card file

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pages: 735 words: 214,791

IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black

card file, computer age, family office, ghettoisation, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, profit motive, Transnistria

Korherr openly denigrated Hofmann’s ideas as unnecessary and duplicative.80 Shortly after the Wannsee Conference, Korherr wrote to a colleague, “I would like to mention that the understandable lack of statistical expertise at the Race and Settlement Office, coupled with their urgent wish for a large statistics office with a Hollerith system and for an SS population card file, made [recent] negotiations extraordinarily difficult. For the statistician, the best proof of an amateur is when someone wants to begin—and end—his statistical work with a card file . . . Since Reichsführer [Himmler] appointed me the sole liaison for Reich statistics . . . I see Gruppenführer Hofmann’s behavior as deliberately . . . undermining my position.”81 Korherr snidely added, “The person in charge at the Reich Statistical Office was astonished at Gruppenführer Hofmann’s plans and asked: then why did Reichsführer [Himmler] hire me and Dr.

Although a network of Jewish and non-sectarian anti-Nazi leagues and bodies struggled to organize comprehensive lists of companies doing business with Germany, from importers of German toys and shoes to sellers of German porcelain and pharmaceuticals, yet IBM and Watson were not identified. Neither the company nor its president even appeared in any of thousands of hectic phone book entries or handwritten index card files of the leading national and regional boycott bodies. Anti-Nazi agitators just didn’t understand the dynamics of corporate multinationalism.64 Moreover, IBM was not importing German merchandise, it was exporting machinery. In fact, even exports dwindled as soon as the new plant in Berlin was erected, leaving less of a paper trail. So a measure of invisibility was assured in 1933. But to a certain extent all the worries about granting Hitler the technologic tools he needed were all subordinated to one irrepressible, ideological imperative.

In 1934, IBM undertook the Austrian census, and two years later, Watson approved a card printing plant for the country.18 In early 1938, in the weeks leading up to the March Anschluss, Adolf Eichmann was dispatched to Vienna as a specialist on Jewish affairs to organize forced Jewish emigration. Once in Vienna, he found an enormous punch card operation working around the clock. The Hollerith program superseded every other aspect of German preparations.19 “For weeks in advance [of the Anschluss],” remembered Eichmann, “every able-bodied man they could find was put to work in three shifts: writing file cards for an enormous circular card file, several yards in diameter, which a man sitting on a piano stool could operate and find any card he wanted thanks to a system of punch holes. All information important for Austria was entered on these cards. The data was taken from annual reports, handbooks, the newspapers of all the political parties, membership files; in short, everything imaginable. . . . Each card carried name, address, party membership, whether Jew, Freemason or practicing Catholic or Protestant; whether politically active, whether this or whether that.


pages: 366 words: 87,916

Fluent Forever: How to Learn Any Language Fast and Never Forget It by Gabriel Wyner

card file, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, index card, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spaced repetition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra

Every time you access your computerized SRS, it will automatically teach you twenty to thirty new cards and quiz you on the hundred or so cards you’re about to forget. Your job is to tell your SRS whether or not you remember a particular card, and your SRS’s job is to build a daily, customized to-do list based upon your input. This list is designed to help you memorize as efficiently as possible, so that you can spend your time learning instead of micromanaging. A paper SRS accomplishes the same feat using a flash card file box, a carefully designed schedule, and a few simple instructions. It’s basically a simple board game. The game contains seven levels, which correspond to seven labeled sections in your file box (i.e., level 1, level 2, etc.). Every card starts on level 1, and advances to the next level whenever you remember it. If you forget, the card falls all the way back to level 1. Whenever a card gets past level 7, it has won its place in your long-term memory.

In roughly thirty minutes per day, you can learn thirty new cards and maintain all of your old cards. Scale up or down as needed to fit your schedule and tolerance for LCD screens. If you prefer working with your hands, you can create an SRS with physical flash cards. Named after an Austrian science journalist writing in the 1970s, the Leitner box is just a particularly clever way to use a flash card file box, some dividers, and a calendar. In the original version, your box is divided into four sections. You review section 1 every day, section 2 every two days, section 3 every three days, and so on. When you successfully remember a card—gato = [cute picture of a cat]—it moves into the next section. If you forget, it moves back into section 1. This acts like a gauntlet for words; any flash cards that can get all the way to the last section have won their way into your long-term memory.

They’ve taught you how to make a basic flash card, how to insert audio files and images into your cards, and how to review those cards once you’re ready to learn. You’ve also downloaded and installed my demo deck, so your main job involves finding information and recordings, putting them in the right boxes, and clicking the Add Flash Cards button. If you’ve chosen a Leitner box, you’ve read Appendix 3, gone out to your local office supply store, and purchased your materials. You have an index card file-box full of dividers, a stack of blank index cards, some pencils, and a calendar in front of you (today is day 1!). You also remember my earlier caveat: Since paper flash cards can’t talk, you’re going to take extra care to learn a phonetic alphabet and to listen to recordings of example words when you write your flash cards. THE FIRST GALLERY: DO-IT-YOURSELF PRONUNCIATION TRAINERS Cards for Chapter 3 In this section, I’m going to show you how to build a pronunciation trainer for your new language.


pages: 517 words: 139,824

The Difference Engine by William Gibson, Bruce Sterling

card file, clockwatching, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, plutocrats, Plutocrats, spinning jenny, the scientific method

" "I do suppose that intelligence might find its way to improper hands," the boy allowed. "Of course, 'twould be worth a fellow's job, if he were caught at it." "Do you like your work, Mr. Tobias?" "Pay's not much. Gas-light ruins your eyes. But it has advantages." He shrugged again, and pushed his way through another door, into a clattering anteroom, three of its walls lined with shelves and card-files, the fourth with fretted glass. Behind the glass loomed a vast hall of towering Engines -- so many that at first Mallory thought the walls must surely be lined with mirrors, like a fancy ballroom. It was like some carnival deception, meant to trick the eye -- the giant identical Engines, clock-like constructions of intricately interlocking brass, big as rail-cars set on end, each on its foot-thick padded blocks.

