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searching for Mutation rate 280 found (362 total)

alternate case: mutation rate

Population size (1,326 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

population size and mutation rate, and fixation probability of a beneficial mutation is inversely related to population size and mutation rate. LaBar and Adami
Negative selection (natural selection) (383 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
alleles is called background selection. This effect increases with lower mutation rate but decreases with higher recombination rate. Purifying selection can
Encephalitozoon intestinalis (527 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
proven that E. intestinalis infection can increase host cell nuclear mutation rate. Microsporidia are obligate intracellular opportunistic fungi that cause
UB-421 (334 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
two weeks by targeting proteins on the virus itself, but the rapid mutation rate of HIV induces antibody-resistant strains that render the treatment
Error threshold (evolution) (1,862 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
evolutionary biology and population genetics, the error threshold (or critical mutation rate) is a limit on the number of base pairs a self-replicating molecule
Quasispecies model (2,895 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
or "cloud" of related genotypes that exist in an environment of high mutation rate (at stationary state), where a large fraction of offspring are expected
Minisatellite (1,091 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
000 locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population. Minisatellites are prominent in
Somatic mutation (1,914 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
antibody-producing B cells experience a mutation rate many times higher than the normal rate of mutation. The mutation rate in antigen-binding coding sequences
Mutation–selection balance (1,073 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
deleterious alleles is then determined by a balance between the deleterious mutation rate and the rate at which selection purges those mutations. Mutation–selection
Balancing selection (1,804 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in the number of alleles in a population which are maintained above mutation rate frequencies. All modern research has shown that this significant genetic
Affinity maturation (520 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
complementarity-determining regions (CDR)) of the immunoglobulin genes. The mutation rate is up to 1,000,000 times higher than in cell lines outside the lymphoid
Mutation (genetic algorithm) (652 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
where l {\displaystyle l} is the length of the binary vector. Thus, a mutation rate of 1 {\displaystyle 1} per mutation and individual selected for mutation
Gene orders (94 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
research on gene orders in animals' mitochondrial genomes reveal that the mutation rate of gene orders is not a constant in some degrees. Grusea, Simona (September
Mutation bias (3,001 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the ratio of the male mutation rate to the female mutation rate, Y and X are denoted as Y and X-linked sequence mutation rate, he include that the ratio
Viral evolution (2,906 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutation or more per genome per round of replication). This elevated mutation rate, when combined with natural selection, allows viruses to quickly adapt
TORCH report (891 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Belarus have suggested a twofold increase in the germline minisatellite mutation rate". Some 116,000 people were evacuated from contaminated areas initially
Muller's ratchet (1,706 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
carrying at least one (additional) mutation depends heavily on the genomic mutation rate and this increases more or less linearly with the size of the genome
Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution (1,553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
slightly deleterious, this would increase the rate of effectively neutral mutation rate in small populations, which could offset the effect of long generation
Estimates of historical world population (3,412 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
findings are consistent with this hypothesis, but, depending on the mutation rate, we find either an effective population size of NA = 12,000 (95% C.I
DPANN (1,635 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
monophyly of DPANN is not considered established until now, due to the high mutation rate of the included phyla, which can lead to the artifact of the long branch
Conserved sequence (4,971 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
such forces, and have slower rates of mutation than the background mutation rate. Conservation can occur in coding and non-coding nucleic acid sequences
Repressor lexA (633 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
error-prone polymerases under the SOS response increases the basal mutation rate of bacteria. While mutations are often lethal to the cell, they can
Tajima's D (2,014 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
population size. If a population is at a constant size with constant mutation rate, the population will reach an equilibrium of gene frequencies. This
Prehistoric demography (1,437 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
findings are consistent with this hypothesis, but, depending on the mutation rate, we find either an effective population size of NA = 12,000 (95% C.I
Multiple loci VNTR analysis (692 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
