 132–3 local 52, 57, 146, 206–7 commuting 131 competition 22, 27, 102, 189 competitive advantage 15–16, 80, 195 competitors 19, 26, 148, 149–50, 172, 215 emerging markets 16, 205–6, 216 engaging 158–9, 167 frugal 16–18, 26, 216 complexity 24, 64 components 3, 67 computer numerical control see CNC computer-aided design (CAD) 47, 65, 132, 165 Comstock, Beth 40–1, 149, 150, 151, 170 concentration 96 Concept Lab 211 concept testing 25, 31, 72, 191 Cone, Carol 7 congestion 108, 201 constraints 4–5, 22, 34, 36, 42, 207, 217 consumer behaviour 3, 6, 97, 98–101 shaping xix, 99–101, 105–9, 125 Consumer Empowerment Index 103 consumer spending 103 consumers 8, 27, 37, 97, 105 developed-world 2, 7, 9, 102 dissatisfaction 130–1 empowerment 22, 105, 106 environmental awareness 101–2, 105 frugal 197–200 of the future 193–4 innovative ideas from 50–1 with particular needs 194–5 power 102–4, 139 social experience 139 and sustainability 95, 97, 101–4 trust of 143 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also customers; prosumers consumption 85, 101–6, 115, 124, 193 continuous processing 44–5, 47, 50 Cook, Scott 19 core, focusing on 68–9 Cornillon, Paul 37 Corporate Home Exchange 175 corporate leaders 122–4, 180–1, 203–5 corporate social responsibility see CSR Cortese, Amy 138 cost effectiveness 12, 34, 149, 164, 172, 188, 190, 191 consumer energy use 53 customisation 67 health care 202 innovation 21, 173 micro-factories 52 Costco 18 costs 3D printers 48 capital costs 45 development costs 22, 36 distribution costs 54, 55, 96 electricity generation 104 energy costs 161, 190 environmental costs 11 fuel costs 121 of good-enough approach 27 health-care costs 13, 109 innovation costs 168, 171 inventory costs 54 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 maintenance costs 48–9, 66 manufacturing costs 47, 48, 52 operating costs 45, 215 production costs 9, 83 raw materials 153, 161, 190 reducing 11, 46, 47, 60, 84, 89, 160, 167, 200 resource costs 78, 203 shipping costs 55, 59 supply chain 58, 84 transaction costs 133 wage costs 48 Coughlin, Bill 167 Coursera 61, 112 Coye, Molly 202 cradle-to-cradle see C2C design creativity 88, 94, 128, 130, 135, 163–4, 199 in organisations 63–4, 70, 71 credit culture 115–16 CRM (customer relationship management) systems 59, 157 cross-functional collaboration 36–8, 39, 71–2 crowdfunding 17, 48, 132, 137–9, 152 crowdsourcing 28–9, 50–1, 126, 140, 143, 152, 202 platforms 142, 150–1, 151, 152 CSCP (Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production) 193–4 CSR (corporate social responsibility) 77, 82, 94, 161 culture, organisational see organisational culture “culture of simplification” 170 curiosity 153–4 customer behaviour see consumer behaviour customer experience, enhancing 75 customer feedback 31–2, 33, 72, 152, 170, 192 customer immersion labs 31–2 customer loyalty 28, 68, 77, 80, 124, 129, 131–2, 215 customer needs 37, 58, 90, 139–40, 170, 192, 206 changing 28, 38, 51, 127, 150, 168, 205 diversity 38, 46, 51 R&D disconnect from 26, 38 customer preferences 58, 67, 75 customer relationship management see CRM customer satisfaction 65, 128, 130–1 customer service 25–6, 127–8, 147 customer visits 18, 20, 128 customers 19, 27, 46, 76, 148, 205 alienating 24–6 behaviour see consumer behaviour bottom-of-pyramid 12–13, 161, 203, 207 communities of 129, 131, 132–3 cost-conscious 3, 6, 7, 22, 26, 156, 189, 215 dreams 140–1 eco-awareness 22, 26, 54, 75, 78, 93, 156, 195–6, 215 in emerging markets 200 engaging with 20–1, 24–6, 27–33, 34, 35, 38–9, 42–3, 115, 128, 170 as experts 146 focus on 19–21, 43, 62, 157–8, 204 goodwill of 84 motivation for change 117 multiple roles 143–6 needs see customer needs outsourcing to 143 participation 128–9 profligate 115–16 R&D and 27–8, 31–2, 38, 43 rewards for 147–8 shared 156–8 used to motivate employees 205–7 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also consumers; prosumers customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 51–2, 57–8, 67, 72 CVS Health 7 D D2D Fund 162 Dacia 2–4, 156, 179 Dannon 141 Danone 66, 141, 184, 186 Darchis, François 205–6, 207 DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency) 49 Darukhanavala, P.P.


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Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

As new entrepreneurs are constantly improving this new interface, they are also further enabling new entrepreneurs—meaning a positive feedback loop of increasing interface innovation develops. It’s a virtuous cycle seen over and over again. More exciting, it’s exactly these kinds of robust, elegant interfaces that are beginning to show up in half a dozen exponential technologies—meaning there are literally a half dozen Internet-sized opportunities becoming available to the clued-in entrepreneur. 3-D Printing: The Origins and Power of Additive Manufacturing One such opportunity lies with 3-D printing, a technology now emerging from a thirty-year period of deceptive growth and beginning to disrupt a portion of the $10 trillion global manufacturing industry.7 In the rest of this chapter, we’re going to explore this technology’s past, present, and future and then acquaint you with a few entrepreneurs pioneering that future. The goal here is both to familiarize you with this technology and use it as a real-time template for the Six Ds, exploring how select entrepreneurs have correctly read the cycle of hype and positioned themselves to take full advantage of this tech’s exponential opportunity.

As he was then working for a small company in Southern California that specialized in developing applications for ultraviolet radiation, including curing (hardening) UV coatings and inks, Hull realized that curing’s methodology opened the door for an entirely new manufacturing process. Instead of having to create new plastic parts and prototypes through subtractive methods, if he could figure out how to print sheets of UV-hardened plastic atop one another (and attach them to one another), he could build new automotive components via accretion—a method of additive manufacturing in which objects are built up one layer at a time. This was the birth of 3-D printing.9 To give you better idea of how this works, think of an ink-jet printer. These ubiquitous office products are 2-D printers that convert digital instructions (from your computer) into an “object” (aka printed text on a page) by printing along a two-dimensional (x and y) axis. A 3-D printer does the same except it adds in a vertical dimension (the z axis)—thus allowing for creation in all three dimensions.

“The company was a train wreck,” says Avi Reichental.11 “They had lost sight of the fact that their technology was accelerating exponentially. They had forgotten how to innovate.” And Reichental would know, as he was the person brought in to save the company. On paper, Reichental was an odd choice for the job. Having spent the previous twenty-three years working for the Sealed Air Corporation, the inventors of Bubble Wrap, Reichental didn’t know much about additive manufacturing. But what he did understand was innovation. “Sealed Air wasn’t your standard package goods company,” says Reichental. “It was more like a Silicon Valley start-up: totally entrepreneurial, always exploring new possibilities, always trying to crack open new markets.” As a result, Reichental worked dozens of different jobs during his Sealed Air tenure—eventually becoming the company’s fourth-ranking officer and helping grow the firm from a 400-person, $100 million business (when he joined), into an 18,000-person, $5 billion behemoth (when he left).


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

The Cloud The large data sets involved in Industry 4.0 means data sharing will be not only desirable but imperative to leverage the full possibilities within the value chain. However, few manufacturing plants will have the storage capacity to store and analyze the vast amounts of data collected. Fortunately, cloud service providers do have the capacity and can create private clouds suitable for manufacturing data storage and processing. Additive Manufacturing Additive manufacturing such as 3D printing enables manufacturers to come up with prototypes and proof of concept designs, which greatly reduces design time and effort. Additive manufacturing also enables production of small batches of customized products that offer more value to customers or end users, while reducing cost and time inefficiencies for the manufacturer. Augmented Reality Businesses are increasingly looking to reduce the maintenance and training overheads associated with production, marketing, and after-sales support.

It is important to differentiate between the media-hyped consumer market for 3D printing and the industrial reality. Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines. Similarly, they are commonly utilized in cars, with at least one manufacturer making their entire vehicle via 3D printing. 3D printing goes beyond just manipulating polymers, ceramics, paper, and metal—it also can be used in health care. Additive manufacturing is used in prosthetics and medical components such as medical sensors and actuators implanted within the body, such as heart pace-makers for example. However, the latest research is being driven by bio-medical requirements such as creating 3D printed skin, and other body tissue, and perhaps soon even complete organs. The goal here is to reproduce a patient’s failing organs using 3D printing to create a replacement without the requirement of a donor transplant. 61 62 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet The way this works is that layers of living cells harvested from the patient are deposited via the 3D printer onto a culture plate to build up each layer of the three-dimensional organic structure.

IOT6 Smart Office, 21 IT sectors, 5 key opportunities and benefits, 8 logistics adopting sensor technologies, 24 advanced telemetric sensors, 26 augmented reality glasses, 25 automating stock control task, 24 barcode technology, 23 Big Data, 26–27 document scanning and verification, 26 forklift, 24–25 Google Glass, 25 multiple sensors, 26 pick-by-paper, 25 RFID, 23–24 SmartLIFT technology, 24–25 temperature and humidity sensors, 24 track and trace, 26 M2M, 3 manufacturers, 10 Oil and Gas industry automated remote control topology, 18 automation, 18 Big Data analytics, 19 cloud computing, 17 data analytics, 16 data collection and analysis, 18 data distribution system, 17 DDS bus, 18 down-hole sensors, 16 drilling and exploration, 16 industry regulations, 16 intelligent real-time reservoir management, 19 interconnectivity, 17 MQPP and XMPP, 17 remote node's status, 17 6LoWLAN and CoAP, 17 technological advances, 16 wireless technologies and protocols, 17 outcome economy, 10 power of 1%, 4 retailer innovations, 29 IT costs, 27 POS, 27–28 real-time reporting and visibility, 28 stock control, 28 sensor technology, 4 smartphone, 20 WSN, 21 WWAN, 5 Industrial Internet system communication protocols Ethernet protocol, 100 industrial Ethernet, 98 TCP/UDP containers, 100 concept of, IIoT, 88 diverse technology, 116 gateways, 115 heterogeneous networks, 116 industrial gateway, 118 industrial protocols current loop, 97 field bus technology, 98 RS232 serial communications, 96 proximity and access network address types, 114 IIoT context, 115 IPv4, 109 IPv6, 112 IPv6 Subnets, 114 NAT, 111 proximity network, 89 wireless communication technology, 102 bluetooth low energy, 103 IEEE 802.15.4, 102 NFC, 107 RFID, 106 RPL, 108 6LoWPAN, 107 Thread, 107 Wi-Fi backscatter, 105 ZigBee, 103 ZigBee IP, 104 Z-Wave, 105 WSN edge node, 90 functional layers, 93 IP layers vs. IIoT layers, 95 Index low-power technology, 91 network protocols, 91 OSI table, 93 web 2.0 layers, 94 Industrial Internet systems (IISs), 66 Industrial systems (ISs), 66 Industry 4.0 advantages, 199 big data and analytics, 208 additive manufacturing, 210 architecture, 211 augmented-reality-based systems, 210 business processes, 213 cloud data, 210 customer acceptance, 215 customer evaluation, 214 cyber-security, 210 equipment, 212 horizontal and vertical system integration, 209 IOT, 209 products, 213 simulation, 209 smart manufacturing, 211 supply chains, 213 use of, robots, 209 workforce, 212 characteristics, 199 cyber-physical systems, 196 definitions, 197 design principles decentralization, 207 interoperability, 207 modularity, 208 real time capability, 208 services, 208 virtualization, 207 dynamic process control, 196 global networks, 195 manufacturing processes, 196 value chain, 201 business benefits, 205 Cost-cutting, 203 creation, 203 horizontal activities, 201 quality, features, 203 support function, 202 In-flight entertainment (IFE), 182 Internet of Things (IOT), 1–2, 29 IOT6 Smart Office, 21 IP, 126 IPv6, 21, 23 L Late-binding, 133 M M2M learning and artificial intelligence, 56 Machine-to-machine (M2M), 3, 6 Message bus, 132 Message queue telemetry transport (MQTT), 136 Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs), 53 Microservices, 151 Mobile device management (MDM), 158 Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), 122 N, O Near field communication (NFC), 20, 107 Network address translation (NAT), 111 Network functionality virtualization (NFV), 42 P Point of sales (POS) machines, 27–28 Profinet, 123–124 Programmable logic controls (PLCs), 183, 224 Proof-of-concept (PoC), 35 Prophet, 141 Publish/subscribe protocol, 133 Q Quality of service (QoS), 122, 138 249 250 Index support modules and options, 148 vs.


