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The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
If you believe the copy of this e-book you are reading infringes on the authors’ copyright, please notify the publisher at: us.macmillanusa.com/piracy. For Elizabeth —PV For Mum and Dad —MC Contents Title Page Copyright Notice Dedication Introduction: Digital Cash for a Digital Age 1. From Babylon to Bitcoin 2. Genesis 3. Community 4. Roller Coaster 5. Building the Blockchain 6. The Arms Race 7. Satoshi’s Mill 8. The Unbanked 9. The Everything Blockchain 10. Square Peg Meets Round Hole 11. A New New Economy Conclusion: Come What May Acknowledgments Notes Index Also by Michael J. Casey About the Authors Copyright Introduction DIGITAL CASH FOR A DIGITAL AGE Money won’t create success, the freedom to make it will. —Nelson Mandela Even though Parisa Ahmadi was in the top of her class at the all-girls Hatifi High School in Herat, Afghanistan, her family was initially against her enrolling in classes being offered by a private venture that promised to teach young girls Internet and social-media skills—and even pay them for their efforts.
And society itself is already undergoing profound change, the result of sweeping technological, demographic, and global economic shifts. In this evolving environment, cryptocurrencies are poised to play a highly disruptive role. It will be up to us, the citizens, voters, and economic agents of this future society, to figure out how much of a role we want this technology to take and thus which of the two cryptocurrency models ends up dominant. Eleven A NEW NEW ECONOMY Progress is a comfortable disease. —E. E. Cummings Until now, we’ve largely focused on how cryptocurrencies have developed and the benefits and challenges they pose to society. But these new forms of money and ways of organizing commercial activity are not landing in a static, dormant society, as if human beings were just waiting to be woken by a new monetary idea. Society itself is changing, rapidly.
the Bitcoin Foundation’s chief scientist, called it “fantastic”: Kadhim Shubber, “Gavin Andresen: Rising Transaction Fees Could Price Poor out of Bitcoin,” CoinDesk, May 16, 2014, http://www.coindesk.com/gavin-andresen-rising-transaction-fees-price-poor-bitcoin/. However, the freelance journalist: Ryan Selkis, “Dark Wallets Are a Regulatory Nightmare for Bitcoin,” TwoBitIdiot blog, May 1, 2014, http://two-bit-idiot.tumblr.com/post/84454892629/dark-wallets-are-a-regulatory-nightmare-for-bitcoin. 11. A New New Economy has by many measures only got more intense since that crisis: Luke Johnson, “Elizabeth Warren: ‘Too Big to Fail Is Worse Than Before Financial Crisis,” Huffington Post, November 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/12/elizabeth-warren-too-big-to-fail_n_4260871.html. the widest wealth gap since the Great Depression: Scott Neuman, “Study Says America’s Income Gap Widest Since Great Depression,” NPR, September 10, 2013, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/09/10/221124533/study-says-americas-income-gap-widest-since-great-depression.
What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers
Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar
Momentous Time of Change Author and thought leader Thomas Friedman wrote, “Often in the middle of something momentous, we can’t see its significance.”15 We wrote this book because we believe we are in an optimistic and momentous time of change around our consumer system. We hope this period will be regarded as the transition away from consumption for consumption’s sake, and away from the fear of what will happen to the economy when this ethos is abandoned. But in the nascent stages of this transformation, it can be hard to grasp what kind of movement it is. A revolution? A phenomenon? A new new economy? It will be exciting to see how Collaborative Consumption evolves. What unimaginable things will become shareable? What will become the “Google of exchange”? What will become the American Express of social currencies? In the space of a little more than a decade, we have seen the evolution of traditional banks to social lending marketplaces to completely new forms of peer-to-peer virtual currencies such as VEN.
The World Beyond Your Head: On Becoming an Individual in an Age of Distraction by Matthew B. Crawford
airport security, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, digital Maoism, Google Glasses, hive mind, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, large denomination, new economy, new new economy, Norman Mailer, online collectivism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Stanford marshmallow experiment, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy
It would be hard to overstate the excitement you hear in people’s voices when they start talking about some of the new digital tools that have drastically reduced the cost of prototyping (and some of these tools are used at Taylor and Boody, despite their antiquarian image). Design ideas can be turned into real things, and tried out, without huge financial risk. This plays to the strengths of tinkerers and inventors, those erstwhile American types who may become prominent once again. Ironically, a decades-old pipe organ shop in rural Virginia, which is caught up in a conversation with earlier centuries, may offer some guidance for the new “new economy.” TAYLOR AND BOODY Pipe organs were to the Baroque era what the Apollo moon rockets were to the 1960s: enormously complex machines that focused the gaze of a people upward. Pushing the envelope of the engineering arts, a finished organ stood as a monument of knowledge and cooperation. Installed in the spiritual center of a town, a pipe organ mimics the human voice on a more powerful scale, and summons a congregation to join their voices to it.