Many's the poor innocent bastard ruined like that . . . " The tick and sizzle of the monster clockwork muffled his words. Two men, well-dressed and quiet, were engrossed in their work in the library. They bent together over a large square album of color-plates. "Pray have a seat," Tobias said. Mallory seated himself at a library table, in a maple swivel-chair mounted on rubber wheels, while Tobias selected a card-file. He sat opposite Mallory and leafed through the cards, pausing to dab a gloved finger in a small container of beeswax. He retrieved a pair of cards. "Were these your requests, sir?" "I filled out paper questionnaires. But you've put all that in Engine-form, eh?" "Well, QC took the requests," Tobias said, squinting. "But we had to route it to Criminal Anthropometry. This card's seen use -- they've done a deal of the sorting-work already."

While he found the latter infinitely more compelling than the former, it was Q C he needed today, most particularly in the person of Andrew Wakefield, the departmental Under-Secretary. The clerks of Q C were individually walled into neatly cramped cells of rolled-steel, asbestos, and veneer. Wakefield presided over them from a grander version of the same scheme, his sparse sandy head framed by the brass-fitted drawers of a multitude of card-files. He glanced up as Oliphant approached, prominent front teeth displayed against his lower lip. "Mr. Oliphant, sir," he said. "A pleasure as ever. Pardon me." He shuffled a number of punch-cards into a sturdy blue envelope lined with tissue-paper, and meticulously wound the little scarlet string about the two halves of the patent-clasp. He set the envelope aside, in an asbestos-lined hutch containing several other envelopes of identical hue.


The Complete Android Guide: 3Ones by Kevin Purdy

car-free, card file, crowdsourcing, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, John Gruber, QR code, Skype, speech recognition, telemarketer, turn-by-turn navigation

From browser, head to google.com/contacts, log into the account you set up with your phone, then get to work searching, editing, and consolidating duplicate contacts. The ins and outs are, once again, covered in our chapter on Making Calls, Sending Texts, and Managing Contacts. It Takes Forever to Get at My Music, Pictures, and SD Card Files What you want to happen when you connect your Android to your computer's USB Many phone manufacturers, HTC and Motorola included, have created Windows and Mac software apps to handle the transfer and backup of SD card files for their phones. Some, like HTC, have even taken the step of having your phone ask you what you want to use your USB cable connection for--charging, syncing media, straight-up storage access, or data connection tethering. If your phone didn't come with that software, you can still skip the process of plugging, clicking two buttons on your phone, then telling your computer what to do from there.


Culture Shock! Costa Rica 30th Anniversary Edition by Claire Wallerstein

anti-communist, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, card file, fixed income, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, out of africa, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Newspapers and advertising hoardings carry messages from role models such as football trainers urging young people to read, but apparently to little avail. Bookshop owner Darren Mora said, “People don’t get into the habit of reading because books are too expensive for many people. In any case, most bookshops only stock text books and literary classics.” Libraries are not exactly user-friendly either. You can’t just browse among the books, but have to fiddle through oldfashioned card files, fill in a form for each book and ask the librarian—who will probably demand your cédula (identity card) or passport—to bring the books to you. You may not remove the books from the library and can only use them for a few hours. “How are you going to read a novel in an environment like that?” asked Mora. “My nephew, who’s in university, has never read a non-academic book in his life, and I know there are many others like him.”

Website: www.flysansa.com Nature Air Tel: (506) 2299-6000 Email: natureair@centralamerica.com Website: www.natureair.com CHARTER AIRLINES AND HELICOPTERS TACSA (from Tobías Bolaños Airport) Tel: (506) 2232-1438 / 2232-1317 Aviones Taxi Aereo (from Juan Santamaria Airport) Tel: (506) 2431-0160 / 2431-0293 Paradise Air Tel: (506) 2231-0938 / 2231-8972 / 2231-8973 Helicópteros del Norte Tel: (506) 2231-7210 Helicópteros Internacionales Tel: (506) 2231-6867; fax: (506) 2231-5885 Heli-Tours Tropical Tel: (506) 2220-3940 For more information on charter flights, look up www.airchartercentralamerica.com 290 FURTHER READING Many old books and theses about local culture are out of print and only available in libraries, which are always worth a visit. However, remember that in Tico libraries (except some university libraries) you cannot just browse among the shelves—you must look for what you want in the card files, fill out a form and give it to the librarian, who will find the publication. You cannot take books out of the library. GENERAL Amcham’s Guide to Investing and Doing Business in Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica: AmCham. Detailed run-down of the business and investment climate. The New Key to Costa Rica. Beatrice Blake and Anne Becher. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press, 2000 (15th edition). Great guide to the country, particularly for the eco-minded, with a ‘sustainability rating’ for resorts and businesses supporting the country’s environmental, economic and cultural balance.


pages: 103 words: 24,033

The Immigrant Exodus: Why America Is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent by Vivek Wadhwa

card file, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, immigration reform, Marc Andreessen, open economy, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, the new new thing, Y2K

Unfortunately, these are executive fiats and do not hold the force of law. The next president, or even Obama himself, could reverse these orders without requiring approval from any other government body. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether H-4 spouses will only be allowed to work after the sixth year of the H-1B, and if the H-1B is entitled to extensions beyond the sixth year based on a green card filing. “This would be too limited. H-4 spouses should be allowed to work much earlier—from day one,” says immigration attorney Cyrus B. Mehta. To be clear, I credit Obama and other legislators on both sides of the aisle for discussing and pushing forward legislation to improve the lot of skilled immigrants and allow more of them to stay here and contribute to America. However, to date no permanent changes have made it through the US Congress, and this inability to do so illustrates a simple fact: immigration policy reform is not really a priority for the US government.