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

Ten years later, Google’s fleet of self-driving cars has already logged 700,000 miles in city streets—with the only accident occurring when a human was operating one of the Toyota Prius cars. Today, new car models offer the latest advances in driver-assist systems, such as braking, parking, and collision avoidance. By 2025, the driverless revolution in ground and airborne vehicles could be well underway, especially if the regulatory framework keeps pace with the changes. Finally, additive manufacturing technologies could become another disruptive force in production. While they are not new, 3-D printers are becoming more prevalent because of better technology and performance, new materials, and falling prices. Their use in simple consumer goods and prototypes is widely known. Today, they are also used in medical and dental products, such as hearing aids, dental braces, and prosthetic limbs, and are starting to be used in other high-complexity, low-volume applications, such as aerospace components and turbines.

., strength, weight, conductivity) or functionality RETHINKING ENERGY COMES OF AGE 3.Energy storage Devices or systems that store energy for later use, including batteries 4.Advanced oil and gas exploration and recovery Exploration and recovery techniques that make extraction of unconventional oil and gas economical 5.Renewable energy Generation of electricity from renewable sources with reduced harmful climate impact MACHINES WORKING FOR US 6.Advanced robotics Increasingly capable robots with enhanced senses, dexterity, and intelligence used to automate tasks or augment humans 7.Autonomous and near-autonomous vehicles Vehicles that can navigate and operate with reduced or no human intervention 8.3-D printing Additive manufacturing techniques to create objects by printing layers of material based on digital models IT AND HOW WE USE IT 9.Mobile Internet Increasingly inexpensive and capable mobile computing devices and Internet connectivity 10.Internet of things Networks of low-cost sensors and actuators for data collection, monitoring, decision making, and process optimization 11.Cloud technology Use of computer hardware and software resources delivered over a network or the Internet, often as a service 12.Automation of knowledge work Intelligent software systems that can perform knowledge work tasks involving unstructured commands and subtle judgments The data avalanche is set to become more powerful only because of a movement toward “open data,” in which data are freely shared beyond their originating organizations—including governments and businesses—in a machine-readable format at low cost.

History is littered with such corporate casualties. The breathless wait for an updated smart phone may be a delicious pleasure for consumers. For businesses, however, anticipating and preparing for the next wave of the technological tsunami can be the difference between success and failure. Early birds will be challenged to place technology bets amid the extraordinary diversity of new technologies. For instance, within the realm of additive manufacturing—just one of the dozen disruptions we identify—a wide range of technologies and materials exists. They include laser sintering with powdered metal, fused deposition molding with melted plastic, and 3-D printers, which range in size and cost from $1,000 hobby printers to industrial-scale printers costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. Even if you are not an early bird in their application, you will need to determine when, how, and whether to take advantage of them—and be prepared to follow fast.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

As workers, we are to be liberated from the constraints of a permanent career and given the opportunity to make our own way by selling whatever goods and services we might like to offer. As consumers, we are presented with a cornucopia of on-demand services and with the promise of a network of connected devices that cater to our every whim. This is a book on this contemporary moment and its avatars in emerging technologies: platforms, big data, additive manufacturing, advanced robotics, machine learning, and the internet of things. It is not the first book to look at these topics, but it takes a different approach from others. In the existing literature, one group of commentaries focuses on the politics of emerging technology, emphasising privacy and state surveillance but leaving aside economic issues around ownership and profitability. Another group looks at how corporations are embodiments of particular ideas and values and criticises them for not acting humanely – but, again, it neglects the economic context and the imperatives of a capitalist system.1 Other scholars do examine these emerging economic trends but present them as sui generis phenomena, disconnected from their history.

Over the past 40 years the jet engine industry has been characterised by very few new companies, and no companies leaving the industry.54 Instead the three major firms have competed intensely among themselves by introducing incremental technological improvements, in an effort to gain an edge. This technological competition continues today, when the jet engine industry pioneers the use of additive manufacturing. (For instance, GE’s most popular jet engine has a number of parts that are now 3D printed rather than welded together out of different components.55) But margins on the engines themselves remain small, and competition tight. By contrast, the maintenance of these engines involves much higher profit margins – seven times higher, according to estimates.56 The challenge with maintenance is that it is quite easy for outside competitors to come in to the market and take the profits away.


Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deskilling, disruptive innovation, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, global value chain, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, smart grid, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick

Leaders who think technological matters should be handled by experts may not be fully cognizant of the extent to which innovation is interwoven with politics. This is true at all levels of economic development. Emerging economies have to make complex decisions related to the impact of infrastructure projects in the same way that advanced countries grapple with social concerns in new fields such as nanotechnology, robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, synthetic biology, artificial intelligence, and additive manufacturing (3D printing).8 Much of the public debate is intended to influence government policy on science, technology, and engineering. In this regard, the capacity of governments to assess the available information and use it for decisionmaking is an essential element of the debate. Political leadership on innovation and the existence of requisite institutions of science and technology advice are an essential aspect of economic governance.

With the held evidence, regulators “can use experimental rules, regulatory sunsets, or rulemaking deadlines to calibrate their approach to novel technologies or business practices.”60 The point is to provide a framework for informed decisionmaking and rule-making. Equally important is the role of science and technology advice in ensuring that the law can adequately reflect the characteristics of emerging technologies. An example of the tensions is the rise of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, which is advancing faster than the law can catch up.61 One of the main legal challenges is the potential convergence of digital information and physical objects.62 Proposals to reduce technological tensions could include exempting digital information used in 3D printing from copyright infringement.63 What may appear on the surface as being intellectual property concerns may in fact reflect deeper tensions between technological innovation and incumbency.

Abbott Laboratories, 232–233 Abu Hanifi, 51 AC. See Alternating current Academies, 12, 288. See also Science advice US National Academy of Engineering, 12 US National Academy of Sciences, 237, 249 Activism. See also Lobbying and lobby groups environmental movement, 14, 32 globalization and, 41 Grange movement, 103 pure foods movements, 24, 335n22 temperance (teetol) movement, 57, 63 Adam, Meldrum & Anderson, 155 Additive manufacturing (3D printing), 301, 306 Adoption of Bt technology, 244, 252 of coffee, 297 of disease-resistant wheat cultivars, 228 of innovation, 11, 124 of tractors, 127, 139 of transgenic products, 244–245, 276 Adulteration of food, 97, 103, 106 Advertising, role in technological innovation, 17 Advisory bodies, 7, 286–287, 290–291 Advocacy. See Lobbying and lobby groups Aedes aegypti (mosquito), 255–256 AFM.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Kurniawan, who, GE tells us, “runs a small engineering and design firm called DTECH-ENGINEERING with his brother,” added: “That’s why I want to be familiar with additive manufacturing as soon as possible.” GE ended up offering the Hungarian intern a job. Although he clearly had enormous talent, that Hungarian student had failed his engineering structural analysis class, said Bill Carter, a senior mechanical engineer in GE’s Additive Manufacturing Lab: “So it shows that if you get young people excited about something, they feel and can relate to, they get excited—and instead of being in class and studying, he went out and [entered our contest]. And he went and learned from people he never would have talked to.” Discussing this whole project two years later, Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab, explained to me just how much these global flows are being leveraged by a company such as GE today: “When you are looking for new ideas, you can now bring in a diversity of responses worldwide, and you engage the community to drive speed.

GE offered a reward to anyone in the world who could design that component with less weight, using 3-D printing. They advertised it in June 2013. As I wrote in a column, within weeks they had received 697 entries from all over the world—from companies, individuals, graduate students, and designers. According to the GE website: In September [2013], the partners picked 10 finalists who received $1,000 each. Aviation 3D printed the 10 shortlisted designs at its additive manufacturing plant in Cincinnati, Ohio. GE workers made the brackets from a titanium alloy on a direct metal laser melting (DMLM) machine, which uses a laser beam to fuse layers of metal powder into the final shape. The team then sent the finished brackets to GE Global Research (GRC) in Niskayuna, New York, for destruction testing. GRC engineers strapped each bracket to an MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine and exposed it to axial loads ranging from 8,000 to 9,500 pounds.

Ferrucci, David fertility rates fertilizers, overuse of fiber optics FICO scores financial crashes financial flows financial reform financial services: big data and; democratization of Financial Times Fitbit 5G wireless networks Florida, Richard flows: of knowledge; power of; see also financial flows; global flows Fofana, Mohamed Foldit food labeling food prices Foreign Affairs foreign aid; gender equality and; military vs. educational and social Foreign Policy “40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents” fossil fuels fossil record 4G wireless networks Francis I, Pope Franken, Al Franken, Owen Fraser, Don Fredericks, Frank Freedman, Andrew freedom: advances toward; in cyberspace; ethics and; inequality of Freeman, Orville Free Syrian Army free trade agreements Frenzel, Bill freshwater use Friedman, George Friedman, Harold Friedman, Jane Friedman, Margaret Friedman, Shelley Fujitsu Fukuyama, Francis Funda, Ndumie F. W. Olin Foundation Gaffney, Owen Gallup Galor, Oded Galston, Bill Galván, Arturo Gambia Garber, Jake Garten, Jeffrey Gates, Bill Gates Foundation gays, gay rights; violence against Gaznay, Karwan GDP (gross domestic product); Internet penetration and Gebbia, Joe gender equality gene drives gene editing, as weapon General Electric (GE); Additive Manufacturing Lab of; engineering-design contests of; Niskayuna research center of General Mills generative design genetic engineering genetics, human manipulation of Genome.gov GeopoliticalFutures.com geopolitics: climate change and; Cold War in, see Cold War; foreign aid in; innovation in; interdependence in; post–Cold War; post–World War I; post–World War II; U.S. hegemony in geopolitics, post–post–Cold War era in: accelerated pace of; ADD (amplify, deter, degrade) policy in; breakers in, see breakers, super-empowered; climate change and; great-power competition in; innovation in; interdependence in; low-wage jobs in; weak states in, see weak states Georgia Tech gerrymandering Get Smart (TV series) Ghana Ghonim, Wael ghost apps GI Bill gig economy Gil, Dario Gilhousen, Klein GitHub Global Change and the Earth System (Steffen, et al.)


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

This kind of provable, transparent credentialing will be especially important for what’s called additive manufacturing. That technology, the industrial version of 3D printing, is central to the dynamic, on-demand production model of the so-called Industry 4.0 movement, a phrase that describes a manufacturing sector that can respond in rapid time to changing consumer and other demands. 3D printers are already producing parts that are lighter than traditionally built parts, are much stronger in design, and are more readily produced on demand for machines as sophisticated as NASA rockets and Air Force fighters. But for mission-critical products like these, there’s also a risk, one that’s put into context by James Regenor, director of the additive manufacturing and innovation unit at precision parts manufacturer Moog, Inc.: “How can the maintenance crew on a U.S. aircraft carrier have absolute confidence that the software file they downloaded to 3D-print a new part for a fighter jet hasn’t been hacked by a foreign adversary?”

Instead, companies are looking at permissioned blockchains, which we’ll discuss in more detail in chapter six. That makes sense because many big manufacturers think of their supply chains as static concepts, with defined members who have been certified to supply this or that component to a finished product. But in the rapidly changing world of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, this might not be the most competitive option. Emerging technologies such as additive manufacturing, where production can be called up anywhere and delivered by anyone with access to the right software files and a sufficiently configured 3D printer, are pointing to a much more fluid, dynamic supply-chain world, where suppliers come and go more easily. In that environment, a permissionless system would seem necessary. Once scaling challenges are resolved, and with robust encryption and reliable monitoring systems for proving the quality of suppliers’ work, permissionless blockchain-based supply chains could end up being a big leveler of the playing field for global manufacturing.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The 3-D printer can produce multiple copies just like a photocopy machine. All sorts of goods, from jewelry to mobile phones, auto and aircraft parts, medical implants, and batteries, are being “printed out” in what is being termed “additive manufacturing,” distinguishing it from the “subtractive manufacturing,” which involves cutting down and pairing off materials and then attaching them together.20 Industry analysts forecast that millions of customers will routinely download digitally manufactured, customized products and “print them out” at their business or residence. 3-D entrepreneurs are particularly bullish about additive manufacturing, because the process requires as little as 10 percent of the raw material expended in traditional manufacturing and uses less energy than conventional factory production, thus greatly reducing the cost.