typical MLVA, a number of well-selected and characterised (in terms of mutation rate and diversity) loci are amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Autogamy depression (567 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through research that long lived plants can have higher per generation mutation rate (based on occurrences of more mitotic cell divisions compared to short
Secoviridae (361 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
intensification of agricultural practices in industrial societies. The mutation rate has been estimated to be 9.29×10−3 to 2.74×10−3 subs/site/year. Thompson
John W. Drake (668 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
replication. To describe the mutation rate in a quantitative way for different organisms, Drake postulated that the mutation rate (per base position and per
Germ cell (3,903 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
lower mutation rate would be selected for, which is one possible reason for the convergent evolution of the germ plasm. However, more mutation rate data
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (8,855 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
flocks and live bird markets." Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The segmentation of its genome
Infinite sites model (992 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that they do not violate the model assumption of no recombination. The mutation rate ( θ {\displaystyle \theta } ) can be estimated as follows, where μ ∗
Genome instability (4,545 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"passenger" mutations Any genetic or epigenetic lesion increasing the mutation rate will have as a consequence an increase in the acquisition of new mutations
Infinite alleles model (611 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1 4 N e u + 1 {\displaystyle F={1 \over 4N_{e}u+1}} where u is the mutation rate, and Ne is the effective population size. The effective number of alleles
Neurofibromin 1 (5,903 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
activity by accelerating the hydrolysis of Ras-bound GTP. NF1 has a high mutation rate and mutations in NF1 can alter cellular growth control, and neural development
Microevolution (4,736 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutations. Therefore, the optimal mutation rate for a species is a trade-off between costs of a high mutation rate, such as deleterious mutations, and
Paternal age effect (5,256 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
PMC 3854059. PMID 23912310. Crow JF (August 1997). "The high spontaneous mutation rate: is it a health risk?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ethyl methanesulfonate (790 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
per gene mutation rate observed in a typical EMS mutagenesis experiment of the model organism C. elegans, corresponds to a raw mutation rate of ~7x10−6
Nipah virus (1,815 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
second with its origin in 1985 (95% credible interval: 1971–1996). The mutation rate was estimated to be 6.5 × 10−4 substitution/site/year (95% credible
Poxviridae (2,983 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and poxviruses (Poxviridae). The mutation rate in these genomes has been estimated to be 0.9-1.2 x 10−6 substitutions
Charles Ofria (959 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
SF, Wilke CO, Ofria C, and Lenski RE. Effects of population size and mutation rate on the evolution of mutational robustness Ostrowski E, Ofria C, and
Microbial population biology (510 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ranging from the dynamics and genetics of adaptation to the evolution of mutation rate, community ecology, evolutionary genomics, altruism, and epidemiology
Neutral mutation (3,424 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
neutral mutations should only be influenced by the mutation rate. Therefore, the neutral mutation rate in individual organisms should match the molecular
Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (369 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
this is due to the fact that RNA viruses have a much higher nucleotide mutation rate than DNA viruses. The common bent-wing bat is ubiquitous around the
Y-chromosomal Adam (3,932 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to a rearrangement of the family tree. Revision of the Y-chromosome mutation rate (see below) can change the estimate of the time when he lived. The time
Gaussian adaptation (3,037 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hollows to the right of these points remain, and the mutation rate is too small. If the mutation rate is sufficiently high, the disorder or variance may
Error catastrophe (1,203 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
close to the critical mutation rate (i.e. the largest q that L will allow). Drugs have been created to increase the mutation rate of the viruses in order
List of Y-STR markers (530 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
also this mailing list discussion) "GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives — DYS 388 Mutation Rate?". Archived from the original on 2007-10-03. Retrieved 2007-02-27. Trinucleotide
ENU (2,389 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sufficient in mammals. This could be illustrated by the extremely low mutation rate in mice given by DEN (3 in 60,179 offspring). To overcome this problem
List of X-STR markers (27 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
STR # notes DNA sequence repeat motif alleles mutation rate links DXS10011 DXS10066 DXS10066 is also known as Penta X-16. DXS10067 DXS10067 is also known
TMEM128 (2,040 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
TMEM128, also known as Transmembrane Protein 128, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM128 gene. TMEM128 has three variants, varying in 5'
Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 (589 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
this is due to the fact that RNA viruses have a much higher nucleotide mutation rate than DNA viruses. The common bent-wing bat can be found in the following
Cross-species transmission (3,855 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
origin and fate. This is because a pathogens genetic diversity and mutation rate are key factors in determining if it can transmit across multiple hosts
Nuclear DNA (1,627 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
while mitochondrial DNA is haploid, coming only from the mother. The mutation rate for nuclear DNA is less than 0.3% while that of mitochondrial DNA is
Genetic variation (1,441 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
heterozygotes are favored or when selection is frequency dependent. A high mutation rate caused by the lack of a proofreading mechanism appears to be a major
Gibbon–human last common ancestor (546 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
9 Mya), based on certain assumptions about the generation time and mutation rate. The extinct Bunopithecus sericus was a gibbon or gibbon-like ape. Adaptive
Hypervariable region (436 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(Plecoglossus altivelis), an East Asian protacanthopterygian, control region mutation rate is not markedly lowered, but sequence differences between subspecies
Eastern equine encephalitis (2,301 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distinct viruses. The North American strains appear to be monotypic with a mutation rate of 2.7 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y). It appears to have diverged
Neofunctionalization (1,397 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
\,\!S-1}{1-e^{s}}}} where ρ is the ratio of advantageous mutation rate to null mutation rate and S is the population selection 4NeS (Ne: effective population
Neoplasm (5,765 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Rep. 3 (3): 255–60
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (351 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
990 bp. NSI appears to be a DNA helicase with ATPase activity. The mutation rate in the genome has been estimated to be ~1.4 x 10−4 substitutions/site/year
DnaQ (1,152 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
encoded by the mutA gene that is correlated to significantly increased mutation rate in cells that express the gene. The uncharged MutA tRNA possesses complementarity
Sea eagle (1,076 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
years to successfully reproduce. In the mtDNA cytochrome b gene, a mutation rate of 0.5–0.7% per million years (if assuming an Early Miocene divergence)
Molecular paleontology (4,122 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
smaller mutation rate than nuclear DNA, making tracking lineages on the scale of tens of thousands of years much easier. Knowing the base mutation rate for
Integrasone (1,171 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 41 μM. Due to its high mutation rate and systematic elimination of key immune system cells, HIV is a very
Canine coronavirus (1,057 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
parvovirus is still occasionally reported. This may be related to the high mutation rate of RNA positive stranded viruses, of which canine coronavirus is one
B chromosome (1,192 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
polymorphism of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans in North Africa: III. mutation rate of B chromosomes". Heredity. 92 (5): 428–33. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800437
Darwin's Radio (677 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
signal it used or to abort the second-stage fetus. Due to the rapid mutation rate of the missing-link signal molecule, preventing the activation of the
Human reproduction (1,742 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
2-fold reduction in the heat-induced contribution to the spontaneous mutation rate in male germinal tissues compared to tissues at 37 °C. If the testicles
Saturation (genetic) (247 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
2009). "Characterizing the time dependency of human mitochondrial DNA mutation rate estimates". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (1): 217–30. doi:10
Semiconservative replication (1,101 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the rate of strand elongation was 749 nucleotides per second. The mutation rate per base pair per round of replication during phage T4 DNA synthesis
Herpes simplex virus (6,210 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sometimes changing parts of its antigen epitope in the process. The mutation rate has been estimated to be ~1.38×10−7 substitutions/site/year. In clinical
Central tolerance (1,397 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is an important method of defense against microbes due to their high mutation rate. This process also plays an important role in promoting the survival
Memetics (5,653 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
expressed with different memes supporting it. This is to say that the mutation rate in memetic evolution is extremely high, and mutations are even possible
Meme (6,734 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
another), which would lead to a low replication accuracy and a high mutation rate, rendering the evolutionary process chaotic. In his book Darwin's Dangerous
Peter Keightley (632 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutations. This has led to a much improved estimate of the deleterious mutation rate for the genome as a whole. Keightley's uncle (Mike Keightley) was involved
