Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay

12 results back to index

Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth by Margaret Atwood

carbon footprint, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, financial independence, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, trickle-down economics, wage slave

I came across Frans de Waal’s comment on the nature of culture in Harper’s magazine, June 2008, in an article by Frank Bures called “A Mind Dismembered: In Search of the Magical Penis Thieves.” I thank my brother, neurophysiologist Dr. Harold L. Atwood, for sending me various articles on epigenetics. There are many variants to the “Punch-buggy, no punch-backs” game. In one, the colour of the Beetle must be specified. I leave it to the experts to dispute the many rules. For primate trading, see De Waal, Frans, and S. F. Brosnan. “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay.” Nature (2003): 425. Fisher, Daniel. “Selling the Blue Sky.” 2008. Forbes. 20 February 2008. <>. ————. “Primate Economics.” 2008. Forbes. 22 February 2008. <>. Surowiecki, James. “The Coup de Grasso.” The New Yorker. 10 October 2005.

New York: Penguin, 1987. Burns, Robert. “The Deil’s Awa’ wi’ the Exciseman.” Poems, Songs, and Letters: The Complete Works of Robert Burns. Ed. Alexander Smith. London: Macmillan, 1932. Chapman, Sasha. “Wanted: Organic Farmers to Fill Toronto’s Markets.” Globe and Mail. 24 May 2008: M5. Cooper, James Fenimore. The Pioneers. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1948. De Waal, Frans, and S. F. Brosnan. “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay.” Nature (2003): 425. Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. New York: Weathervane, 2007. ————. David Copperfield. Ed. Nina Burgis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. ————. A Tale of Two Cities. Ed. Andrew Sanders. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Duncan, Christopher, and Susan Scott. Return of the Black Death: The World’s Greatest Serial Killer. Chichester: Wiley, 2004. Eliot, George.

pages: 264 words: 76,643

The Growth Delusion: Wealth, Poverty, and the Well-Being of Nations by David Pilling

Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, call centre, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Hangouts, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, off grid, old-boy network, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, performance metric, pez dispenser, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, science of happiness, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

They now enjoy a bigger slice of America’s economic pie than their counterparts did in the so-called Gilded Age of the late nineteenth century.6 If your country’s economy is growing solely because the rich are getting richer and if you are working harder and harder just to maintain your living standard, then you are entitled to ask what, precisely, is all this growth for? That is particularly true since study after study shows that people’s happiness depends not on their absolute wealth, but rather on their wealth relative to those around them. In an experiment written up in a paper called “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay” two capuchin monkeys were initially perfectly content with a reward of cucumbers when they successfully performed a task. But when one monkey was subsequently given tastier grapes as a reward, the monkey receiving plain old cucumbers became enraged, angrily flinging the previously satisfactory salad vegetable at its handler.7 The monkeys’ economy had grown, since grapes are better than cucumbers.

Whether or not he invented it, he uses it frequently. 4. “Chinese Factory Worker Can’t Believe the Shit He Makes for Americans,” Onion, June 15, 2005: 5. “The 30 Most Insane Things for Sale in Skymall,” Buzzfeed, July 10, 2013: 6. Joseph Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality, W. W. Norton & Company, 2012, p. xii. 7. Sarah F. Brosnan and Frans B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature, Vol. 425, September 2003. 8. David Card, Alexandre Mas, Enrico Moretti, and Emmanuel Saez, “Inequality at Work: The Effect of Peer Salaries on Job Satisfaction,” November 2011: 9. “The Cost of Living in Jane Austen’s England”: 10. Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, and Jean-Paul Fitoussi, Mismeasuring Our Lives: Why GDP Doesn’t Add Up, The New Press, 2010, p. ix. 11.

pages: 190 words: 61,970

Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty by Peter Singer

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Branko Milanovic, Cass Sunstein, clean water, end world poverty, experimental economics, illegal immigration, Martin Wolf, microcredit, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Peter Singer: altruism, pre–internet, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, ultimatum game, union organizing

