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Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
Only a couple of years ago, 1600 Vine was just a surface park-and-ride lot; now it is a bustling urban community, one that is bringing riders to transit rather than more drivers to the road. As Metro’s Roger Moliere sees it, “There’s a catalytic effect with transit-oriented development. The people who own the Pantages Theatre across the street from Hollywood and Vine are now going to develop the whole block. There’s an old office building next door, and a private developer did an adaptive reuse and made it into high-end condos.” But Metro is getting one crucial aspect of the equation wrong: they are building too much free parking into their transit-oriented development. Every apartment at 1600 Vine includes one off-street parking space per bedroom. (Even the project’s salesman told me, “This is Los Angeles, man. You gotta have a car.”) If even the municipal transit agency’s buildings are oversupplied with parking, changing the city’s DNA is going to be a long haul.
A slow-motion exodus from cities began when old, coherent neighborhoods were divided and degraded by on-ramps and overpasses, and highways were cut into the living tissue of the metropolis. By diminishing public space, the automobile has made once great cities terrible places to live. This book also tells the story of some very good ideas. Around the world, energetic and idealistic people are working hard to reclaim neighborhoods once left for dead. The movement goes under a variety of names: transit-oriented development, smart growth, new urbanism. In the wrong mouths, these are just buzzwords; in the wrong hands, they can serve as the justification for boondoggles as bad as any hastily thrown-up boomburg. But the advocates of livable cities and walkable small towns may be on to something—by investing in development that includes well-conceived transit, we can create more sustainable and, crucially, more civil communities.
Villaraigosa has made several trips to Washington to secure loans, pitching the benefits of “30/10,” which he believes will create 166,000 well-paying construction jobs. President Obama welcomed the plan, calling it “a template for the nation.”* For a city known around the world as a car-addicted basket case, I pointed out, this is striking progress. “Look, man,” said Villaraigosa, “we’ve got to join the rest of the world. And we’re doing it. In the quintessential city of sprawl, we’re seeing transit-oriented development. We’re moving vertical now. Not anywhere like New York or Chicago—but it’s only been a few years. The reason Los Angeles became the epicenter of the single-passenger automobile is that until now we’ve listened to every naysayer who said ‘no’ to new transit. And we’re now focused on ‘yes.’ Yes to a subway to the sea. Yes to a public transportation system that begins to move us away from being the car capital of America.”
Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
At such slow speeds, bicyclists can safely share the lane with cars. (Indeed, the speed difference of various forms of travel on a route—the “speed differ-ential”—determines their ability to coexist peacefully on a street or path. If bicycle and pedestrian speeds differ too widely on a path, pedestrians feel uncomfortable; high car speed on a street makes both pedestrians and bicyclists feel unsafe.) PUBLIC TRANSIT AND TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT Generally, the intent of a transit-oriented development (TOD) or transit village is a transit stop or station surrounded by relatively high-density residential and commercial development, which transitions toward lower densities in concentric rings further from the center of the TOD. Examples of TODs include the Sunnyside Transit Village near downtown Portland, Oregon; TODs in Redmond, Renton, Seattle, and Shoreline, Washington; and SkyTrain stations in Vancouver, British Columbia.9 To promote use of transit, cities sometimes set a goal that strives to locate much of the region’s new housing within a quarter mile of a transit route.
Tallahassee, 5 December 1994. 5. U.S. Department of Transportation, Measures to Overcome Impediments, 43 . 6. U.S. Department of Transportation, Reasons Why Bicycling, 59. 7. U.S. Department of Transportation, The National Bicycling and Walking Study, 30. 8. Burden, Bike Lanes. 9. Litman, “Transit Oriented Development,” 5. 10. “Shorts.” 11. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Making the Land Use, 4. 12. Corbett, Portland’ s Livable Downtown. 13. Belzer and Autler, “Transit-Oriented Development,” ii, 4, 5, 8, 14. 14. Moore and Thorsnes, The Transportation/Land Use Connection, 72, 106, 112. 15. But excluding land, lighting, security, parking enforcement, increased air pollution, increased water pollution, increased noise pollution, reduced aquifer recharge, and discouragement of pedestrians and bus riders.
(We can counter concerns that a developer might provide insufficient parking if there were no minimum by pointing out that a business person, developer, or lending institution would not cut its own throat by providing too little parking.) Cities such as Eugene, Oregon, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Gainesville, Florida, have changed their zoning codes to establish maximum instead of minimum parking requirements for new development. Seattle is now thinking about expanding downtown maximum parking rules beyond downtown to promote transit-oriented development near transit stations for a new rail line.2 Many traffic analysts agree that “market-based pricing of parking would be the single most effective strategy for reducing parking,” as a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy analyst states flatly.3 “If parking were priced at market levels, a predictable reduction in demand is to be expected. This would result in both less driving and significantly lower building costs . . . less land would be devoted to parking.”
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Regional-serving places can also include housing, which can provide a base of support for commercial and entertainment uses as well as eyes and ears on the street, which increase safety. Many readers familiar with recent trends in the built environment will notice that I have not used some terms common over the past fifteen years, such as “transit-oriented development,” “New Urbanism,” and “traditional neighborhood development” (TND). The description “transit-oriented development” can and does apply to most regional-serving, walkable urban places. (It is possible, but not ideal, to be nontransit-served and still create 118 | THE OPTION OF URBANISM walkable urbanism, as some of the examples below demonstrate). Transitoriented development can occur in any density that supports transit. In general, New Urbanism has played out on the ground as neighborhood-serving walkable urbanism.
Sustainable development—United States. I. Title. HT384.U5L45 2008 307.760973—dc22 2007026186 Printed on recycled, acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Search terms: urban, suburban, sprawl, auto-dependent, real estate product development types, transportation, Futurama, affordable housing, inclusionary zoning, impact fees, New Urbanism, transit-oriented development, American Dream, S&L crisis, walkable urbanism, drivable sub-urbanism, global warming, carbon load, obesity, asthma, favored quarter, metropolitan, regionalism, urbanization, population growth, REIT For Helen, Lisa, and Tom Also for Bob, Gadi, Joe, Pat, and Robert C ONTENTS Preface | ix INTRODUCTION 1 FUTU RAMA | AND THE 1 2 0 TH- C E N T U RY AMERICAN DREAM | 12 2 TH E R I S E 3 T H E S TA N D A R D R E A L E S TAT E OF D R I VA B L E S U B - U R B I A | P R O D U C T TY P E S : W H Y E V E R Y P L A C E LO O K S L I K E EV E RY PL AC E EL S E 4 CONSEQUENCES OF D R I VA B L E SUB - URBAN GROW TH 5 63 TH E M A R K E T R E D I S C OV E R S WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 6 | | 86 D E F I N I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M : WH Y M O R E IS BETTER | 113 vii | 45 31 viii | CONTENTS 7 UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 8 ACH I EVI NG LEVELING THE THE | OF 13 8 NEX T AMERICAN DREAM : P L AY I N G F I E L D AND I M P L E M E N T I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M N OT ES INDEX | | 177 2 01 | 15 0 P REFACE When I was a young child my mother took me to Center City, Philadelphia from our inner-suburban home to visit my father in his office and to go shopping.
The other forty-five percent wanted single-family homes on large lots, with all services drivable, and no transit.9 RCLCo, a national real estate advisory firm, concluded in a presentation to national homebuilders and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2007, based upon their national consumer research studies, that “one third of the consumer real estate market prefers smart growth T H E M A R K E T R E D I S C OV E R S WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M | 9 7 development” (another term for walkable urbanism and defined by RCLCo as “new urbanism, transit oriented development and urban and suburban in-fill”) and that “there is no doubt the size of the market is growing.” The RCLCo conclusions were gathered from twelve in-depth, scientific consumer research surveys of thousands of individuals in metropolitan areas such as Atlanta, Phoenix, Charlotte, Chattanooga, Orlando, Albuquerque, and Boise—hardly old-line eastern cities with transit systems. WHAT PEOPLE ARE ACTUALLY DOING The consumer research discussed above shows what respondents say they want.
Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking About Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives by Jarrett Walker
Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, congestion charging, demand response, iterative process, jitney, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, Silicon Valley, transit-oriented development, urban planning
But Laguna West shows how easy it is to locate something in a way that makes quality cost-effective transit impossible, even while telling yourself that you’re doing “transit-oriented” development. The mistake is made very early in the game, when you’re looking at a blank slate and making the first decisions about form. At that stage (usually long before the first transit consultant is hired), developers and city planners need to be thinking about where the transit corridors will ultimately be, based on where the development sits in the larger structure of the city. This is one of the most important reasons for long-range network planning, integrated with thinking about new suburban growth, to which we’ll return in chapter 16. When planners and developers try to create “transit-oriented development” on suburban greenfields, they must negotiate with bankers, investors, and sometimes even governments who are still thinking in carcentered terms.