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

In Otlet’s day, microfilm may have qualified as the most advanced information storage technology, and the closest thing anyone had ever seen to a database was a drawer full of index cards. Yet despite these analog limitations, he 14 I ntrod u ction envisioned a global network of interconnected institutions that would alter the flow of information around the world, and in the process lead to profound social, cultural, and political transformations. By today’s standards, Otlet’s proto-Web was a clumsy affair, relying on a patchwork system of index cards, file cabinets, telegraph machines, and a small army of clerical workers. But in his writing he looked far ahead to a future in which networks circled the globe and data could travel freely. Moreover, he imagined a wide range of ­expression taking shape across the network: distributed encyclopedias, virtual classrooms, three-dimensional information spaces, social networks, and other forms of knowledge that anticipated the hyperlinked structure of today’s Web.

Still, van den Heuvel suggests that Otlet’s approach to classification as a documentary language anticipates Nelson’s concept of hypertext, insofar as it encompasses nonsequential and multidimensional relationships21 or, as Nelson put it, “text that branches and allows choices.”22 263 C ATA L O G I N G T H E WO R L D Nelson maintains that he spent his first five years thinking about interactive text systems in conceptual isolation, with no idea that others had developed similar concepts. Nelson’s earliest proto-­ hypertext experiments bore a striking resemblance to Conrad Gessner’s: using card files, notebooks, scissors, and paste. Over time he hoped to create “the dream file” (emphasis Nelson’s), a sophisticated writing and filing system designed for an author, “holding everything he wanted in just the complicated way he wanted it held, and handling notes and manuscripts in as subtle and complex ways as he wanted them handled.”23 In addition to thinking deeply about the problems of managing large collections of text, Nelson also envisioned how other forms of expression might take shape over time: “hypergrams,” “hypermaps,” and “hyperfilms” or “branching movies.”


pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

A. Roger Ekirch, big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, off grid, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

In a short essay called “Every Move Will Be Recorded,” historian Grégoire Chamayou recounts a hypothetical system of urban surveillance devised by an eighteenth-century police officer named Jacques François Guillauté. In a book about police reform written for King Louis XV of France, Guillauté proposed thoroughly and rigorously updating the Parisian address system. This would require a behemoth piece of machinery that operated a bit like an oversize index-card file—or what Chamayou describes as a “huge archiving machine linked to a map in a central room”—and some arithmetical cartography. “Paris was to be divided into distinct districts,” Chamayou writes, “each receiving a letter, and each being subdivided into smaller sub-districts. In each sub-district each street had accordingly to receive a specific name. On each street, each house had to receive a number, engraved on the front of the house—which was not the case at the time.


pages: 305 words: 73,935

The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community by Chris Scotthanson, Kelly Scotthanson

Buy land – they’re not making it any more, card file, index card, off grid, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl

The secretary shall see that all members receive notice by phone, by first-class mail or in person of the time and place of meetings at least five days before regularly scheduled meetings. 2. No meeting may be convened without two thirds of the member households represented in person but the meeting may continue despite the withdrawal of enough members to leave less than a quorum. At the start of the meeting, a dated 5” x 8” index card shall be signed by all the members present and used to divide the card file into a section for each meeting. APPENDIX: SAMPLE DOCUMENTS 3. All members may participate in decision-making and voting on proposals. 4. Only one person has the right to speak at any one time during a meeting. Anyone else wishing to speak shall so indicate nonverbally and the recorder shall list them in the order they will be called. 5. Only one proposal may be discussed at any one time, and no other business shall be conducted until that proposal is either decided upon or postponed until a later meeting. 6.


The Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching by Donald Ervin Knuth

card file, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, Fermat's Last Theorem, G4S, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, linked data, locality of reference, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, p-value, Paul Erdős, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, sorting algorithm, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, Zipf's Law

." = "United States" Ignore space after prefix in surnames Ignore initial article Ignore apostrophe in English Surname begins with upper case letter (Most of these rules are subject to certain exceptions, and there are many other rules not illustrated here.) If you were given the job of sorting large quantities of catalog cards by computer, and eventually maintaining a very large file of such cards, and if you had no chance to change these long-standing policies of card filing, how would you arrange the data in such a way that the sorting and merging operations are facilitated? 18. [M25] (E. T. Parker.) Leonhard Euler once conjectured [JVova Acta Acad. Sci. Petropolitanas 13 A795), 45-63, §3; written in 1778] that there are no solutions to the equation 6 I 6 u +v 6 w 6 i 6 6 x +y =z in positive integers u, v, w, x, y, z. At the same time he conjectured that i + ¦ ¦ ¦ + Xn-l = %n would have no positive integer solutions, for all n > 3, but this more general conjecture was disproved by the computer-discovered identity 275 + 845 + 1105 + 1335 = 1445; see L.

This may be called an inclusive query, because it asks for all records that include a certain set of attributes, if we assume that l's denote attributes that are present and O's denote attributes that are absent. For example, the recipes in Table 1 that call for both baking powder and baking soda are Glazed Gingersnaps and Old-Fashioned Sugar Cookies. In some applications it is sufficient to provide for the special case of inclusive queries. This occurs, for example, in the case of many manual card-filing systems, such as "edge-notched cards" or "feature cards." An edge-notched card system corresponding to Table 1 would have one card for every recipe, with holes cut out for each ingredient (see Fig. 46). In order to process an inclusive query, the file of cards is arranged into a neat deck and needles are put in each column position corresponding to an attribute that is to be included. After raising the needles, all cards having the appropriate attributes will drop out.

