borderless world

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pages: 453 words: 114,250

The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

Walton, China’s Golden Shield: corporations and the development of surveillance technology in the People’s Republic of China, Montreal: International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, 2001, https://web.archive.org/web/20020206170828/http://www.ichrdd.ca/english/commdoc/publications/globalization/goldenShieldEng.html 20J. Goldsmith and T. Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a borderless world, New York NY: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 93. 21Author interview with Michael Robinson, January 2018. 22D. Sheff, ‘Betting on bandwidth’, Wired, 1 February 2002, https://www.wired.com/2001/02/tian/ 23Evolution of Internet in China, China Education and Research Network, 2001, https://web.archive.org/web/20061125232222/http://www.edu.cn/introduction_1378/20060323/t20060323_4285.shtml 24Sheff, ‘Betting on bandwidth’.

Farley, ‘China is abuzz over openness’, Los Angeles Times, 30 June 1998, http://articles.latimes.com/1998/jun/30/news/mn-65084 16‘Wei Jingsheng released’, Human Rights Watch, 16 November 1997, https://www.hrw.org/news/1997/11/16/wei-jingsheng-released 17‘UN treaty bodies and China’, Human Rights in China, https://www.hrichina.org/en/un-treaty-bodies-and-china 18J. Goldsmith and T. Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a borderless world, New York NY: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 90–1. 19‘China dissidents add branches to banned opposition party’, Los Angeles Times, 5 February 1999, http://articles.latimes.com/1999/feb/05/news/mn-5115 20Chase and Mulvenon, You’ve Got Dissent!, p. 12. 21P. Pan, ‘Wang Youcai arrives in Rhode Island after stop in San Francisco’, The Washington Post, 5 March 2004, https://www.sfgate.com/politics/article/China-frees-Tiananmen-dissident-Wang-Youcai-2814286.php 22China: nipped in the bud.

introduces Yahoo! China’, Yahoo Press Room, 24 September 1999, https://web.archive.org/web/20080331032042/http://yhoo.client.shareholder.com:80/press/ReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=173569 14‘China’s internet industry wants self-discipline’, People’s Daily, 27 March 2002, http://en.people.cn/200203/26/eng20020326_92885.shtml 15J. Goldsmith and T. Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a borderless world, New York NY: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 9. 16‘Public pledge of self-regulation and professional ethics for China internet industry’, Internet Society of China, 9 August 2011, http://www.isc.org.cn/english/Specails/Self-regulation/listinfo-15321.html 17Goldsmith and Wu, Who Controls the Internet?, p. 9. 18‘Xiaoning et al. v. Yahoo! Inc, et al., 4:2007cv02151’, California Northern District Court. 19198964, ‘Excerpts from Document Eleven issued by the General Offices of the Communist Party of China and the State Council’, Democracy Forum, 20 April 2004, as cited by the Committee to Protect Journalists, https://cpj.org/awards/2005/shi-tao.php 20X.


pages: 365 words: 88,125

23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, rent control, shareholder value, short selling, Skype, structural adjustment programs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Only when we part with this myth and grasp the political nature of the market and the collective nature of individual productivity will we be able to build a more just society in which historical legacies and collective actions, and not just individual talents and efforts, are properly taken into account in deciding how to reward people. Thing 4 The washing machine has changed the world more than the internet has What they tell you The recent revolution in communications technologies, represented by the internet, has fundamentally changed the way in which the world works. It has led to the ‘death of distance’. In the ‘borderless world’ thus created, old conventions about national economic interests and the role of national governments are invalid. This technological revolution defines the age we live in. Unless countries (or companies or, for that matter, individuals) change at corresponding speeds, they will be wiped out. We – as individuals, firms or nations – will have to become ever more flexible, which requires greater liberalization of markets.

I am not saying that those things are necessarily more important, but many donors have rushed into fancy programmes without carefully assessing the relative long-term costs and benefits of alternative uses of their money. In yet another example, a fascination with the new has led people to believe that the recent changes in the technologies of communications and transportation are so revolutionary that now we live in a ‘borderless world’, as the title of the famous book by Kenichi Ohmae, the Japanese business guru, goes.6 As a result, in the last twenty years or so, many people have come to believe that whatever change is happening today is the result of monumental technological progress, going against which will be like trying to turn the clock back. Believing in such a world, many governments have dismantled some of the very necessary regulations on cross-border flows of capital, labour and goods, with poor results (for example, see Things 7 and 8).

In Europe, the ratio has risen fast recently, but most overseas production by European firms is within the European Union, so it should be understood more as a process of creating national firms for a new nation called Europe than as a process of European firms going truly transnational. In short, few corporations are truly transnational. The vast majority of them still produce the bulk of their outputs in their home countries. Especially in terms of high-grade activities such as strategic decision-making and higher-end R&D, they remain firmly centred at their home countries. The talk of a borderless world is highly exaggerated.1 Why is there a home-country bias? Why is there a home-country bias in this globalized world? The free-market view is that nationality of capital does not – and should not – matter, because companies have to maximize profit in order to survive and therefore that patriotism is a luxury they can ill afford. Interestingly, many Marxists would agree. They also believe that capital willingly destroys national borders for greater profits and for the expanded reproduction of itself.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

We expend huge effort to measure the value of activity within borders; it is time to devote equal effort to the benefits of connectivity across them. There are no greater stakes than in the question of moving from a nations-borders world to a flow-friction world. We need a more borderless world because we can’t afford destructive territorial conflict, because correcting the mismatch of people and resources can unlock incredible human and economic potential, because so few states provide sufficient welfare for their citizens, and because so many billions have yet to fully benefit from globalization. Borders are not the antidote to risk and uncertainty; more connections are. But if we want to enjoy the benefits of a borderless world, we have to build it first. Our fate hangs in the balance. RECOMMENDED SITES AND TOOLS FOR MAPPING AJD GEOSPATIAL CONCEPTS http://gisco​nsult​ingse​rvices.​com/ AJD Geospatial Concepts specializes in the organization, analysis, and mapping of geographic data for urban and regional planning; utility, environmental, infrastructure, and transportation management; business and political analysis; and 3-D topographic and flood analysis.

Its takeaway is that infrastructure is destiny: Follow the supply lines outlined in this book to see where the future flows.” —Kevin Kelly, co-founder, Wired “Parag Khanna takes our knowledge of connectivity into virgin territory, providing an entire atlas on how old and new connections are reshaping our physical, social, and mental worlds. This is a deep and highly informative reflection on the meaning of a rapidly developing borderless world. Connectography proves why the past is no longer prologue to the future. There’s no better guide than Parag Khanna to show us all the possibilities of this new hyperconnected world.” —Mathew Burrows, director, Strategic Foresight Initiative at the Atlantic Council, and former counselor, U.S. National Intelligence Council “Reading Connectography is a real adventure. The expert knowledge of Parag Khanna has produced a comprehensive and fascinating book anchored in geography but extending to every field that connects people around the globe.

The Digital Identity Buffet Spreading the Connective Wealth The Global Digital Workforce CHAPTER 15 THE GREAT DILUTION A Mongrel Civilization BOX: China: Imperial Nation-State Global Passports Global Citizens Citizenship Arbitrage CHAPTER 16 WHEN NATURE HAS ITS SAY, GET OUT OF THE WAY Retreat from the Water’s Edge? BOX: Rivers over Borders How to Negotiate with Nature BOX: Measuring the Supply Chain’s Footprint Location, Location, Location CONCLUSION: FROM CONNECTIVITY TO RESILIENCE A New Moral Compass Networks That Run Themselves Building a Borderless World Recommended Sites and Tools for Mapping Map Insert Dedication Acknowledgments Notes Bibliography Map Credits and Sources By Parag Khanna About the Author PROLOGUE The natural consequence of any obsession is passing it on to one’s children. I’ve been collecting globes, maps, and other geographic artifacts since my itinerant childhood. Thus it is hardly a coincidence to have been writing portions of this book while methodically assembling a thousand-piece world map with my daughter.


pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

And like many technology companies before and since, it argued that it couldn’t exert any control over the Internet, in this case to block French users from its site. At the time, according to Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu’s Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World, it seemed entirely possible that France would give in. Internet utopians claimed such censorship was impossible anyway. “It’s not that laws aren’t relevant,” the MIT Media Lab’s cofounder Nicholas Negroponte said at the time, “it’s that the nation-state is not relevant.”7 France, this line of thinking implied, would just have to accept the new reality of a borderless world. But France does not even fully accept the reality of Sunday shop openings. “It became clear,” Goldsmith and Wu write, “that the irrelevance of the nation-state would not go uncontested.”8 When Yahoo! claimed France could not impose its laws on a U.S. company, the advocacy groups that sued it argued back that the United States should not push its free speech laws on France.

Thomas Crampton, “France Weighs Forcing iPods to Play Other Than iTunes,” New York Times, March 17, 2006. 6. Elisabeth Niggemann, Jacques de Decker, and Maurice Lévy, The Net Renaissance: Report of the “Comité des Sages” Reflection Group on Bringing Europe’s Cultural Heritage Online (European Commission, January 2011). 7. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World, p. 3. 8. Ibid. 9. David Hearst, “Yahoo! Faces French Fines for Nazi Auctions,” Guardian, July 24, 2000. 10. Goldsmith and Wu, Who Controls the Internet?, p. 7. 11. Lisa Guernsey, “Welcome to the Web. Passport, Please?” New York Times, March 15, 2001. 12. This idea was introduced during the 1993 negotiations for the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and allows France to protect its movie business with quotas. 13.

The Hollywood Economist: The Hidden Financial Reality Behind the Movies. Brooklyn: Melville House, 2010. Epstein, Jason. Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001. Fisher, William W., III. Promises to Keep: Technology, Law, and the Future of Entertainment. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2004. Goldsmith, Jack, and Tim Wu. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. A prescient look at the future of law online and a thoroughly researched rejoinder to anyone who thinks it won’t have one. Goldstein, Paul. Copyright’s Highway: From Gutenberg to the Celestial Jukebox. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics, 2003. An excellent introduction to copyright—thorough enough for almost anyone, but accessible enough for beginners.


pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell

affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, liberal capitalism, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

This sanguine outlook was an early conceptualisation of the view now associated with Thomas Friedman’s 2005 book The World is Flat. Despite its being entirely at odds with the industrial policies that made Japan rich – policies which Mahathir was supposed to be imitating – the prime minister was so taken with Ohmae’s book The Borderless World that he ordered all around him to read it. Asmat Kamaludin, who became the top bureaucrat at Malaysia’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in this period, recalls: ‘You felt safe if you were walking around with that book.’156 However, with the benefit of hindsight, the rather hasty, under-researched and breathless tone of The Borderless World was a pointer to the unlikelihood of its prediction that the world was becoming more favourable to the development of poor countries. It was not a good replacement for the work of Friedrich List. Hard-nosed infant industry protection of the kind recommended by List remains the only proven way of pushing a rising state up the technological ladder.

Mahathir could have read the first of the great academic analyses of Japanese industrial policy, Chalmers Johnson’s MITI and the Japanese Miracle, which was published in 1982 just as Look East was being launched. Unfortunately, he did not. Nor did Mahathir read Park Chung Hee’s books about development policy in Korea.145 Instead, he would later read – and tell his underlings to read – a fashionable, pro-globalisation book that was wholly irrelevant to his country’s needs: Kenichi Ohmae’s 1990 tome The Borderless World. Mahathir was mercurial. He launched his biggest industrialisation projects, and then began to sour on Japanese joint venture partners, even before Malaysian bureaucrats had completed a detailed Industrial Master Plan.146 Mahathir’s neglect of export discipline was his first error, and had effects that were quickly apparent. To help pay for its investment programme, the Malaysian government increased its foreign debt from 10 per cent of GDP in 1980 to 38 per cent in 1986.147 But, unlike Korea, Malaysia’s export earnings from manufactured goods grew only slowly.