See also Stops Stop spacing, 61–62, 63 Stops coverage of, 59–64, 60f, 62f, 63f, 102 density measurement and, 112–113 express, rapid, and local, 64–66, 65f importance of location of, 26, 27f shift towards rapid, 66–71 Strategic Pubic Transport Network Plan (Canberra, Australia), 92–93 Subsidies, 13–14, 135–137 Suburbs, new, 192–196, 194f Surrey, Canada, 178–179, 179f Sustainability feedback loops and, 133–134 rapid vs. local service and, 70–71 residential density and, 111, 112 transit lanes and, 106 Switzerland, 164 Sydney, Australia, 54, 139, 153–156, 154f, 158, 160, 220 Syntagma Square (Athens), 178 Taxis, 14 Technology, as tool vs. goal, 6–7, 216–217, 226 Telecommunications, 20 Terminology, 8, 44–46 Thatcher, Margaret, 42 Time of travel, 28–29, 141 Timing, connections and, 163 TOD. See Transit-Oriented Development Tolls, 135 Tourism, 58 To/via problem, 54 Traffic delays, 99, 101, 167 Trains. See Rail transit Transfer slips, 142 Transfers, 153 Transit, defined, 13–15 244 | INDEX Transit centers, 153 Transit lanes, 104–107, 105t, 107f Transit-activated gates, 188 Transit-dependent riders, 43 Transit-friendly places, recognizing, 182–184 Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), 176–179, 179f, 193–196 Transport for London, 219 Transport for Suburbia (Mees), 111–112, 112t Travel time, 28–29, 141 TriMet (Portland), 8, 74, 80–81 Trip attraction, 125 Trip generation, 125 Uncertainty, 37 Understanding, 34 Unfortunate connotations, 44–46 Unions, 79, 80 Universities, 137, 190–192, 191f U.S.
A single location is provided with especially direct transit access to many other locations, due to the services converging there for the connection. This location may enjoy dramatically better transit mobility than anywhere else nearby, so it becomes a logical point to locate for people or institutions that value such mobility. The third point is the biggest: connection points are the logical places to make big investments in transit-oriented development. If you want to enjoy the riches of your city without owning a car, and you explore your mobility options through a tool like the WalkScore.com or Mapnificent.net travel time map, you’ll discover that you’ll have the best mobility if you locate at a connection point.1 If a business wants its employees to get to work on transit, or if a business wants to serve transit-riding customers, the best place to locate is a connection point where many services converge.
Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city
Spending more time outdoors, apart from the obvious health benefits, increases people’s proficiency in reading the weather, learning from others, seeing how they dress and behave, and can help us better live the weather we have. Much lauded Transit-Oriented Development projects use efficient engineering to connect higher-density, built-up areas to mass transit. In this way, they connect people efficiently with other places. However, I think the real challenge of mobility is as much about better connecting people to the place where they are. Rather than Transit-Oriented Development, we need Neighborhood-Oriented Transit. Perhaps, ultimately, it all comes down to the basics of health and well-being—fresh air, exercise, and meeting people. Loneliness and obesity are epidemics. It is recommended to get at least 10,000 steps every day.
The street is closed for a few hours in the middle of lunchtime to give more space to the thousands of office workers who work in the area. One way in the morning The other way in the afternoon Pedestrian street at lunchtime and holidays Kagurazaka Dori, Tokyo, Japan. In the lively Kagurazaka neighborhood, the local main street goes one way during the morning. It is closed for an hour at lunchtime, and the traffic goes in the other direction in the afternoon. The street is also closed on holidays. TOD (Transit-Oriented Development) is about concentrating high-density development close to public transportation hubs to connect them efficiently to other places. Every moment spent moving between buildings presents an opportunity to connect people with place, with planet, and with other people. We should consider the overlapping and integrated experiences of mobility, part of what is ideally a seamless journey as you change modes of transportation: how you go from your apartment to the street, dropping into in a shop on the way; how you cross the street while interacting with other forms of traffic; how and where you park your bike; how you get to the bike lane from the sidewalk; where and how you wait for the bus; how you get on a tram; and then how you experience the neighborhood as you move about.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
“It didn’t take long for people to embrace it,” the current mayor boasts. “It’s now the core of our identity as a city.” Belmar may come as close to the model of retrofitted suburbia as anything that has been completed so far. There is only one component that it lacks: It has no transit system, and it is unlikely ever to get one. OF THE NEARLY DOZEN SUBURBAN RETROFITS designed or planned in the metropolitan Denver area, only one really qualifies as a transit-oriented development, and that is CityCenter Englewood, on the east side of metropolitan Denver, not too far from Stapleton. One can ride a light-rail train right to the entrance of the town center, cross over a pedestrian bridge with impressive metal trusses, and stand in a civic courtyard in which the town hall has taken the place of an old department store in the middle of Cinderella City, an enclosed mall built in 1968 and dead by the last of the 1990s.
The amount of pedestrian-oriented retail shopping is very small, about seven thousand square feet in all. A few hundred yards beyond the impressive civic building is a power center with Walmart and the usual giant big-box tenants. This center is an enormous help in paying the taxes of a community of about thirty-two thousand people, but it turns its back on the light-rail station and on transit-oriented development in general. Walking from the station to the Walmart is not only a difficult experience, it is barely a feasible one. CityCenter Englewood is essentially a small, pleasant enclave masking oceans of asphalt. Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the project is that a few blocks beyond all of it, beyond the town green and the town hall, the power center with the big-box stores, there is an old, slightly seedy, but interesting prewar downtown, with locally owned businesses still open.
A shopping center was eventually built just across the road from Kentlands, and the residents could walk to it, but it was everything the New Urbanism abhors: cookie-cutter, strip mall–type retail units separated from the street by acres of parking lot. Kentlands hasn’t been a failure by any means. As the years went by, it regrouped in an increasingly urbanist direction and attracted a larger pedestrian-friendly retail component. But it is not a transit-oriented development: The way to get there is by car, and only by car. By 2005, the New Urbanists had demonstrated that they could build successful residential projects on greenfield suburban land. But they had not demonstrated that they could comfortably put together all the pieces that genuinely urbanizing suburbia would need: residential, retail, offices, and public transportation. In other words, density.
City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast
big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
In short order, Parker solved the agency’s financial problems by bringing its IT functions in house, switching to electronic payments, converting buses to natural gas, and implementing other cost-cutting measures. Within six months, he achieved a $9 million surplus. Service improved; time between trains and buses lessened. Adding more police, Parker instituted a “Ride with Respect” campaign, ejecting annoying panhandlers. He began to plan for free Wi-Fi, first in buses and MARTA stations, then on the trains. Parker hired Amanda Rhein to negotiate transit-oriented developments on the sea of underused parking lots surrounding many MARTA stations, which would add businesses and residential density (with 20 percent affordable housing), swelling the agency’s bottom line while increasing ridership. For the first time in years MARTA began to get positive press, and many of the mostly white Millennials moving back to the city preferred to use public transit over automobiles.
He liked the concept but wished they would hurry up. “In twenty-five years I’ll be fifty. I’ll be a little too old to walk the whole BeltLine.” Armour/Ottley and Piedmont Heights It isn’t entirely clear where the BeltLine trail will head once it skirts north of Brookwood Hills. The BeltLine transit is supposed to take a kind of detour north to the Lindbergh MARTA station, site of a botched transit-oriented development at Lindbergh Center, where Lindbergh crosses Piedmont Road. There are far too many parking garages and not enough amenities close to the station. There’s no compelling reason for the trail (or transit) to extend that far north, other than to connect to a rapid transit station. It would make more sense to follow Peachtree Creek east between the Peachtree Hills neighborhood to the north and Brookwood Hills to the south, then turn south and enter the odd little Armour Drive Industrial Park, also known as Armour/Ottley.