Rev. of Information Science and Technology 2 A967), 123-160; Robert E. Bleier, Proc. ACM Nat. Conf. 22 A967), 41-49; Jerome A. Feldman and Paul D. Rovner, CACM 12 A969), 439-449; Burton H. Bloom, Proc. ACM Nat. Conf. 24 A969), 83-95; H. S. Heaps and L. H. Thiel, Information Storage and Retrieval 6 A970), 137-153; Vincent Y. Lum and Huei Ling, Proc. ACM Nat. Conf. 26 A971), 349-356. A good survey of manual card-filing systems appears in Methods of Information Handling by C. P. Bourne (New York: Wiley, 1963), Chapter 5. Balanced filing schemes were originally developed by C. T. Abraham, S. P. Ghosh, and D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri in 1965; see the article by R. C. Bose and Gary G. Koch, SIAMJ. Appl. Math. 17 A969), 1203-1214. Most of the classical algorithms for multi-attribute data that are known to be of practical importance have been discussed above; but a few more topics are planned for the next edition of this book, including the following: • E.


pages: 740 words: 227,963

The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration by Isabel Wilkerson

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, California gold rush, card file, desegregation, Gunnar Myrdal, index card, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, labor-force participation, Mason jar, mass immigration, medical residency, Rosa Parks, strikebreaker, trade route, traveling salesman, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

He was not unlike the colored university president in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, whose allegiance was, above all, to the institution he ran, which had become an extension of himself. He was a pragmatist who had learned the fine art of extracting whatever he needed from guilt-ridden northerners or poorly credentialed but powerful segregationists who wouldn’t want him living next to them but might grant him a concession or donate to his cause, the colored graduate school Atlanta University. He was so vigilant as to his place in the colored hierarchy that he kept a card file near his desk, Time magazine reported, on every black person in the United States that he considered “worthy of a high position in Government and education” in case he got a query from Washington.202 Without trying, Rufus Clement had become an unwitting rival of Robert, not only for the affections of Robert’s wife and children but in both men’s unspoken effort to prove that where each man had ended up was the better place for colored people.

., p. 26. 199 Mahalia Jackson: Mahalia Jackson and Evan McLeod Wylie, Movin’ On Up (New York: Hawthorne Books, 1966), p. 119. 200 “Shall we sacrifice”: Arna Bontemps and Jack Conroy, Anyplace but Here (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1945), p. 176. 201 The top ten cities: Isabel Wilkerson, “Study Finds Segregation in Cities Worse than Scientists Imagined,” The New York Times, August 5, 1989, an article on the findings of a five-year study of 22,000 census tracts conducted by University of Chicago sociologists Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton. 202 kept a card file: “The Extracurricular Clout of Powerful College Presidents,” Time, February 11, 1966, p. 64. 203 “in addition to his widow”: “Dr. Rufus Clement of AU Dies Here,” New York Amsterdam News, November 11, 1967, p. 45. 204 The evening was unusually cool: Earl Caldwell, “Martin Luther King Is Slain in Memphis; White Is Suspected; Johnson Urges Calm: Guard Called Out; Curfew Ordered in Memphis, but Fires and Looting Erupt,” The New York Times, April 5, 1968, p. 1. 205 “About 74 percent”: Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam Books, 1968), p. 6.


pages: 307 words: 97,677

The Evolution of Useful Things by Henry Petroski

Buckminster Fuller, card file, industrial robot, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman

The best features these most popular paper clips possess individually are combined in the spread-legged Universal (also known as the Imperial) Clip, whose “unique design … allows for easy application with tremendous gripping power.” As we all know, putting even the best-looking of paper clips on cards can be tricky and, once achieved, makes a pile of them awfully bulky. Thus the Nifty Clip was “designed for holding thicker grades of papers such as card or index stock [and is] flattened to conserve card file space.” The Peerless (Owl) Clip, whose “rounded eyes prevent catching and tearing,” not only “holds more than Gems” but with “greater tension than Gems.” Ring Clips, essentially copies of the old Rinklips, are “used when holding only a few sheets,” come in five sizes, and possess the advantages of having “less thickness than Gems” and using “less space in files.” The last clip offered on the page is the Glide-on Clip, which provides a “tighter grip than Gems when holding small amounts of paper.”


pages: 442 words: 110,704

The Glass Universe: How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars by Dava Sobel

Albert Einstein, card file, Cepheid variable, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, Ernest Rutherford, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, index card, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, luminiferous ether, Magellanic Cloud, pattern recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Solar eclipse in 1919

This resource, begun in 1897 by a former assistant, already consisted of fifteen thousand cards listing every published reference to the approximately five hundred known variables, culled from bulletins, journals, and reports of observers all over the world. Miss Cannon could read both French and German, the other two languages of science. She fattened the decks of cards in the existing bibliography and created new card files as new variables came to light. In mid-April, when Mrs. Fleming fully recovered her strength, and no longer needed to take a carriage to the observatory, she reviewed her time-capsule diary with a pang of contrition. “I find that on March 12 I have written at considerable length regarding my salary. I do not intend this to reflect on the Director’s judgment, but feel that it is due to his lack of knowledge regarding the salaries received by women in responsible positions elsewhere.


pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Shortly before he traveled to Philadelphia with Hew Crane to present his ideas on scaling in January 1960, Engelbart began organizing a series of informal seminars at SRI on the idea of augmenting the human intellect. Although they did not have computers with which to explore their ideas, members of the group had been fiddling with proto-PC applications. At the time, the most efficient simple sorting techniques were card-file systems. Data were entered by hand on cards, the outside edges of which were ringed with punched holes. Cutting notches to match various attributes made it possible to retrieve information by sliding a knitting needle through a stack of cards and shaking. The cards with the notched holes would fall out of the deck; it was thus possible to perform simple statistical operations this way. On occasion, the group would invite outsiders to make presentations, and in February of 1961 Engelbart announced in a memo: “Mr.