In the 1990s, by contrast, Ohmae and Mahathir went on to plan and launch the futuristic and widely ridiculed Multimedia Super Corridor and Cyberjaya investment park projects around Kuala Lumpur. These were supposed to foster indigenous high technology through free market, win–win cross-border cooperation, but have done no such thing.157 Instead, the white elephant projects stand as testaments to the naivete – albeit well-meaning naivete – of books like The Borderless World and The World is Flat that suggest that we are moving towards a new developmental paradigm in which the interests of rich and poor nations neatly coincide. Journey 4: Across Malaysia Once again we need to take a drive. This being Malaysia, with a Gini coefficient of around 0.5, the car hire firm despatches a couple of peons to bring a vehicle to the house where I am staying on the west side of Kuala Lumpur.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

In 1993 the Japanese management expert Kenichi Ohmae wrote an influential Foreign Affairs article arguing that the globe’s natural economic zones, or “region states,” had replaced nation-states as the organizing economic units of what he famously dubbed the “borderless world.”4 Ohmae said, “Region states may lie entirely within or across the borders of a nation-state. This does not matter. It is the irrelevant result of historical accident. What defines them is not the location of their political borders but the fact that they are the right size and scale to be the true, natural business units in today’s global economy. Theirs are the borders—and connections—that matter in a borderless world.” But not all large urban areas qualify as economic megaregions. Many cities in the developing nations are immense but lack the economic clout of megaregions. As Ohmae writes, they “either do not or cannot look to the global economy for solutions to their problems or for the resources to make those solutions work.”

Basic services importance of place choice and Batty, Michael Beatles, The Beautiful cities Beauty premium Becker, Gary Beijing(fig.) (fig.) Beirut Bell, Daniel Benedict, Ruth Benson, Brendan Berlin(fig.) Bern Bernard, David Berry, Christopher Bers, Joanna Best Buy Beverly Hills Bhangra Big sort Birmingham, England Birmingham, Michigan Bishop, Bill BlackBerry BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bohemian-Gay Index Boho-burb Bollywood Bonding Borderless world Boston real estate in Bos-Wash corridor (fig.) Bourgeois-bohemian Bowling Alone (Putnam) Brazil BRIC nations See also Brazil; China; India; Russia Bridging Brisbane Brookings Institution Brooks, David Brownsville, Texas Brûlé, Tyler Buenos Aires Buffalo Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Burtless, Gary Busan Business Week Cairncross, Frances Cairo(fig.)


pages: 334 words: 98,950

Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Most of today’s rich countries regulated foreign investment when they were on the receiving end. Sometimes the regulation was draconian – Finland, Japan, Korea and the USA (in certain sectors) are the best examples. There were countries that succeeded by actively courting FDI, such as Singapore and Ireland, but even they did not adopt the laissez-faire approach towards TNCs that is recommended to the developing countries today by the Bad Samaritans. Borderless world? Economic theory, history and contemporary experiences all tell us that, in order truly to benefit from foreign direct investment, the government needs to regulate it well. Despite all this, the Bad Samaritans have been trying their best to outlaw practically all regulation of foreign direct investment over the last decade or so. Through the World Trade Organisation, they have introduced the TRIMS (Trade-related Investment Measures) Agreement, which bans things like local content requirements, export requirements or foreign exchange balancing requirements.

Bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) between rich and poor countries also restrict the ability of developing countries to regulate FDI.53 Forget history, say the Bad Samaritans in defending such actions. Even if it did have some merits in the past, they argue, regulation of foreign investment has become unnecessary and futile, thanks to globalization, which has created a new ‘borderless world’. They argue that the ‘death of distance’ due to developments in communications and transportation technologies has made firms more and more mobile and thus stateless – they are not attached to their home countries any more. If firms do not have nationality any more, it is argued, there are no grounds for discriminating against foreign firms. Moreover, any attempt to regulate foreign firms is futile, as, being ‘footloose’, they would move to another country where there is no such regulation.

Foreign financial investment brings more danger than benefits, as even the neo-liberals acknowledge these days. While foreign direct investment is no Mother Teresa, it often does bring benefits to the host country in the short run. But it is the long run that counts when it comes to economic development. Accepting FDI unconditionally may actually make economic development in the long run more difficult. Despite the hyperbole about a ‘borderless world’, TNCs remain national firms with international operations and, therefore, are unlikely to let their subsidiaries engage in higher-level activities; at the same time their presence can prevent the emergence of national firms that might start them in the long run. This situation is likely to damage the long-run development potential of the host country. Moreover, the long-run benefits of FDI depend partly on the magnitude and the quality of the spill-over effects that TNCs create, whose maximization requires appropriate policy intervention.Unfortunately, many key tools of such intervention have already been outlawed by the Bad Samaritans (e.g., local content requirements).


pages: 347 words: 99,317

Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Most of today’s rich countries regulated foreign investment when they were on the receiving end. Sometimes the regulation was draconian – Finland, Japan, Korea and the USA (in certain sectors) are the best examples. There were countries that succeeded by actively courting FDI, such as Singapore and Ireland, but even they did not adopt the laissez-faire approach towards TNCs that is recommended to the developing countries today by the Bad Samaritans. Borderless world? Economic theory, history and contemporary experiences all tell us that, in order truly to benefit from foreign direct investment, the government needs to regulate it well. Despite all this, the Bad Samaritans have been trying their best to outlaw practically all regulation of foreign direct investment over the last decade or so. Through the World Trade Organisation, they have introduced the TRIMS (Trade-related Investment Measures) Agreement, which bans things like local content requirements, export requirements or foreign exchange balancing requirements.

Bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) between rich and poor countries also restrict the ability of developing countries to regulate FDI.53 Forget history, say the Bad Samaritans in defending such actions. Even if it did have some merits in the past, they argue, regulation of foreign investment has become unnecessary and futile, thanks to globalization, which has created a new ‘borderless world’. They argue that the ‘death of distance’ due to developments in communications and transportation technologies has made firms more and more mobile and thus stateless – they are not attached to their home countries any more. If firms do not have nationality any more, it is argued, there are no grounds for discriminating against foreign firms. Moreover, any attempt to regulate foreign firms is futile, as, being ‘footloose’, they would move to another country where there is no such regulation.

Foreign financial investment brings more danger than benefits, as even the neo-liberals acknowledge these days. While foreign direct investment is no Mother Teresa, it often does bring benefits to the host country in the short run. But it is the long run that counts when it comes to economic development. Accepting FDI unconditionally may actually make economic development in the long run more difficult. Despite the hyperbole about a ‘borderless world’, TNCs remain national firms with international operations and, therefore, are unlikely to let their subsidiaries engage in higher-level activities; at the same time their presence can prevent the emergence of national firms that might start them in the long run. This situation is likely to damage the long-run development potential of the host country. Moreover, the long-run benefits of FDI depend partly on the magnitude and the quality of the spill-over effects that TNCs create, whose maximization requires appropriate policy intervention.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

The sentimental story told in the classic film It’s a Wonderful Life, in which the small-time community banker played by Jimmy Stewart prevails over the ambitious bigbank rival who tries to destroy him, contains a nugget of truth about the relationship between banking and a democratic community. Embedded in these critical economic issues is a tension between old theories and new realities. The new realities are about interdependence. For decades thinkers such as Masao Miyoshi have been announcing the coming of a “borderless world.”25 But the old theory insists on the sovereign independence of bordered states that, lacking a global compass, allow banks and oil cartels (and pandemics and climate change) to dominate the world. The institutions that precipitate today’s crises are cross-border, but the states tasked to address the crises remain trapped within their frontiers. So as futurists and pessimists alike pontificate about a world without borders—a world defined by inventive technologies, unremitting terrorism, liberated markets, uncontrollable labor migration, asymmetrical war, novel diseases, and weapons of mass destruction—complacent sovereigntists and stout “new nationalists,” along with their conservative patriot allies, rattle on about the sanctity of frontiers and the autonomy of nation-states.

See also James Lovelock, The Revenge of Gaia: Earth’s Climate Crisis and the Fate of Humanity, New York: Basic Books, 2007. 24. Barcelona in Catalonia (Spain) is among the most visionary cities, the home not only of the IAAC, but of the new City Protocol project described in Chapters 5, 9, and 12. See IAAC (Barcelona), Third Advanced Architectural Contest: Self Sufficient City (Envisioning the Habitat of the Future), 2010. 25. Masao Miyoshi, “A Borderless World? From Colonialism to Transnationalism and the Decline of the Nation State,” Critical Inquiry, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Summer 1993), pp. 726–751. 26. David A. Wylie, City, Save Thyself! Boston: Trueblood Publishing, 2009, p. 131. 27. Ibid., p. 201. 28. Bill Clinton’s Democratic Convention Speech, September 5, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/transcript-bill-clintons-democratic-convention-speech/story?

., 15, 37 Ban Ki-moon, 183 Bankruptcy, 186, 321, 323 Barcelona and City Protocol, 243–244 Barenboim, Daniel, 287 Bausch, Pina, 288 Beautiful Foundation, 333 Belafonte, Harry, 279, 288 Belo Horizonte participatory budgeting, 308 Benton Foundation, 255, 263 Berlin cultural areas, 278–279, 393n11 Besseres Hannover (Neo-Nazi group), 253 Best practices, 27, 233–237 Bhagidari (town halls), 240, 300 Big data, 245–246, 252, 258 Bike lanes, 7 Bike-share programs, 7–8, 137 Bloomberg, Michael: on autonomy, 6, 9–10, 145, 151, 323; and C40, 135; and character of city, 85; and NRA, 89, 113; profile, 25–28; on role of mayors, 336; and schools, 26–27, 236; soda ban, 8, 149, 307; on terrorism and security, 107, 125 Bogotá. See Mockus, Antanas Bonding capital, 60, 113, 115, 372n5 Boo, Katherine, 182–183, 188–189, 200–202, 228, 239, 240 “Borderless” world, 20–21, 299–332. See also Glocal civil society Boston Marathon bombing (2013), 107, 124–125 Bottom-up democracy, 22, 336–359. See also Global parliament of mayors Brazil, inequalities, 195–196, 383n2 Brecht, Berthold, 34, 187, 201 Bridging capital, 60, 113, 115, 372n5 British Council, 291–292 Broadway Mall plan, 46 Brooklyn Academy of Music (BAM), 278, 287, 393n9 Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 194 Buckley v.


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The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

States looking to understand each other’s behavior, academics studying international relations, and NGOs and businesses operating on the ground within sovereign territory will need to do separate assessments for the physical and virtual worlds, understanding which events that occur in one world or the other have implications in both, and navigating the contradictions that may exist between a government’s physical and virtual foreign and domestic policies. It is hard enough to get this right in a world that is just physical, but in the new digital age error and miscalculation will occur more often. Internationally, the result will be more cyber conflict and new types of physical wars, and, as we will now see, new revolutions. 1 We recommend the 2006 book Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World, by Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, which puts forth this scenario with great clarity. 2 Internet Balkans, as we refer to them, are different than intranets. An intranet uses the same Internet protocol technology but is limited to a network within an organization or local area, instead of a network of other networks. Corporate intranets are often protected from unauthorized external access by firewalls or other gateway mechanisms. 3 Smaller incidents, however, do suggest that governments are capable and perhaps comfortable manipulating DNS routing on occasion.

CHAPTER 3 THE FUTURE OF STATES YouTube in Iran: Gwen Ackerman and Ladane Nasseri, “Google Confirms Gmail and YouTube Blocked in Iran Since Feb. 10,” Bloomberg, February 13, 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-02-13/google-confirms-gmail-and-youtube-blocked-in-iran-since-feb-10.html. We recommend the 2006 book Who Controls the Internet?: Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). most users tend to stay within their own cultural spheres: Author’s determination based on ten years as CEO of Google and two as executive chairman. Particular terms like “Falun Gong”: Mark McDonald, “Watch Your Language! (In China, They Really Do),” Rendezvous (blog), International Herald Tribune, the global edition of the New York Times, March 13, 2012, http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/watch-your-language-and-in-china-they-do/.