Stanton Park Starr, Ashlee and Caleb, 200–202 Steele, Carrie, 66 Stockett, Kathryn, 291 Stokes, Jim and Esther, 233–234 Stone, Clarence, 274 Stone Mountain, 17, 76, 78, 183, 192, 254, 257–259 Storrs School, 65 Street Railway Journal, 36–37 streetcar suburbs, 7, 34–42 streetcars, 91, 100, 102, 109 Atlanta Streetcar, 158, 166–167, 192, 277, 281 Brian Leary and, 121–122, 127 C-Loop, 25 cost projection, 158 criticism of plans for, 58–59 downtown loop, 158, 166–167, 192, 277, 282 Ed McBrayer and, 280 electricity for, 36–37 Fred Yalouris and, 127 funding, 132–133, 158, 280–281, 281, 285 history in Atlanta, 34–42, 67 importance to the BeltLine concept, 282–283 Joel Hurt and, 67 Kasim Reed and, 125, 132, 166–167, 281 Northside Trail, 231–232, 235 racial tensions and, 67, 73, 79–80 Ryan Gravel and, 9, 15, 18–23, 51, 280 in Strategic Implementation Plan, 158 streetcar suburbs, 7, 34–42 Tim Keane and, 277, 283 Wayne Mason property and, 58, 94 Westside Trail, 157–158, 280 Street-to-Home program, 112 Studioplex, 15, 182, 252 suburbs automobile transport and, 41–43 new urbanism in, 269 streetcar, 34–38 See also specific locations subway system, 44 Summerhill neighborhood, 71, 195, 208, 219 sustainability, 144–145 Sutherland, Kit and Stuart, 176–177 Sutton, Starling, 14–15, 182 Suwanee, 246–247 Swaney, Lee, 255–256 Sweet, John and Midge, 183 SweetWater Brewing Company, 9, 235–236 SweetWater Design District, 236 Sylvan Hills, 41 Syphoe, Michael, 252–253 Tanyard Creek, 8, 100, 103, 126, 142–143, 228 Tanyard Creek Park, 229 Tapp, Helen, 99 tax allocation district (TAD), 54, 58–62 affordable housing and, 61–62, 92, 182, 274–275, 284–285 Alycen Whiddon and, 26–27, 29, 47 Atlanta Public Schools and, 93, 156, 164–166, 284–285 authorization, 85, 89 poor acceptance of issue, 97, 99, 122–123 revenue projections, 156, 165 tenth anniversary, 155 voter referendum (2008), 93 Woodham opposition to TAD bonds, 90–93, 156, 164 Tax Allocation District Advisory Committee (TADAC), 96, 103 Teasley, William, 198 Terminal Station, 43–44, 43 (photo), 191, 264 Terminus, 31–32, 64 Terry, Ted, 256 Thadani, Dhiru, 271 Them (McCall), 177 TIGER (Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery) grant, 125, 157, 160, 280 Toro, Mark, 123, 168–169, 269–270 Torpy, Bill, 243 Toton, Sarah, 194 Toxic Charity: How Churches and Charities Hurt Those They Help (and How to Reverse It) (Lupton), 193 traffic problems, 18, 39–42, 45, 60, 107, 132, 140–141, 167–168, 236, 243, 245–246, 277, 282 transit-oriented development (TOD), 168, 235 Travon Wilson Park, 252 Trees Atlanta, 128, 146, 175, 232, 239 Trolley Barn, 185 trolleys, 34–41 see also streetcars Trubey, J. Scott, 243 Truly Living Well, 151 Trust for Public Land (TPL), 16, 47–52, 88–89 Emerald Corridor LLC, 144 land acquisition strategy, 99 Proctor Creek and, 223 Wayne Mason, negotiation with, 95 T-SPLOST, 132–134, 233, 281, 283 Tuggle, Florine, 293 Turner, Henry McNeal, 65, 69, 71 Turner Field, 144, 162, 270, 277 Tuskegee Institute, 70 Underground Atlanta, 44, 162, 263–265, 270, 277 Union Depot, 43–44, 74 United Way Regional Commission on Homelessness, 112, 114 Up Ahead: A Regional Land Use Plan for Metropolitan Atlanta, 42–43 Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper, 143 Urban Parks and Open Spaces (Garvin), 48 Veiled Visions: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot and the Reshaping of American Race Relations (Godshalk), 75 Vine City neighborhood, 163, 215, 270–272, 288, 294 Virginia-Highland neighborhood, 41, 94, 176–177 voting rights, 65, 68, 79, 81, 254 Vulcan Material Company, 51, 85–87 Wakefield, Kakhi, 230 Walton, Shawn, 204 Warbington, Chuck, 245–247 Wardlaw, B., 116 Warren, Rick, 275–276 Washington, Booker T., 70, 71, 75 Washington Park neighborhood, 7, 48, 77, 157, 211–214 water system, 142–143, 225–226 Waters, Lucius, 208 watersheds, 35, 142–144, 222 Waterworks Park, 227 (illustration), 228, 284 Wedemeyer, Micah, 194 Weeks, Ray, 55–60, 85–86, 89, 91, 93, 278–279 Atlanta BeltLine Inc.
Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
Second, if travel distances are short, then it becomes more attractive to walk and cycle- particularly if space is allocated for exclusive rights of way- and to use public transport, and this in turn reduces the energy use and the environmental impacts of transport.” “Accessibility as a priority rather than transport.” “Recasting the sector’s primary objective as one of enhancing accessibility invariably lead to a different set of policies and strategies, like transit-oriented development and the provision of highly interconnected bikeway networks. These strategies not only conserve, land, energy and financial resources, but also help the poor and those without privatized motorised vehicles to access goods and services within the city. In short, accessible cities are inclusive, resourceful and pro-poor.” Accessible cities are also much more resilient. They can deal with shocks that might disrupt transport systems (strikes, civil unrest, and severe weather) and also with fuel price hikes that might result from peak oil and global shortages of oil as India, China and Brazil accelerate their “progress” towards Californian or Swedish levels of car ownership and use.
The objectives of PPG13 are: “To integrate planning and transport at the national, regional, strategic and local level to: promote more sustainable transport choices for both people and for moving freight; promote accessibility to jobs, shopping, leisure facilities and services by public transport, walking and cycling, and reduce the need to travel, especially by car.” The rationale Spatially dispersed, car dependent cities are expensive to build and maintain, require large amounts of energy to sustain normal life, produce large amounts of pollution and greenhouse gases and increase vulnerability to energy shocks and food availability. Cities should be managed to achieve high densities, transit-oriented development, high modal share for walk and cycle and low levels of car ownership and use. The consequences of urban sprawl are financially ruinous. Sheehan has summarised some work in this area: “A number of studies in the US have quantified the extra infrastructure costs required by unfocussed development….if 25 million units of new housing in the US were to be accommodated between 2000-2025 in a more space efficient way, the nation would preserve more than 1.2 million hectares of land, require 3000 fewer miles of state roads and need 4.7 million fewer water and sewer “laterals.”
World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen
active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
The central government now fully recognises Tokyo’s role as Japan’s world city and is prepared to support its regeneration and repositioning in order to drive the national economy. Japan also positions Tokyo and other Japanese cities as pioneers of smart urban development, which attracts a great deal of interest from other national governments. Japanese smart city concepts (such as Kashiwa‐no‐ha, transit‐oriented development and urban area management) are welcomed by the national ministries, and are demonstrated to other countries in eastern and southern Asia for how cities can embed disaster 88 World Cities and Nation States prevention, health innovation and new cluster incubation (Kashiwa‐No‐Ha Smart City, 2015). The national system of cities: Tokyo and Japan Today, Tokyo is the only city in Japan governed as a metropolitan prefecture, and is one of 47 prefectures in Japan.
Since 2015, central government has also put pressure on the Maharashtra state government to consider the ‘odd/ even’ car rule that restricts vehicles to travelling every other day, a policy that has been implemented in Delhi (Business Insider India, 2015; Dhoot, 2015; Nair, 2015; Sikarwar, 2015; Singh, 2015; The Financial Express, 2015; Business Standard, 2016). Central government is also encouraging the monetisation of land assets, similar to the Chinese model, to raise funds for urban development – although this must be handled carefully to limit speculation and unaffordability. Transit Oriented Development is also being encouraged by the central government, with the forthcoming Mumbai Metro’s two new lines and other initiatives across India as flagship schemes. Mumbai’s metro extensions are to be half financed by the state of Maharashtra, with the remaining capital supplied by international financial institutions (for example, the Asian Development Bank) and potentially Japanese government assistance.