pages: 382 words: 107,150

We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck

airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

The LWC and ROC organize immigrants who work not for large companies but for small businesses and family-run chains. Often they are exploited by bosses from their home countries who try to intimidate workers by threatening to harm family members living abroad. In spite of this, restaurant workers in the Bronx and Queens, warehouse workers in Brooklyn, and retail workers in Manhattan have repeatedly struck since 2012, signed union cards, filed court complaints, and brought cases before the NLRB. And they have won. A 2012 campaign led by Mexican immigrant Mahoma Lopez to organize the Hot & Crusty bakeries, and a 2016–17 union drive at the B&H photo warehouse, resulted in new unions, no small feat.4 Still, Aran and Rodriguez say that the most radical work they do is psychological. To transform scared workers into labor activists, organizers must help them overcome legitimate fears and anxieties.


pages: 384 words: 112,971

What’s Your Type? by Merve Emre

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, card file, correlation does not imply causation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, God and Mammon, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, p-value, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Socratic dialogue, Stanford prison experiment, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

Although she was not interested in critiquing industrial modernity, and although she never would have used the language of self-determination with the same critical verve Adorno did, Isabel would nevertheless have claimed an equally exalted place for the personality indicator she had started experimenting with in 1943. For one thing, her indicator did not originate in the modern corporation, even if that was to be its first resting place. Ever the devoted child, she had launched her design of the indicator just as her mother had launched her cosmic laboratory of baby training: in the comfort and safety of her home. With the same deck of 3˝ × 5˝ index cards and the same card file that Katharine had once used to chronicle Lyman’s dreams of dark Spanish girls and embarrassing pecks, she proceeded by typing every member of her family. At the top of each card, she wrote the name of the family member and, under that, what she believed to be their Jungian type and their type’s most salient characteristics. She called herself the family’s “type watcher,” a panoptic position she claimed to have occupied for all the years she watched her children grow and her husband flourish but was ready to take seriously only now.


pages: 352 words: 120,202

Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology by Howard Rheingold

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, card file, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, popular electronics, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture

In the limit of what we might now imagine, this could be a computer, with which individuals could communicate rapidly and easily, coupled to a three-dimensional color display within which extremely sophisticated images could be constructed, the computer being able to execute a wide variety of processes on parts or all of these images in response to human direction. The displays and processes could provide helpful services and could involve concepts not hitherto imagined (e.g., the pregraphic thinker would have been unable to predict the bar graph, the process of long division, or card file systems). . . . we might imagine some relatively straightforward means of increasing our external symbol-manipulation capability and try to picture the consequent changes that could evolve in our language and methods of thinking. For instance, imagine that our budding technology of a few generations ago had developed an artifact that was essentially a high-speed, semiautomatic table-lookup device, cheap enough for almost everyone to afford and small enough to be carried on the person.


Rummage: A History of the Things We Have Reused, Recycled and Refused To Let Go by Emily Cockayne

Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, card file, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, New Journalism, oil shale / tar sands, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, paper trading, South Sea Bubble

Between 1937 and 1945, then in middle age and as a widow, she taught cookery, laundry work and needlework at the County School, Pembroke Dock.110 Done well, mending is invisible, and now many of the menders are invisible too – sometimes scandalously so. Griffith’s Manual was reprinted in 1930, then revised in 1932, and reprinted seven times by 1944, before coming out in a new edition in 1952. Clearly it was invaluable, and it remained in wide use for over two decades. Nonetheless, none of Griffith’s works appears in the main catalogue of one of Britain’s three deposit libraries – they appear only in supplementary material card file boxes. Her books were seen as inconsiderable by librarians, despite being published by an academic press, despite their popularity in their day and despite the subcutaneous effect such works had on the nation’s attitude to repair in the mid-twentieth century and beyond: mere ‘women’s work’. The impact of her work was still felt long after. My Nan used Griffith’s books when training for her domestic science diploma.


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

As usual, outsiders brought innovation. A French engineer named Henri Liber established a company called Flambo in 1919 to market a secretarial chair with a backrest adjustable up and down along a U-shaped metal track. Meanwhile, postwar Germany turned its drive for standardization and public health to seating. In the later 1920s, the office supply manufacturer Fortschritt of Freiburg im Breisgau, best known for state-of-the-art card file systems, marketed a Fortschritt-Stuhl (“Progress Chair”) with a spring-loaded back support system—unlike the rigid Tan-Sad and Flambo—and a lever under the seat for adjusting the height of the chair without rising, fifty years before this feature became common. An advertisement noted proudly that the Prussian Ministry of Welfare (Volkswohlfahrtsministerium) had awarded the chair a winning ninety-point score in an evaluation of seating that must have been one of the first conducted by any government.


pages: 555 words: 119,733

Autotools by John Calcote

Albert Einstein, card file, Debian, delayed gratification, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, place-making, Richard Feynman, Valgrind

There is another way to ensure that files created using your own make rules get cleaned up during execution of the clean target. You can define the CLEANFILES variable to contain a whitespace-separated list of files (or wild-card specifications) to be removed. I used a clean-local target in this case, because the CLEANFILES variable has one caveat: It won't remove directories, only files. Each of the rm commands that removes a wild-card file specification refers to at least one directory. I'll show you a proper use of CLEANFILES shortly. Regardless of how well your unit tests clean up after themselves, you still might wish to write clean rules that attempt to clean up intermediary test files. That way, your makefiles will clean up droppings from interrupted tests and debug runs.[122] Remember that the user may be building in the source directory.


pages: 390 words: 125,082

Years of the City by Frederik Pohl

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, card file, East Village, Maui Hawaii, medical malpractice, pattern recognition