., 5.1, 7.1 states: ambition of future of Storyful, n Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Stuxnet worm, 3.1, 3.2 suborbital space travel Sudan suggestion engines Summit Against Violent Extremism Sunni Web supersonic tube commutes supplements supply chains Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) surveillance cameras Sweden switches Switzerland synthetic skin grafts Syria, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 uprising in Syrian Telecommunications Establishment tablets, 1.1, 1.2, 7.1 holographic Tacocopter Tahrir Square, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Taiwan Taliban, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1 TALON Tanzania technology companies, 2.1, 3.1 Tehran Telecom Egypt telecommunications, reconstruction of telecommunications companies Télécoms Sans Frontières television terrorism, terrorists, 4.1, 5.1, con.1 chat rooms of connectivity and cyber, 3.1n, 153–5, 5.1 hacking by Thailand Thomson Reuters Foundation thought-controlled robotic motion 3-D printing, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 5.1 thumbprints Tiananmen Square protest, 3.1, 4.1 Tibet time zones tissue engineers to-do lists Tor service, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 5.1n Total Information Awareness (TIA) trade transmission towers transparency, 2.1, 4.1 “trespass to chattels” tort, n Trojan horse viruses, 2.1, 3.1 tsunami Tuareg fighters Tumblr Tunisia, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 Turkey, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1 Tutsis Twa Twitter, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, nts.1 Uganda Uighurs, 3.1, 6.1 Ukraine unemployment UNESCO World Heritage Centre unique identification (UID) program United Arab Emirates, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 United Kingdom, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1 United Nations, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1 United Nations Security Council, 3.1n, 214, 7.1 United Russia party United States, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1 engineering sector in United States Agency for International Development (USAID) United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 Ürümqi riots user-generated content Ushahidi vacuuming, 1.1, 1.2 Valspar Corporation Venezuela, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 verification video cameras video chats video games videos Vietcong Vietnam vigilantism violence virtual espionage virtual governance virtual identities, itr.1, 2.1, 2.2 virtual juvenile records virtual kidnapping virtual private networks (VPNs), 2.1, 3.1 virtual reality virtual statehood viruses vitamins Vodafone, 4.1, 7.1 Vodafone/Raya voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) calls, 2.1, 5.1 voice-recognition software, 1.1, 2.1, 5.1 Voilà VPAA statute, n Walesa, Lech walled garden Wall Street Journal, 97 war, itr.1, itr.2, 6.1 decline in Wardak, Abdul Rahim warfare: automated remote warlords, 2.1, 2.2 Watergate Watergate break-in Waters, Carol weapons of mass destruction wearable technology weibos, 62 Wen Jiabao Wenzhou, China West Africa whistle-blowers whistle-blowing websites Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (Goldsmith and Wu), 3.1n Whole Earth Catalog (Brand), 2.1n Wi-Fi networks WikiLeaks, itr.1, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2 Wikipedia, 1.1, 6.1 wikis Windows operating system Wingo, Harry Wired, 203 Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century (Singer), 6.1, 6.2 wisdom of the crowds, 2.1, 6.1 women Women2Drive Campaign women’s rights World Food Program (WFP) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 3.1, 3.2 World Trade Organization (WTO), 3.1, 3.2 World War I World War II World Wide Web, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 worms, 3.1, 6.1 Wu, Tim, n Xbox 360 video-game console Xi Jinping Yahoo!


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How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

The New Middle Ages Sitting in one of the glassy towers of the United Nations on New York’s East Side, the world seems very tidy. There are councils for security and human rights, commissions for social development and peace building, a division for women, a program for the environment, and an organization for global health. Name the issue, the United Nations has it covered. But how can an organization that caters to bordered states solve the problems of a borderless world? Are pandemics a health issue, a security issue, or both? Is terrorism a political issue, an economic one, or both? What about crop-killing insect infestations at higher altitudes caused by global warming—should the Food and Agriculture Organization or the UN Environment Program handle that? Surely population growth is a cause of ecosystem stress and poverty; do all three really require separate bureaus?

Then there are the mega-billionaires-cum-philanthropists such as Bill Gates, Richard Branson, and Ratan Tata who combat deadly disease, sponsor African schools, and govern steel factory cities, respectively. They represent the interests of their companies and projects far more than their home nations as such, and millions of lives depend on their good works. They increasingly run their own borderless worlds. From clans to corporations, all of the players active in diplomacy a millennium ago are back. The word “diplomacy” stems from the Greek diploun, meaning “to fold,” and refers to the folded diplomas authorizing entry into foreign territories that emissaries carried inside sealed metal plates. Today, the right business card will do. This isn’t new. In the Middle Ages, diverse merchant communities were a driving force of diplomacy, managing to translate languages, exchange currencies, and trade a cornucopia of goods across Eurasia.


pages: 675 words: 141,667

Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell

American ideology, animal electricity, barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005); Louis Galambos, “Recasting the Organizational Synthesis: Structure and Process in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries,” Business History Review 79 (2005): 1–37; Louis Galambos, The Creative Society – And the Price Americans Paid for It (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012); Alfred E. Eckes and Thomas W. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003); John Gray, False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism (New York: The New Press, 2000); Phillipe Legrain, Open World: The Truth About Globalization (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004); Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: Public Affairs, 2011); Stanley Fish, “Anonymity and the Dark Side of the Internet,” January 3, 2011, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/anonymity-and-the-dark-side-of-the-internet (accessed January 17, 2012); Nathan Ensmenger, “The Digital Construction of Technology,” Technology & Culture 53 (2012): 753–776. 5 Friedman, The World Is Flat, 187. 6 Global Times, “The Real Stake in the ‘Free Flow of Information,’” January 22, 2010, http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/editorial/2010–01/500324.html (accessed January 17, 2012). 7 Thomas P.

Michael Froomkin, “Habermas@Discourse.Net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace,” Harvard Law Review 116 (2003): 749–873; Simon, Launching the DNS War; Tim O’Reilly, “The Architecture of Participation,” (June 2004), http://oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/articles/architecture_of_participation.html (accessed January 3, 2012). 7 Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering Anniversary Edition (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1995), 40–50. 8 Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Julian Dibbell, “A Rape in Cyberspace: How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society,” The Village Voice (December 23, 1993); Andrew L. Russell, “Constructing Legitimacy: The W3C’s Patent Policy,” in Laura DeNardis, ed., Opening Standards: The Global Politics of Interoperability (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2011); Gary Wolf, “Why Craigslist Is Such a Mess,” Wired 17 (2009), http://www.wired.com/entertainment/theweb/magazine/17–09/ff_craigslist (accessed January 3, 2012). 9 On the structure and culture of computing research at ARPA, see Arthur L.

“Standards for Standard Setting: Contesting the Organizational Field.” In Sherrie Bolin, ed. The Standards Edge: Dynamic Tension. Ann Arbor, MI: Sheridan Press, 2004. Garnet, Robert W. The Telephone Enterprise: The Evolution of the Bell System’s Horizontal Structure, 1876–1909. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Goldsmith, Jack and Tim Wu. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Gooday, Graeme J. N. The Morals of Measurement: Accuracy, Irony, and Trust in Late Victorian Electrical Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Grindley, Peter, David C. Mowery, and Brian Silverman. “SEMATECH and Collaborative Research: Lessons in the Design of High-Technology Consortia.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 13 (1994): 723–758.


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Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

But Friedman illustrated his arguments with dozens of vivid examples culled from his extensive travels. He filled his pages with descriptions of factories in far-flung corners of the world and with anecdotes about rising business people. He also had a gift for memorable phrases: “the electronic herd” for currency traders, the “golden straightjacket” for the market-friendly rules that governments must wear if they want to thrive in a borderless world. He morphed Das Kapital into “DOS Capital” and propounded the “golden arches theory”—that no two countries lucky enough to have McDonald’s restaurants will go to war with each other. Friedman returned to his first calling, the Middle East, in the wake of September 11, when, as it were, the Lexus and the Olive Tree collided with each other with horrific consequences, becoming one of America’s leading “liberal hawks” and providing powerful support for preemptive action to reorder the Middle East.

Some modern management techniques are reinforcing regionalization: the fashion for minimizing stocks and delivering supplies on a need-to-use basis means that suppliers need to be located as close as possible to their clients. How Much Does Politics Matter? This brings us to another common misunderstanding about globalization: the idea that globalization is marginalizing the nation-state and consigning politicians to the trash can of history. This idea has plenty of support among management gurus. Kenichi Ohmae has published a succession of books hammering home the argument, such as The Borderless World (1990) and The End of the Nation State (1995). (For all his celebration of “borderlessness,” Ohmae’s fame depended on his ability to explain America to Japan and Japan to America.) The left has also jumped on the “borderless” bandwagon. Naomi Klein and various “Kleinians” like Noreena Hertz have long argued that the world’s biggest multinational companies are bigger than all but a handful of nation-states.10 These multinational giants are the real masters of the universe, the argument goes; governments are mere playthings by comparison, constantly adjusting their policies to attract foreign investment and to prevent domestic companies from fleeing abroad.

See Boston Consulting Group Beals, Vaughn, 320 Beck, Glenn, 388 Beinhocker, Eric, 265–266 Bell, Daniel, 345 Ben & Jerry’s, 195, 247 Bennis, Warren, 307, 392, 403, 408 Berglas, Steven, 406 Berlin, Isaiah, 76, 396 Bernhard, Wolfgang, 53 Bernstein, Ann, 39 Best Buy, 66 Better Capital, 395 Bevan, Nye, 315 Bhattacharya, Arindam, 64 Bhide, Amar, 176, 200 Bieber, Justin, 243 Bilderberg Group, 53 Bimbo, 206 Birt, John, 314, 315 Bishop, Matthew, 47 Black, Conrad, 309 Black & Decker, 206 The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbably (Taleb), 149–150 Blair, Tony, 44, 315, 320, 401 Blink, 118, 120 Bloom, Nick, 12 BMW, 247, 347 Boardroom, 291–311 women and, 304–305 Boeing, 53, 298 Bombay Stock Exchange, 287 Booth School (Chicago Business School), 51, 57, 61 Booz Allen Hamilton, 64, 298, 343, 354, 404 The Borderless World (Ohmae), 277 Boston Consulting Group (BCG), 5, 52, 63, 64, 111, 223, 228, 254, 267, 364 Boston Pizza, 353 Bower, Joseph, 301 Bower, Marvin, 49–50, 63 BP, 17, 43–45, 280, 301, 320, 358 Brainworkers, 363–390 Brands, 215–216, 272 Branson, Richard, 155, 163, 171–172, 195, 197, 309, 320 Bratton, William, 30–31, 321–322 Brave New World (Huxley), 80 Brecht, Bertolt, 80 BrightHouse, 235 Brin, Sergey, 109–110, 163, 164, 195, 196 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 314, 358 British Children’s Society, 360 British Equal Opportunities Commission, 304 Brochet, Francois, 297 Broughton, Philip Delves, 2–3, 14 Browder, Bill, 139 Browder, Earl, 139 Brown, Gordon, 320 Brown, John Seely, 64, 224, 229 Brown, Shona, 144 Browne, John, 44, 320 Bryan, Lowell, 111 BSkyB, 36 Buckingham, Marcus, 65 Buffett, Warren, 309, 388 Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (Collins and Porras), 112, 262 Burns, C.


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Wall Street: How It Works And for Whom by Doug Henwood

accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Irwin Jacobs, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labor-force participation, late capitalism, law of one price, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, publication bias, Ralph Nader, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, selection bias, shareholder value, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Star investors — names are omitted to avoid lawsuits — will often let it drop that they think the yen is overvalued, or that they've just bought gold; when the masses act on this information, the position, whatever its initial wisdom, becomes a winner. No unknowing chumps here. capital unbound So far, this review has concentrated on the U.S. While this simplifies things, it's hardly a fair representation of how we invest today. Capital and commodities traverse the globe with remarkable freedom. Though casual observers treat this borderless world as a recent invention, it's more than a little reminiscent of life before World War I. That idyllic world was nicely evoked by John Maynard Keynes (1988, pp. 11-12), no doubt one of these once-charmed Londoners he wrote about: The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, in such quantity as he might see fit, and reasonably expect their early delivery upon his doorstep; he could at the same moment and by the same means adventure his wealth in the natural resources and new enterprises of any quarter of the world, and share, without exertion or even trouble, in their prospective fruits and advantages; or he could decide to couple the security of his fortunes with the good faith of the townspeople of any substantial municipality in any continent that fancy or information might recommend.