., Peter Singer Under Fire (Chicago: Open Court, forthcoming 2009) both for suggesting the relevance of this research and for this and other references. 20. Bib Latane and John Darley, The Unresponsive Bystander, chapters 6 and 7. 21. There is a substantial literature on the ultimatum game. For a useful discussion, see Martin Nowak, Karen Page, and Karl Sigmund, “Fairness Versus Reason in the Ultimatum Game,” Science 2W (2000), pp. 1773-75. 22. S. F. Brosnan and F.B.M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature 425 (September 18, 2003), pp. 297-99. 23. Kathleen Vohs, Nicole Mead, and Miranda Goode, “The Psychological Consequences of Money,” Science 314 (2006), pp. 1154-56. 24. Richard Titmuss, The Gifi Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy (London: Allen & Unwin, 1970). 25. Elizabeth Corcoran, “Ruthless Philanthropy,”, June 23, 2008. 26. For a fuller discussion of the relevance of our evolved psychology to ethics, see Peter Singer, The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981). 5.

pages: 317 words: 71,776

Inequality and the 1% by Danny Dorling

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, buy and hold, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, David Graeber, delayed gratification, Dominic Cummings, double helix, Downton Abbey,, Etonian, family office, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, land value tax, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mega-rich, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, TaskRabbit, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, very high income, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor

Haddad, ‘Perfect Storm’. 21. M. Gill, ‘Our Instinct for Equality’, New Statesman, 27 February 2012, p. 15. 22. And it is not just us. A paper was published in Nature in 2003 concerning experiments with monkeys being fed with cucumbers, or preferably grapes, in which the monkeys rejected being rewarded unequally, opting for no reward rather than an unfair one. S. F. Brosnan and F. B. M. de Waal, ‘Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay’, Nature 425 (2003). 23. See the description of top bosses and the high frequency of unfortunate childhood experiences suffered by many of them in R. Peston, Who Runs Britain? And Who’s to Blame for the Economic Mess We’re In? (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2008). 24. J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles et al., ‘In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies’, American Economic Review 91: 2 (May 2001), at 25.

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism,, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Ghods and Shekoufeh Savaj, “Iranian Model of Paid and Regulated Living-Unrelated Kidney Donation,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 1, 2006, pp. 616-625; and Hassan Ibrahim, Robert Foley, LiPing Tan, Tyson Rogers, Robert Bailey, Hongfei Guo, Cynthia Gross, and Arthur Matas, “Long-Term Consequences of Kidney Donation,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 360, No. 5, January 2009, pp. 459-469. 177-178 Darwin’s Price System: The experiments about monkeys’ sense of fairness are described in Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature, Vol. 425, September 18, 2003, pp. 297-299. 179-181 The Price of Faith: Pascal’s wager is described in Blaise Pascal, Pensées, translated by W. F. Trotter, 1910, Section IV: On the Means of Belief, paragraph 233 (at, accessed 07/18/2010). 182-185 The Benefits of Belief: The discussion of mutual assistance patterns in religious groups draws from Eli Berman, “Sect, Subsidy and Sacrifice: An Economist’s View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2003, pp. 905-953; David Landau, Piety and Power: The World of Jewish Fundamentalism (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992), p. 263; Buster Smith and Rodney Stark, “Religious Attendance Relates to Generosity Worldwide,” Gallup Report, September 4, 2009 ( , accessed 07/18/2010); Daniel Chen, “Club Goods and Group Identity: Evidence from Islamic Resurgence During the Indonesian Financial Crisis,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 118, No. 2, 2010, pp. 300-354.

pages: 387 words: 110,820

Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, loss aversion, market design, means of production, mental accounting, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, washing machines reduced drudgery, working poor, yield management, zero-sum game