The energy saved at every step of the digital manufacturing process, from reduction in materials used, to less energy expended in making the product, and the elimination of energy in transporting it, when applied across the global economy, adds up to a qualitative increase in energy efficiency beyond anything imaginable in the First and Second Industrial Revolutions. When the energy used in the process is renewable and also generated on site, the full impact of a lateral Third Industrial Revolution becomes strikingly apparent. In the same way that the Internet radically reduced entry costs in generating and disseminating information, giving rise to new businesses like Google and Facebook, additive manufacturing has the potential to greatly reduce the cost of producing hard goods, making entry costs sufficiently low to encourage hundreds of thousands of mini manufacturers—Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)—to challenge and potentially out-compete the giant manufacturing companies that were at the center of the First and Second Industrial Revolution economies. Already, a spate of new start-up companies are entering the 3-D printing market with names like Within Technologies, Digital Forming, Shape Ways, Rapid Quality Manufacturing, and Stratasys, and are determined to reinvent the very idea of manufacturing in the Third Industrial era.


pages: 464 words: 117,495

The New Trading for a Living: Psychology, Discipline, Trading Tools and Systems, Risk Control, Trade Management by Alexander Elder

additive manufacturing, Atul Gawande, backtesting, Benoit Mandelbrot, buy and hold, buy low sell high, Checklist Manifesto, computerized trading, deliberate practice, diversification, Elliott wave, endowment effect, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, offshore financial centre, paper trading, Ponzi scheme, price stability, psychological pricing, quantitative easing, random walk, risk tolerance, short selling, South Sea Bubble, systematic trading, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, tulip mania, zero-sum game

Figure 40.2 SSYS weekly with 13- and 26-week EMAs, 12-26-9 MACD-Histogram and the Impulse system. (Chart by Stockcharts.com) The Impulse System The Impulse system can sharpen any method of finding trades, whether technical or fundamental. Let's review an example, using the stock of Stratasys, Inc. (SSYS)—one of the two leading stocks in the additive manufacturing industry. In 2012, I published the world's first popular e-book on additive manufacturing in which I called for a boom in its stocks. Vertical green arrows mark bars immediately following red bars. Red prohibits you from buying. The best time to buy is immediately following red's disappearance. You can see how those green arrows pick one intermediate bottom after another, including the buy signal at the right edge of the chart. Having an objective method gives you the confidence to buy as soon as a decline screeches to a halt.

When it rises above zero, the bulls are stronger, and when it falls below zero, the bears are in charge. Its divergences from prices identify intermediate and even major turning points (Figure 30.2). Its spikes, especially near the bottoms, mark approaching trend reversals. Figure 30.2 SSYS daily, 26-day EMA, 13-day Force Index. (Chart by Stockcharts.com) Long-Term Force Index Stratasys, Inc. (SSYS) is one of the two leading companies in the rapidly emerging additive manufacturing (AM) market. In the two years since I wrote the world's first popular e-book on investing in this technology, AM stocks have become investors' favorites. A technical pattern has emerged, with rallies driven by amateurs piling in and sharp declines as they panic and bail out. The 13-day Force Index does a good job of catching those waves. When the 13-day Force Index crosses above its zero line (marked by vertical green arrows), it shows that buying volume is coming in.


pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

The most profound benefit of 3D printing is probably that it makes experimentation and customization inexpensive. The path from idea or need to finished, useful part no longer has to include the time-consuming and expensive steps like mold making and other conventional manufacturing practices. Carl Bass, the former CEO of design and engineering software company Autodesk, sees 3D printing as only one part of a much larger story. As he told us, “I think additive manufacturing is a subset of what has really transformed manufacturing, which is the use of low-cost microprocessors to precisely control machinery.” Bass’s point is that sensors and code are not just being used now to precisely place very thin layers of material on top of each other; they’re also being applied to just about every other fabrication technique, from cutting glass sheets and ceramic tiles to bending and milling all kinds of metals.

Friedman, “When Complexity Is Free,” New York Times, September 14, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/15/opinion/sunday/friedman-when-complexity-is-free.html. 106 20%–35% faster: Guillaume Vansteenkiste, “Training: Laser Melting and Conformal Cooling,” PEP Centre Technique de la Plasturgie, accessed January 30, 2017, http://www.alplastics.net/Portals/0/Files/Summer%20school%20presentations/ALPlastics_Conformal_Cooling.pdf. 106 with greater quality: Eos, “[Tooling],” accessed January 30, 2017, https://www.eos.info/tooling. 106 3D-printed tumor model: Yu Zhao et al., “Three-Dimensional Printing of Hela Cells for Cervical Tumor Model in vitro,” Biofabrication 6, no. 3 (April 11, 2014), http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035001. 107 “I think additive manufacturing”: Carl Bass, interview by the authors, summer 2015. Chapter 5 WHERE TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY STILL NEED HUMANITY 113 “Most words we use”: John Brockman, “Consciousness Is a Big Suitcase: A Talk with Marvin Minsky,” Edge, February 26, 1998, https://www.edge.org/conversation/marvin_minsky-consciousness-is-a-big-suitcase. 113 Starting in 2013, Autodesk teamed up: Daniel Terdiman, “Inside the Hack Rod, the World’s First AI-Designed Car,” Fast Company, December 1, 2015, accessed 30 Jan 2017, https://www.fastcompany.com/3054028/inside-the-hack-rod-the-worlds-first-ai-designed-car. 116 A clever study by computational biologists: Scott Spangler et al., “Automated Hypothesis Generation Based on Mining Scientific Literature,” in Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (New York: ACM, 2014), 1877–86, http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/alacoste/files/p1877-spangler.pdf. 116 70,000 scientific papers: IBM, “IBM Watson Ushers In a New Era of Data-Driven Discoveries,” August 28, 2014, https://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/44697.wss. 117 Simon Colton’s program The Painting Fool: The Painting Fool, “About Me . . . ,” accessed January 30, 2017, http://www.thepaintingfool.com/about/index.html. 117 Patrick Tresset has built: PatrickTresset.com, accessed January 30, 2017, http://patricktresset.com/new. 117 Emily Howell, a program developed: “Emily Howell,” accessed January 30, 2017, http://artsites.ucsc.edu/faculty/cope/Emily-howell.htm. 117 “At one Santa Cruz concert”: Ryan Blitstein, “Triumph of the Cyborg Composer,” Pacific Standard, February 22, 2010, https://psmag.com/triumph-of-the-cyborg-composer-620e5aead47e#.tkinbzy0l. 118 a 128-story modern skyscraper: Skyscraper Center, “Shanghai Tower,” accessed January 30, 2017, http://skyscrapercenter.com/building/shanghai-tower/56. 118 34,000 metric tons per year: Gensler Design Update, “Sustainability Matters,” accessed January 30, 2017, http://du.gensler.com/vol6/shanghai-tower/#/sustainability-matters. 118 $58 million in construction costs: Gensler Design Update, “Why This Shape?”

He provides an ongoing demonstration of how to deal with academic peculiarities, sponsor demands, and human foibles while never losing either composure or good cheer. We have no idea how he does it and would be lost without him. Many thanks to all of you. INDEX Page numbers listed correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. Acton, Brian, 140 additive manufacturing, 107; See also 3D printing Adore Me, 62 adults, language learning by, 68–69 advertising content platforms and, 139 data-driven decision making for, 48, 50–51 Facebook and, 8–9 radio airplay as, 148 advertising agencies, 48 advertising revenue Android as means of increasing, 166 Craigslist’s effect on, 139 free apps and, 162 print media and, 130, 132, 139 African Americans identifying gifted students, 40 and search engine bias, 51–52 aggregators, 139–40 AGI (artificial general intelligence), 71 agriculture automated milking systems, 101 drones and, 99–100 “food computers,” 272 machine learning and, 79–80 robotics and, 101–2 Airbnb future of, 319–20 hotel experience vs., 222–23 lack of assets owned by, 6–7 limits to effects on hotel industry, 221–23 network effects, 193 as O2O platform, 186 peer reviews, 209–10 rapid growth of, 9 as two-sided network, 214 value proposition compared to Uber, 222 Airline Deregulation Act, 181n airlines, revenue management by, 181–82 air travel, virtualization in, 89 Akerlof, George, 207, 210 albums, recorded music, 145 algorithms; See also data-driven decision making bias in systems, 51–53 and Cambrian Explosion of robotics, 95–96 comparing human decisions to, 56 O2O platforms and, 193 Quantopian and, 267–70 superiority to System 1 reasoning, 38–41 “algo traders,” 268; See also automated investing Alibaba, 6–8 Alipay, 174 AlphaGo, 4–6, 14, 74, 80 Alter, Lloyd, 90 Amazon automatic price changes, 47 bar code reader app, 162 data-driven product recommendations, 47 development of Web Services, 142–43 Mechanical Turk, 260 as stack, 295 warehouse robotics, 103 Amazon EC2, 143 Amazon Go, 90–91 Amazon S3, 143 Amazon Web Services (AWS), 75, 142–43 American Airlines (AA), 182 amino acid creation, 271–72 analog copies, digital copies vs., 136 “Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine, The” (Page and Brin), 233 Anderson, Chris, 98–100 Anderson, Tim, 94 Andreessen, Marc on crowdfunding, 262–63 and Netscape, 34 as self-described “solutionist,” 297 on Teespring, 263–64 Android Blackberry vs., 168 contribution to Google revenue/profits, 204 iOS vs., 166–67 Angry Birds, 159–61 anonymity, digital currency and, 279–80 Antikythera mechanism, 66 APIs (application programming interfaces), 79 apophenia, 44n apparel, 186–88 Apple; See also iPhone acquiring innovation by acquiring companies, 265 and industrywide smartphone profits, 204 leveraging of platforms by, 331 Postmates and, 173, 185 profitability (2015), 204 revenue from paid apps, 164 “Rip, Mix, Burn” slogan, 144n as stack, 295 application programming interfaces (APIs), 79 AppNexus, 139 apps; See also platforms for banking, 89–90 demand curve and, 157–61 iPhone, 151–53 App Store, 158 Apter, Zach, 183 Aral, Sinan, 33 Archilochus, 60–61 architecture, computer-designed, 118 Aristophanes, 200 Arnaout, Ramy, 253 Arthur, Brian, 47–48 artificial general intelligence (AGI), 71 artificial hands, 272–75 artificial intelligence; See also machine learning current state of, 74–76 defined, 67 early attempts, 67–74 implications for future, 329–30 rule-based, 69–72 statistical pattern recognition and, 72–74 Art of Thinking Clearly, The (Dobelli), 43 arts, digital creativity in, 117–18 Ashenfelter, Orley, 38–39 ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits), 287 assets and incentives, 316 leveraging with O2O platforms, 196–97 replacement by platforms, 6–10 asymmetries of information, 206–10 asymptoting, 96 Atkeson, Andrew, 21 ATMs, 89 AT&T, 96, 130 August (smart door lock), 163 Austin, Texas, 223 Australia, 100 Authorize.Net, 171 Autodesk, 114–16, 119, 120 automated investing, 266–70 automation, effect on employment/wages, 332–33 automobiles, See cars Autor, David, 72, 101 background checks, 208, 209 back-office work, 82–83 BackRub, 233 Baidu, 192 Bakos, Yannis, 147n Bakunin, Mikhail, 278 Ballmer, Steve, 151–52 bandwagon effect, 217 banking, virtualization and, 89–90, 92 Bank of England, 280n bank tellers, 92 Barksdale, Jim, 145–46 barriers to entry, 96, 220 Bass, Carl, 106–7, 119–20 B2B (business-to-business) services, 188–90 Beastmode 2.0 Royale Chukkah, 290 Behance, 261 behavioral economics, 35, 43 Bell, Kristen, 261, 262 Benioff, Mark, 84–85 Benjamin, Robert, 311 Benson, Buster, 43–44 Berlin, Isiah, 60n Berners-Lee, Tim, 33, 34n, 138, 233 Bernstein, Michael, 260 Bertsimas, Dimitris, 39 Bezos, Jeff, 132, 142 bias of Airbnb hosts, 209–10 in algorithmic systems, 51–53 digital design’s freedom from, 116 management’s need to acknowledge, 323–24 and second-machine-age companies, 325 big data and Cambrian Explosion of robotics, 95 and credit scores, 46 and machine learning, 75–76 biology, computational, 116–17 Bird, Andrew, 121 Bitcoin, 279–88 China’s dominance of mining, 306–7 failure mode of, 317 fluctuation of value, 288 ledger for, 280–87 as model for larger economy, 296–97 recent troubles with, 305–7 and solutionism, 297 “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” (Nakamoto), 279 BlaBlaCar, 190–91, 197, 208 BlackBerry, 168, 203 Blitstein, Ryan, 117 blockchain as challenge to stacks, 298 and contracts, 291–95 development and deployment, 283–87 failure of, 317 and solutionism, 297 value as ledger beyond Bitcoin, 288–91 Blockchain Revolution (Tapscott and Tapscott), 298 Bloomberg Markets, 267 BMO Capital Markets, 204n Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian, 58n–59n Bock, Laszlo, 56–58 bonds, 131, 134 bonuses, credit card, 216 Bordeaux wines, 38–39 Boudreau, Kevin, 252–54 Bowie, David, 131, 134, 148 Bowie bonds, 131, 134 brand building, 210–11 Brat, Ilan, 12 Bredeche, Jean, 267 Brin, Sergey, 233 Broward County, Florida, 40 Brown, Joshua, 81–82 Brusson, Nicolas, 190 Burr, Donald, 177 Bush, Vannevar, 33 business conference venues, 189 Business Insider, 179 business processes, robotics and, 88–89 business process reengineering, 32–35 business travelers, lodging needs of, 222–23 Busque, Leah, 265 Buterin, Vitalik, 304–5 Byrne, Patrick, 290 Cairncross, Francis, 137 California, 208; See also specific cities Calo, Ryan, 52 Cambrian Explosion, 94–98 Cameron, Oliver, 324 Camp, Garrett, 200 capacity, perishing inventory and, 181 Card, David, 40 Care.com, 261 cars automated race car design, 114–16 autonomous, 17, 81–82 decline in ownership of, 197 cash, Bitcoin as equivalent to, 279 Casio QV-10 digital camera, 131 Caves, Richard, 23 Caviar, 186 CDs (compact discs), 145 cell phones, 129–30, 134–35; See also iPhone; smartphones Census Bureau, US, 42 central bankers, 305 centrally planned economies, 235–37 Chabris, Chris, 3 Chambers, Ephraim, 246 Champy, James, 32, 34–35, 37, 59 Chandler, Alfred, 309n Chase, 162 Chase Paymentech, 171 check-deposit app, 162 children, language learning by, 67–69 China Alibaba in, 7–8 concentration of Bitcoin wealth in, 306–7 and failure mode of Bitcoin, 317 mobile O2O platforms, 191–92 online payment service problems, 172 robotics in restaurants, 93 Shanghai Tower design, 118 Xiaomi, 203 Chipotle, 185 Choudary, Sangeet, 148 Christensen, Clay, 22, 264 Churchill, Winston, 301 Civil Aeronautics Board, US, 181n Civis Analytics, 50–51 Clash of Clans, 218 classified advertising revenue, 130, 132, 139 ClassPass, 205, 210 and economics of perishing inventory, 180–81 future of, 319–20 and problems with Unlimited offerings, 178–80, 184 and revenue management, 181–84 user experience, 211 ClassPass Unlimited, 178–79 Clear Channel, 135 clinical prediction, 41 Clinton, Hillary, 51 clothing, 186–88 cloud computing AI research, 75 APIs and, 79 Cambrian Explosion of robotics, 96–97 platform business, 195–96 coaches, 122–23, 334 Coase, Ronald, 309–13 cognitive biases, 43–46; See also bias Cohen, Steven, 270 Coles, John, 273–74 Collison, John, 171 Collison, Patrick, 171–74 Colton, Simon, 117 Columbia Record Club, 131 commoditization, 220–21 common sense, 54–55, 71, 81 companies continued dominance of, 311–12 continued relevance of, 301–27 DAO as alternative to, 301–5 decreasing life spans of, 330 economics of, 309–12 future of, 319–26 leading past the standard partnership, 323–26 management’s importance in, 320–23 markets vs., 310–11 as response to inherent incompleteness of contracts, 314–17 solutionism’s alternatives to, 297–99 TCE and, 312–15 and technologies of disruption, 307–9 Compass Fund, 267 complements (complementary goods) defined, 156 effect on supply/demand curves, 157–60 free, perfect, instant, 160–63 as key to successful platforms, 169 and open platforms, 164 platforms and, 151–68 and revenue management, 183–84 Stripe and, 173 complexity theory, 237 Composite Fund (D.