Published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 278 Index Egypt, 19 Europe, 15, 19, 20, 36, 46, 47, 52, 55, 127, 164, 234 European Investment Bank, 46 European Union, 15, 43, 220, 224, 227 Federal systems, 9–10, 13, 16, 30, 62, 95, 210, 237, 239 Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 143–144, 147, 237 Fiscal redistribution, 90, 225, 229 Forum for Consultations, 88, 93, 237 France, 8, 10, 20, 21, 55, 57, 58, 60–63, 66, 67, 211, 216, 222, 229, 231, 232, 236 performance of second cities, 231 Frankfurt, 7, 46 Friedmann, John, 23 Fukuyama, Francis, 23 Gatwick Airport, 50 Geneva, 7 Germany, 20, 230 Giuliani, Rudy, 113 Global cities, see World Cities Globalisation, 5–9, 18, 19, 25, 28–30, 36, 43, 75, 85, 100, 179, 181, 203, 216, 221, 224, 227, 231, 237, 239 Greater Manchester, 44, 52, 233, 236 Guangzhou, 21, 155, 157, 159, 180, 184, 230, 231 Haddad, Fernando, 126 Hamburg, 11, 206 Hanseatic League, 20 Heathrow Airport, 50 High Speed 3 (HS3), 46, 234 Holland, 21 Hollande, Francois, 58, 60 Hong Kong, 7, 9, 11–14, 17, 24, 25, 29, 85, 91, 149–162, 184, 186, 190, 199, 204, 206, 208, 210, 211, 213–215, 220–222, 226, 227, 233, 234, 239 advocacy, 221 Chief Executive, 161–162 Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA), 155 Consultative Committee on Economic and Trade co-operation, 161 density, 13, 157 economic sector output, 25 economic transformation, 154–155 empowerment and centralisation, 211 Financial Services Development Council, 161 future political arrangements, 159 government system, 9, 208 growth and performance data, 152 national tradition in globalisation, 29 in One Belt, One Road initiative, 158 one country, two systems, 152 Pearl River Delta (PRD), 154, 156, 157, 159 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with Beijing, 154–156 size, 12 India, 10, 16, 30, 98–108, 134, 166, 210, 231, 234, 236 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), 103–104 Make in India Week, 103 performance of second cities, 231 Indus Valley, 19 Inter‐governmental conflict, 13, 235 Istanbul, 21, 50, 227 Italy, 20 Japan, 10, 71, 82–94 Meiji era, 83 National Planning Act, 85 performance of second cities, 231 Jinping, Xi, 185 Johannesburg, 8 Johnson, Boris, 41, 42, 92 Khan, Sadiq, 49, 51 King James I, 38 Korea, 69–80, 183, 192, 210, 212, 216, 228, 229, 231, 232, 233, 235 performance of second cities, 16, 231 Lahore, 20 Lastman, Mel, 210 Latin America, 4, 21, 123, 128, 133, 134, 238 Leiden, 21 Lisbon, 21 Lister, Sir Edward, 48 Livingstone, Ken, 41, 210 London, 5, 6, 9, 11–15, 21–27, 29, 30, 33–53, 59, 63, 67, 69, 92, 93, 108, 123, 134, 145, 154, 155, 204–208, 210–216, 220–222, 226–229, 231, 233, 234, 236, 238 Abercrombie Plan, 39 advocacy, 221 air capacity, 50 ‘Big Bang,’ 40 boroughs, 42, 45, 48, 236 Brexit, 36, 42, 46–48, 52, 220 business leadership, 93 Canary Wharf, 39 Channel Tunnel Rail Link, 40 city leadership, 220 Index City of London, 38, 40, 42 city‐state, 27 collaboration with other cities, 236 Crossrail, 1, 2, 37, 51, 205, 216, 221 Davies Commission, 50 de‐industrialisation, 39 density, 13 diversity, 227 Docklands regeneration, 40, 216 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 escalator region, 226 fiscal devolution, 48–49, 69, 145, 212, 216 fiscal outflows, 215 Government Office for London, 22, 36, 40 government system, 9, 208 Greater London Authority (GLA), 40, 41, 50, 209, 210 Greater London Council (GLC), 26, 39, 40 Greater South East, 36, 39, 50, 52, 213, 214 green belt, 39, 52 growth and performance data, 36 High Speed 2 (HS2), 46, 234 Home Counties, 39 housing, 49–50, 206 Jubilee Line, 37, 40 London Assembly, 37 London County Council, 39 London Development Agency, 41 London Docklands Development Corporation, 39 London Enterprise Panel (LEP), 42, 51 London Finance Commission, 48–49, 216 London First, 40, 108, 134, 221, 222 London Land Commission, 50 Mayor, 42, 51, 221, 236 mayoral system, 36, 210, 233 Metropolitan Board of Works, 39 Millennium projects, 37, 40 national tradition in globalisation, 29, 30 performance of second cities, 231 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 50–51, 213 size, 12, 211 South Bank, 40 system of cities, 13, 229–230 Transport for London (TfL), 41, 51 2012 Olympics, 37, 215, 218 world city literature, 23, 24, 27 Los Angeles, 7, 23, 195, 231 Luzhkov, Yuri, 166, 210 Lyon, 21, 61, 231, 232 Madrid, 7, 13 Masuzoe, Yoichi, 92–93 McLoughin, Patrick, 51 279 Mediterranean, 19, 20 Melbourne, 8 Mercantilism, 21 Merv, 20 Mesopotamia, 19 Metropolitan areas, 7, 53, 61, 76, 104, 106, 108, 115, 133, 135, 234, 236 Metropolitan government, 9, 15, 16, 36, 52, 56, 67, 72, 123, 208, 212 Milan, 13, 227 Modi, Narendra, 103 Montreal, 8, 14, 138, 139, 143, 231 Moscow, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 24, 25, 29, 30, 163–176, 204, 205, 208, 210, 212, 215, 216, 220, 221, 226, 229, 236, 237, 239 Central Federal District, 175, 237 city and federal government relationship, 165–169 density, 13, 172 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 financial services, 168 geopolitical tensions, 168 government system, 9, 208 growth and performance data, 164 higher education, 166 mayoral system, 210 Moscow River, 172 Moscow Urban Forum (MUF), 175, 237 national tradition in globalisation, 29, 30 New Moscow, 167, 173 oblast, 166 1980 Olympic Games, 166 patterns of development, 164 population and visitor growth, 204 Rail and road investments, 172 regional governance, 213 Russian spatial hierarchy, 170 size, 12 Skolkovo innovation district, 165, 172 Soviet model, 165–167 tax revenue, 164, 167 transition after 1991, 166–169 transport, 205 2018 football World Cup, 165, 174 Mughal Empire, 20 Mumbai, 14, 16, 30, 97–109, 123, 206, 207, 210, 212, 217, 226, 227 advocacy, 221 Bollywood, 98 Bombay First, 103, 106, 108 Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), 106 density, 13, 101 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 280 Index Mumbai (cont’d) fiscal imbalances, 102 fragmented governance, 105–106 government system, 9, 208 Greater Mumbai, 98 Greater Mumbai Development Plan, 102–103 growth and performance data, 98 High Powered Expert Committee, 101 intergovernmental conflict, 101 investment capacity, 106 Maharashtra state government, 98, 100–102 Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA), 99, 214 Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), 99, 100 national tradition in globalisation, 29, 30 Navi Mumbai, 107 constitutional amendment, 100 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with higher tiers of government, 99–101 size, 12, 14 Smart City Mission, 103, 105 Transit Oriented Development, 104 weak growth management, 98, 100 Munich, 7 crime, 113 density, 13 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fiscal crisis, 113 government system, 9, 208 growth and performance data, 111 housing, 118 Housing Authority (NYCHA), 114 Hurricane Sandy, 114, 119 immigration, 116 Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), 113 national tradition in globalisation, 29, 30 New York State, 111, 115 9/11, 112, 114 performance of second cities, 231 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 Regional Plan Association (RPA), 120 size, 12 transport infrastructure, 117 tri-state area, 111, 119–120 Urban Development Action Grant, 113 New Zealand, 10 North America, 4, 17, 19, 107, 137, 146, 227 Northern Powerhouse, see North of England North of England, 21, 229 North East, 236 Northern Powerhouse, 45, 228, 234 National Conference of Cities (ConCidades), 128, 134, 237 National frameworks, 29–30, 207, 231–237 National governments, 4–6, 8, 10, 11, 22, 25–32, 46–51, 57–58, 62–64, 70, 72–74, 76–79, 86–92, 99–100, 102–107, 116–119, 130–134, 143–147, 167, 168, 171–175, 183–187, 204, 220–224, 227–229, 231–239 National urban policy, 7, 67, 103, 112, 128, 157, 165, 171, 233, 237 Nation states, 3–4, 6–8, 13, 14, 20–32, 38, 48, 196, 204, 210–212, 220, 225, 229, 231, 236 age of, 3, 6 century of, 6, 239 Netherlands, see Holland New York City, 5, 7, 10, 14, 16, 24, 26, 27, 30, 63, 67, 92, 93, 110–121, 123, 137, 155, 206, 210, 212, 214, 215, 220, 222, 227, 229, 239 advocacy, 221 airport system, 117–118 Bloomberg, Michael, 114, 119 city and nation state relationship, 113–115 Ohmae, Kenichi, 23 One country, two systems, 11, 52, 152, 155, 