Chi-squared test (2,289 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distribution of certain properties of genes (e.g., genomic content, mutation rate, interaction network clustering, etc.) belonging to different categories
Orthornavirae (2,956 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
produce non-functional viral proteins whereas reassortment cannot. The mutation rate of a virus is associated with the rate of genetic recombinations. Higher
Influenza D virus (1,702 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the virus does not actively spread among humans and has a much slower mutation rate than the other influenza viruses. Influenza viruses, like all viruses
Mitochondrial Eve (6,217 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Romanov family of Russian royalty). In this study, they calculated a mutation rate upwards of twenty times higher than previous results. This study has
Hepatitis C virus (6,499 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
error rate on the part of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The mutation rate produces so many variants of the virus it is considered a quasispecies
Hepatitis D (4,804 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
evolution rate of 3.18 x 10×10−3 substitutions per site per year. The mutation rate varied with position : the hypervariable region evolved faster (4.55
John C. Sanford (1,187 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
 vi–vii, ISBN 978-0-9816316-0-8 Dolgin, Elie (27 August 2009). "Human mutation rate revealed: Next-generation sequencing provides the most accurate estimate
Grey peacock-pheasant (734 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
molecular clock method used here is an outdated technique. The presumed 2% mutation rate is appropriate for small short-lived Neoaves, but probably not for larger
Genetic algorithm (7,591 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reasonable settings for the problem class being worked on. A very small mutation rate may lead to genetic drift (which is non-ergodic in nature). A recombination
Molecular anthropology (4,513 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
branch to Orangutan (14 my) from their last common ancestor (LCA). The mutation rate at 0.857 for a stretch of sequence. Mutation rates are given, however
Avida (998 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Lenski, and C. Adami (2001). Evolution of Digital Organisms at High Mutation Rate Leads To Survival of the Flattest. Nature 412:331-333. R.E. Lenski,
Oogenesis (2,557 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Schürenkamp M, Pfeiffer H, Neuhuber F, Brinkmann B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc R Soc B. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb
Carcinoma (3,137 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
advantages and one or more DNA repair defects (causing a very high mutation rate), likely give rise to the high frequency of total genome mutations seen
Relative rate test (1,392 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
regions with the relative rate test (which showed that rodents had a mutation rate much higher than humans) and backed up by comparing paralogous genes
Phylogeography (2,691 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
understanding the dynamics of evolutionary change due to their rapid mutation rate and fast generation time. Phylogeography is a useful tool in understanding
Mycobacterium leprae (2,517 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
bacteria. A study of genomes isolated from medieval cases estimated the mutation rate to be 6.13 × 10−9. The authors also showed that the leprosy bacillus
Gilean McVean (1,266 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
D. (1997). "Evidence for a selectively favourable reduction in the mutation rate of the X chromosome". Nature. 386 (6623): 388–92. doi:10.1038/386388a0
Human evolutionary genetics (4,792 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
complete genomes differ by deletions, insertions and duplications. Since mutation rate is relatively constant, roughly one half of these changes occurred in
Verbascoside (1,062 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
test, and its constituent, caffeic acid, decreases the spontaneous mutation rate in the ST cross". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50 (3–4): 1082–90. doi:10
Y-STR (824 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
STR rate ranges as of 2008 for 16 Y - STRs STR site Mutation rate (x 10−3) LB-96%CI 'rate' UB-96%CI Notes DYS19 1.5 2.4 3.5 23 of 9658 DYS385 1.4 2.1
MALBAC (1,954 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of Science and described the use of this technology to measure the mutation rate of the colon cancer cell line SW4802. By sequencing the amplified DNA
CEP290 (1,614 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Tory K, Lacoste T, Burglen L, et al. (2007). "High NPHP1 and NPHP6 mutation rate in patients with Joubert syndrome and nephronophthisis: potential epistatic
Oncomelania (745 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
systems, to mainland of China, Indonesia and Philippines. Although mutation rate calibrations using fossil data is impossible here, many studies have
Neutral theory of molecular evolution (2,141 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
divergent populations is predicted to be equal to the per-individual mutation rate, independent of population size. When the proportion of mutations that
Spermatogenesis (3,452 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Schürenkamp M, Pfeiffer H, Neuhuber F, Brinkmann B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc R Soc B. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb
Melania Cristescu (343 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
other research areas include the nature and scale of recombination and mutation rate variation across genomes, the genetics of aquatic invasions, and speciation