pages: 352 words: 87,930

Space 2.0 by Rod Pyle

additive manufacturing, air freight, barriers to entry, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, experimental subject, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, mouse model, risk-adjusted returns, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, telerobotics, trade route, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Y Combinator

—Geoffrey Notkin, member of the board of governors for the National Space Society and Emmy Award-winning host of Meteorite Men and STEM Journals “Space 2.0 is just the right book at just the right time. This important work not only provides a great historical background on space exploration, but more importantly, it highlights the next steps in the establishment of a deep space economy which includes, resource mining, additive manufacturing, infrastructure development, permanent habitation and eventually settlement. This is a must-read for anyone interested in the future of space exploration and development in the 21st century, and gives excellent suggestions about how you can get involved in Space 2.0.” —Daniel J. Rasky, PhD, chief of the Space Portal Office and senior scientist/engineer at the NASA Ames Research Center “A clear and enthusiastic account the current and future era in human spaceflight, concise and accurate, yet packed with information.

Legal guidelines for control and ownership of material found in space have been established in US and international law; these guides prove critical to the ultimate success of space commerce. •Pilot Space Settlement: Blue Origin or SpaceX launch elements of a privately funded space colony to low Earth orbit for testing in 2028. They are then boosted to a Lagrange point for further assembly and testing. Habitation takes place in the mid-2020s with a crew of twelve people, to expand to twenty-four within two years. The company adds modules each year via on-orbit additive manufacturing, and the population grows, tripling annually. The overarching goal, regardless of who ultimately launches and finances such a facility, is to have a permanent human presence in cislunar space. The colony uses some degree of artificial gravity, probably induced by a rotating structure, as it is highly desirable for human health. The ultimate self-sufficiency of such facilities is also a key goal.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Wald, “Shale’s Effect on Oil Supply Is Forecast to Be Brief,” The New York Times, November 12, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/13/business/energy-environment/shales -effect-on-oil-supply-is-not-expected-to-last.html?_r=0, (accessed November 13, 2013). Chapter 6 1. Mark Richardson and Bradley Haylock, “Designer/Maker: The Rise of Additive Manufacturing, Domestic-Scale: Production and the Possible Implications for the Automotive Industry,” Computer Aided Design and Applications (2012): 35. 2. Ashlee Vance, “3-D Printers: Make Whatever You Want,” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 26, 2012, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-04-26/3d-printers-make-whatever-you-want (accessed August 23, 2013). 3. “Wohlers Associates Publishes 2012 Report on Additive Manufacturing and 3-D Printing: Industry Study Shows Annual Growth of Nearly 30%,” Wohlers Associates, May 15, 2012, http://wohlersassociates.com/press56.htm (accessed August 16, 2013). 4.

In the process, a significant amount of the material is wasted and never finds its way into the end product. Three-dimensional printing, by contrast, is additive infofacturing. The software is directing the molten material to add layer upon layer, creating the product as a whole piece. Additive infofacturing uses one-tenth of the material of subtractive manufacturing, giving the 3D printer a substantial leg up in efficiency and productivity. In 2011, additive manufacturing enjoyed a blistering 29.4 percent growth, besting the 26.4 percent collective historical growth of the industry in just one year.3 Fourth, 3D printers can print their own spare parts without having to invest in expensive retooling and the time delays that go with it. With 3D printers, products can also be customized to create a single product or small batches designed to order, at minimum cost.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Analysts project revenue to fall 0.3 percent year-over-year to $2.84 billion for the quarter, after being $2.85 billion a year ago. For the year, revenue is projected to roll in at $11.82 billion.39 Even computer peripherals like printers are getting in on the act, demonstrating useful capabilities that seem straight out of science fiction. Instead of just putting ink on paper, they are making complicated three-dimensional parts out of plastic, metal, and other materials. 3D printing, also sometimes called “additive manufacturing,” takes advantage of the way computer printers work: they deposit a very thin layer of material (ink, traditionally) on a base (paper) in a pattern determined by the computer. Innovators reasoned that there is nothing stopping printers from depositing layers one on top of the other. And instead of ink, printers can also deposit materials like liquid plastic that gets cured into a solid by ultraviolet light.

And because of the way it is built up, this shape can be quite complicated—it can have voids and tunnels in it, and even parts that move independently of one another. At the San Francisco headquarters of Autodesk, a leading design software company, we handled a working adjustable wrench that was printed as a single part, no assembly required.40 This wrench was a demonstration product made out of plastic, but 3D printing has expanded into metals as well. Autodesk CEO Carl Bass is part of the large and growing community of additive manufacturing hobbyists and tinkerers. During our tour of his company’s gallery, a showcase of all the products and projects enabled by Autodesk software, he showed us a beautiful metal bowl he designed on a computer and had printed out. The bowl had an elaborate lattice pattern on its sides. Bass said that he’d asked friends of his who were experienced in working with metal—sculptors, ironworkers, welders, and so on—how the bowl was made.


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

Other aspects of ICT, by contrast, make it easier for individual workers to master more tasks—call them information technologies (IT). Since IT basically means automation, better IT disfavors specialization by reducing the cost of grouping many tasks into a single occupation. This happens in several ways. Today, many factories can be thought of as computer systems where the peripherals are industrial robots, computerized machine tools, and guided vehicles. Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is the extreme where IT allows a single worker to perform all tasks simply by operating one machine. Perhaps this type of advanced manufacturing should be called “compufacturing” since rather than machines helping workers make things, the workers are helping machines make things. To sum up, coordination technologies and information technologies cut in opposite directions when it comes to fractionalization.

In short, CT is pro-fractionalization, whereas IT is anti-fractionalization. Mobile, always-on, virtual presence would be an extreme example of better communication technology that pushes firms toward an ever finer division of labor. A fascinating special report by The Economist in 2012 extrapolates these trends even further.2 It notes that manufacturing may be going through a new industrial revolution due to the advent of “3D printing” (also called additive manufacturing), which bundles virtually all stages of manufacturing into a single machine. Combined with the virtual designing made possible by computer-aided design systems, 3D printing would take manufacturing very close to the Star Trek replicators. While it seems more than a few years away, we are clearly moving toward a reality where “if I can imagine it, the computer can make it for me.” Supply chain unbundling would be seriously undermined by radical advances in the direction of mass customization and 3D printing by sophisticated machines.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

But as object fashioning also moves from far-flung extraction-design-factory-distribution chains to scenarios associated with networked 3D printing, then the public constitution of the thing as a traceable data shell is perhaps both more apparent and more salient for end Users. Every time that the schematic instructions of physical object are downloaded and rendered into atoms, that transformation and the relevant information about who, what, where, when, how, and why that took place might be added to the cumulative “objectivity” of an object that is itself already a networked entity. Given the disruptive potential of a tectonic shift toward the economies of additive manufacturing, including the decentralization of the “industrial Internet,” the related control and governance issues are uncertain. They might range from the dangerously annoying (such as digital-rights management schemes for tangible objects crippled by remote rentier platforms attempting to collect royalties and fees on forks, lamps, and chairs)17 to the annoyingly dangerous (the widespread distribution of tools of mayhem, and new forms of virus spread through distributed object networks, either a real biological virus18 or physical malware or combinations thereof19).

We can imagine them mapping and acting on a specific culinary-agricultural assemblage that has been Addressed according to Bronze Age dietary conventions, located in multiple, even hostile, City-states, accessing a mix of several public Cloud applications as well as locally encrypted databases, sucking up an all-of-the-above stew of utility electrons. Or, an unnamed kid at a quasi-public 3D printing works in Lagos using two different open source additive manufacturing APIs, downloaded CAD scripts, and YouTube Uploader to spoof the Addresses of pirated bicycle cranks that will now phone home and report that they are actually licensed and operational in Cape Town, but which are really being used to haul bags of cement to the fourth floor of a building that shows up having only two floors on Google Earth RealTime (at least when queried from South African IPs) all running on the AfriNIC version of Google's “no carrier fee” Continent Cloud, sucking energy from a Franco-Chinese nuclear plant on the shores of Lake Chad, and chewing up circuitry minerals recycled from e-waste drone lifts from Bossangoa, Central African Republic, courtesy of All-African Defense Forces.

An (only somewhat) unlikely consensus has formed around the structural importance of robotics and automation and their impact on the macroeconomics of labor and markets. Bets are placed from both the right and the left that a “zero-marginal cost society” or “fully automated luxury communism” is built into the future of software-driven globalization. A party line that crosses parties emerges in different versions, blending nanotechnology, industrial robotics, additive manufacturing (3D printing), Internet of Things, digital replication, biotechnology, and open networks to draw a scenario in which many physical commodities are rationalized into downloadable streams, and much of the heavy lifting (and flying) will be done by intelligent quasi- or fully autonomous machines. We shall have to wait and see, but algorithms and algorithmically intelligent hardware are already active Users in our world, and we need to give them their due.


pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

It is telling that semiconductor fabrication facilities are huge, housing arrays of machines that can cost billions of dollars, while molecular fabrication today—with full atomic precision, beyond the reach of even high-resolution photolithography—is often done by university students using tools like pipettes and glass beakers. A Special Manufacturing Method: 3D Printing Another emerging method for manufacturing also breaks the pattern of making and then assembling parts: 3D printing, sometimes known as additive manufacturing. 3D printing differs from the traditional ways of shaping materials. Some traditional methods make a shape all at once using a costly, specialized tool, like a mold to shape plastic, a die to stamp steel, or an optical mask in semiconductor lithography. Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving.