These feelings, which I should be sorry to see weakened, induce most men of property to be satisfied with a low rate of profits in their own country, rather than seek a more advantageous employment for their wealth in foreign nations.■*" Ricardo's sentimental patriotism is a long way from the heartless, landless sentiments of Stronach and the Colgate exec. It remains to be seen whether this borderless world is more permanent than the one described by Keynes, or whether war, depression, and/or political rebellion will smash the idyll once again. Recalling Keynes, though, should caution against the common habit of treating the globalized present as something utterly new. The share of exports in Britain's GDP was only a bit higher in 1992 than it was in 1913, and the U.S. of 1996 is no match for either.

Markets, through ignorance, perverseness, or delusion, can impose policies on countries that are inappropriate to national circumstances, and Tobin thinks his lax might reduce this pressure. Attempts to evade the tax, he argued, could be managed by having it administered by the IMF — even making compliance with the tax a condition of membership. Proceeds of the tax could be used for "worthwhile international purposes" — funding the UN, the World Bank, and the IMF, for example. The latter institutions have contributed greatly to creating the borderless world Tobin bemoans, but liberals rarely seem to have problems with contradictions like this. Tobin has also argued for a similar tax on stock trades. Tobin lodged a dissent from the tame official recommendations of the Twentieth Century Fund's (1992) Task Force on Market Speculation and Corporate Governance. The report's centerpiece was a long essay by Robert Shiller (1992) on markets' excessive volatility, and the dangers of taking guidance on how to run real corporations from movements in their stock prices.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Anywheres are highly concentrated in London and the other main metropolitan centres, as well as university towns. This in a nutshell is their worldview: they broadly welcome change and are not nostalgic for a lost Britain; they fully embrace egalitarian and meritocratic attitudes on race, sexuality and gender (and sometimes class) and think that we need to push on further; they do not in the main embrace a borderless world but they are individualists and internationalists who are not strongly attached to larger group identities, including national ones; they value autonomy and self-realisation before stability, community and tradition. The average Somewhere is on a middling income, having left school before doing A-levels. In voting preference, they lean towards the Conservatives and UKIP (many are ex-Labour).

It is increasingly recognised that the globalisation hype which took off in the 1980s and 1990s—partly prompted by a significant increase in cross-border activity—never matched the more prosaic reality. It is right to say that the world is significantly more economically interdependent than fifty years ago, and nation states have voluntarily vested more of their sovereignty in international regulations and institutions such as NATO, the World Trade Organisation and the Basel financial regulators club. Moreover, global tourism and the internet reinforce the metaphor of a ‘borderless world’. But it is mainly a metaphor. Thomas Friedman’s paean to globalisation, The World is Flat, is now widely regarded as ‘globaloney’.6 Professor Pankaj Ghemawat, one of the leading critics of globaloney has shown convincingly that distance most certainly does still matter. Less than 25 per cent of global economic activity is international, and most of that is regional, and foreign direct investment accounts for less than 10 per cent of all fixed investment worldwide.


The Linguist: A Personal Guide to Language Learning by Steve Kaufmann

borderless world, British Empire, discovery of DNA, financial independence, haute cuisine, South China Sea, trade liberalization, urban sprawl

However, an even greater sense of comfort is available to those of us who recognize that, as individuals, we are all equal members of the human family. Japan is facing many economic difficulties today. The traditional hierarchical structure of Japanese society has inhibited the input of the younger generation towards solving these problems. This will likely change. In what Kennichi Ohmae, a leading Japanese thinker, calls “the modern borderless world,” increased knowledge of foreign languages will ensure a greater diversity of perspectives on issues affecting Japanese society. 66 A Personal Guide to Language Learning Exploring Languages at Home Without going outside, you may know the whole world. Without looking through the window, you may see the ways of heaven. – Laozi It is always easiest to learn a language when you are living in a society that speaks that language if you take advantage of the opportunities that surround you.


pages: 239 words: 45,926

As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces Are Changing Your Work, Health & Wealth by Juan Enriquez

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, creative destruction, double helix, global village, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, personalized medicine, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell, the new new thing

Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni and faculty have founded more than 4,000 companies … Generating over $230 billion in yearly sales … Which in terms of national economies … Makes it twenty-third in the world. Millennium Pharmaceuticals alone … A midsize genomics company founded by an MIT professor … Had 1,500 patents pending in 2000 … And was worth more than everything produced … In Lithuania plus Estonia over the course of a year. Many of MIT’s most successful alumni and faculty … Are foreigners who chose to stay in the United States. In a borderless world … Those who do not educate … And keep their citizens … Will lose most intellectual wars. (The United States has gotten lazy in this area … It prefers to import brains rather than generating them in its high schools … More on this later.) The consequences of free trade … In a technology-driven world … Are different from having open borders … In a commodity-driven world economy.


pages: 654 words: 120,154

The Firm by Duff McDonald

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, borderless world, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, family office, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, new economy, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, young professional

“I remember one time I told Ron Daniel that I wanted to place a full-page ad for $22,000 for Ohmae’s Triad Power in the Wall Street Journal,” Matassoni recalled. “He said he couldn’t spend the firm’s money on one book. And he was right. But Triad Power did just fine. Ohmae wrote thirty-seven editorials for the Wall Street Journal. He didn’t need any help.”43 That’s not entirely true: The unsung man in the background of this event was Alan Kantrow, who moved to Tokyo for several years to be Ohmae’s “thought partner.” Ohmae’s 1990 book, The Borderless World, correctly foresaw the era of corporations overtaking governments as the most powerful entities on the planet. The firm’s 1993 annual report included the joke: “We published 11 books last year. Only 3 were by Ken Ohmae.” The first native Japanese to run the Tokyo office, Ohmae became office manager in 1979, and the office made its first positive financial contribution to the firm in 1981.44 More important, Ohmae helped establish an elite reputation for the firm in Japan.

.), 49–51 BBC, 180–81 Beame, Abe, 71 Bear Stearns, 287 Bechtel Group, 220 Bedaux Company, 26–27 Bell Labs, 170, 193–94, 195, 197, 215–16 Ben & Jerry’s, 106 Benmosche, Robert, 258, 294 Bennett, David, 286 Bennett, Jim, 117, 146, 147, 153 Berardinelli, David, 258, 259 Bergen, Harold, 53 Bertelsmann, 161 Bessemer Securities, 134 best place to work surveys, 295, 324 “best practices,” 5, 283 Bezos, Jeff, 11 Bharara, Preet, 318 Bhatia, Sabeer, 314 Biglari, Hamid, 232 Birt, John, 181 Black & Decker, 110 Blackwell, Lord, 285 Blankfein, Lloyd, 312, 315 Bleeke, Joel, 225 Bloomberg LP, 323 Bloomberg, Michael, 283 Bok, Derek, 82–83 Bolshoi Theater, 228 Bookkeeping and Accounting (McKinsey), 21 books: McKinsey-published, 156. See also specific book or author Booz & Company, 171 Booz Allen Hamilton: in China, 230 European expansion of, 74 founding of, 26 government consulting of, 72 as McKinsey competitor, 55, 171, 182, 203, 204, 205 as private company, 118 as public company, 118 revenue/fees for, 138, 203 top clients of, 182 Booz, Edwin, 26 Borch, Fred, 113, 114 Borden Chemical, 305 The Borderless World (Ohmae), 162 Bose, Partha, 123, 137, 143, 157, 163, 216, 217, 218, 223, 229 Boston Consulting Group (BCG): best companies to work for survey and, 328 clients of, 110 founding of, 88–89 four-box matrix of, 88, 109, 113, 140, 143, 144 Harvard recruiting by, 110 influence on consulting business of, 112–13 knowledge-building at, 217 and knowledge focus in consulting, 139 McKinsey alumni at, 304 McKinsey compared with, 114 as McKinsey competitor, 88–89, 109–11, 112, 115, 116, 138, 140, 142, 156, 167, 197, 226, 264 offshoots of, 110–11 and Ohmae’s influence on McKinsey, 164 Peters and Waterman’s work and, 149 products of, 109–10 size of, 142 “strategy consulting” at, 88–89, 140 Boston, Massachusetts: McKinsey office in, 37, 52, 53, 165 Bower, Helen McLaughlin (wife), 33, 34, 42, 62, 73, 87, 270 Bower, Marvin: accomplishments of, 326 ambitions of, 33–34, 35, 39, 51, 62 Bales-NYC controversy and, 71–72 clients of, 39, 44–45, 108 colleague relationships with, 37–38 compensation/financial affairs of, 38, 42–43, 87 Crockett and, 56–57 culture/values at McKinsey and, 44, 61, 74, 116, 125, 208, 219, 265, 270, 271, 275, 319, 320, 321, 322, 325, 335 Daniel and, 126, 134–35 and “dark years” for McKinsey, 104 death of, 270–71 decline in relevance of, 130–31 early years with McKinsey of, 34–35 economy as advantageous to tenure of, 136 Eisenhower comment to, 68 and election of managing directors, 101 elitism of, 93–94 as embodiment of McKinsey & Company, 49 and equity stakes with clients, 234, 265 executive committee of, 66, 94, 100, 138, 277 frugality of, 87–88, 118, 128 gains control of McKinsey, 56–57 generalist model and, 120 goal of, 4 and growth/expansion of McKinsey, 73, 75–76, 95, 171 Gupta compared with, 225 and Harvard case study approach, 83 and incorporation of McKinsey, 86 influence on McKinsey of, 35, 61, 62, 116 and joint venture proposal, 117–18 legacy of, 101, 219, 270–71 McDonald relationship with, 128, 129, 130 McKinsey alumni and, 84 McKinsey bureaucracy and, 277 McKinsey compensation system and, 145, 165, 208 and McKinsey competition, 167, 203 and McKinsey dealings with management level, 63–64 and McKinsey exceptionalism, 94 McKinsey (James O.) and, 24–25, 32, 34, 35, 36, 95 as McKinsey (James O.) successor, 4, 56–57, 61–62 and McKinsey leadership structure, 138 McKinsey mission and, 169 McKinsey revenue/fees and, 266, 323 and nonfinancial rewards for professionals, 119 “one firm” philosophy of, 31–32 on Parker in London office, 75 as partner in McKinsey, Wellington, 31 partners’ views about leadership of, 129 and Patton work on executive compensation, 65–66 personal and early professional background of, 32–34 personality/style of, 4, 41, 49, 62, 63–64, 87, 134–35 Peters and Waterman’s work and, 149, 154–55 power of, 158 and products for clients, 109 professionalism focus of, 105, 124, 260 Reilly payments and, 130 as repeater, 41–42, 44 reputation of, 118 retirement of, 95, 100 role in McKinsey & Company of, 31, 36, 37, 39, 41 and secret of success, 191 as selling back shares in McKinsey, 42–43 successors to, 100–102 technology views of, 171 tenure of, 101, 135, 136 training and consistency focus of, 85 up-or-out approach and, 83 views about clients of, 39, 44–45, 58–59, 108, 109, 123, 225, 234, 266, 275 views about consultants/consulting, 15, 31, 41, 43–45, 46, 124, 208 as visionary, 32, 96, 97 Walton relationship with, 105 and Wellington-McKinsey merger, 31–32, 37 writings of, 36, 44, 48, 52, 69 and youth as prized over experience, 80.


pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

But in July of 1997, one of the most buoyant of the economies, that of Thailand, was slammed by a financial crisis that threatened to destroy much of the country’s recent economic progress. Soon the crisis spread, threatening the whole region and the entire Asian Economic Miracle, with far-reaching impact on global finance and the world economy. It would also detonate a transformation in the oil industry. THE “ASIAN ECONOMIC MIRACLE” The title of a popular business book, The Borderless World, captured the abounding optimism about the process of globalization in the 1990s that was knitting together the different parts of the world economy. World trade was growing faster than the world economy itself.1 Asia was at the forefront. The “Asian tigers”—South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and behind them the “new tigers” of Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, plus China’s Guangdong Province—were emulating Japan’s great economic success.