Fehr and B. Rockenbach, “Detrimental Effects of Sanctions on Human Altruism,” Nature (March 13, 2003): 137-40. 66 but for other primates: Megan van Wolkenten, Sarah F. Brosnan, and Frans B. de Waal: “Inequity Responses of Monkeys Modified by Effort,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 47 (November 20, 2007): 18854-95. See also Sarah F. Brosnan and Frans B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature 425 (2003): 297-99. 68 “don’t talk to each other much”: Splendid unpublished profile of Daniel Ariely by journalist Andrea Baird. 69 “correlation did not exist”: Ibid. 70 lead us to fits of impulsiveness: This insight came thanks to a discussion with Alan G. Sanfrey, professor of psychology at the University of Arizona. 73 not their execution: Emily Singer, “The Real Pain of Dread,” Technology Review (May 18, 2006), available online at 73 nucleus accumbens went quiet: In addition to my interviews with Dr.

pages: 326 words: 106,053

The Wisdom of Crowds by James Surowiecki

AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, experimental economics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Howard Rheingold, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, interchangeable parts, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market design, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, offshore financial centre, Picturephone, prediction markets, profit maximization, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Smith, “Constructivist and Ecological Rationality in Economics,” American Economic Review 93 (2003): 465–508. An excellent study of the way people play the ultimatum game in different countries is Alvin E. Roth, Vesna Prasnikar, Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara, and Shmuel Zamir, “Bargaining and Market Behavior in Jerusalem, Ljubljana, Pittsburgh, and Tokyo: An Experimental Study,” American Economic Review 81 (1991): 1068–95. On the capuchins, see Sarah F. Brosnan and Frans B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature 425 (2003): 297–99. See Alberto Alesina, Rafael di Tella, and Robert MacCulloch, “Inequality and Happiness: Are Europeans and Americans Different?,” National Bureau of Economic Research working paper no. 8198 (2001). A later version of this paper is available at See also Jennifer L. Hochschild, What’s Fair? American Beliefs About Distributive Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981); and Hochschild, Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden,, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, global pandemic, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, twin studies, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Both monkeys pay their pebble. Monkey 1 gets a grape. But monkey 2 gets some cucumber, which blows compared with grapes—capuchins prefer grapes to cucumber 90 percent of the time. Monkey 2 was shortchanged. And monkey 2 would then typically fling the cucumber at the human or bash around in frustration. Most consistently, they wouldn’t give the pebble the next time. As the Nature paper was entitled, “Monkeys reject unequal pay.” This response has since been demonstrated in various macaque monkey species, crows, ravens, and dogs (where the dog’s “work” would be shaking her paw).*13 Subsequent work by Brosnan, de Waal, and others fleshed out this phenomenon further:14 One criticism of the original study was that maybe capuchins refused to work for cucumbers because grapes were visible, regardless of whether the other guy was getting paid in grapes.

., “The Importance of Moral Construal: Moral Versus Non-moral Construal Elicits Faster, More Extreme, Universal Evaluations of the Same Actions,” PLoS ONE 7 (2012): e48693. 10. G. Miller, “The Roots of Morality,” Sci 320 (2008): 734. 11. For this entire section on rudiments of morality in young children, see the excellent P. Bloom, Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil (Portland, OR: Broadway Books, 2014). This source applies to the subsequent half dozen paragraphs. 12. S. F. Brosnan and F. B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nat 425 (2003): 297. 13. F. Range et al., “The Absence of Reward Induces Inequity Aversion in Dogs,” PNAS 106 (2009): 340; C. Wynne “Fair Refusal by Capuchin Monkeys,” Nat 428 (2004): 140; D. Dubreuil et al., “Are Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Inequity Averse?” Proc Royal Soc of London B 273 (2006): 1223. 14. S. F. Brosnan and F. B. M. de Waal, “Evolution of Responses to (un)Fairness,” Sci 346 (2014): 1251776; S.

pages: 539 words: 139,378

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt

affirmative action, Black Swan, cognitive bias, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, invisible hand, lateral thinking, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Necker cube, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, ultimatum game