Chapter 18: Changing Our Conversation About the Future 283the first response . . . often sets the direction for the next: This is an example of a “social cascade,” discussed (together with a range of other successes and pathologies of group decision-making) in Cass Sunstein’s brief and readable book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006). INDEX Actin, 69 Additive manufacturing, 76–77 Agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers vs., 41–42 Agricultural Revolution, 39, 40–42 APM Revolution and, 50, 54 Industrial Revolution and, 44 nature and human impacts of, 54 Agriculture, atomically precise manufacturing and, 231–232, 248, 250 American Chemical Society, 181 Angewandte Chemie (journal), 20n APM. See Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) APM Revolution, 39, 40, 50–53, 54 Agricultural Revolution and, 50, 54 consequences, potential, 240, 286 competitive, 243 Information Revolution compared, xii, 256 nanotechnology research and, 202 nature and human impacts of, 54 personal concerns and, 282 threshold of, 193 Apollo program, 18, 20, 111–112 Applications, atomically precise manufacturing, 166–167, 174, 223–239, 281 consumer products, 224–225, 253 security, 263–266 medical, 167, 236–238, 256 military, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 Approximations, exploiting, 123–124 Arms race, military applications of atomically precise manufacturing and, 259, 261–262, 268–269, 284 Armstrong, Neil, 112 Arrhenius equation, 292 Assemblers, 329 Assembly methods, molecular, 190–193 Asteroid mining, 15n Astronautics, 133 Atomically precise fabrication, 177–193 biological examples of, 80–82 biomolecular engineering as, 182–184 chemical synthesis as, 82–84, 179–181, 182 history of, 22–25, 46, 178 materials science and, 184–185 nanotechnology as, 28, 195–196 National Nanotechnology Initiative and, 32, 205, 207 pathway to atomically precise manufacturing, 9, 25–27, 32–33, 84–86, 144, 280–281 scanning probe methods, 185–186 Atomic precision, x, xiii, 7, 10, 22–24, 50 called the essence of nanotechnology, 205 definition of, 7 digital systems compared to, 7, 77–80 feedstock molecules and, 152–153 from small to large scale, 154–155 long history of, 22 nanolithography compared to, 76 nanotechnology and, x, xiii, 32 Richard Feynman and, 24 See also Atomically precise fabrication, Atomically precise manufacturing, Chemistry Atomically precise manufacturing (APM), x–xii agriculture and, 231–232, 248, 250 aligning national interests and, 266–269 applications (see Applications) assembly methods and, 190–192 automated manufacturing as template for, 73–77, 84 biomolecular engineering and, 187–188 biotechnology and, 73, 80–82, 85 carbon dioxide and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255 chemical synthesis and, 73, 82–84, 85 chemistry and, 179–181 civil society and, 262–263, 265–266 collaboration in, 271–272, 312 consumer products from, 224–225, 253 costs and, 52, 224, 227 digital information systems and, 73, 77–80, 84 digital media as cost model for, 172–173 digital revolution/digital technology and, 7–8, 50–51, 53, 277–278 domestic security applications, 263–266 economic implications of, 34–35, 256–257 energy and, 226, 229–230 environmental restoration and, 33–34, 233–234, 250–252, 255 exploratory engineering and, 143–144, 279–280 framework for thinking about, 274–287 fundamental principles of, 10, 24, 289–293 improvement in product performance and, 162–166 information technology and, 226–227 materials processing and, 184–185 medicine and, 236–238, 256 military applications, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 molecular biology and, 24–27 pace and direction of development, 241–245, 309–311 pathways to (see Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing) potential solutions/disruptions created by, 34–35, 240–241, 245–255 precursors, 279, 303–306 productivity of, 276–277 progress towards, 32–33, 177–179, 278 raw materials and, 230–231 relationship to nanotechnology, 32, 196–199, 205–207 reducing complexity of, 303–304 resource scarcity and, 33–34, 169, 230–231, 248 roadmapping for progress in, 216–220 scanning-probe methods and, 185–186 security technologies and, 235–236 supply chains and, 34–35, 51, 225–226, 244–245 surveillance networks and, 263, 264–266 transformation of infrastructure and, 228–229 uncertainties and, 258, 269–272 See also Atomically precise manufacturing systems, Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) research carbon-based supermaterials and, 158 fostering collaborative strategies for, 271–272, 312 government funding and, 32, 194–195, 198–199, 204–207, 208, 243 repression of, 209–210 Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) systems energy requirements of, 155–156 as factories, 276 microblocks, 152–155 ordinariness of, 70–71 process of, 148–151 products of, 147–149, 159–174, 224–225, 253 (see also Applications) radical cost reduction and, 168–173 Automated manufacturing, APM and, 72–77, 84 Avco Everett Research Laboratory, 17–18 Battelle Memorial Institute, 211 Becquerel, Henri, 134 Bell Telephone/Bell Labs, 46–47 Biomolecular engineering, 9, 187–188 machine engineering, 24–25 systems, atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 80–82, 85 Boltzmann factor, 292n Brownian motion, 23, 50 Bush, Vannevar, 5 CAD (computer-aided design) software, 189 CAMD (computer-aided molecular design) software, 189–190 Cancer, atomically precise manufacturing and attack on, 237–238 Carbon-based materials, 137, 153, 158, 162–163 Carbon dioxide emission reduction, 171, 250–252, 255 problem, 246, 250–252 removal from atmosphere, 234, 252, 255 See also Greenhouse gases Carbon nanotubes, 161, 164, 185, 188 Carroll, Sean, 96, 100 Carson, Rachel, 12 Casimir forces, 64 Catalysts (as products), 302 Cells, molecular machinery of, 25, 50, 61–62, 182 CERN, 95 Chemical synthesis atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 82–84, 85 organic synthesis, 23–24, 32, 179–181, 187 Chemical reactions click chemistry/click reaction, 180n equilibria of, 292 free energy change, 291–292 in chemical synthesis, 23, 83, 84, 180, 293 kinetics of, 277, 292 machine-guided motion, 73, 292 methods for blocking, 84, 281, 290–292, 300 stereotactic, 290–293 thermal motion and, 68 thermal motion timescale, 68 thermodynamic control of, 277, 292 transition states of, 291, 292 yield, 84, 113, 292 See also Chemical synthesis, Chemistry Chemistry atomically precision and, 7, 22–23, 82–84 computational, 33, 56, 98–100, 179, 189–190, 218 discovery of atoms and, 23, 29 organic synthesis and, 179–181 as pathway technology, 32, 84–85, 179–181, 188, 242 as a production method, 92–84 research scope, 178–181 thermal motion and, 68–70 China conflict with United States, 268–269 economic rise of, 246 government funding of nanotechnology research, 194, 210, 243 Churchill, Winston, 40 Civil society, atomically precise manufacturing and, 262–263, 265–266 Clausewitz, Carl von, 262 Climate change, atomically precise manufacturing and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

To illustrate how a similar phenomenon is likely to unfold on a much broader front, let’s look in a bit more depth at two specific technologies that have the potential to loom large in the future: 3D printing and autonomous cars. Both are poised to have a significant impact within the next decade or so, and could eventually unleash a dramatic transformation in both the job market and the overall economy. 3D Printing Three-dimensional printing, also known as additive manufacturing, employs a computer-controlled print head that fabricates solid objects by repeatedly depositing thin layers of material. This layer-by-layer construction method enables 3D printers to easily create objects with curves and hollows that might be difficult, or even impossible, to produce using traditional manufacturing techniques. Plastic is the most common construction material, but some machines can also print metal, as well as hundreds of other materials, including high-strength composites, flexible rubber-like substances, and even wood.

Farhad Manjoo, “My Father the Pharmacist vs. a Gigantic Pill-Packing Machine,” Slate, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/robot_invasion/2011/09/will_robots_steal_your_job_2.html. 38. Daniel L. Brown, “A Looming Joblessness Crisis for New Pharmacy Graduates and the Implications It Holds for the Academy,” American Journal of Pharmacy Education 77, no. 5 (June 13, 2012): 90, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687123/. CHAPTER 7 1. GE’s corporate website, https://www.ge.com/stories/additive-manufacturing. 2. American Airlines News Release: “American Becomes the First Major Commercial Carrier to Deploy Electronic Flight Bags Throughout Fleet and Discontinue Paper Revisions,” June 24, 2013, http://hub.aa.com/en/nr/pressrelease/american-airlines-completes-electronic-flight-bag-implementation. 3. Tim Catts, “GE Turns to 3D Printers for Plane Parts,” Bloomberg Businessweek, November 27, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013–11–27/general-electric-turns-to-3d-printers-for-plane-parts. 4.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

As a technology, it’s been both mind-blowing and life-changing, launching the Industrial Revolution, spawning the rise of great cities, spreading the market for farm-raised goods, and wowing us with everything from ballpoint pens to moonwalkers. It’s still a wildly useful method, if sloppy; it creates heaps of waste and leftovers, which means extracting even more raw materials from the earth. Also, mass-produced items, whether clothing or electronics, require a predicament of cheap labor to add the final touches. In contrast, there’s “additive manufacturing,” also known as 3D printing, a new way of making objects in which a special printer, given the digital blueprint for a physical item, can produce it in three dimensions. Solidly, in precise detail, many times, and with minimal overhead. The stuff of Star Trek “replicators” or wish-granting genies. 3D printing doesn’t cut or remove anything. Following an electronic blueprint as if it were a musical score, a nozzle glides back and forth over a platform, depositing one microscopic drop after another in a molten fugue, layer upon layer until the desired object rises like a sphinx from the sands of disbelief.

New York: Harcourt, 2007. INDEX Page numbers listed correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. Page numbers beginning with 313 refer to notes. Absolicon, 99 acetylation, 281 acidification, 65, 66, 154 Adam (robot), 221 Adams, Ansel, 25 Adams, Lytle S. “Doc,” 145 adaptive radiation, 29 addiction, 176 additive manufacturing, see 3D printing Adélie penguins, 134–35 Aesop, 115 Afghanistan War, 258 African bees, 132 agriculture, 10, 11, 34, 71 big, 154 global warming and, 56 local, 88 as seen from air, 21 urban, 90 see also mariculture Alaska, 47–48, 132 algae, 10, 53, 61 Alien (film), 228 allergies, 301 alligators, 117, 134, 164 alliums, 125 Alps, 132 ALS, 285 alumroots, 80–81 Alzheimer’s, 271, 295 Amazon, 210 Amenhotep II, 257 amino acids, 179–80 Anatomage, 197 animals, in war, 141–48 Antarctic, 22 ice cores in, 9 Antarctica, 237 anteaters, 132 Anthropocene, 9 beginning of, 32–33 antibiotics, 300, 301 ants, 273 Apollo 17, 17–18 Appalachian Trail, 123–24 Apple, 210 Apps for Apes, 5–6, 28, 204 aquatic plants, 79 Arabian oryx, 132 archaea, 300 Archimedes, 220 architecture, 91–94 Archives of General Psychiatry, 300–1 Argentina, 72, 123, 132 Argus butterfly, 136 Arizona, 77 Arlanda, 99 Armstrong, Neil, 306 Army Corps of Engineers, 48 aromas, 294 artificial intelligence (AI), 210 artificial life (AL), 210 artificial limbs, 253 aseptic meningitis, 130 Ashton, Kevin, 230 Asia, 192 Assateague, 137–38 assembly line, 235 Assisted Human Reproduction Act, 266 asthma, 301 Atelier DNA, 103 Athaeneum Hotel, 84 Atlantic City, N.J., 46–47 atom bomb tests, 34 attention disorders, 196 Audi, 236 Audubon Society, 137 Australia, 43, 46, 77, 164–65, 175, 298–99 Australian Outback, 54 Austria, 124 autism, 176, 285, 302 autobiographical memory, 217 azacitidine, 285 Aztecs, 112 babies, 259 Backhouse, David, 144 bacteria, 181–83, 187, 289, 291, 300 Bacteroides fragilis, 302 baiji dolphins, 162 Ballard, J.


pages: 335 words: 111,405

B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

That is a vocabulary that is based on the past. We are in the middle of creating a new one. And it is the changing idea of the relationship between perfection and imperfection that will define it. Philippe Starck is not a designer that the contemporary generation of design students shows much interest in. They look at Apple’s Jonathan Ive, or the more radical approach of open-source design. Hacking, additive manufacturing, as 3D printing is now called, and critical design make Starck look dated, if not irrelevant. For all his blithe claims to have been motivated by ecology long before green became fashionable, and still is, now that it is not, he is identified, if he is identified at all, with that moment in the 1980s when the cult of the designer celebrity was born. He built his career as much on his own force of personality as with the objects that he has designed.