The first upturn in his amative fortunes was when he came home almost on time one night and found the apartment full of cooking smells. Heidi was in good spirits. She made them both drinks while the microwave finished their baked bluefish and, responding to the look on his face, laughed. “You haven’t noticed anything special about this week?” she asked. He pursed his lips while he ran through his mental card file. Not Christmas and not Valentine’s Day. Not their anniversary— “Your birthday!” he exclaimed. “But that’s not until Sunday.” She grinned and shook her head. “That’s not what I mean, although there’s something I’d like from you. You really haven’t noticed?” “Noticed what?” “I haven’t thrown up for a week!” And, indeed, she had never looked better. Or, it seemed, felt better. All through dinner she talked, just like old times, long, complicated stories about the string of LNG barges that had been misidentified at first as garbage scows, and what might have happened if they’d been allowed to try to make the passage under the bridge in the thirty-knot wind, about her co-workers, about how well Lucy was doing at the skinner, about when she could feel the baby kick.


pages: 1,071 words: 295,220

Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel's Targeted Assassinations by Ronen Bergman

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

After the IDF occupied the Strip, Rehavia Vardi sent some of his men from Unit 504 to search the Egyptian intelligence building in Gaza City, where Mustafa Hafez had been killed a few months before. In a cellar they found a hidden treasure, one that the desperately fleeing Egyptians had neglected to destroy: the intact card file of all the Palestinian terrorists that Hafez and his men had deployed against Israel in the five years preceding the Sinai Campaign. It was as if the Egyptians had left a hit list. Vardi met with chief of staff Dayan and asked for his permission to begin killing the Palestinians named in the card file. Dayan, in turn, received Ben-Gurion’s approval. Vardi then ordered Natan Rotberg—and his vat of explosives—to go into overdrive. Rotberg’s special formula was poured into wicker baskets, cigarette lighters, fruits, vegetables, even pieces of furniture.


pages: 461 words: 128,421

The Myth of the Rational Market: A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion on Wall Street by Justin Fox

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, card file, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of the americas, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, endowment effect, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, impulse control, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, Nikolai Kondratiev, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pushing on a string, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, stocks for the long run, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, volatility smile, Yogi Berra

During a visit to Michigan, a local reporter asked him if the title of the 1923 hit song “Yes, We Have No Bananas” was correct English. In typically earnest fashion, Fisher responded, “Yes, it would be correct, if the statement was preceded by the question ‘Have you no bananas?’”27 By the second half of the 1920s, Fisher had also become a big financial success. Years before, he had devised a card-filing system to help him keep track of his many endeavors. Fisher’s “Index Visible” filing cards, cut so that the first line of each was visible at a glance (similar to the Rolodex, which came along decades later), were a significant advance in information storage and retrieval. In 1913 he launched a company to manufacture and market his filing system, and in 1925 he sold it to office equipment maker Kardex Rand, which merged with typewriter titan Remington to create one of the hot technology stocks of the 1920s, Remington Rand.


From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

One man sitting in the back of the room is using field glasses to examine a change that has just been made on the display board. Clerks and messengers carrying cards and sheets of paper hurry from files to automatic machines. The chatter of teletype and sound of card sorting equipment fills the air. As the departure date for a flight nears, inventory control reconciles the seat inventory with the card file of passenger name records. Unconfirmed passengers are contacted before a final passenger list is sent to the departure gate at the airport. Immediately prior to take off, no-shows are removed from the inventory file and a message sent to downline stations canceling their space.40 Of all the carriers, American Airlines had the most innovative reservation operations. By 1952 it had already gone through two phases of mechanization.


The Unicorn's Secret by Steven Levy

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, card file, East Village, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, index card, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

Hallett paid for this out of his own pocket, as well as buying books that Ira would send along to a list of friends, with an admonition for them to send the books, when they finished, to the next name on the list. Moses considered it money well spent; he was a self-admitted information freak and he considered Ira one of the world’s best sources of news of the mind. Soon Hallett cleared the way for Bell to pay the duplication costs of the network. As the project evolved, he and Ira arrived at a protocol. The names of the members of the network were kept in a card file maintained by Hallett’s secretary. The list eventually grew to more than 350 names in more than twenty countries. Each time Ira came with a mailing, usually once or twice a week, he would specify which people would receive this particular set of materials. His list was usually written on a yellow, lined cover page, the names scrawled in Ira’s unmistakable block lettering. Depending on how esoteric the material was, Ira might request that it go to four names or seventy.


East West Street: On the Origins of "Genocide" and "Crimes Against Humanity" by Philippe Sands

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, battle of ideas, British Empire, card file, nuremberg principles

Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern and Antony Polonsky (Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2014), 337–60. From the city archives: Government Archive of Lviv Oblast. Only Leon was born: Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw. Stanisław Żółkiewski: Born 1547, died 1620. Alex Dunai gave me: Digital copy on file. “at the far end”: Joseph Roth, The Wandering Jews, trans. Michael Hofmann (Granta, 2001), 25. It lay at the western: Card file of Żółkiew landowners, 1879, Lviv Historical Archives, fond 186, opys 1, file 1132, vol. B. A peace treaty was signed: Treaty of London, signed May 30, 1913, by Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Italy, Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. Yet just a month later: Treaty of Bucharest, signed Aug. 10, 1913, by Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro. “most colossal battle”: “Lemberg Taken, Halicz As Well,” New York Times, Sept. 5, 1914.