House of Representatives Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, February 12, 1998 (“Central Asia,” cost-effectiveness); Interview with John Imle and Marty Miller; Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (New York: The Penguin Press, 2004), pp. 309–10. 12 Mikhail Gorbachev, “Soviet Lessons from Afghanistan,” International Herald Tribune, February 4, 2010. 13 Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (New York: Yale University Press, 2000), ch. 3 (Islamic Emirate). 14 Christian Science Monitor, February 9, 2007 (“alien”); interviews; Washington Post, October 5, 1998 (“implement”). 15 Coll, Ghost Wars, pp. 309–13 (“no policy,” “authorized”); interview with John Imle; “Political and Economic Assessment of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkemnistan/Russia,” Unocal Report, September 3, 1996 (“involvement”). 16 Unocal Report (“scenario”); Coll, Ghost Wars, pp. 331, 342 (“spiritual leaders”). 17 Rosita Forbes, Conflict: Angora to Afghanistan (London: Cassell, 1931), p. xvi (“anathema”); interviews with John Imle and Marty Miller. Chapter 4: “Supermajors” 1 Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York: HarperCollins, 1991). 2 New York Times, December 1, 1997 (“reasonable”); Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, December 8, 1997 (“economic stars”). 3 Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009), pp. 18, 157 (“darling”); Timothy J. Colton, Yeltsin: A Life (New York: Basic Books, 2008), p. 411–15 (93 percent); interview with Stanley Fischer, Commanding Heights; interview with Robert Rubin, Commanding Heights. 4 New York Times, December 26, 1998 (“understatement”), January 10, 1999 (cafeteria). 5 Interview with Robert Maguire (“roster”); Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, August 31, 1998 (“Were he alive today”); Douglas Terreson, “The Era of the Super-Major,” Morgan Stanley, February 1998. 6 Ronald Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D.

North American Electric Reliability Corporation. High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk to the North American Bulk Power System. June 2010. Nye, David. Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992. O’Brien, Dennis J. “The Oil Crisis and the Foreign Policy of the Wilson Administration, 1917–1921.” PhD dissertation. University of Missouri, 1974. Ohmae, Kenichi. The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Oil Depletion Analysis Centre. “New Oil Projects Cannot Meet World Needs This Decade.” Ashland, Ore.: From the Wilderness Publications, November 16, 2004. Oliver, Hongyan, Kelly Sims Gallagher, Donglian Tian, and Jinhua Zhang. “China’s Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Vehicles.” Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group.


pages: 518 words: 128,324

Destined for War: America, China, and Thucydides's Trap by Graham Allison

9 dash line, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, game design, George Santayana, Haber-Bosch Process, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, long peace, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, one-China policy, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, UNCLOS, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

As the English academic George Edmundson has noted, each nation was “instinctively conscious that its destiny was upon the water, and that mastery of the seas was a necessity of national existence.”26 Both believed there were only two choices in this zero-sum game: “either the voluntary submission of one of the rivals to the other, or a trial of strength by ordeal of battle.”27 The Dutch Republic’s position in the world of the seventeenth century stood on two pillars: free trade and freedom of navigation. A “borderless” world enabled the tiny Netherlands to translate high productivity and efficiency into outsized political and economic heft—a feat London thought came at its own expense. There was, as political scientist Jack Levy puts it, “widespread belief in England that the Dutch economic success was built on the exploitation of England.”28 During the first half of the century, England was too weak to challenge the Dutch-imposed order.

Over several Anglo-Dutch wars at sea, the Dutch Republic’s dominance held, continuing until the two countries joined forces in the 1688 Glorious Revolution. With trading posts across the Silk Road, South America, West Africa, Japan, and the Pacific islands, as well as colonies in India and what later became New York, the Dutch Republic in the mid-seventeenth century was the world’s leader in international commerce. It used this power to construct a “borderless” world order, which enabled the tiny Netherlands to translate high productivity and efficiency into outsized political and economic power. Thus, lucrative trading routes gave the publicly owned Dutch East India Company a leading role in the global spice trade. Arguably the Continent’s most advanced seafaring people, the Dutch built a navy to match their massive overseas trading empire. It would not be long, however, before England, seeking to expand its own share of trade and control of the seas, established rival colonies on the American eastern seaboard.


pages: 454 words: 139,350

Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber

airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game

O’Neill, The Roar of the Crowd: How Television and People Power Are Changing the World (New York: Times Books, 1993), p. 110. 29. Adrian Lyttelton, “Italy: The Triumph of TV,” The New York Review of Books, August 11, 1994, pp. 25–29. 30. Gore Vidal, Screening History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 81. 31. Mark Crispin Miller, Boxed In: The Culture of TV(Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1988), p. 19. 32. Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York: Harper Business, 1990), p. xiv. 33. Moisi is deputy director of the French Institute for International Relations; cited in Roger Cohen, “The French, Disneyed and Jurassick, Fear Erosion,” The New York Times, November 21, 1993, p. E 2. Moisi links Jihad and McWorld (without calling them that), noting that “one minute it’s dinosaurs [Jurassic Park], the next North African immigrants, but it’s the same basic anxiety.” 34.

For a biography of one of the great masters of communications and entertainment who set the course for many of the men here, see Connie Bruck, Master of the Game: Steve Ross and the Creation of Time Warner (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994). 8. Fortune says Malone is now worth over a billion dollars. His sobriquet as king of cable is reported by Allen R. Myerson, “A Corporate Man and a Cable King,” The New York Times, October 14, 1993, p. C 7. 9. The declaration is offered as an appendix in Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York: Harper Business, 1990). 10. Cited by Ken Auletta, “Under the Wire,” The New Yorker, January 17, 1994, p. 52. Gore genuinely believes in the role of government as a regulator and equalizer, but after the elections of November 1994, there is little to suggest he will get much support in Congress or the nation. PART II. THE OLD WORLD OF JIHAD Chapter 10.


Working the Street: What You Need to Know About Life on Wall Street by Erik Banks

accounting loophole / creative accounting, borderless world, business cycle, corporate governance, estate planning, fixed income, greed is good, old-boy network, risk/return, rolodex, telemarketer

That means when you go abroad, you’ll be helping the firm make sure that its foreign outposts remain important—by figuring how to do business and figuring out what business to do, and by making sure the place doesn’t blow up in the process (you know, that tendency to play with very sharp scissors when Mom’s in the other room). In short, you need to make sure that the firm’s foreign presence continues to matter, because in this very global and borderless world, it should matter. YOU GET TO BE YOUR OWN BOSS What’s it really like when you’re thousands of miles away from the Big Machine, from the frenzy, excitement, tension, politics, and intrigue? In a word: great. Within a week of hitting the ground you’ll realize that your responsibilities have just multiplied rapidly and dramatically. You become your own boss. Sure, you may have some local manager that you report to, but if you’re an expatriate transferred from head office, you’re probably representing some function (meaning your “real boss” is back home) or you’re part of a very small team (meaning you’re more senior than you would be back home.


pages: 209 words: 53,236

The Scandal of Money by George Gilder

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, Donald Trump, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, yield curve, zero-sum game

Economists evidently agree that currency prices fail to gauge actual values. 4.These statistics comparing foreign exchange market (forex) trading with total stock market and goods and services trade are calculated from the total of daily foreign exchange transactions published every three years by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). This number is then compared to global international stock market trading and goods and services trade divided by the number of days. Kenichi Ohmae of McKinsey & Company wrote a book titled The Borderless World (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1990) at a time when trading volume was $600 billion a day, compared with related goods and services trade of $600 billion yearly: “No one can argue that FX trading is still a mere adjunct to other forms of economic activity. It is an end in itself.” 5.“Twenty First Century Capitalism,” chapter 17 in Nathan K. Lewis, Gold: The Monetary Polaris (New Berlin, NY: Canyon Maple Publishing, 2013), 271–80. 6.


pages: 182 words: 53,802

The Production of Money: How to Break the Power of Banks by Ann Pettifor

Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, the market place, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail

He noted that China and Japan, different in politics and sociology as well as historical experience, have registered remarkable growth without capital account convertibility. Western Europe’s return to prosperity was also achieved without capital account convertibility … In short, when we penetrate the fog of implausible assertions that surrounds the case for free capital mobility we realize that the idea and the ideology of free trade and its benefits … have been used to bamboozle us into celebrating the new world of trillions of dollars moving daily in a borderless world.12 Just as a well-managed banking system ends society’s dependence on robber barons at home, so should a well-developed and sound banking system end society’s and the economy’s reliance on international, mobile capital. With a managed domestic banking system, operated in the interests of both industry and labour, then government, industry and labour need not depend on, or fear, ‘bond vigilantes’ or ‘global capital markets’.


pages: 554 words: 158,687

Profiting Without Producing: How Finance Exploits Us All by Costas Lapavitsas

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, full employment, global value chain, global village, High speed trading, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, open economy, pensions crisis, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Simon Kuznets, special drawing rights, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, union organizing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

There is a monetary basis to financialization in developing countries, which has determined its subordinate character relative to financialization in developed countries. However, the monetary basis of financialization has also been important for developed countries, and nowhere more so that in Europe, as is shown in Chapter 9. 1 The literature on globalization is vast and has a natural overlap with the debates on imperialism, see note 1 in Chapter 3. Several of the tropes of the mainstream can be found in Kenichi Ohmae (The Borderless World, 1990), including the notion of an interlinked world economy that is pushing the nation state toward irrelevance. At about the same time David Harvey (The Condition of Postmodernity, 1989) argued, from a Marxist perspective, that a post-modern, fragmented capitalism had emerged, based on the ‘compression of time-space’ according to the dictates of global capital. Anthony Giddens (The Consequences of Modernity, 1991) also put forth an influential sociological formulation for the rather pedestrian idea that globalization links distant localities and makes local happenings depend on faraway events.

A Case Study of Manchester’s Local Currency Networks, London: Ashgate, 2006. North, Peter, Money and Liberation: The Micropolitics of Alternative Currency Movements, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007. O’Mahony, Mary, and Bart van Ark (eds), EU Productivity and Competitiveness: An Industry Perspective, Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2003. Ohmae, Kenichi, The Borderless World, London: HarperCollins, 1990. Oliner, Stephen, and Daniel Sichel, ‘Information Technology and Productivity: Where are we Now and Where are we Going?’, Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Third Quarter, 2002, pp. 15–44. Oliner, Stephen, and Daniel Sichel, ‘The Resurgence of Growth in the Late 1990s: Is Information Technology the Story?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives 14:4, 2000, pp. 3–22.


Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism by Quinn Slobodian

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mercator projection, Mont Pelerin Society, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Pearl River Delta, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, quantitative easing, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, statistical model, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

He cited the examples of Greece and China, which had been admitted as equals into the League of Nations but only with the “continuation of some sort of control over [their] finances,” and the financial oversight of Austria and Hungary, which followed the same pattern.25 Atomistic national po­liti­cal equality, in other words, could coexist within what Bonn called the “invisible economic empire” of trade and exchange that was global.26 A po­liti­cal world of borders could coexist, and had coexisted (in the liberal imagination, if not real­ity) within a borderless world economy. Bonn believed that decolonization and planning ­were two sides of a linked misunderstanding of the scale and form of what worked in an interdependent world. Yet the ultimate traitor to the model of 98 GLOBALISTS one-­world-­economy-­many-­polities came not from the periphery but from the core. The central enabling condition of the invisible economic empire had been the predictability of currency value and the trust in the contract, the bill of exchange, and the loan that it created.