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Brockman, J., ed. 2009. What Have You Changed Your Mind About? New York: HarperCollins. Brooks, A. C. 2006. Who Really Cares: The Surprising Truth About Compassionate Conservatism. New York: Basic Books. Brosnan, S. F. 2006. “Nonhuman Species’ Reactions to Inequity and Their Implications for Fairness.” Social Justice Research 19:153–85. Brosnan, S. F., and F. de Waal. 2003. “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay.” Nature 425:297–99. Buckholtz, J. W., C. L. Asplund, P. E. Dux, D. H. Zald, J. C. Gore, O. D. Jones, et al. 2008. “The Neural Correlates of Third-Party Punishment.” Neuron 60:930–40. Burke, E. 2003/1790. Reflections on the Revolution in France. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Burns, J. M. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper and Row. Carlsmith, K. M., T. D. Wilson, and D. T. Gilbert. 2008.

pages: 479 words: 144,453

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, drone strike, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

NAEMI09, ‘Nicolae Ceauşescu LAST SPEECH (english subtitles) part 1 of 2’, 22 April 2010, accessed 21 December 2014, 21. Tom Gallagher, Theft of a Nation: Romania since Communism (London: Hurst, 2005). 22. Robin Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998). 23. TVP University, ‘Capuchin Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay’, 15 December 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, 24. Quoted in Christopher Duffy, Military Experience in the Age of Reason (London: Routledge, 2005), 98–9. 25. Serhii Ploghy, The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union (London: Oneworld, 2014), 309. 4 The Storytellers 1. Fekri A. Hassan, ‘Holocene Lakes and Prehistoric Settlements of the Western Fayum, Egypt’, Journal of Archaeological Science 13:5 (1986), 393– 504; Gunther Garbrecht, ‘Water Storage (Lake Moeris) in the Fayum Depression, Legend or Reality?’

pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

Broadberry, Stephen, Bruce Campbell, and B. van Leeuwen. “Arable Acreage in England 1270–1871.” Reconstructing the National Income of Britain and Holland, c. 1270/1500 to 1850. Leverhulme Trust, Ref f/100215AR. Brophy, James M. “Salus publica suprema lex: Prussian Businessmen in the New Era and Constitutional Conflict.” Central European History 28, no. 2 (1995). Brosnan, Sarah and Frans B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys reject unequal pay.” Nature 428, 140 (Mar. 2004). Byres, Terence J. “The Landlord Class, Peasant Differentiation, Class Struggle and the Transition to Capitalism: England, France and Prussia Compared.” School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Paper for Land, Poverty, Social Justice & Development conference, Jan. 2006. Carter, Goodrich. “National Planning of Internal Improvements.” Political Science Quarterly 63, no. 1 (Mar. 1948).

pages: 631 words: 177,227

The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich

agricultural Revolution, capital asset pricing model, Climategate, cognitive bias, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demographic transition, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, impulse control, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nash equilibrium, out of africa, phenotype, placebo effect, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, side project, social intelligence, social web, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, ultimatum game

“Peer imitation: An examination of status and competence hypotheses.” Journal of Genetic Psychology 146 (2):161–170. Broesch, J., J. Henrich, and H. C. Barrett. 2014. “Adaptive content biases in learning about animals across the lifecourse.” Human Nature 25:181–199. Broesch, T. 2011. Social Learning across Cultures: Universality and Cultural Variability. PhD diss., Emory University. Brosnan, S., and F.B.M. de Waal. 2003. “Monkeys reject unequal pay.” Nature 425:297–299. Brosnan, S. F., J. B. Silk, J. Henrich, M. C. Mareno, S. P. Lambeth, and S. J. Schapiro. 2009. “Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task.” Animal Cognition 12 (4):587–597. Brown, G. R., T. E. Dickins, R. Sear, and K. N. Laland. 2011. “Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity. Introduction.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366 (1563):313–324.