Beautiful Data: The Stories Behind Elegant Data Solutions by Toby Segaran, Jeff Hammerbacher

23andMe, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, bioinformatics, Black Swan, business intelligence, card file, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, database schema, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fault tolerance, Firefox, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, information retrieval, lake wobegon effect, longitudinal study, Mars Rover, natural language processing, openstreetmap, prediction markets, profit motive, semantic web, sentiment analysis, Simon Singh, social graph, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, Vernor Vinge, web application

DATA FINDS DATA Download at Boykma.Com 113 Semantically reconciled* directories are directories that attempt to exploit synonyms, things that use different words to mean that same things. This means users looking for one thing (e.g., “Billy the Kid”) should find other “same” things (e.g., “William Antrim,” one of his aliases). Semantically reconciled directories recognize when a newly reported entity references a previously observed entity. Directories that contain semantically reconciled data can be thought of much like a library card file, with one big difference: cards relating to like entities are rubber-banded together. This means if a search locates one card, as a bonus, all other related cards are discovered without any additional effort. Most notably, some of the cards in the rubber-banded clump of library cards may not even contain the original data item being searched. Quite frankly, this can look like magic. When attempting to discover what the enterprise knows about an email address, one can discover a record with the email address as well as other records in the enterprise about the same person—for example, loyalty club activity, despite the fact that the loyalty club record never contained an email address.


pages: 744 words: 142,748

Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley

air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, undersea cable, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

The government had been tangling with Beckley since the late 1950s and wanted to take him down. Badly. “Beckley lived in a plush Miami Beach apartment house, five or six stories up, well insulated. There was no way to get in and do anything,” Sharp says. “We were pretty well restricted to phone record checks.” But the phone records were a treasure trove. Over a period of months Sharp amassed a 3x5 index card file—some twenty thousand cards’ worth—of every long-distance number Beckley called. “We didn’t know the term then,” Sharp says, “but what we really needed was a computer database.” Painstakingly, Sharp and his colleagues built a detailed map of Beckley and his associates. By combining this with other intelligence they formed a solid picture of his bookmaking operation. The threat posed by telephone toll records wasn’t news to the bookies, and they had developed several techniques to combat it.


pages: 647 words: 161,908

Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965 by Francis O. French, Colin Burgess, Paul Haney

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Berlin Wall, card file, Charles Lindbergh, out of africa

He reported opening his faceplate and then had problems inserting one of the door pins that held the hatch to the side of the capsule, a procedure designed to prevent the hatch from traveling too far if fired once the spacecraft was brought on to a ship's deck. This safety measure had nothing to do with actuating the explosive feature of the hatch that was soon scheduled to come into play. Apart from this minor annoyance, everything was going according to plan. While Liberty Bell 7 continued its descent Grissom heard from the pilot of the radio relay airplane, designated Card File 23. "We are heading directly toward you," the pilot announced, as the spacecraft passed three thousand feet. Then the first of the rescue helicopters, flying under the code name of Hunt Club-1, was in contact. Pilot Jim Lewis told Grissom they were about two miles southwest of the projected splashdown site. When the landing bag deployed below Liberty Belly, Grissom felt a slight jar as the heat shield dropped down about four feet.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

At any one moment, each reservations clerk would be responding to one or more of three general types of inquiry from a customer or travel agent: requests for information about flight availability, requests to reserve or cancel seats on a particular flight, and requests to purchase a ticket. To deal with any of these requests, the reservations clerks would have to refer to a series of well-lit boards displaying the availability of seats on each flight scheduled to depart over the next few days. For flights further ahead in time, the agent would have to walk across the room to consult a voluminous card file. If the inquiry resulted in a reservation, a cancellation, or a ticket sale, the details of the transaction would be recorded on a card and placed in an out-tray. Every few minutes these cards would be collected and taken to the designated availability-board operator, who would then adjust the inventory of seats available for each flight. Once a ticket was sold and the availability board had been updated, the sales information found its way to the back office, where another forty or so clerks maintained passenger information and issued tickets.


Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink (Politics and Society in Modern America) by Louis Hyman

asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, card file, central bank independence, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, p-value, pattern recognition, profit maximization, profit motive, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, technology bubble, the built environment, transaction costs, union organizing, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Revealing informants would not increase accuracy, Burge insisted but, because of fear of harassment, “sources [would] alter their stories.”174 The intensely personal information revealed through investigators and services like the Welcome Wagon were important because Burge believed that “the care with which a person exercises the premises of his home seemed to be carried over into other habits of his life.”175 Despite his claims to the contrary, the Retail Credit Company manual instructed investigators “to investigate in such a manner that the applicant or insured will not learn of the investigation.”176 The decentralization of the information in card files and 300 branch offices offset, Burge felt, the Orwellian possibilities of the information’s misuse. The very inefficiency of the qualitative, noncomputerized systems made Retail Credit Company’s services not nearly as sinister as detractors like Westin claimed. The older filing systems still allowed for privacy breeches, however, even without being centralized. Credit information could be accessed either by paper requests, or more frequently, it was obtained over the phone.


pages: 914 words: 270,937

Clear and Present Danger by Tom Clancy

active measures, affirmative action, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, card file

Ritter walked to his. The secretaries hadn't returned yet. They were in a van. Ritter paced around his office until they arrived, then walked over to see Mrs. Cummings. "Did Ryan call in or anything?" "No, and I didn't see him at all. Do you know where he is?" Nancy asked. "Sorry, I don't." Ritter walked back and on impulse called Ryan's home, where all he got was an answering machine. He checked his card file for Cathy's work number and got past the secretary to her. "This is Bob Ritter. I need to know where Jack is." "I don't know," Dr. Caroline Ryan replied guardedly. "He told me yesterday that he had to go out of town. He didn't say where." A chill went across Ritter's face. "Cathy, I have to know. This is very important - I can't tell you how important. Please trust me. I have to know where he is."


pages: 926 words: 312,419

Working: People Talk About What They Do All Day and How They Feel About What They Do by Studs Terkel

activist lawyer, business cycle, call centre, card file, cuban missile crisis, Ford paid five dollars a day, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, job satisfaction, Ralph Nader, strikebreaker, traveling salesman, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Yogi Berra, zero day

I would spend most of my time with them. I would make phone calls to—God forgive—advertising agencies, radio stations. If you concentrated on the placeables, you made money. These were the girls who came off the production line of high schools, particularly the Catholic schools. They seemed to be tractable young girls. They went into banks as filing clerks in those days. You called the banks and you had your card file and you sent the girl over to the job. You could be a mass production worker yourself, working these girls into the system. There were no tough corners, nothing abrasive. One of my colleagues made two hundred dollars a week shoveling people into these slots. I wasn’t doing what the other girls at the desks were doing. I found myself haunted at night by the unplaceable girls. The unplaceable girls were me.