In an exploration of neoliberal federalism, one scholar notes that the American Enterprise Institute set up a Federalism Proj­ect in 2000, pursuing Buchanan’s proposals from the 1990s to preserve “an effective exit option in market relationships.”24 An AEI resident scholar explained the vision of the proj­ect: “A world without borders is a world without exits. We need the exits.”25 ­These imaginaries are far from the borderless world or zero-­state society in which neoliberals purportedly believed.26 What has been described in t­ hese pages is much less easy to dismiss as a fanciful delusion. More realistic and, at least in theory, more realizable, is ordoglobalism’s vision of a doubled world: divided and encased between imperium and dominium. My narrative has pointed to a paradox at the heart of Hayek’s thought and what I have called Geneva School neoliberalism.


pages: 196 words: 57,974

Company: A Short History of a Revolutionary Idea by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, business process, Charles Lindbergh, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, double entry bookkeeping, Etonian, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mittelstand, new economy, North Sea oil, race to the bottom, railway mania, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Inflation and recession further dented their self-confidence. By the early 1980s, the Americans were on the defensive, pinned back by German multinationals and humiliated by the Japanese (see chapter 7). Trying to view the history of multinationals through nationalistic lenses becomes harder in the final quarter of the twentieth century. This, after all, was a time when the business sections of bookshops groaned with titles such as The Borderless World, The Twilight of Sovereignty, and Sovereignty at Bay. A famous essay in the Harvard Business Review in 1983 by Theodore Levitt argued that “the earth is round but for most purposes, it is sensible to treat it as flat.” That was overstating it. Geography did still matter. In 1995, the top one hundred companies by market valuation included forty-three from the United States, twenty-seven from Japan, eleven from Great Britain, and five from Germany.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

NYU Primary Sources (New York, NY), 2011, accessed Feb 9, 2011, http://nyuprimarysources.org/video-library/jay-rosen-and-clay-shirky/. 61 “many wresting power from the few”: Lev Grossman, “Time’s Person of the Year: You,” Time, Dec. 13, 2006, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1569514,00.html. 61 “did not eliminate intermediaries”: Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 70. 62 “It will remember what you know”: Danny Sullivan, “Google CEO Eric Schmidt on Newspapers & Journalism,” Search Engine Land, Oct. 3, 2009, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://searchengineland.com/google-ceo-eric-schmidt-on-newspapers-journalism-27172. 62 “bringing the content to the right group”: “Krishna Bharat Discusses the Past and Future of Google News,” Google News blog, June 15, 2010, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://googlenewsblog.blogspot.com/2010/06/krishna-bharat-discusses-past-and.html. 62 “We pay attention”: Ibid. 63 “most important, their social circle”: Ibid. 63 “make it available to publishers”: Ibid. 63 Americans lost more faith in news: “Press Accuracy Rating Hits Two Decade Low; Public Evaluations of the News Media: 1985–2009,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Sept. 13, 2009, accessed Dec. 11, 2010, http://people-press.org/report/543/. 64 “New York Times and some random blogger”: Author’s interview with Yahoo News executive.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

For example, the FBI asked regulators to hold ofi^ on approving Deutsche Telekom's takeover of VoiceStream, the cellular telephone provider, while it could determine whether the deal would com-pHcate its ability to tap phone calls. While the Bureau's concerns didn't block the deal, it is a measure of how seriously federal agencies—often joined by members of Congress—take the matter of preserving U.S. security prerogatives in a supposedly borderless world. The U.S., of course, expresses no qualms when American telephone companies take over foreign companies; quite the contrary, opening up foreign telecoms markets is one of the most fervent passions of U.S. trade negotiators—mainly for commercial reasons, but the National Security Agency probably isn't displeased either. And even while it lectures other countries on the need to open their markets, the U.S. has never been shy about erecting trade barriers to protect domestic industries.


pages: 285 words: 78,180

Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life by J. Craig Venter

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, Barry Marshall: ulcers, bioinformatics, borderless world, Brownian motion, clean water, discovery of DNA, double helix, epigenetics, experimental subject, global pandemic, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, phenotype, Richard Feynman, stem cell, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine

This is a fascinating area that works by layering living cells on a structural matrix in the shape of a blood vessel or a human organ. Whatever we end up calling these devices, I am confident that in coming years we will be able to convert digitized information into living cells that will become complex multicellular organisms or can be “printed” to form three-dimensional functioning tissues. The ability to print an organism remains some way off but will become a possibility soon enough. We are moving toward a borderless world in which electrons and electromagnetic waves will carry digitized information here, there, and everywhere. Borne upon those waves of information, life will move at the speed of light. 12 Life at the Speed of Light The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies, is very conformable to the Course of Nature, which seems delighted with Transmutations. —Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks (1718)1 When life is finally able to travel at the speed of light, the universe will shrink, and our own powers will expand.


pages: 237 words: 77,224

The Fracture Zone: My Return to the Balkans by Simon Winchester

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, borderless world, invention of movable type, Khyber Pass, mass immigration

Why, the question seemed so pertinent, why create borders anymore? After all, across the rest of Europe, in the North and South and even in much of the once Marxist East, there were everywhere the signs that life was about becoming so very much less complicated. Frontiers were coming down all over Europe. The passport seemed every day less essential. The cry of “Papers!” or of “Documents, please!” became less and less frequently heard. The borderless world seemed a concept well on its way to being born, and at least in Europe itself, there was also the probability, almost a reality now, of that elegant device to be known as the single currency. But here in the Balkans, while elsewhere frontiers were coming down and currencies were becoming melded and melted down into one another, the very opposite was happening. Starting in early summer of 1991, no less than three thousand miles of brand-new European frontiers, de jure and de facto, had actually been drawn, surveyed, and created.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Retrieved from www.nytimes.com. Golash-Boza, T. (2016). A Critical and Comprehensive Sociological Theory of Race and Racism. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2(2), 129–141. doi:2332649216632242. Gold, D. (2011, November 10). The Man Who Makes Money Publishing Your Nude Pics. The Awl. Retrieved from www.theawl.com. Goldsmith, J. L., and Wu, T. (2006). Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press. Goode, E. (2015, May 14). Open Letter to Google from 80 Internet Scholars: Release RTBF Compliance Data. Medium. Retrieved from www.medium.com/@ellgood. Google. (2012, August 10). An Update to Our Search Algorithms. Inside Search. Retrieved from http://search.googleblog.com. Gramsci, A. (1992). Prison Notebooks. Ed. J. A. Buttigieg. New York: Columbia University Press.


pages: 252 words: 74,167

Thinking Machines: The Inside Story of Artificial Intelligence and Our Race to Build the Future by Luke Dormehl

Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, borderless world, call centre, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, drone strike, Elon Musk, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

In 1964, the same year as the New York World’s Fair, the British architect Ron Herron came up with his concept for a ‘Walking City’. Described in the avant-garde architecture journal Archigram, Herron argued for the construction of enormous, artificially intelligent mobile robotic platforms capable of roaming the Earth like giant skyscraper-carrying spiders. These walking cities would exist in borderless worlds in which they were free to go wherever they needed to acquire the necessary resources or manufacturing abilities. Herron’s cities would even, he explained, have the ability to connect with one another to create even larger ‘walking metropolises’. Not only would such cities be self-sufficient but, thanks to breakthroughs in AI, literally autonomous. Given the state of robotics research at the time, it is probably for the best that Ron Herron’s ideas were never taken seriously.


pages: 287 words: 80,180

Blue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant by W. Chan Kim, Renée A. Mauborgne

Asian financial crisis, borderless world, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, endogenous growth, haute couture, index fund, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, NetJets, Network effects, RAND corporation, Skype, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

March 4, 12. Norretranders, T. 1998. The User Illusion: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size. New York: Penguin Press Science. North American Industry Classification System: United States 1997. 1998. Lanham, VA: Bernan Press. Nova. 2003. “Battle of the X-Planes.” PBS. February 4. Ohmae, Kenichi. 1982. The Mind of the Strategist: The Art of Japanese Business. New York: McGraw-Hill. ———. 1990. The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy. New York: HarperBusiness. ———. 1995a. End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies. New York: HarperCollins. Ohmae, Kenichi, ed. 1995b. The Evolving Global Economy: Making Sense of the New World Order. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. O’Reilly, C., and J. Chatman. 1986. “Organization Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance Identification, and Internationalization on Prosocial Behavior.”


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, post-work, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

What’s more, its exponents endlessly insisted that despite protestations to the contrary, what the media was calling “globalization” had almost nothing to do with the effacement of borders and the free movement of people, products, and ideas. It was really about trapping increasingly large parts of the world’s population behind highly militarized national borders within which social protections could be systematically withdrawn, creating a pool of laborers so desperate that they would be willing to work for almost nothing. Against it, they proposed a genuinely borderless world. Obviously, these ideas’ exponents did not get to say any of this on TV or major newspapers—at least not in countries like America, whose media is strictly policed by its own internal corporate bureaucrats. Such arguments were, effectively, taboo. But we discovered that there was something we could do that worked almost as well. We could besiege the summits where the trade pacts were negotiated and the annual meetings of the institutions through which the terms of what was called globalization were actually concocted, encoded, and enforced.


pages: 327 words: 84,627

The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

In the First Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, empathy extended to figurative families based on a collective sense of national loyalty to the Motherland or Fatherland. Citizens began to empathize with each other based on their nation-state identity. In the Second Industrial Revolution in the twentieth century, empathy extended to like-minded cosmopolitan and professional ties in an increasingly borderless world. In the emerging Third Industrial Revolution, a generation of digital natives Skyping in global classrooms, interacting on Facebook and Instagram, gaming in virtual worlds, and obsessively traveling the physical world are beginning to see themselves as a planetary cohort inhabiting a common biosphere. They are extending empathy in a more expansive way, coming to think of themselves as members of a threatened species and empathizing with their common plight on a destabilizing Earth.


pages: 223 words: 10,010

The Cost of Inequality: Why Economic Equality Is Essential for Recovery by Stewart Lansley

"Robert Solow", banking crisis, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population

Not only have capital controls been abandoned, ‘we have now taken a full step again beyond that, into a world where capital is not only free to flow across borders, but is actively and artificially encouraged to move,’ writes Nicholas Shaxson in his study of the power of the offshore tax industry, ‘lured by any number of offshore attractions: secrecy, evasion of prudential banking regulations, zero taxes.’158 Soon international capitalism—‘financial liberalisation on steroids’, as Shaxson has described it159—was being driven by the demands of a tsunami of global footloose capital looking for the most lucrative home. In this new borderless world, money poured into the global financial centres, especially London and New York. From there it spiralled round the world often at speed creating wave after wave of hot money flows. The super-rich owners of this money might once have been more closely tied to their own nation, and had a genuine identification with the country where they were born and lived. Today the super-rich are rarely tied to a particular place or nation.


pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Ian Hargreaves, Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 24. This is pretty much the approach taken by Professor Ian Hargreaves in his report Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 25. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Declaration_of_the_Independence_of_Cyberspace. Cf. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (2008, Oxford University Press. See also Johnny Ryan, A History of the Interent and the Digital Future (2010, Reaktion Books). 26. Francis Gurry,The Future of Copyright, address delivered in Sydney, Australia, February 25, 2011. 27. Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 83 (Harper & Brothers 3d ed. 1950, 2006 paperback) (1942). 28. Sam Ricketson, WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions of Copyright Related Rights in the Digital Environment at page 4, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 9th Session, Geneva, June 23 to 27, 2003, SCCR/9/7 (April 5, 2003).


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

GOFF, however, has one very obvious drawback in a world in which globalization appears to be in retreat. It would be yet another international institution that, for many voters, would appear to be both technocratic and unaccountable. Would political leaders be prepared to support it? Would they dare? Can globalization only be saved by creating institutions that voters are already opposing? A BORDERLESS WORLD A third option would be to dispense with borders altogether. The nearest we have got to this is perhaps the European Union – or, more specifically, the 19 members that make up the Eurozone. Yet the single currency project is only half-finished – and arguably only half-baked. The Eurozone has some aspects of nationhood: a single currency, a single monetary policy, a single (although incomplete) market and, for those who also happen to be members of Schengen, a common external border.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

The same features of online discourse that people in free states found liberating—the ability to join and leave a community at will, to write under multiple identities, to preserve and resurrect old arguments—made the internet perilous for participants whose default mode was distrust due to the long-standing oppression they had experienced. You could reinvent yourself on the internet, but you could not start over. In the early 2010s, most scholars of digital technology and politics emphasized the positive. They envisioned a borderless world in which citizens, buoyed by technology, could expose and thereby rectify structural problems. Their enthusiasm extended to social media corporations, which were often credited for a successful demonstration instead of the actual protesters. In the West, Iran’s 2009 uprising was deemed a “Twitter Revolution” and the Arab Spring was called a “Facebook Revolution.” Western conceptions of success led to the hardship of protesters on the ground being played down.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