Varicella zoster virus (2,696 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
25 of 38 New Zealand isolates were E1, 8 were E2, and 5 were M1. The mutation rate for synonymous and nonsynonymous mutation rates among the herpesviruses
Smallpox (14,783 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as a human disease which suggests a relatively recent origin. If the mutation rate is assumed to be similar to that of the herpesviruses, the divergence
Recurrent evolution (1,873 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
can increase in frequency if the mutation rate to this phenotype is sufficiently higher than the reverse mutation rate; however, this appears to be rare
Potyvirus (1,886 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to have evolved in southwest Eurasia or north Africa. The estimated mutation rate is about 1.15×10−4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year.[citation needed]
Gibbon (3,337 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
apart from humans and the great apes. The LAVA transposon increases mutation rate and thus is supposed to have contributed to the rapid and greater change
Whole genome sequencing (8,430 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
CD; Chong JX; Malig M; et al. (November 2012). "Estimating the human mutation rate using autozygosity in a founder population". Nat. Genet. 44 (11): 1277–81
RNA virus (3,786 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
make effective vaccines against them. Retroviruses also have a high mutation rate even though their DNA intermediate integrates into the host genome (and
Haplogroup C-M48 (1,685 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
present 5,940 ± 2,900 years (evolutionary mutation rate) or 1,630 ± 800 years (genealogical mutation rate) 10,800 ± 2,300 years ago or 9,300 ± 3,300
Prokaryotic DNA replication (2,150 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
DNA increase at 37 °C, the rate was 749 nucleotides per second. The mutation rate per base pair per replication during phage T4 DNA synthesis is 1.7 per
Cell damage (2,658 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth, A (2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Rep. 3 (3): 255–260
Ecotoxicology (2,531 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distribution of individuals in a population, effective population size, mutation rate and migration rate Predator-prey relationships – either the predator
Human genome (10,960 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
common than transversions, with CpG dinucleotides showing the highest mutation rate, presumably due to deamination. A personal genome sequence is a (nearly)
Weasel program (1,780 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
per letter are not specified in Dawkins's book; 100 copies and a 5% mutation rate are examples. Correct letters are not "locked". Each correct letter
Mumps virus (2,845 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
substitutions per site per year, which is considered to be a very low mutation rate for an RNA virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire SH gene indicates
John William Heslop-Harrison (986 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and R. A. Fisher pointed out that Harrison's hypothesis required a mutation rate far higher than any previously reported." Moore, Randy; Decker, Mark
Polymorphism (biology) (3,653 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
that it is greater than 1% (though that is far higher than any normal mutation rate for a single allele).: ch. 5  Polymorphism crosses several discipline
Genetic saturation (1,654 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
for inaccuracy and assumptions made in the model (such as consistent mutation rate for all branches) and is used mostly as an estimation tool. Genetic
Haplogroup NO (1,289 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
294 <-> 51,202] years BP, and 44,700 or 38,300 years BP depending on mutation rate) Possible place of origin Southeast Asia or East Asia (Northern China)
Subtypes of HIV (3,610 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
advised against. The rapid evolution of HIV can be attributed to its high mutation rate. During the early stages of mutation, evolution appears to be neutral
Tumor suppressor gene (3,389 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
preventing cells from replicating with mutations. Furthermore, increased mutation rate from decreased DNA repair leads to increased inactivation of other tumor
Burkholderia pseudomallei (3,408 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
humans because of DNA it has acquired from other microorganisms. Its mutation rate is also high, and the organism continues to evolve even after infecting
Evolutionary arms race (2,495 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
populations (fluctuation of genetic selection pressure) and generation time (mutation rate) where some genotypes are preferentially selected thanks to the individual
Chemostat (2,858 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutation appearance is independent of genome size, but dependent on per-BP mutation rate. For characteristically large chemostats, a hyper-mutating strain does
C16orf90 (1,341 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
protein requires degradation. C16orf90 orthologs have a relatively high mutation rate as seen in the graph to the right comparing C16orf90 with fibrinopeptides
Devils Hole pupfish (6,580 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as 60,000 years. These estimates depend heavily on knowledge of the mutation rate in this species, which is unknown, but is predicted to be one of the