210 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 22, 26, 30, 74, 75 Osborne, George, 45, 222, 236 Ottoman Empire, 20 Paris, 13, 15, 22, 23, 25, 27, 32, 46, 50, 54–67, 92, 205–207, 211, 212, 214–218, 222, 232, 238 advocacy, 221 APUR (Paris Urban Planning Agency), 67 Chirac, Jaques, 57 density, 13 division of responsibilities, 60 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fragmentation, 56, 62 government system, 9, 208 Grand Paris Express, 56, 59, 64–66 growth and performance data, 204 Ile de France (Regional Council), 56–58, 60, 64 Law for Solidarity and Urban Renewal, 59 Index Maptam law, 61, 66 mayoral system, 210 Metropole du Grand Paris, 56, 59–60, 62 Mobilisation Plan for Development and Housing, 63 national tradition in globalisation, 29 NOTRe bill, 64 Paris‐Saclay, 56, 59 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with national government, 57–60 size, 12 state-region contracts, 63 territorial development contracts, 59, 63, 66 Pearl River Delta, 7, 11, 12, 17, 152, 157, 159, 161, 211, 213 Persia, 20 Provincial governments, see State governments Putin, Vladimir, 167 Rayy, 20 Regional policies, 22, 28 Republic of Ireland, 10 Rio de Janeiro, 6, 123, 129, 130, 231 Russia, 8, 17, 18, 21, 30, 31, 164–172, 174–176, 210, 212–213, 229, 236–237 Rust Belt, 21 Samarkand, 20 San Francisco, 7, 231 São Paulo, 13, 14, 17, 30, 122–135, 206, 207, 212, 215–217, 220, 226, 229, 231, 235 advocacy, 221 business climate, 132–133 density, 13, 124, 133 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fiscal constraints, 130–132 fiscal outflows, 215 government system, 9, 209 growth and performance data, 123 housing, 133 Minha Casa Minha Vida, 126 national tradition in globalisation, 29, 30 performance of second cities, 231 Plano de Aceleracao de Crescimiento, 129 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with its nation state, 125–127 revenue sources, 129–130 São Paulo 2040, 126–127 São Paulo State, 123, 125 size, 12 Urban Mobility Pact, 126 281 Sassen, Saskia, 24 Seoul, 6, 9, 13, 15, 24, 27, 68–80, 85, 210, 215, 218, 227, 231, 235, 238 advocacy, 221 capital region, 69 Cheonggyechoen River regeneration, 72, 73 de-concentration, 68, 71, 75, 76, 80 density, 13 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fiscal devolution, 77–78 fiscal outflows, 215 government system, 9, 209 growth and performance data, 69 jaebol, 71, 72, 76 mayoral system, 210 metropolitan government, 73, 78 national tradition in globalisation, 29 1988 Summer Olympics, 72 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with central government, 70–74 segyehwa, 72 self‐government, 72 Seoul Republic, 71 size, 12 Shanghai, 7, 11, 14, 18, 27, 153, 154, 157, 159, 160, 177–188, 207, 216, 217, 220, 226, 227, 230, 233, 239 advocacy, 221 bond issuance programme, 184 de-centralisation, 181 density, 13, 184 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 free trade zones, 182, 186 government system, 9, 209 growth and performance data, 178 hukou, 184–185 internationalisation, 181–182 land leasing, 183 national tradition in globalisation, 29 performance of second cities, 231 population and visitor growth, 204 Pudong New Area, 181 region, 7 regional governance, 213 relationship with central government, 179–183 revenues, 187 size, 12 state owned enterprises, 180 treaty port, 180 2010 World Expo, 182, 218 Yangtze River Delta (YRD), 178, 181, 184 282 Index Sheffield, 43, 45, 52, 231, 236 Silk Road, 20, 158 Singapore, 11, 18, 30, 85, 91, 189–200, 206, 207, 215, 219 advocacy, 221 Civil Service, 196 Concept Plan, 192 density, 13, 198, 200 Economic Development Board (EDB), 191, 194 economic development model, 198 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 governance history, 191–193 government linked companies, 194–195 government system, 9, 209 growth and performance data, 191 Housing Development Board (HDB), 191 independence, 191–192 internationalisation, 191–192 land management, 195 Ministry of National Development (MND), 195–196 National Trade Unions Congress (NTUC), 193 national tradition in globalisation, 29 National Wages Council, 193 People’s Action Party (PAP), 191, 195–196 performance of second cities, 231 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 self‐rule, 191 size, 12 water management, 195 Smith, Adam, 21 Sobyanin, Sergei, 167 Soon, Cho, 210 South Africa, 8, 134 Sovereignty, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 152 Soviet Union, 23, 166 Special cities, 9, 17, 239 State governments, 7, 10, 100–103, 105, 111, 114, 124, 127, 216, 217, 234 St Petersburg, 21, 164, 168, 170, 175, 236 Sun Yat‐Sen, 154 Switzerland, 7, 20 Sydney, 8, 25 Systems of Cities, 4, 7, 13–14, 28 Taylor, Peter, 21 Territorial development, 8, 22, 73 30 Years’ War, 20 Tokyo, 5, 6, 11, 16, 23–25, 27, 74, 77, 81–94, 207, 210, 215, 220, 226, 227, 235, 238 advocacy, 221 aging population, 92 business climate, 91–92 de‐centralisation, 84, 85 de‐concentration, 84, 88 density, 13 devolution, 89 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fiscal redistribution, 90 government system, 9, 209 growth and performance data, 82 industrialisation, 84–85 metropolitan government, 82, 84, 87, 89, 93 National Strategic Special Zones, 86, 90 national tradition in globalisation, 29 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with central government, 83–88 size, 12 Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 84–85, 88 Tokyo Problem, 88 2020 Olympics, 86, 87, 91 2002 Urban Regeneration Law, 85–86 Urban Renaissance HQ, 87 Toronto, 8, 13, 14, 17, 23, 25, 136–149, 207, 210, 212, 215, 216, 218–220, 222, 227, 231, 234 advocacy, 221 density, 13 economic sector output, 25 empowerment and centralisation, 211 fiscal vulnerability, 145 government system, 9, 209 Greater Toronto Area, 137 Greater Toronto Civic Action Alliance, 147 growth and performance data, 137 immigration, 141, 146 infrastructure investment, 144–146 mayoral system, 210 Metrolinx, 140 national tradition in globalisation, 29 1998 City of Toronto Act, 139, 140 Ontario, 137 population and visitor growth, 204 regional governance, 213 relationship with the nation state, 138–143 size, 12 Smart Track, 140 Toronto Board of Trade, 147–148 universities, 137, 141 US–Canada Auto Pact, 139 Waterfront Toronto, 141–142 Trade, 5–7, 20–22, 99, 128, 146, 152, 161, 186, 205, 225–226 Index Travers, Tony, 49 Treaty of Westphalia, 20 Trudeau, Justin, 143 Turkmenistan, 20 UKIP, 46 Unitary systems, 9–10, 15, 21, 238 United Kingdom, 10, 21, 24, 36, 37, 154, 210, 231, 238 United Nations, 21 United States, 7, 10, 21, 24, 26, 71, 112, 231, 235 Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), 115 US federal reserve, 24 War on Poverty, 113 Uzbekistan, 20 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 24 Washington, 27, 113, 114, 116–117, 119–120, 231 The West, 27, 69 Western liberal democracy, 23 West Midlands, 52, 228, 236 Won-sun, Bak, 74 World Bank, 30–31, 157, 174, 196 World cities advantages and disadvantages, 225–231 age of, 5–6, 203–223 collaboration between world cities and other cities, 236–237 definition, 3–4 in the future, 237–239 literature, 22–24, 27–28 typology, 29–31 Xiaoping, Deng, 180 Valls, Manuel, 66 Vancouver, 8, 143, 231 Zurich, 7, 227 283
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
And fewer people are having kids: families with children used to make up more than half of U.S. households, but by 2025 they’ll represent just a quarter, and, strikingly, we’ll have as many single-person households as families. The suburbs are built for life with kids, and we’re not having nearly as many of them. There are a variety of reasons for this that we’ll explore later, but the implication is the same: “The whole Ozzie and Harriet day has passed,” says Peter Calthorpe, the San Francisco–based architect and urban planner who pioneered the notion of transit-oriented development and who, as a cofounder of the New Urbanism movement, is one of the leading thinkers on alternative growth models to conventional suburban development. Millennials hate the burbs . . . America’s eighty million so-called millennials, defined for the purposes of this book as those born between 1977 and 1995, are an enormous group—bigger than the baby boomers. As such, they’re more poked, prodded, and studied than any generation.