Richard Alleyne, “YouTube: Overnight Success Has Sparked a Backlash,” Daily Telegraph, July 31, 2008; Hof, “Maybe Google Isn’t Losing Big Bucks”; Liedtke, “Guessing Game”; An Anthropological Introduction to YouTube, 2008, video available on www.youtube.com; Chris Soghoian, “Why Obama Should Ditch YouTube,” Surveillance State—CNET News, November 24, 2008, http:// news.cnet.com; Chris Soghoian, “White House Exempts YouTube from Privacy Rules,” Surveillance State—CNET News, January 22, 2009, http://news.cnet .com; Marcia Stepanek, “Speaking YouTube,” Cause Global, July 2, 2009, http:// causeglobal.blogspot.com; Siva Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose with GooTube,” MSNBC.com, October 27, 2006; Siva Vaidhyanathan, “Me, ‘Person of the Year’? No Thanks,” MSNBC.com, December 28, 2006. 47. Johnny_mango, “ ‘Lost’ Police Incident Report . . . Is This What Heather Wilson ‘Lost’ 13 Years Ago?” Albloggerque, October 19, 2006, http:// albloggerque.blogspot.com; Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose.” 48. Vaidhyanathan, “What We Might Lose.” 49. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). NOT ES TO PAGES 39–4 3 227 50. Abigail Cutler, “Penetrating the Great Firewall: Interview with James Fallows,” Atlantic, February 19, 2008; James Fallows, “ ‘The Connection Has Been Reset,’ ” Atlantic, March 2008; Ronald Deibert et al., Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008). 51. Thomas Frank, One Market under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism, and the End of Economic Democracy (New York: Doubleday, 2000). 52.


pages: 381 words: 101,559

Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Gobal Crisis by James Rickards

Asian financial crisis, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, game design, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, high net worth, income inequality, interest rate derivative, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Myron Scholes, Network effects, New Journalism, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, one-China policy, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, time value of money, too big to fail, value at risk, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Russia and China rose as protocapitalist societies eager to adopt many of the new global norms they saw emerging in Western countries. Economic and political walls were coming down while, at the same time, technology facilitated ease of communication and improved productivity. From the point of view of finance, the world was now borderless and moving quickly toward what legendary banker Walter Wriston had presciently called the twilight of sovereignty. Infinite risk in a borderless world was the new condition of finance. Globalization increased the scale and interconnectedness of finance beyond what had ever existed. While issuance of bonds was traditionally limited by the use to which the borrower put the proceeds, derivatives had no such natural limit. They could be created in infinite amounts by mere reference to the underlying security on which they were based. The ability to sell Nevada subprime mortgage loans to German regional banks after the loans had been bundled, sliced, repackaged and wrapped with worthless triple-A ratings was a wonder of the age.


pages: 268 words: 109,447

The Cultural Logic of Computation by David Golumbia

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, American ideology, Benoit Mandelbrot, borderless world, business process, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, future of work, Google Earth, Howard Zinn, IBM and the Holocaust, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

., Sales presentation (February 2, 2001). http://www.mahealthdata.org/. Gelb, I. J. 1952. A Study of Writing. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. Gitelman, Lisa. 2006. Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press Gitelman, Lisa, and Geoffrey B. Pingree, eds. 2004. New Media, 1740–1915. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Goldsmith, Jack, and Tim Wu. 2006. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press. Goldsmith, John. 2004. “From Algorithms to Generative Grammar and Back Again.” Paper delivered at Chicago Linguistics Society. Ms. University of Chicago. Golumbia, David. 1996a. “Black and White World: Race, Ideology, and Utopia in Triton and Star Trek.” Cultural Critique 32 (Winter), 75–96. ———. 1996b. “Hypercapital.” Postmodern Culture 7:1 (September). ———. 1999.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

We can and should tell a different story about globalization. Instead of viewing it as a system that requires a single set of institutions or one principal economic superpower, we should accept it as a collection of diverse nations whose interactions are regulated by a thin layer of simple, transparent, and commonsense traffic rules. This vision will not construct a path toward a “flat” world—a borderless world economy. Nothing will. What it will do is enable a healthy, sustainable world economy that leaves room for democracies to determine their own futures. AFTERWORD A Bedtime Story for Grown-ups Once upon a time there was a little fishing village at the edge of a lake. The villagers were poor, living off the fish they caught and the clothing they sewed. They had no contact with the other inland villages, which were miles away and reached only after days of travel through a dense forest.


pages: 328 words: 97,711

Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know About the People We Don't Know by Malcolm Gladwell

Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, crack epidemic, Ferguson, Missouri, financial thriller, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, Snapchat

So it was that Brian Encinia ended up in a place he should never have been, stopping someone who should never have been stopped, drawing conclusions that should never have been drawn. The death of Sandra Bland is what happens when a society does not know how to talk to strangers. 6. This has been a book about a conundrum. We have no choice but to talk to strangers, especially in our modern, borderless world. We aren’t living in villages anymore. Police officers have to stop people they do not know. Intelligence officers have to deal with deception and uncertainty. Young people want to go to parties explicitly to meet strangers: that’s part of the thrill of romantic discovery. Yet at this most necessary of tasks we are inept. We think we can transform the stranger, without cost or sacrifice, into the familiar and the known, and we can’t.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

Europe was now united by a common democratic, capitalist, and consumerist culture. That in turn had dramatically reduced the threat of another world war breaking out on the old continent. The technological euphoria of the Age of Optimism added an extra layer to the theory. The divided world of the cold war had given way to a unified global economy, tied together by high technology. The new technologies empowered individuals and broke down national boundaries. In a “borderless world,” the idea of nation-states going to war seemed positively antediluvian. In his second book on globalization, The World Is Flat, Friedman came up with another version of “democratic peace” theory to illustrate the argument. The “Dell theory of conflict prevention” argued that war between China and Taiwan was made much less likely (impossible, said Friedman) by the fact that they were part of the same high-tech supply chain that manufactured Dell computers.2 Friedman was skillfully popularizing ideas that had been part of liberal theory for many years.


The Basque History of the World by Mark Kurlansky

anti-communist, borderless world, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, joint-stock company, open economy, spice trade, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

In the Age of Exploration they were the explorers who connected Europe to North America, South America, Africa, and Asia. At the dawn of capitalism they were among the first capitalists, experimenting with tariff-free international trade and the use of competitive pricing to break monopolies. Early in the industrial revolution they became leading industrialists: shipbuilders, steelmakers, and manufacturers. Today, in the global age, even while clinging to their ancient tribal identity, they are ready for a borderless world. WHEN CAPITALISM was new and New England traders were beginning to change the world, Boston enjoyed a flourishing trade with Bilbao. John Adams ascribed the prosperity of the Basques to their love of freedom. In 1794, he wrote of the Basques, “While their neighbors have long since resigned all their pretensions into the hands of Kings and priests, this extraordinary people have preserved their ancient language, genius, laws, government and manners, without innovation, longer than any other nation of Europe.”


pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

This was thanks to the technological revolutions in communications (the internet) and transportation (air travel, container shipping), which were leading to the ‘death of distance’. According to the globalizers, countries now had no choice but to embrace this new reality and fully open up to international trade and investments, while liberalizing their domestic economies. Those who resisted this inevitability were derided as the ‘modern Luddites’, who think they can bring back a bygone world by reversing technological progress (see above). Book titles like The Borderless World, The World Is Flat and One World, Ready or Not summed up the essence of this new discourse. The beginning of the end: the Asian financial crisis The euphoria of the late 1980s and the early 1990s didn’t last. The first sign that not everything was fine with the ‘brave new world’ came with the financial crisis in Mexico in 1995. Too many people had invested in Mexican financial assets with the unrealistic expectation that, having fully embraced free-market policies and having signed the NAFTA, the country was going to be the next miracle economy.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The youth-led rebellion, symbolized by young Google executive Wael Ghonim, who became their “leaderless” spokesperson, used social media—Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter—to outflank and outmaneuver the state police and military, and eventually bring down one of the most dictatorial governments in the world. Youth-led street demonstrations using social media also broke out in Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Jordan, Bahrain, and across the Arab region. The Internet generation is demanding an end to autocratic, centralized governance so they can live in an open, transparent, borderless world that reflects the operating norms and practices of the new social media that has come to define the aspirations of youth everywhere. The uproar among youth living in authoritarian countries will only grow more intense in the years ahead, as they demand their right to be part of a global family that is beginning to share knowledge, commerce, and social life across national boundaries. The Internet has made the biosphere the new political boundary and, in the process, has made traditional geo-politics appear more like an anachronism.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

There are so many ingenious ways to bring life and productivity back to degraded land. Collecting them all in one book is a tremendous public service. Where the Wild Things Were: Life, Death, and Ecological Wreckage in a Land of Vanishing Predators (2008), William Stolzenburg. A well-written and persuasive presentation of essential-predator theory. Life Out of Bounds: Bioinvasion in a Borderless World (1998), Chris Bright. This is the best survey I’ve seen on the impacts of alien-invasive species and what to do about them. The World Without Us (2007), Alan Weisman. Exceptionally thorough field research distinguishes this account of what life gets up to as soon as humans step away. It is a fascinating read. GEOENGINEERING How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth’s Climate (2010), Jeff Goodell.


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

While Russia announced plans: Tracy Staedter, “Why Russia Is Building Its Own Internet,” IEEE Spectrum, January 17, 2018, spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/telecom/internet/could-russia-really-build-its-own-alternate-internet. as of the spring of 2019: Catalin Cimpanu, “Russia to disconnect from the internet as part of a planned test,” ZDNet, February 11, 2019, www.zdnet.com/article/russia-to-disconnect-from-the-internet-as-part-of-a-planned-test. When Yahoo told France: For an excellent discussion on this topic, see Tim Wu and Jack Goldsmith, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). UN’s Group of Governmental Experts: Elaine Korzak, “UN GGE on Cybersecurity: The End of an Era?,” The Diplomat, July 31, 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/un-gge-on-cybersecurity-have-china-and-russia-just-made-cyberspace-less-safe. “offered the best chance for the UK”: Asa Bennett, “Did Britain really vote Brexit to cut immigration?,” Telegraph, June 29, 2016, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/06/29/did-britain-really-vote-brexit-to-cut-immigration.


pages: 443 words: 116,832

The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Gallagher and Moltke, “TITANPOINTE.” 30. James Ball, Luke Harding, and Juliette Garside, “BT and Vodafone among Telecoms Companies Passing Details to GCHQ,” Guardian, August 2, 2013. Ryan Gallagher, “Vodafone-Linked Company Aided British Mass Surveillance,” The Intercept, November 20, 2014. 31. For an early view on this discussion, see Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). 32. After Snowden’s revelations, the NSA said the threshold was not 51 percent, but offered no further information. “NSA’s Implementation of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Section 702,” Office of Civil Liberties and Privacy, National Security Agency, April 16, 2014, 4; Rachel Martin, “Ex-NSA Head Hayden: Surveillance Balances Security, Privacy,” NPR, June 9, 2013. 33.


pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

When it became known that a particular group were being put to the front of the asylum queue – Syrians, for instance – then a large number of people would claim to be Syrians, even though some of those working with the refugees noticed they were neither speaking any Syrian dialect nor knew anything about the country they claimed to be from. This phenomenon is at least partly caused by NGOs that advocate for any and all migration into Europe as part of the ‘borderless world’ movement. As the flow of migrants grew in the 2010s, some NGO groups decided to help migrants before they even got to Europe. They provided easily accessible information on the web and on phone apps to guide would-be Europeans through the process. This included advice on where to go and what to say once there. Front-line workers notice that as time goes on the awareness of the migrants about what will happen to them and what they should expect becomes ever clearer.


pages: 382 words: 127,510

Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire by Simon Winchester

borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, laissez-faire capitalism, offshore financial centre, sensible shoes, South China Sea, special economic zone, the market place

Informal Empire is another—the notion that since the old, formal Empires are all now dead, since the systems of unelected Governors and Viceroys and District Commissioners have all passed away, what replaces them is an unstructured kind of imperium, with on the one hand a slew of new and similarly unelected rulers, which in this case are banks, corporations and brands, all operating without restriction in a new and economically borderless world, and on the other hand a vast and disparate body of subject peoples, who are in increasing numbers bound to make use of these banks, corporations and brands and are kept in thrall to them unwittingly, but firmly kept there nonetheless. The benefits of globalisation are proclaimed vociferously by the banks and corporations who are its prime beneficiaries: economies of scale mean that consumer products become cheaper and more widely available; bureaucracy crumbles in the face of corporate-directed efficiency; access to goods and services is more widespread, more democratic, the standard of living everywhere improves—everyone floats higher on an ever-rising tide of global prosperity.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