Gorbachev by William Taubman

active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, haute couture, indoor plumbing, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Stanislav Petrov, trade liberalization, young professional

Like her mother and mother-in-law, Raisa wanted everything in her home to be just right, and she trained her daughter in the same spirit. Irina helped her mother sort through her sociological questionnaires, which Raisa spread out on the floor. According to Lydia Budyka, Raisa didn’t worship order for its own sake, but loved her home and wanted it to be warm and welcoming. But some of her efforts went beyond that. For example, Raisa asked her daughter to prepare a card file for the hundreds, if not thousands, of books the Gorbachevs had collected, many of them philosophical tomes reflecting Raisa’s academic specialty. By the 1960s, with her husband’s help, she had managed to obtain copies of the Bible, the Gospels, and the Koran, none easily available in an atheistic state. In addition, there were the complete works of Marx and Lenin, plus a two-hundred-volume set of translated great works of world literature, which Gorbachev ordered while on missions to Moscow.


Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House by Peter Baker

addicted to oil, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, buy low sell high, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, drone strike, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, South China Sea, stem cell, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working poor, Yom Kippur War

“Laura stays in her own space,” he noticed. “I’ve always invaded other people’s spaces.” Four months later they were married. Far apart as they were, Bush and Cheney found their campaigns playing out in similar ways. They both had to show they were homegrown, they both had to translate what they had seen at the national level to the local level, and they both had something to learn about themselves. Bush tapped his parents’ card file of supporters for campaign cash, including Rumsfeld, while striving to be his own man. Still mastering the art of the stump, he was driving home from a speech one day and asked Laura how it had gone; not well, she answered, shocking him so much that he crashed the car into a garage. Cheney, for his part, drove around the state listening to eight-track tapes of the Carpenters. Like Bush, Backseat was trying to make the transition to the front.


pages: 1,336 words: 415,037

The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, yellow journalism, zero-coupon bond

He also sold calendars to his newspaper customers, and he developed another sideline too. He asked all his customers for their old magazines as scrap paper for the war effort.42 Then he would check the labels on the magazines to figure out when the subscriptions were expiring, using a code book he had gotten from Moore-Cottrell, the publishing powerhouse that had hired him as an agent to sell magazines. He made a card file of subscribers, and before their subscriptions expired, Warren would be knocking at their door, selling them a new magazine.43 Because The Westchester had so much turnover in wartime, Warren’s biggest dread was customers who skipped out and didn’t pay, leaving him stuck with the cost of their papers. After a few people skipped out on him, he started tipping the elevator girls to let him know when people were about to move.


Executive Orders by Tom Clancy

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, card file, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, experimental subject, financial independence, friendly fire, lateral thinking, Monroe Doctrine, one-China policy, out of africa, Own Your Own Home, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rolodex, South China Sea, trade route

Not this guy. Prince Ali took her hand gently. “Oh, you must have met Bernie when he went over in 1994.” Wilmer had helped establish the eye institute in Riyadh, and Bernie had stayed five months to do some clinical instruction. “He performed surgery on a cousin who was injured in a plane crash. He's back flying. And those are your children over there?” “Yes, Your Highness.” This one went into the card file as a good guy. “Would you mind if I spoke with them?” “Please.” The Prince nodded and moved off. Caroline Ryan, he thought, making his mental notes. Highly intelligent, highly perceptive. Proud. Will be an asset to her husband if he has the wit to make use of her. What a pity, he thought, that his own culture utilized its women so inefficiently-but he wasn't King yet, might never be, and even if he were to become so, there were limits to the changes he could make under the best of circumstances.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

At this point they know the first byte of the MAC value, and can repeat the process for the second byte, the third byte, and so on until they’ve got the correct MAC value, at which point they’re fooled you into believing that you’re getting untampered data [449][450] [451][452] (note that they’re not actually generating MACs for the data, they’re just appending different values until they get one that passes the check). This sort of byte-at-a-time attack isn’t limited to guessing MAC values, you can also use it to extract private keys from some smart cards. The keys are typically stored in card files that can’t be read from outside the card, but it’s still possible to write to them since you need to create the key in the first place. To perform the attack, you encrypt some data with the key and record the result. Then you set the first byte of the file to zero and check whether an encryption with the resulting modified key matches the original encryption. If it doesn’t you increment the first byte and repeat the encryption until you get a match.


The power broker : Robert Moses and the fall of New York by Caro, Robert A

Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, British Empire, card file, centre right, East Village, friendly fire, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, land reform, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

If Moses refused to accept ideas from public, experts or aides—from, in general, anyone at all—the source of his ideas, his concept of public works for New York City, could be only his own mind. The mind was brilliant, but even a brilliant mind is only as good as the material—the input—fed into it. It was at about this time that Lazarus, planning to write a book about government and public figures and keeping a card file of impressions, wrote on a card he filed under the name "Robert Moses": Bob Moses has climbed so high on his own ego, has become so hidebound in his own arbitrariness, that he has removed himself almost entirely from reality and has insulated himself within his own individuality. This difficulty could to some degree have been overcome by sheer mental ability. Robert Moses' mind was supple, resourceful.