See New Urbanism; Walkable communities varieties of, 9, 13, 15–16 Suburbs, The (album), 51, 79 Suburgatory (TV series), 91 Susanka, Sarah, 137, 139–140 Swank, Larry, 7 Target, 18, 172 Taxation mortgage interest deduction, 35, 61, 74–75 property, limitations for community, 58–59 Taylor, Kate, 51 Thompson, Boyce, 6 Tinyhouseblog.com, 138 Tiny House movement, 138 Toll, Bob, 68–70 Toll Brothers future projects, 198, 207–8 outer suburban development by, 68–69 urban developments by, 6, 18, 23, 163–66, 172, 190 walkable community by, 129 Top Tier Towns, 204 Touraine, New York City, 164–65 Tragedy of the Commons, The (Whitney), 59 Transit-oriented development, 19 Transportation automobile dependence. See Automobiles; Commuting costs, and household budget, 100–101 mode split, 82 and suburban development, 29–34, 62 Treehugger.com, 139 Tribeca, New York City, 17, 151, 169 Tucker, Raymond, 48 Tumlin, Jeffrey, 93 Twitter, 51 Unleashed (store), 18 Ur (Mesopotamia), 27 Urbanized suburbs. See New Urbanism; Walkable communities Urban Land Institute, 39 Village at Leesburg, Virginia, 129 Vogel, Neil, 130 Walkable communities, 121–135.
Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The American Dream Coalition (“Protecting Freedom, Mobility, and Affordable Homeownership”), a consortium of automotive and sprawl-building interests, has come up with the fairly hilarious concept of the Compactorizer. As celebrated on their website in the (stereotypically effeminate) voice of the fictional Biff Fantastic: Urban planners and metrosexuals agree that suburbs make you fat! With the Compactorizer, you’ll move out of boring and subtly racist suburban homes and into smallish apartments in high-density transit-oriented developments. Only the Compactorizer uses a patented planning doctrine to create noisy nights, random crimes, and panhandler harassment, triggering the high-stress and abnormal dietary patterns so important for rapid weight loss.18 As both an urban planner and a purported metrosexual, I can feel my credibility tanking here. But I have to admit that this piece is more humorous than it is offensive and it appropriately pokes fun at an antisuburban snobbery that I probably share.
It is very possible that much of the new growth around DART stations would have happened elsewhere without it, which throws into question the system’s economic impact. However, it is likely that this development would have occurred at lower densities, and probably at greater distance from downtown. Some Texas scrubland was saved, and some gasoline, too. But there is no getting around the fact that all this new transit-oriented development has not increased the percentage of people taking transit. Even the biggest transit fan—me, perhaps?—would have a hard time considering the DART system anything but a failure. Which raises the question: What is Dallas doing wrong? For an answer, we turn to Yonah Freemark, the sagacious blogger behind The Transport Politic and probably the best-informed source on transit today. His answer, paraphrased, is “just about everything,” which includes: lacking sufficient residential densities; encouraging ample parking downtown; placing the rail alignments in the least costly rights-of-way rather than in the busiest areas; locating stations next to highways and with huge parking garages; reducing frequencies to afford farther-flung service; and, finally, forgetting about neighborhoods.
Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud
autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Planners have taken the nuisance issue much further by trying to systematically control not only what activity can take place on private plots but also what height and area of floor space can be built on it. The ways that planners now attempt to reverse past controls and restrictions likely best highlight why this is folly: • Planners use new regulations to allow mixed land use in many residential areas, where past regulations were aiming precisely at segregating various uses, like commerce and residence. • Planners use transit-oriented development (TOD) aimed at increasing FAR around transit stations. If FAR had not been regulated around the stations in the first place, they would have long ago reached the level corresponding to demand in these areas. However, TOD could benefit from coordinated urban design to provide better pedestrian access to public transport. TOD is a good example of the arbitrariness that characterizes modern land use planning: a new regulation to correct the effect of an older regulation to obtain the exact outcome that would have been achieved if the first regulation had not existed!
See Indonesia; Kampungs Sustainability in Amsterdam, 338–339 as objective functions, 344–346, 345f–346f sustainable cities for, 113–114, 131–133, 134f theory of, 326–329, 328f, 345–346, 345f–346f Sustainable cities, 113–114, 131–133, 134f Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, 308–309 Taxes congestion pricing, 23–24, 30 policy for, 279–280, 280f property taxes, 355, 393n16 for rentals, 283–284 tax credits, 267 tax incentives, 284–285, 377–378 in urban economics, 349 Technology affordability and, 345–346, 346f in Buenos Aires (Argentina), 389n12 in China, 386n11 culture and, 384n6 for data, 3, 101–102, 102f, 145, 156–158, 158f economics and, 367–368 environment and, 204–208, 206f–207f for government, 369 Internet as, 383n2 for land development, 380–381 for land use, 10–11 microcomputers, 21 mobility and, 149–152, 151f, 214–216, 215f, 216t Nissan Leaf for, 208–210, 209f for policy, 97–198, 208–211, 209f–210f, 214–218, 215f, 216t, 217f sustainable cities as, 113–114, 131–133, 134f for transport, 51–52, 161–162, 162f, 176 in urban economics, 352 in urban planning, 239–240, 380–381 in US, 199–200 Telecommuting, 42 Thailand, 256 Theory of adequate housing, 269–270 of affordability, 49, 219, 301 of affordable housing, 276–277 of alternative urban shapes, 307–310, 329–330, 333, 346–347 of city-states, 366 of congestion, 201 of containment policy, 337–339, 341–344 of data, 146–147 of demographic projection, 212–213 of density gradients, 97–100, 98f–99f, 103t, 107–111, 111f density in, 108–109, 109f of design, 8–9 in economics, 240–241, 253–254 of engineering, 322–323 of GHG emissions, 40, 201–202, 334–335, 338 Gibrat’s law, 21–22 of growth, 27–28 for Hanoi (Vietnam), 138–139 of height regulations, 311–312, 311f of household income, 221 of housing consumption, 302–303 of incentives, 328–329 of incentive zoning, 329–330 of inclusionary zoning, 276–278, 278f, 282–287 of income-consumption relation, 249 of informal settlements, 127–130, 129f, 288 KIP, 267–268 of labor markets, 45, 46t, 47–48, 219–220, 314–315 of land development, 383n4 of land markets, 96 of land price, 304–305 of markets, 303–304 of master plans, 4, 8, 11, 394n2 of minimum standards, 222–224 of mobility, 48–49 of negative externalities, 18, 55, 73, 86, 159–161, 165, 171, 199, 284 of PIR, 224–228, 225f, 227f–228f, 244 of policy, 332–333 of poverty, 16 proportionate effect, 21–22 of regulatory leverage, 320–321 of sanctuary cities, 376 science and, 2–3 of smart growth, 334 of spatial data, 30, 39–45, 39f, 44f–45f of spatial distribution, 126–130, 127f, 129f of standard urban model, 95–97, 98f–99f, 99, 335–336 of sustainability, 326–329, 328f, 345–346, 345f–346f of telecommuting, 42 for transport modes, 212–217, 216t trickle-down theory, 240–241, 391n10 of urban economics, 2–3, 13, 17 of urban planning, 27–33, 32f of urban spatial structures, 52–53 of wasteful use, 344 Tianjin (China), 114–116, 115t, 339 TOD. See Transit-oriented development Tolls, 387n6 as congestion pricing, 23–24, 49, 201, 217 land price and, 97, 100 mobility and, 357f in New York, 170–172 in Singapore, 387n6 in urban planning, 61–62, 349–350 Topography density, 84f of environment, 202 in land supply, 344 in PIR, 224–225, 225f in Rio de Janeiro, 103–104 road networks and, 61 in urban planning, 43–44, 44f in zoning, 308, 312 Tourism, 313–314 Tour Montparnasse (Paris), 310 Toyama (Japan), 373, 376–379, 378f Toyota, 216–217, 217f Traditional externalities, 311–312, 317–319 Trains.