“experiment in anarchy” Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age (New York: Knopf, 2013), p. 263. the system’s evolution Vint Cerf, “IETF and the Internet Society,” Internet Society, July 18, 1995, http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/ietf-and-internet-society. US government’s central involvement Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). “diversity of the Internet” United States Department of Commerce, “State of Policy on the Management of Internet Names and Addresses,” National Telecommunications & Information Administration, June 5, 1998, http://www.ntia.doc.gov/federal-register-notice/1998/statement-policy-management-internet-names-and-addresses. continue to perform this role today AFRINIC, “AFRINIC History,” http://www.afrinic.net/en/about-us/origins, accessed February 2013.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Journal of Communication 52, no. 4 (2002): 731-748. Glassman, James K., and Michael Doran. “How to Help Iran’s Green Revolution.” Wall Street Journal, January 21, 2010. Glenny, Misha. “BlackBerry Is but a Skirmish in the Battle for the Web.” Financial Times, August 6, 2010. Goldsmith, Jack L., and Tim Wu. “Digital Borders.” Legal Affairs (2006): 40. ———. Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Gunaratne, S. A. “De-Westernizing Communication/Social Science Research: Opportunities and Limitations.” Media, Culture & Society 32, no. 3 (2010): 473. Guynn, Jessica. “Twitter Hires Obama Administration’s Katie Stanton.” Los Angeles Times, July 10, 2010. Hardy, Michael. “In-Q-Tel, Google Invest in Recorded Future.” Government Computer News, July 29, 2010. gcn.com/articles/2010/07/29/inqtel-google-fund-web-analysis-firm.aspx.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

“Through this lawsuit, we want to know the extent of Google’s data mining and marketing of student information to third parties,” Jim Hood said. “I don’t think there could be any motivation other than greed for a company to deliberately keep secret how it collects and uses student information” (Benjamin Herold, “Mississippi Attorney General Sues Google over Student-Data Privacy,” Education Week, January 19, 2017). 131. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). 132. Mark Ames, “Team Omidyar, World Police: eBay Puts User Data on a Silver Platter for Law Enforcement,” Pando Daily, December 14, 2013, https://pando.com/2013/12/14/team-omidar-world-police-ebay-puts-user-data-on-a-silver-platter-for-law-enforcement/. 133. Bill Brenner, “eBay Security Offensive Leads to 3K Arrests Globally,” CSO, August 6, 2012. 134.


pages: 495 words: 138,188

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, borderless world, business cycle, central bank independence, Corn Laws, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, inflation targeting, joint-stock company, Kula ring, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price mechanism, profit motive, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The “rush to empire” of this period intensified the political, military, and economic rivalry between England and Germany that culminated in the First World War.25 For Polanyi the imperialist impulse cannot be found somewhere in the genetic code of nations; rather, it materializes as nations struggle to find some way to protect themselves from the relentless pressures of the gold standard system. The flow of resources from a lucrative colony might save the nation from a wrenching crisis caused by a sudden outflow of gold, and the exploitation of the overseas populations might help keep domestic class relations from becoming even more explosive. Polanyi argues that the utopianism of the market liberals led them to invent the gold standard as a mechanism that would bring a borderless world of growing prosperity. Instead, the relentless shocks of the gold standard forced nations to consolidate themselves around heightened national and then imperial boundaries. The gold standard continued to exert disciplinary pressure on nations, but its functioning was effectively undermined by the rise of various forms of protectionism, from tariff barriers to empires. And yet even when this entire contradictory system came crashing down with the First World War, the gold standard was so taken for granted that statesmen mobilized to restore it.


pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

George Beahm, The Boy Billionaire: Mark Zuckerberg in His Own Words (Chicago: Agate Publishing, 2012), 42. 3. Henry Blodget, “The Maturation of the Billionaire Boy-Man,” New York, May 6, 2012; David Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010). 4. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006), 17–18. 5. Erin E. Buckels et al., “Trolls Just Want to Have Fun,” Personality and Individual Differences 67 (2014), 1. 6. Max Chafkin, “How to Kill a Great Idea!,” accessed February 22, 2016, http://www.inc.com/​magazine/​20070601/​features-how-to-kill-a-great-idea.html. 7. David Kirkpatrick, “I Get By with a Little Help from My Friends of Friends,” Fortune, October 13, 2003. 8.


pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

In the words of Andrew Heal, they will "despise the entry of immigrants whose main entry criterion appears to be their wealth or their lack of it, which, the specious logic goes, makes them welfare burdens." 96 Fear of Freedom The prospect of the disappearance of the nation-state early in the new millennium seems timed to effect the maximum disruption in the lives of suggestible people. This 239 will lead to widespread unpleasantness. More than a few observers have recognized a pattern of reaction that is common among those who feel left out by the prospect of a borderless world. As the larger, more inclusive national grouping begins to break down, with the more mobile "information elite" globalizing their affairs, the "losers and leftbehinds" fall back upon membership in an ethnic subgroup, a tribe, a gang, a religious or linguistic minority. Partly, this is a practical and pragmatic reaction to the collapse of services, including law and order, formerly provided by the state.


pages: 482 words: 161,169

Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry by Peter Warren Singer

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market friction, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, risk/return, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Perhaps there is no greater indicator of this than the recent U.S. war on terrorism, where the most powerful state in history found itself under attack from an amorphous terrorist network not linked to anv one state. In fact, the advance that Osama bin Laden brought to terrorism was its privatization, essentially acting as a venture capitalist for terror cells at a time when state sponsorship dried up.14 These new conflict actors range from terrorist organizations like al Qaeda to transnational drug cartels. The increasingly borderless world system has played a part. It may help world trade flows, but its negative result is that conflicts are engendered by the ease of criminal economic transactions and new availability of illicit supplies. Many of the internal conflicts that have popped up since the Cold War are in fact criminally related assaults on state sovereignty by non-state actors (for example, in Colombia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Tajikistan).


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

Social Studies of Science 30, no. 2: 163–223. Giles, Jim. 2005. “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head.” Nature 438: 900–901. Gillies, James, and Robert Cailliau. 2000. How the Web Was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Goldberg, Adele, ed. 1988. A History of Personal Workstations. New York: ACM Press. Goldsmith, Jack L., and Tim Wu. 2006. Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World. New York: Oxford University Press. Goldstein, Andrew, and William Aspray, eds. 1997. Facets: New Perspectives on the History of Semiconductors. New York: IEEE Press. Goldstine, Herman H. 1972. The Computer: From Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gompers, Paul. 1994. “The Rise and Fall of Venture Capital.” Business and Economic History 23, no. 2 (1994), pp. 1–26.


pages: 596 words: 163,682

The Third Pillar: How Markets and the State Leave the Community Behind by Raghuram Rajan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, data acquisition, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial repression, full employment, future of work, global supply chain, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

By only allowing people in who share something common, such as values or ethnicity, they allow for collective national efforts and engender the mutual empathy that allows the country to create support structures such as public schools, safety nets, and disaster relief. Therefore, while borders get in the way of productive efficiency, they may be necessary for the structures that help citizens manage modern life. It would be nice to go toward one borderless world—where we feel empathy for one another as citizens of the world, even while celebrating our specific cultural traditions—and some of what I suggest later will be small steps in that direction. But we are not ready for it yet. Whether the lottery of birth that distributes citizenship is a fair one is a debate we will leave for global ethicists, and we will not enter the question of whether citizenship should be a right for those who have paid their dues—such as fighting in wars—or a gift to be bestowed by the citizenry who obtained their rights merely by birth.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The New International Division of Labour: Structural Unemployment in Industrialised Countries and Industrialisation in Developing Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Frock, Roger. Changing How the World Does Business: FedEx’s Incredible Journey to Success—the Inside Story. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2006. Fung, Victor K., William K. Fung, and Yoram (Jerry) Wind. Competing in a Flat World: Building Enterprises for a Borderless World. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Pub., 2008. Gans, Herbert J. People and Plans: Essays on Urban Problems and Solutions. New York: Basic Books, 1968. Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Anchor Books, 1992. Gilbert, Richard, and Anthony Perl. Transport Revolutions: Moving People and Freight Without Oil. Washington, D.C.: Earthscan, 2010. Gleick, James. Faster: The Acceleration of Just About Everything.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

He left no fingerprints or DNA and was never marked by an exploding dye pack. Importantly, he never needed to physically carry the thousands of pounds of cash out of the bank; it was all accomplished with a mouse and a keyboard. No need for a mask or sawed-off shotgun either; Levin merely hid behind his computer screen and used a circuitous virtual route to cover his digital tracks. The nature of the Internet means that we are increasingly living in a borderless world. Today anybody, with good or ill intent, can virtually travel at the speed of light halfway around the planet. For criminals, this technology has been a boon, as they hop from one country to the next virtually hacking their way across the globe in an effort to frustrate police. Criminals have also learned how to protect themselves from being tracked online. A smart hacker would never directly initiate an attack against a bank in Brazil from his own apartment in France.


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

“Petrodollar Recycling and Global Imbalances.” Speech, CESifo International Spring Conference, Berlin, March 23–24. O’Brien, R. (1992). Global Financial Regulation: The End of Geography, New York, Council on Foreign Relations. O’Rourke, K. (2011). “A Summit to the Death.” Project Syndicate, December 9. http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/a-summit-to-the-death, accessed March 29, 2014. Ohmae, K. (1990). The Borderless World, New York, Harper Collins. Orhangazi, Ö. (2008). Financialization and the US Economy, Cheltenham, U.K., Edward Elgar Publishing. Orléan, A. (2013). “Money: Instrument of Exchange or Social Institution of Value?” Financial Crises and the Nature of Money: Mutual Developments from the Work of Geoffrey Ingham, J. Pixley and G. Harcourt, Eds. Basingstoke, U.K., Palgrave Macmillan: 46–69. Owladi, J. (2010).


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

. —— (1997) Second European Report on Scientific and Technological Indicators, Paris: OECD. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) (US Congress) (1984) Computerized Manufacturing Automation: Employment, Education, and the Workplace, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. —— (1986) Technology and Structural Unemployment, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Ohmae, Kenichi (1990) The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy, New York: Harper. Osterman, Paul (1999) Securing Prosperity. The American Labor Market: How it has Changed and What to do About it, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Owen, Bruce M. (1999) The Internet Challenge to Television, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ozaki, Muneto et al. (1992) Technological Change and Labour Relations, Geneva: International Labour Organization.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

The have-nots may be living in the same squalor as their great-great-great-grandparents, but they now do have a television set or Internet connection that allows them to see that it is not that way for everyone. Experts sometimes talk about the “digital divide,” that certain information technologies like the Internet are not being spread around the globe at equal rates. The real divide may instead come from its solution: the more people are connected, the more what separates us becomes visible. The same holds for the cliché of the “borderless world.” Our global economy depends on a free-flowing system of trade, travel, and communication, but it also binds us all together to our greater danger. An outbreak of war or disease in one part of the globe reverberates across the system as never before. Even more, the shared networks give our new century’s warriors and warlords a newfound ability to reach out and touch someone. These new losers may be based in some urban slum or mountain hideout, but they can now organize, plan attacks, or share inspirational propaganda with recruits thousands of miles away.


pages: 769 words: 224,916

The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century by Steve Coll

American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, forensic accounting, global village, haute couture, intangible asset, Iridium satellite, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, margin call, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, urban planning, Yogi Berra

Their father, Mohamed, the gifted architect of the family’s original fortune, migrated from a mud-rock fortress town in a narrow canyon in the remote Hadhramawt region of Yemen. He belonged to a self-confident people who were themselves pioneers of globalization, albeit in a slower-paced era of sailing ships and colonial power. Mohamed Bin Laden bequeathed to his children not just wealth, but a transforming vision of ambition and religious faith in a borderless world. PART ONE PATRIARCHS 1900 to September 1967 1. IN EXILE THE TROUBLE STARTED when an ox died. The ox belonged to Awadh Aboud Bin Laden. Around the turn of the twentieth century, he lived in the desert village of Gharn Bashireih, in a deep canyon called Wadi Rakiyah. The gorge cut a path of fifty miles through a region of southern Arabia, in modern Yemen, called the Hadhramawt, which means “Death Is Among Us.”


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

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