The development of the jet engine was brought forward by the Second World War. The fact that there is any kind of prophylactic against malaria is an outcome of the wars that Britain and America fought in the mosquito-infested jungles of South East Asia. The internet is now a civilian system based on the planning for distributed military communications systems that could survive atomic warfare. Three-dimensional printing, or additive manufacturing, had some of its earliest deployment in the US navy, to provide emergency spare parts at sea for aircraft carriers. At the end of his long life, Mikhail Kalashnikov himself began to feel a sense of guilt and doubt about the malign impact of his design. His priest suggested to him that there was no shame in creating a weapon to defend the motherland. What he did not say was that there is no clear division between military and non-military development.


pages: 396 words: 117,897

Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization by Vaclav Smil

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, British Empire, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, global pandemic, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, megacity, megastructure, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, purchasing power parity, recommendation engine, rolodex, X Prize

Even material-sparing design, perhaps the most obvious pursuit that should be the aim of rational engineering, is a far from exhausted option. Allwood and Cullen (2012) estimate that light-weight design could reduce the mass of steel beams by 20–50%, that the savings could be as high as 30% for reinforcing bars and pipes and 40% for car bodies, and that in aggregate they could add up to as much as 100 Mt of steel, or nearly as much as the total pre-2008 US consumption. Additive manufacturing (three-dimensional printing) offers the least wasteful way to produce complex shapes with minimal waste (Gibson et al., 2010; Gebbhardt, 2012). Longer product life is another obvious material-sparing option, but some of the greatest rewards could come from reducing yield losses and diverting manufacturing scrap. Most people are surprised to learn that substantial shares of newly produced metals (more than 25% of all steel, almost 50% of all aluminum) never make it into final products: 90% of the initially produced steel may end up in a simple I-beam, but the share is just over 50% for an aluminum can and mere 10% for aluminum aircraft wing skin.

Geschichte-Club VÖEST (1991) Geschichte der VÖEST: Rückblick auf die Wechselhaften Jahre des Grössten Österreichischen Industrieunternehmens, Geschichte-Club VÖEST, Linz. GHK (2006) A Study to Examine the Benefits of the End of Life Vehicles Directive and the Costs and Benefits of a Revision of the 2015 Targets for Recycling, Re-Use and Recovery Under the ELV Directive, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/pdf/study/final_report.pdf (accessed 23 May 2013). Gibson, I., Rosen, D.W. and Stucker, B. (2010) Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing, Springer, New York. Giljum, S., C. Lutz, A. Jungnitz et al. 2008. Global Dimensions of European Natural Resource Use. Vienna: Sustainable Europe Research Institute, http://seri.at/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/SERI-Working-Paper-7.pdf (accessed 23 May 2013). Ginley, D.S. and Cahen, D. (eds) (2012) Fundamentals of Materials for Enrgy and Environmental Sustainability, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

See: https://3-Dprint.com/38144/3-D-printed-apartment-building/. circuit boards: Nano Dimension Inc.. See: https://www.nano-di.com/. prosthetic limbs: For a database with examples of 3-D printed prosthetics, see: “3-D-Printable Prosthetic Devices,” National Institutes of Health, https://3-Dprint.nih.gov/collections/prosthetics. $12 trillion manufacturing sector: Eric Gjovik, “Additive Manufacturing and Its Impact on a $12 Trillion Industry,” May 14, 2019. See: https://www.manufacturing.net/2019/05/additive-manufacturing-and-its-impact-12-trillion-industry. Until the early 2000s, 3-D printers were exceptionally pricey: Blake Griffin, “New Report Shows Manufacturing Output Hit $35 Trillion in 2017,” Interact Analysis. See: https://www.interactanalysis.com/new-report-shows-manufacturing-output-hit-35-trillion-in-2017-growth-forecast-to-continue/.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

And the developing world will not be left out of the advances in gadgetry and other high-tech machinery. Even if the prices for sophisticated smart phones and robots to perform household tasks like vacuuming remain high, illicit markets like China’s expansive “shanzhai” network for knock-off consumer electronics will produce and distribute imitations that bridge the gap. And technologies that emerged in first-world contexts will find renewed purpose in developing countries. In “additive manufacturing,” or 3-D printing, machines can actually “print” physical objects by taking three-dimensional data about an object and tracing the contours of its shape, ultra-thin layer by ultra-thin layer, with liquid plastic or other material, until the whole object materializes. Such printers have produced a huge range of objects, including customized mobile phones, machine parts and a full-sized replica motorcycle.

only two billion people: “The World in 2010: ICT Facts and Figures,” ITU News, December 2010, http://www.itu.int/net/itunews/issues/2010/10/04.aspx. seven billion online: “U.S. & World Population Clocks,” U.S. Cesus Bureau, accessed October 26, 2012, http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html. INDEX Aadhaar Abbottabad, Pakistan, 2.1, 5.1 Abkhaz nationalists Abuja, Nigeria Academi, LLC accountability, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1, 7.1 activist groups additive manufacturing Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), n Afghanistan, 1.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 6.2, 7.1 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Africa, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 African Americans African National Congress (ANC) African Sahel African Union Age of Spiritual Machines, The: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (Kurzweil), con.1 Agha-Soltan, Neda Agie, Mullah Akbar Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994) Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades al-Assad, Bashar Alcatel-Lucent AlertNet Algeria, 3.1, 4.1 alienation Al Jazeera al-Qaeda, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, con.1 al-Shabaab, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Amazon, itr.1, 1.1, 1.2 data safeguarded by Amazon Web Services American Sentinel drone Android anonymity, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 Anonymous, 5.1, 5.2 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty antiradicalization antiterrorism units, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 Apple, itr.1, 5.1 data safeguarded by apps, 2.1, 5.1 Arab Spring, itr.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 AR.Drone quadricopter Argentina Armenia arms-for-minerals trade arrests artificial intelligence (AI), itr.1, 1.1 artificial pacemakers Asia Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Assange, Julian, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 5.1 Astroturfing Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 3.1, 3.2 Athar, Sohaib, n, 269 ATMs augmented reality (AR), itr.1, 2.1 autocracies, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2 data revolution in dissent in information shared by online discussions in Ayalon, Danny Baghdad Baghdad Museum Bahrain Baidu.com, n Bamiyan Buddhas Bangladesh bank loans Basque separatists Batbold, Sukhbaatar battery life Bechtel Belarus Belgium Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine, 4.1, 4.2 Berezovsky, Boris Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 6.1 big data challenge Bill of Guarantees bin Laden, Osama, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, nts.1 biometric information, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 Bitcoin, 2.1, nts.1 BlackBerry Messenger (BBM), 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 5.1 Black Hat Blackwater Blockbuster, n Bloomberg News Bluetooth, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 body scan body temperatures Boko Haram Bosnia brand Brand, Stewart, n Brazil, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 Bush, George H.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Another less salubrious application of the same technology would be to ‘keep you at the perfect pitch of drunkenness, activated on demand’.104 Nanotechnology also has implications for data ­storage. Researchers at Delft University in the Netherlands have created an ‘atomic hard drive’ capable of storing 500 terabits of information in a single square inch. Put another way, it could store the entire contents of the US Library of Congress in a cube measuring 0.1 mm each way.105 Another constitutive technology is 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing. It enables us to print physical things from digital designs. Some think it could herald an era of ‘desktop manufacturing’ in which many people have 3D printers in their home or office and can ‘print’ a wide range of objects.106 Or municipal 3D printers could allow people to print what they need using opensource online digital templates.107 So far, some of the most useful 3D-printed objects have been in medicine.

OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS IN DE X 3D printing 56–7, 178, 329 4D printing 57 Ackerman, Spencer 396 acquisitions by tech firms 318–19 action, freedom of 164–5, 166–7, 184 digital liberation 169 predictive systems 176 adaptive law 107–10 additive manufacturing (3D printing) 56–7, 178, 329 Affectiva.com 382 affective computing 52–3, 229 affirmative action 261, 268, 292 affordances 169–71 Afghanistan 50 Agoravoting.com 415 Agüera y Arcas, Blaise 172, 403 AI see Artificial Intelligence Airbnb Decentralised Autonomous Organisations 47 guest acceptance/rejection 290 individual responsibility 346 reputation system 289–90 sharing economy 335, 336 Taiwan 234 airport security systems 120–1, 186 Ajunwa, Ifeoma 418 Aletras, Nicolaos 372, 393 algorithmic audit 355–6 algorithmic injustice 279–94 data-based 282 discrimination 281–2 neutrality fallacy 288–92 rough and ready test 280–1 rule-based 283–8 well-coded society 292–4 algorithms 266 and code 94–5 and distribution 266–70, 278 and information 268–9 and participation 268 and price 269–70 of recognition 260, 275–8 scrutiny 132–3 Al-Khwār izmī, Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsā 94 Allen, Colin 393, 394 Allen, Jonathan P. 336, 417, 419, 429, 430, 431 Alphabet 318, 319, 320 altruism, limited 365 Amazon acquisitions 318, 319 Alexa 293 book recommendations 66, 147 commons 332 concentration of tech industry 318, 320 ‘cyber’ and ‘real’ distinction, disappearance of 97 Echo 134, 135 Kindle 151 machine learning 35 order refusal 106 robots 54 rules 116 working conditions 310 ambient intelligence see smart devices OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 492 Index American Legal Realism 109 Amnesty International 148 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 32 Anderson, Berit 410 Anderson, Elizabeth 118, 394, 401, 418, 420, 426, 429 Amazon’s working conditions 310 justice in recognition 273 Android 64, 359 Angelidou, Margarita 381 Anglican Church 159 anonymity 231–2 Anonymous ‘hacktivists’ 221 antitrust law 357, 358 Anwin, Julia 403, 422 apathy 349 Apollo Guidance Computer 38 Apple acquisitions 318 concentration of tech industry 320 founders 314 Guidelines for app developers 189 gun emoji 148 homosexuality ‘cure’ apps 235–6 inflexibility of operating system 359 iPad 38 manufacturers’ working conditions 151 refusal to unlock iPhone of San Bernadino terrorist 155 Siri 37, 47, 293 taxation 328 ‘Think Different’ advertisement 6 watches 44 Aquinas, Thomas 215, 409 AR see augmented reality Arab Spring 150, 221 Arbesman, Samuel 193, 406 arbitrariness, rule-based injustice 284 Arendt, Hannah 9, 72, 163, 237, 415 Aristotle 368, 403, 411, 418 democracy 215, 222, 224, 234, 249 justice and equality 259 man as a political animal 222 morality 176 objective failures of recognition 272 political theory 9 work paradigm 300–1 Armstrong, Neil 38 Arneson, Richard 308, 425, 426 Aron, Jacob 376 artificial emotional intelligence 53 artificial general intelligence 33 Artificial Intelligence (AI) 30–7 affective computing 53 AI Democracy 212, 213, 250–4, 348 algorithmic injustice 293 automation of force 119, 120 blockchain 47 bots see bots commons 332 Data Deal 337 data’s economic importance 317 degradation argument 361 Deliberative Democracy 232 digital law 108–9, 110, 113 Direct Democracy 240 facial recognition 66 future of code 98 increasingly quantified society 61 machine vision 51 perception-control 149 political campaigning 220 political speeches 31, 360–1 post-politics 362, 365–6 predictions 173 privatization of force 116 smart devices 48 software engineers 194 staff scrutiny 267 superintelligence 365–6 totalitarianism 177 usufructuary rights 330 Wealth Cyclone 322 Wiki Democracy 245 Asimov, Isaac 198 Assael,Yannis M. 371 Asscher, Lodewijk F. 400, 408 Associated Press 30 AT&T 20 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Index Athens, classical 212, 214–15, 217, 222–3, 224, 228, 232 audit, algorithmic 355–6 augmented reality (AR) 58–9 mixed reality 60 perception-control 146, 149, 151–2, 229, 278 scrutiny 135 augmented things see smart devices Austria 235 authoritarianism 177–9 cryptography 183 state ownership of capital 329 authority 93 automated number plate recognition technology 49–50 automation of force 100, 119–21 autonomy 165, 167 Autor, David 428 Avent, Ryan 424, 425, 427 Azuma, Hiroki 247, 416 Babylon 77, 324 Bachrach, Peter 389, 391, 398 backgammon 31 Bailenson, Jeremy 407 Baker, Paul 422 Ball, James 428 Ball, Terence 368, 389 Baraniuk, Chris 432 Baratz, Morton S. 389, 391, 398 Barr, Alistair 421 Bartky, Sandra 126, 395 Bartlett, Jamie 388, 413, 417 Bates, James 134, 135 Baughman, Shawnee 407 BBC 373, 379, 381, 385, 405 Belamaire, Jordan 386 Belgium 129 Beniger, Andrew J. 369, 389 Benkler,Yochai 368, 370, 378, 398, 399, 400, 412, 416, 431 cooperative behaviour 45 networked information environment 145 smartphones 146 493 Bentham, Jeremy 126, 195 Berkman Center for Internet and Society 184, 405 Berlin, Isaiah 9, 166, 195, 368, 401, 403, 407 Berman, Robby 382, 384 Bernays, Edward L. 410 Berners-Lee, Tim 7, 48, 294, 367, 380 Bess, Michael 402, 434 Bhavani, R. 382 Bible 100, 124, 142, 257, 300, 317 BI Intelligence 428 Bimber, Bruce 369, 412 biometric analysis 52–3, 131, 186 Bitcoin 8, 46 Black Mirror 140 Blake, William 390 blockchain 45–7 automation of force 120 justice 264 smart contracts 106, 119 usufructuary rights 330 voting 240 Blue Brain project 33, 373 Bluetooth 48, 136 Bobbit, Philip 279 Boden, Margaret A. 373–4, 381, 382, 383 Bogle, Ariel 385 Boixo, Sergio 375–6 Bollen, Johan 416 Bolukbasi, Tolga 423 bomb-detecting spinach 51 Bonchi, Francesco 422 Booth, Robert 399 Borges, Jorge Luis 53 Bostrom, Nick 365–6, 372, 373, 379, 381, 382, 435 bots Deliberative Democracy 232–4, 235 network effect 321 Bourzac, Katherine 377 Boyle, James 331, 333, 430–1 Brabham, Daren C. 416 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 494 Index Bradbury, Danny 415 brain–computer interfaces 48, 169 Braithwaite, John 431 Braman, Sandra 389 Brazil 244 Brexit 4, 233, 239 Bridge, Mark 393 Bridgewater Associates 267 British Empire 18 British Library 66 Brown, Gordon 95, 96, 391 Brownsword, Roger 176, 403 Brynjolfsson, Erik 374, 382, 390, 393, 427, 431 capital 315, 316, 334 Burgess, Matt 379 Burke, Edmund 263 Byford, Sam 32 Byrnes, Nanette 392 Cadwalladr, Carole 410, 413 Calabresi, Guido 279 Cambridge Analytica 220 campaigning, political 219–20 Campbell, Peter 371 Canetti, Elias 29 capital 314–17 commons 331–4 sharing economy 335–6 state ownership 329–30 taxation 327–9 usufructuary rights 330–1 carbon nanotubes 40 Casanova, Giacomo 216, 409 Casey, Anthony J. 109, 112, 393, 394 Castells, Manuel 144, 394, 398 Castillo, Carlos 422 CBC 383 Cellan-Jones, Rory 371 censorship by Anglican Church 159 perception-control 143, 146, 148, 151, 156 private power 190 cerebral hygiene 170 CERN 65 Chan, Connie 428 charisma 349 Charles I, King 167–8 chatbots 30 checkers 31 Cheney-Lippold, John 132, 395 chess 31, 36 Chesterton, G.