See Transit; Transport Transit, 390n21 in Beijing (China), 173–175, 174f in CBDs, 311 data for, 361–362 economics of, 158–160, 362 GTFS for, 156, 389n10 investments in, 362–363 in London, 176–177 mobility and, 165–168, 166f–168f, 191–196, 192f, 194f, 196f in New York, 186–188, 188f in Paris, 176–177 in South Africa, 274–275 transit bonuses, 333 transport modes and, 156, 158, 160–161, 209f, 211–212 travel time and, 358–359 Transit-oriented development (TOD), 70–71 Transport. See also Bus rapid transit in Beijing (China), 162–165, 163f, 166–168, 167t CO2-e and, 208–211, 209f–210f composite model, 39f, 40 data on, 31–33, 32f, 355 demographic projection and, 169–170, 170t dispersed model for, 39–40, 39f economics of, 19–20 in France, 31–33, 32f growth and, 49 in Hanoi (Vietnam), 162–165, 163f indicators for, 361 labor markets and, 34, 35f–36f, 36–41, 38f–39f master plan for, 28–30 in Mexico City, 162–165, 163f mobility and, 143–149, 160–165, 162f–163f, 175–185, 178t, 179f, 180t, 182f–183f, 185t, 211–214, 214f monocentric model for, 39, 39f in Paris, 44, 44f, 164–165 public space for, 311–312 RELU-TRAN for, 95 in Seoul (Korea), 38 technology for, 51–52, 161–162, 162f, 176 telecommuting and, 42 travel time and, 184–185, 185t, 384n17 urban village model for, 39f, 40–41 Transport modes BRT as, 191–196, 192f, 194f, 196f data for, 157f, 161–162, 162f, 184t–185t, 188–191, 188f–189f government and, 148, 152, 274–275 in London, 147–148 mobility and, 92, 143, 160–165, 162f–163f in New York, 165–167, 166f, 167t in Paris, 165–167, 166f, 167t policy for, 211–213 in South Africa, 167–168, 168f theory for, 212–217, 216t transit and, 156, 158, 160–161, 209f, 211–212 urban economics of, 176–181, 178t, 179f, 180t Travel time data for, 165–171, 166f, 167t, 168f–169f, 170t motorcycles and, 167–168 in policy, 363 transit and, 358–359 transport and, 184–185, 185t, 384n17 urban planning for, 213–214, 214f Travel time index (TTI), 172–175, 174f Trickle-down theory, 240–241, 391n10 TTI.
The Gated City (Kindle Single) by Ryan Avent
big-box store, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, edge city, Edward Glaeser, income inequality, industrial cluster, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, offshore financial centre, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Thorstein Veblen, transit-oriented development, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Veblen good, white picket fence, zero-sum game
Intense development pressure due to soaring real estate costs, and the determination in London to keep the financial center competitive, no doubt encouraged a more tolerant attitude to height in the City and its immediate environs. But perhaps Canary Wharf also inured Londoners to the spectacle of clusters of tall buildings, easing the path for developers of land in the City itself. The second flavor of the strategy is one that’s been deployed more frequently in America: transit-oriented development (TOD). Rather than focus on just one or a few alternative central cities, TOD uses new transit lines to create opportunities for increased density in places previously oriented around automobiles. While residential areas can often be difficult places to pursue new density, the common (and bleaker) elements of urban and semi-urban landscapes, like old industrial land and strip malls, are more fertile ground for redevelopment.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
Impressed by their ambitions, The Economist dubbed their aerotropolis the “city of the future” and name-checked John Kasarda as its architect. We want to live near airports, even if we don’t care to admit it—even to ourselves. Stapleton, Reunion, and the Mesas offer compelling evidence. We flock to them because that’s where the jobs are, next door or at the end of a flight. So how do we build a better aerotropolis than the ones we have now? One of the best tools in our kit is something called “transit oriented development,” an idea coined by Peter Calthorpe the same year he helped found the Congress for the New Urbanism. The name says it all: neighborhoods and cities built along the splines of public transit. Sometimes that can be buses, but typically it means trains. Denver is doing exactly that with its $7 billion investment in FasTracks, which will have fifty-seven stations dotting 119 miles of track when it’s finished.
Strung along a thirty-mile stretch of highway are three universities—Michigan, Eastern Michigan, and Wayne State— with one hundred thousand students among them. The first already spends nearly $1 billion a year on basic research and is busy hiring two thousand scientists to fill a new campus furnished and then abandoned by Pfizer. Plans are afoot to connect all three to the airport via commuter trains and light rail, sowing the seeds for transit-oriented developments. In between are rivers, lakes, and hiking trails—not a bad foundation for your own private Portland. But the question then becomes what to build … and where to build it. And by whom, to what ends? The site is a jumble of jurisdictions. The airports are under Ficano’s thumb, but everyone else is free to thumb his or her nose at him. The interstates aren’t his; the railroad tracks aren’t either.
These brainstorming marathons are known in the trade as charrettes. They operate on the principle that you can solve any conundrum if enough deadline pressure, caffeine, and sleep deprivation are applied. The participants were divided into three teams, each charged with plotting the entire site. One was led by Douglas Kelbaugh, the dean and former partner of Peter Calthorpe, with whom he’d invented transit-oriented development. He brought a battery of faculty, students, architects, and urban planners to assist him, including two of the consultants later tasked with drafting the actual master plan. And then there was Kasarda, who flew in to brief them all on what exactly it was they were building. They left and got to work. Eighty hours later, the groggy teams staggered back into the conference room to show what they had come up with.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
gas prices doubled: Cortright, Joe, “Driven to the Brink: How the Gas Price Spike Popped the Housing Bubble and Devalued the Suburbs,” white paper, CEOs for Cities, 2008. At the time: “Welcome to Stockton: Foreclosure Capital USA,” China Daily, September 17, 2007, www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2007-09/17/content_6111808.htm (accessed January 7, 2011). spends twice as much: Center for Transit-Oriented Development and Center for Neighborhood Technology, “The Affordability Index: A New Tool for Measuring the True Affordability of a Housing Choice,” Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2006; Center for Neighborhood Technology, “Penny Wise Pound Fuelish: New Measures of Housing + Transportation Affordability,” Chicago, 2010. spent more on transportation: Laitner, John A. “Skip,” “The Price-Induced Energy Trap: Exploring the Impacts of Transportation Expenditures on the American Economy,” New America Foundation, October 2011, http://newamerica.net/sites/newamerica.net/files/policydocs/102111energy_trap_working_paper.pdf (accessed June 14, 2012).
In American cities: Litman, Todd, Affordable-Accessible Housing in a Dynamic City: Why and How to Increase Affordable Housing Development in Accessible Locations (Victoria, BC: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2013). segregated by income class: Fry, Richard, and Paul Taylor, “The Rise of Residential Segregation by Income,” Pew Research Center, August 1, 2012. www.pewsocialtrends.org/2012/08/01/the-rise-of-residential-segregation-by-income (accessed October 14, 2012). Seattle’s Rainier Valley: Greenwich, Howard, and Margaret Wykowski, “Transit Oriented Development That’s Healthy, Green & Just,” Puget Sound Sage, May 14, 2012. www.pugetsoundsage.org//downloads/TOD%20that%20is%20Healthy,%20Green%20and%20Just.pdf (accessed October 11, 2012). lightning-fast gentrification: Moss, Jeremiah, “Disney World on the Hudson,” New York Times, August 21, 2012, A25. colonizing inner cities: Ehrenhalt, Alan, The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (New York: Knopf, 2012).
Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard
addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning
"That's a very desirable part of King County, with lots of good restaurants and amenities, but who was going to wash the dishes and cut the grass?" he asked. "Entry-level workers couldn't afford to live within thirty miles of the place, so they were all driving their junkers every day, spewing pollution." The Village at Overlake Station was the first transit-oriented development of its kind in the United States, said Norman. Completed in 2002, it added 308 affordable housing units near the Overlake bus transit center. "We now average 0.6 cars per household in that neighborhood, compared to 1.2 cars in similar neighborhoods," said Norman. "That's what transit-oriented development can do to fight climate change." "The Future Ain't What It Used to Be" The first time Ron Sims had tried to rally his hometown against global warming, they laughed at him. An editorial in the Seattle Times newspaper positively oozed sarcasm.
How Cycling Can Save the World by Peter Walker
active transport: walking or cycling, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, car-free, correlation does not imply causation, Enrique Peñalosa, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, New Urbanism, post-work, publication bias, the built environment, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, urban planning
Tefft, “Impact Speed and a Pedestrian’s Risk of Severe Injury or Death,” September 2011, https://www.aaafoundation.org/sites/default/files/2011PedestrianRiskVsSpeed.pdf. 42 OECD statistics. 43 UK Department for Transport statistics. 44 Interview with the author. 45 Interview with the author. CHAPTER 3 1 Peter Walker, “Utrecht’s Cycling Lessons for Migrants: ‘Riding a Bike Makes Me Feel More Dutch,’” The Guardian, April 28, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/28/utrecht-cycling-lessons-refugees-riding-bike-feel-dutch. 2 Interview with the author. 3 UK Office for National Statistics. 4 Center for Transit Oriented Development, 2008 study. 5 2011 UK census, car or van availability by local authority. 6 Enrique Peñalosa TED talk, September 2013. http://www.ted.com/talks/enrique_penalosa_why_buses_represent_democracy_in_action. 7 UK National Travel Survey. 8 League of American Bicyclists. 9 John Pucher and Ralph Buehler, City Cycling (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press), 2012. 10 2011 census, analysis: cycling to work. 11 Pucher and Buehler, City Cycling. 12 TransAlt, “Fifth and Sixth Avenue Bicycle and Traffic Study,” 2015, https://www.transalt.org/sites/default/files/news/reports/2015/TransAlt_5th_6th_Avenue_Report.pdf. 13 Rosamund Urwin, “Why Are Female Cyclists More Vulnerable to London’s Lorries?”
Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America by Sam Roberts
accounting loophole / creative accounting, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, New Urbanism, the High Line, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, Y2K
In 2006, his Midtown Trackage Ventures bought the property, which includes 75 miles of track to Poughkeepsie and 82 miles to Wassaic, from American Premier Underwriters; its parent, American Financial Group (which acquired the bankrupt Penn Central’s real estate); and the Owasco River Railway for about $80 million. The sale included 1 million square feet of air rights (the lease grants the MTA another 100,000, but they cannot be sold until Midtown TDR Ventures sells or uses their air rights). “We’re basically a tenant, but it’s effectively ours,” said Robert Paley, the MTA’s director of transit-oriented development, who has never met Penson. Metro-North pays $2.24 million annually to its landlord under the extended lease that expires on February 28, 2274 (which, when the lease was made, was as far in the future as the mid-1700s was in the past). The $2.24 million, which is not so much rent as a mortgage payment, will remain the same until 2019, when the MTA has an option to buy the terminal and track right-of-way (and intends to, although the owner has an option to extend the date to 2032).
Once the American Dream: Inner-Ring Suburbs of the Metropolitan United States by Bernadette Hanlon
big-box store, correlation coefficient, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, feminist movement, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Chicago School, transit-oriented development, urban sprawl, white flight, working-age population, zero-sum game
LCDC can force local planning agencies to revise plans if necessary. The statewide goals are specifically aimed at curbing metropolitan growth and preventing the loss of farmland and open space. They also provide access to affordable housing in local jurisdictions, and statewide land-use control is similarly linked to planning metropolitan-wide transportation, deemphasizing the use of the automobile, and embracing public transit and transit-oriented development. As Carl Abbott (1997: 28) states in his examination of the politics of Portland’s growth management, “Oregon . . . operates with a system of strong local planning carried on within enforceable state guidelines that express a vision of the public interest.” The ability of the state to force local jurisdictions to comply with measures that alleviate sprawl and ensure the stability of older areas is a key element of success.
Building the Cycling City: The Dutch Blueprint for Urban Vitality by Melissa Bruntlett, Chris Bruntlett
active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, car-free, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, intermodal, Jones Act, Loma Prieta earthquake, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, the High Line, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
“We suggested secure parking areas and outlined a number of different formats, with either the transit agency or a private vendor taking care of the operation,” Maines says. “We also saw some examples where it was integrated with a bike shop or café, where you could drop off your bike and have it maintained during the day, as a way to establish the ‘park and ride’ not just as a place to get to, but as a place in and of itself.” Atlanta already has a model for this, with the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority’s (MARTA) Transit-Oriented Development Program, whereby the agency sells all or a portion of its surface lots to developers for mixed-use developments sharing public space. Figure 8-4: A design concept for a raised/floating bus stop, which incorporates bicycle parking and mitigates bike–bus conflicts. (Credit: Alta Planning + Design) In a huge, diverse region with complications presented by a variety of urban, suburban, and rural settings, Maines has no illusions about which development pattern presents the biggest obstacle to their goal of growing active transportation: “I think the primary challenge is the suburban context.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
The TND deals succinctly with the criteria essential to making authentic neighborhoods. The code is broken down into two sections: Urban Infill, which addresses existing neighborhoods, and Greenfield Development, which deals with the creation of new neighborhoods from scratch. In both cases, new growth is modeled on the old patterns that people cherish. The TND is not the only instrument of its kind. Other groundbreaking zoning ordinances include Sacramento County’s Transit Oriented Development Ordinance, Pasadena’s City of Gardens Code, and Loudon County, Virginia’s Rural Village Ordinance. Municipalities that are currently making use of customized TND-style ordinances include Miami-Dade County, Orlando, Columbus, Santa Fe, and Austin. These ordinances demonstrate the TND’s adaptability to a wide range of local conditions. With any luck, the TND Ordinance and others like it will exert a powerful influence over the shape of America’s towns and cities in the near future.
Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan
3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
In all, the new headquarters will contain 318,000 square metres of offices, facilities and laboratories. The car parks will occupy 325,000 square metres. The impact of regulation on parking was highlighted in a 2016 White House report which identified parking as one of the “local policies acting as barriers to housing supply. Parking requirements generally impose an undue burden on housing development, particularly for transit-oriented or affordable housing. When transit-oriented developments are intended to help reduce automobile dependence, parking requirements can undermine that goal by inducing new residents to drive, thereby counteracting city goals for increased use of public transit, walking and biking. Such requirements can also waste developable land, and reduce the potential for other amenities to be included; a recent Urban Land Institute study found that minimum parking requirements were the most noted barrier to housing development in the course of their research.” If given the opportunity to reducing parking and by designing more connected, walkable developments, cities can reduce pollution, traffic congestion and improve economic development.
Better, Stronger, Faster: The Myth of American Decline . . . And the Rise of a New Economy by Daniel Gross
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, index fund, intangible asset, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Phoenix’s Metrorail, a twenty-mile light-rail system that went into operation in December 2008, carries about a million passengers per month. Seattle’s light-rail offering, which debuted in July 2009, attracts about 25,000 daily users. When Norfolk’s small light-rail system opened in September 2011, officials thought it would attract about 2,900 riders per day, but in its opening months the Tide attracted about 5,000 daily riders. In these and other cities construction of light rail has spurred transit-oriented development and generally boosted the local interest in and appetite for expansion. Again, the payoff isn’t in the jobs created to build the rail or to set up express bus systems. Rather, it’s in the rent that landlords will get, the ability to attract more workers for employers, and the benefit to homeowners. But that means many afflicted areas have a great deal to gain from new transportation infrastructure.
The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin
autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional
Increased densities, for example, increase congestion and create more “stop and go” conditions that ultimately add to emissions. Transport Canada research indicates that fuel consumption per kilometer (and thus GHG emissions) rises nearly 50 percent as arterial street traffic conditions deteriorate.173 Still, some areas, such as California, continue to restrict suburban growth in an effort to combat climate change. California’s policies have had mixed results. Attempts to promote “transit-oriented” developments have proven notably ineffective in reducing automobile travel, a Los Angeles Times report found. Relatively few of those living in these buildings actually took transit.174 In addition, these strict policies may have the unintended effect of driving people, jobs, and factories from California’s mild climate to areas in the United States and abroad where extreme weather, as well as weaker regulations, lead to greater energy consumption, all but wiping out any greenhouse gas reductions achieved by California’s policies.175 BACK TO THE ROOTS: RECONNECTING WITH NATURE Suburbia’s poor image among environmentalists belies the fact that suburbanization, at least initially, was driven by what H.
The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight
Sustain the Gain The full impact of transformative visions and game-changing initiatives is achieved only over time. Innovations generated in an applied sciences campus need to be commercialized and produced for mass markets. 09-2151-2 ch9.indd 200 5/20/13 6:56 PM A REVOLUTION REALIZED 201 Transit systems built in a Los Angeles or Denver metro need to be maintained and their full potential for transit-oriented development realized. Manufacturing firms in Northeast Ohio and elsewhere grow by having constant and reliable access to advice and capital to retool their facilities and skilled workers to operate their plants. In communities like Houston there is a never-ending supply of immigrants to serve, children to teach, and communities (particularly suburban ones) to revive. In Detroit, the early signs of revival and regeneration in the downtown and midtown need to be multiplied.