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

For instance, a well-heeled opera fan pays about the same for a CD or a download as does a teenager listening to a teen idol of the moment. Songles for opera or fine jazz would be made by craftsmen from fine materials in much more limited editions. They would be expensive. Low-end songles would be manufactured by the same channel that provides toys. An increasing number of consumer items that might become songles these days have radio-frequency identification anyway, so there would be no additional manufacturing expense. Expensive limited-edition songles would probably accompany the introduction of new forms of pop music—in parallel with cheap large-volume editions—because there would be a fabulous market for them. Formal Financial Expression* Unlike the previous two sections, this one addresses the problems of the lords of the clouds, not the peasants. One of the toughest problems we’ll face as we emerge from the financial crisis that beset us in 2008 is that financiers ought to continue to innovate in creating new financial instruments, even though some of them recently failed catastrophically doing just that.


pages: 220 words: 73,451

Democratizing innovation by Eric von Hippel

additive manufacturing, correlation coefficient, Debian, disruptive innovation, hacker house, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, iterative process, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, placebo effect, principal–agent problem, Richard Stallman, software patent, transaction costs, Vickrey auction

Pyramiding was made into a practical industrial process by Mary Sonnack, a Division Scientist at 3M, and Joan Churchill, a psychologist specializing in the development of industrial training programs. 136 Chapter 10 Identifying Lead Users in Target Markets In general it is easier to identify users at the leading edge of target markets than it is to identify users in advanced analog fields. Screening for users with lead user characteristics can be used. When the desired type of lead user is so rare as to make screening impractical—often the case—pyramiding can be applied. In addition, manufacturers can take advantage of the fact that users at the leading edge of a target market often congregate at specialized sites or events that manufacturers can readily identify. At such sites, users may freely reveal what they have done and may learn from others about how to improve their own practices still further. Manufacturers interested in learning from these lead users can easily visit the sites and listen in.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

None of the robots completed all the tasks, and there was a great deal of hesitation and falling over. Many jobs involving manual dexterity or the ability to traverse un-mapped territory are currently hard to automate. But as we will see in the next section, that is changing fast. Tipping points and exponentials New technologies sometimes lurk for years or even decades before they are widely adopted. 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing[cxxxi]) has been around since the early 1980s but is only now coming to general attention. Fax machines, surprisingly, were first patented in 1843, some 33 years before the invention of the telephone.[cxxxii] Sometimes the delay happens because there is at first no obvious application for the inventions or discoveries. Sometimes it is because they are initially too expensive, and engineers have to work on reducing their cost before they can become popular.


pages: 268 words: 75,490

The Knowledge Economy by Roberto Mangabeira Unger

additive manufacturing, balance sheet recession, business cycle, collective bargaining, commoditize, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, global value chain, information asymmetry, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, means of production, Paul Samuelson, savings glut, secular stagnation, side project, total factor productivity, transaction costs, union organizing, wealth creators

They can represent marginal enhancements of efficiency and stratagems to motivate workers by affording them greater room for both individual initiative and teamwork without reshaping property and power in the firm. Or they can form part of a cumulative and consequential change in the organization of work and ultimately in the regime of property. Thus, both the expression and the development of these more superficial features of the productive practice depend on the progress of the deeper characteristics that I later discuss. Additive manufacturing (3D printers), robotics, and, more generally, flexible, numerically controlled machine tools make it possible to diversify products, exploring their possible variants, while combining such prodigal diversification with scale of production. The technological facility would amount to little if it failed to mobilize and develop a range of capabilities that shorten the distance between productive activity and experimental science.


pages: 271 words: 79,367

The Switch: How Solar, Storage and New Tech Means Cheap Power for All by Chris Goodall

3D printing, additive manufacturing, decarbonisation, demand response, Elon Musk, energy transition, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Haber-Bosch Process, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, M-Pesa, Negawatt, off grid, Peter Thiel, smart meter, standardized shipping container, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons

A couple of months after my interview there, I saw the Oxis name on a list of the most innovative global battery suppliers on a desk in a car business I was visiting. This is a highly regarded company in the industry. David started by saying that all the many different types of battery necessarily involve compromises between a large number of different characteristics such as weight, volume, safety, the voltage provided, recharging times and cost. In addition, manufacturers need to keep in mind how fast the battery loses its charge when not being used and how many times it can be successively charged and discharged before it begins to lose its capacity to accept energy. There is no single right answer to the question ‘Which type of battery is best?’ He told me that lithium sulphur batteries sit at ‘a position of high energy to weight, lowish cost per kilowatt hour, poorish energy to volume and a good capacity for thousands of charge/discharge cycles’.


pages: 290 words: 76,216

What's Wrong with Economics? by Robert Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, global supply chain, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, precariat, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, survivorship bias, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

The Argentinian economist, Raúl Prebisch (1901–1986) argued in 1959 that the gains from trade are systematically biased against the poor countries in the periphery. This is because the prices of primary products, in which poor countries specialised, were set in competitive markets, whereas the manufactured goods of developed countries were priced in monopolistic markets. Poor countries are subject to declining terms of trade, equivalent to transfers of income from the poor to the rich world. In addition, manufacturing industries have a permanent cost advantage, because technical change benefits them more than primary producers.11 So Prebisch and his followers demanded that the state institute policies of import substitution to improve developing countries’ terms of trade. Under cover of protection, the state would shift resources out of agriculture, subject to diminishing returns, and low-productivity services where ‘disguised unemployment’ was rampant, to higher-productivity manufacturing industries, which enjoyed ‘economies of scale’.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

What is fragmenting Retail is no longer just the end of the supply chain; it’s something every business and person can do now. What it means for business If you make, you must sell. The power lies with those who have a direct connection with their buyers or audience. CHAPTER 10 Bigger than the internet: 3D printing I’ve been mildly obsessed with 3D printing since I first learned about it. Also referred to as ‘additive manufacturing’ or ‘digital fabrication’, it’s a process where a three-dimensional, solid object is created by placing down successive layers of material fused together by laser (digital light processing) and a multitude of other methods that are evolving rapidly, almost daily. Most people have now seen some footage of one of these printers in action, probably printing a useless plastic widget or a gun.


pages: 305 words: 79,303

The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, young professional

Mom-and-pop stores, previously a large part of community life, faced towering competition. The era also saw a new generation of retail infrastructure technology, including the first barcode scanner, installed in a Kroger in 1967.29 Until the sixties there were laws against retailers offering discounts for bulk purchases. Lawmakers correctly feared this would put thousands of local stores out of business. In addition, manufacturers’ brands typically set the prices retailers were allowed to charge for their products. As a result, discounting was a limited and dull-edged weapon. For various reasons, including falling margins and growing competition, those gloves came off in the sixties, and the great “Race to Zero” began. Today, on the homepage of hm.com one can find a long-sleeved ribbed mock turtleneck dress for just $9.99.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Robotic technology is already extensively used in manufacturing, especially of motor vehicles. Robots designed for aged and healthcare are attracting interest. Despite advances, they remain restricted in terms of power source, locomotion, manipulation, and sensory perception, limiting their use for non-routine tasks. Robots have had difficulty completing simple human tasks such as sorting laundry. First suggested twenty years ago, 3D or additive manufacturing is a process in which successive layers of material are placed under computer control to create three-dimensional objects. It may prove to be a valuable niche industry, reducing the cost of manufacturing single or small-run items where there are no economies of scale. Technology is also a source of problems. Bot fraud, where computer programs artificially create page views of online advertising, costs advertisers over US$6 billion annually and constitutes up to 25 percent of all hits.


pages: 295 words: 90,821

Fully Grown: Why a Stagnant Economy Is a Sign of Success by Dietrich Vollrath

"Robert Solow", active measures, additive manufacturing, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, falling living standards, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, old age dependency ratio, patent troll, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, women in the workforce, working-age population

From the data in chapter 7 we know that manufacturing’s share of value-added was 12.2% (I know, there is a lot of the number 12 floating around). With our assumption of extra manufacturing workers producing extra GDP, the value-added share could rise all the way to 13.4%. As we saw in chapter 7 as well, because manufacturing has higher productivity growth than the average industry, at about 1.36%, a bigger value-added share for manufacturing would increase productivity growth. The additional manufacturing workers would raise it by 0.016% (.0136 times the difference between the shares 0.134 and 0.122). Now, to be thorough, we’d also have to account for the fact that productivity growth would fall by a little because the remainder of the economy had a lower value-added share. But again, let’s keep things optimistic and ignore this. The result is that replacing the manufacturing workers lost to trade would increase productivity growth by about 0.016%.


pages: 342 words: 90,734

Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski

additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional

There is some indication that the museum construction bubble, at least, has burst: recently, several high-profile museum projects in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco were either canceled or put on indefinite hold. In their heyday, manufacturing cities specialized: Philadelphia was a textile center, Detroit made cars, Milwaukee brewed beer. Today’s recreational cities offer essentially the same product; hence they compete fiercely for the same shrinking tourist dollars and euros. In addition, manufacturing fun has turned out to be more complicated than manufacturing carpets. Consumers have always been fickle, but global tourists are also highly mobile. They want to be constantly entertained, diverted, and enthralled, and they are easily beguiled by the next new fad. If one city begins to look faded and shopworn, there are plenty of others that beckon. Casino owners in Las Vegas have always understood this, which is why their properties are in a constant state of renewal.


Free Money for All: A Basic Income Guarantee Solution for the Twenty-First Century by Mark Walker

3D printing, 8-hour work day, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, commoditize, financial independence, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, market clearing, means of production, new economy, obamacare, off grid, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, universal basic income, working poor

How soon until we have technology of this sophistication? Optimists like Ray Kurzweil think it could be somewhere in the order of 2030 to 2040.26 Whether this is accurate or whether Kurzweil is off by half a century or more is not something we can investigate here. Rather, I would like to make a few points to show that it is not pure fantasy. The first point is that a precursor technology, 3-D printing, or additive manufacturing, is already in use and rapidly expanding. For those not familiar with the technology, the analogy with a regular printer for printing documents is perhaps most helpful. Think about how inkjet printers put words on a page. A computer program controls an inkjet that deposits tiny amounts of ink according to patterns of letters and symbols. Inkjet printers make a plain sheet of paper a A BIG FUTURE 201 tiny bit thicker as the ink is deposited on a page. 3-D printers work on the same principle with a couple of key differences.


pages: 372 words: 101,678

Lessons from the Titans: What Companies in the New Economy Can Learn from the Great Industrial Giants to Drive Sustainable Success by Scott Davis, Carter Copeland, Rob Wertheimer

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, airport security, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, clean water, commoditize, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Covid-19, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, factory automation, global pandemic, hydraulic fracturing, Internet of things, iterative process, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, megacity, Network effects, new economy, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, random walk, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, skunkworks, software is eating the world, strikebreaker, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy

Those efforts gained urgency when the Federal Reserve designated the company a systemically important financial institution—a step that brought the kind of governmental oversight that Immelt hated. But as he reduced the company’s exposure to financial services, he needed something to replace the lost earnings. He settled on two big initiatives: digital transformation and the acquisition of a large French power infrastructure company named Alstom. With digital, Immelt saw enormous potential in the industrial internet and additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing), and he wanted to supply the software as well as the hardware. He turned the company’s small IT support unit into a separate GE Digital division. It had the ambition and budget to become a world-class software house. The digital foray won the company good press, but it would be many years of heavy investment before anything tangible emerged, and even then, finding new revenues was difficult.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Examples of metamaterials emerging include: • an invisibility cloak (or surface material) that diverts visible light or microwaves around an object coated in the material • bioinspired, self-actuated materials or electroactive polymers that behave like human muscle • coatings that can conduct electricity or can turn any surface into a display • clothing or textiles that will generate an electrical charge or include sensors and other circuits embedded in the weave • carbon-nanofibre or diamond-nanofibre tethers which could be used to construct space lifts or similar • super-strong and super-light metals and composites that can be grown like a tree or cultured in a vat • windows that have transparent, embedded solar photovoltaics (PV) so that they can generate electricity 3D printing allows you to download almost any design for any product and print it in real time. The main 3D printing method is also known as “additive manufacturing” due to the build process that adds or extrudes a layer of material millimetres at a time to gradually create a three-dimensional object or design. Future 3D printers will be able to print clothing or include electronic circuits and displays in designs. In July 2015, the astronauts on the International Space Station downloaded a “wrench” and printed it using a specially designed 3D printer.


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Under perfect competition, many different firms make perfectly interchangeable goods and customers are interested in purchasing all the products they make. There are no transaction costs, just the costs of inputs, and all firms have access to the same information. Perfect competition describes an environment in which no single firm can influence on its own the price of goods in its marketplace. The reality is very different, of course. Two companies, Airbus and Boeing, command the market for big long-haul planes, and a small number of additional manufacturers make smaller jets. But innumerable companies manufacture shirts or socks. It is exceedingly difficult for a new aircraft maker to enter the market. Assemble a few tailors or seamstresses in a workshop, however, and you can produce shirts. A small new shirtmaker may be able to compete with the big names, or at least find a niche in which it can prosper. A brand-new aircraft manufacturer faces less attractive odds.


pages: 453 words: 117,893

What Would the Great Economists Do?: How Twelve Brilliant Minds Would Solve Today's Biggest Problems by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

As for Tennessee, there is a long history of innovation in the state. Eastern Tennessee is where the atomic bomb was developed. Federal funding now fosters advanced industries, so those with a high proportion of R&D spending, and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) workers. For instance, the funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory supports the development of 3D printing (also known as ‘additive manufacturing’). This automated process requires only human programming for just one robotic arm to produce the husk of a car, secreting layer upon layer of plastic. The associated manufacturers who supply the parts and distribute the products also benefit. The company working with Oak Ridge to create the plastics that make the car body strong enough to withstand road stress is a reminder that manufacturing is still based in factories, as is clear from the smell of melting plastic and the loud whirling of machines that accompany this high-tech process.


pages: 374 words: 113,126

The Great Economists: How Their Ideas Can Help Us Today by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

As for Tennessee, there is a long history of innovation in the state. Eastern Tennessee is where the atomic bomb was developed. Federal funding now fosters advanced industries, so those with a high proportion of R&D spending, and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) workers. For instance, the funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory supports the development of 3D printing (also known as ‘additive manufacturing’). This automated process requires only human programming for just one robotic arm to produce the husk of a car, secreting layer upon layer of plastic. The associated manufacturers who supply the parts and distribute the products also benefit. The company working with Oak Ridge to create the plastics that make the car body strong enough to withstand road stress is a reminder that manufacturing is still based in factories, as is clear from the smell of melting plastic and the loud whirling of machines that accompany this high-tech process.


pages: 431 words: 118,074

The Ultimate Engineer: The Remarkable Life of NASA's Visionary Leader George M. Low by Richard Jurek

additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, fudge factor, John Conway, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, operation paperclip, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Stewart Brand, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

Truly, former shuttle astronaut and NASA administrator at the time, said in the agency’s announcement, “George Low represented quality and excellence like few others.”8 Or when the New York State Center for Industrial Innovation—a center he helped to envision and create, along with the help of IBM, GE, and other leading New York State technology companies—was renamed the George M. Low Center for Industrial Innovation in 1984, the year he died. The center has been instrumental in turning the region into a miniature Silicon Valley, with advancements in computer science, the biosciences, additive manufacturing, and nanotechnology. “He was a true American technological leader,” said RPI president Shirley Ann Jackson, at the dedication of the George M. Low Gallery at the George M. Low Center for Industrial Innovation on the Troy, New York, campus.9 Such is Low’s legacy, not only for NASA and Rensselaer but also for America and the world. Simply put, he was the ultimate engineer. Acknowledgments I am grateful for the help and resources of NASA’s History Office—specifically from William P.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments. In the past, manufacturing something made out of a plastic was generally done through a technique called injection moulding. For metal forms, components were either cut from a block of raw material, cast via a mould, or cut from steel plate. Often these methods required a very expensive mould or die that was used for that one single component. 3D printing allows new techniques such as additive manufacturing, where raw materials are used to build up the form gradually, printing one layer at a time. Figure 9.3: 3D printers are a reality today 3D printers are advancing in capability rapidly. Already 3D printers today can print wearable fabrics, integrated circuits, blood vessels, cells and organs (a kidney, a bladder and an ear have recently been printed, for example9), engine components, model aircraft, etc.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

The circuit board also probably contains brominated flame retardants, which prevent your phone bursting into flames, but may produce dioxins if the phone is one day incinerated. The phone screen is made of glass and ceramics. Then there are cobalt, lithium and carbon in the battery, silver in the keyboard and tantalum in the capacitors. A typical mobile phone today weighs only around 75 grams, but taking its many ingredients from the Earth requires the mining of 30 kilograms of rock. In addition, manufacturing the chips requires several hundred litres of water, and the energy that probably comes from burning several tens of kilograms of fossil fuels. And making the batteries and keeping them charged through a phone’s typical two-year life raises the weight of a phone’s overall rucksack to about 75 kilograms – a thousand times the weight you carry in your pocket. Not including the water. But what of the phone’s footprint in human lives?


pages: 482 words: 125,973

Competition Demystified by Bruce C. Greenwald

additive manufacturing, airline deregulation, AltaVista, asset allocation, barriers to entry, business cycle, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Everything should be made as simple as possible, fault tolerance, intangible asset, John Nash: game theory, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, packet switching, pets.com, price discrimination, price stability, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, yield management, zero-sum game

By including transportation in the quoted price, the suppliers prevented themselves from offering a hidden discount with a lower delivery charge. Advance notice of price changes. When one of the suppliers wanted to change—raise—the list price of the additive, the contracts called for it to give its customers thirty days’ notice, during which time they could order more supply at the existing price. Until 1977, the additive manufacturers issued press releases to announce these changes, but then ceased on advice of counsel. The refiners tried to induce other suppliers not to follow the leader in raising prices, but almost always to no avail. There were thirty price increases in the five years starting in 1974, and all of them held. Ethyl and DuPont were the initiators, with PPG and Nalco following suit. The solidarity continued even after the press releases stopped.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

Rather than being operated by hand, they are directed by a computer system that follows a digital design—known as ‘digital fabrication’, or ‘computer numerical control’ (CNC). Traditionally, these machines were subtractive—the final object was milled out of a larger object, or cut from a large sheet of material. New 3-D printing techniques, a widely discussed technology, instead are additive—they print multiple thin layers of material on top of one another, gradually building up final objects (hence its other name, ‘additive manufacturing’). Their significance is that they can, as a result, create more sophisticated or more one-off objects on demand (sometimes referred to as ‘mass customization’). 3-D printers were first used to create small models and ‘rapidly prototype’ initial concepts. Now they are put to service in the fabrication and construction of the final buildings themselves. At the start of 2014 a Dutch firm, DUS Architects, began to assemble a house made entirely of printed parts, using a machine that is able to print objects 3.5 metres tall.300 A few weeks later a Chinese firm, the WinSun Decoration Design Engineering Co., announced that over the course of a day they had printed ten houses, using a machine that was 32 metres long, 10 metres wide, and 7 metres tall.301 At the end of 2014, NASA sent a 3-D printer to the International Space Station to test whether tools and spare parts (and even food) could be customized and printed on demand.302 As the cost of these tools falls, they spring up in some unconventional settings.


pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar

accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

(One recent design for a bracket on a jet engine came from a twenty-two-year-old in Indonesia.) GE is also partnering with a number of high-tech start-ups to jump-start new ideas. And it’s using more local small and midsize suppliers, thanks to new technologies that let start-ups achieve more speed and scale. The once-disparate steps of designing a product, making or buying the parts, and putting everything together are beginning to blend, because of such technologies as additive manufacturing and 3-D printing. As a result, manufacturing operations now want to be physically closer to engineering and design. This dynamic will likely benefit the United States, which still rules those high-end job categories, and allow small and midsize American firms to get back into manufacturing. Add in the ability to include sensors in every part and process and you’ve got a whole new manufacturing ecosystem that allows companies to accelerate product development and deliver more variety and value more quickly to consumers.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

In early 2015, the trading house Itochu made the largest Japanese foreign investment ever in China, buying (together with Thailand’s CP Group) a 10 percent stake in CITIC, one of China’s oldest and most respected conglomerates. CHAPTER 7: THE GREAT SUPPLY CHAIN WAR 1. Interview with author, July 18, 2015. 2. Enrico Moretti, The New Geography of Jobs (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 3. Josh Tyrangiel, “Tim Cook’s Freshman Year: The Apple CEO Speaks,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Dec. 6, 2012. 4. However, additive manufacturing and the sharing economy together do cause tremendous domestic dislocation. The construction sector is not tradable, but it can increasingly be automated as entire homes are designed, printed, and assembled out of 3-D printing kits, displacing contractors and builders across America and Europe. 5. “Bits, Bytes, and Diplomacy,” Foreign Affairs, Sept./Oct. 1997. 6. Allison Schrager, “The US Needs to Retire Daylight Savings and Just Have Two Time Zones—One Hour Apart,” Quartz, Nov. 1, 2013. 7.


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The omnivore's dilemma: a natural history of four meals by Michael Pollan

additive manufacturing, back-to-the-land, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Community Supported Agriculture, double entry bookkeeping, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, index card, informal economy, invention of agriculture, means of production, new economy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, Whole Earth Catalog

I had thought fruits and vegetables were already foods, and so didn't need to be gotten into them, but I guess that just shows I'm stuck in the food past. Evidently we're moving into the fourth age of food processing, in which the processed food will be infinitely better (i.e., contain more of whatever science has determined to be the good stuff) than the whole foods on which they're based. The food industry has gazed upon nature and found it wanting—and has gotten to work improving it. Back in the seventies, a New York food additive manufacturer called International Flavors & Fragrances used its annual report to defend itself against the rising threat of "natural foods" and explain why we were better off eating synthetics. Natural ingredients, the company pointed out rather scarily, are a "wild mixture of substances created by plants and animals for completely non-food purposes—their survival and reproduction." These dubious substances "came to be consumed by humans at their own risk."


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

They may well be a tremendous force for good, but as we have seen throughout this chapter, robots are also being used by street thugs, Peeping Toms, narco-cartels, and terrorists, a trend that will surely accelerate as their functionality improves and their prices drop, particularly in response to incredible new and complementary technologies such as 3-D printing. Printing Crime: When Gutenberg Meets Gotti Restrictions are difficult to enforce in a world where anybody can make anything. HOD LIPSON 3-D printing, or, as it is sometimes called, additive manufacturing, promises to bring the Star Trek replicator to life. At the push of a button, a magical machine can make physical objects before your very eyes using a wide array of materials, including plastic, metal, wood, concrete, ceramics, and even chocolate. Just as you can send a photograph to your 2-D ink-jet printer, so too can you download or create a design on your laptop and send it to a 3-D printer, which, using a variety of techniques, can build objects in three dimensions, layer by layer, with incredible precision.


pages: 761 words: 231,902

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business cycle, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, coronavirus, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Of particular importance is the fact that an assembler can create copies of itself, unless its design specifically prohibits this (to avoid potentially dangerous self-replication), The incremental cost of creating any physical product, including the assemblers themselves, would be pennies per pound—basically the cost of the raw materials. Drexler estimates total manufacturing cost for a molecular-manufacturing process in the range of ten cents to fifty cents per kilogram, regardless of whether the manufactured product were clothing, massively parallel supercomputers, or additional manufacturing systems.80 The real cost, of course, would be the value of the information describing each type of product—that is, the software that controls the assembly process. In other words, the value of everything in the world, including physical objects, would be based essentially on information. We are not that far from this situation today, since the information content of products is rapidly increasing, gradually approaching an asymptote of 100 percent of their value.