Semipalatinsk Test Site (2,131 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Salomaa, Sisko (2002-01-01). "Nuclear Weapons Tests and Human Germline Mutation Rate". Science. 295 (5557): 1037–1037. doi:10.1126/science.1068102. JSTOR 3076101
SMUG1 (2,211 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
DNA. Low SMUG1 transcripts can impair DNA repair and thus increase mutation rate, enhance chromosomal instability and promote selection of more malignant
Molecular evolution (5,067 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
periods they will appear to accumulate at a regular pace. Using the mutation rate per generation and the number of nucleotide differences between two
Clonal interference (1,083 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
influences another part of the reproductive strategy of a population, namely mutation rate. Clonal interference does not only play a role in the fixation of mutations
WDR53 (526 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutation rate of WDR53 in comparison to Fibrinogen and Cytochrome-C across organisms
Poliovirus (5,649 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
pathogenicity, and allowing the virus to infect nervous tissue. The mutation rate in the virus is relatively high even for an RNA virus with a synonymous
Red Queen hypothesis (2,805 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
According to the mutational deterministic hypothesis, if the deleterious mutation rate is high, and if those mutations interact to cause a general decline
Hepatitis B virus (5,260 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
common ancestor of the avian strains was placed at 6000 years ago. The mutation rate was estimated to be ~10−6 substitutions/site/year. Another analysis
KRBA1 (1,270 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
throughout the entire protein. KRBA1 orthologs have a relatively high mutation rate as seen in the graph below comparing KRBA1 with fibrinopeptides, hemoglobin
Opioid receptor (4,585 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
NOP receptor gene, OPRL1, has equal evolutionary origin, but a higher mutation rate, than the other receptor genes. Even though opioid receptor families
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (8,197 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutations in these genes allow the bacteria to have a higher overall mutation rate and to accumulate mutations that cause drug resistance more quickly
Evolution of sexual reproduction (9,121 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the mutation rate per genome per replication are 0.0027 and 0.0030 respectively. For the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the mutation rate per effective
Microsatellite instability (2,681 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in loci position. The greater the length of the MSI, the greater the mutation rate. Although most mutations of MSI are the result of frame-shift mutations
Microorganism (7,936 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
divergent species. This horizontal gene transfer, coupled with a high mutation rate and other means of transformation, allows microorganisms to swiftly
E. B. Ford (2,436 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
some kind of balance. So long as the proportions of each form is above mutation rate, then selection must be the cause. As early as 1930 Fisher had discussed
Mammalian reproduction (1,683 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cause a reduction in the heat-induced contribution to the spontaneous mutation rate in male germinal tissue. Sperm are the smaller of the two gametes and
Computational phylogenetics (7,799 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
general possible time-reversible model, called the GTR model, has six mutation rate parameters. An even more generalized model known as the general 12-parameter
Robert Purcell (virologist) (704 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
135-140 Ogata N, Alter HJ... Purcell RH (1991). Nucleotide sequence and mutation rate of the H strain of hepatitis C virus. Proceedings of the National Academy
Íslendingabók (genealogical database) (1,226 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Íslendingabók, https://www.islendingabok.is Sigurðardóttir et al., The mutation rate in the human mtDNA control region, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:1599-1609,
Oncogenomics (7,609 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutations in genes employed in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) cause a high mutation rate. In tumors, such frequent subsequent mutations often generate “non-self”
History of molecular evolution (4,103 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
different alleles expected in a population, based on population size, mutation rate, and whether the mutant alleles were neutral, overdominant, or deleterious
Hypercycle (chemistry) (7,177 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
organism is roughly equal to the inverse of mutation rate per site per replication. Therefore, a high mutation rate imposes a serious limitation on the length
DNA repair (13,771 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Reports. 3 (3): 255–60
Astrovirus (4,735 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in the biological cycle of astroviruses. The human astrovirus genome mutation rate has been estimated to be 3.7×10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site
Indian wolf (4,082 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
wolf lineages occurred 1 million years ago and with an assumed wolf mutation rate, estimated that the divergence of the Indian gray wolf from the wolf/dog
Hepatitis A (4,397 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
I. Of the type I isolates subtype IA accounts for the majority. The mutation rate in the genome has been estimated to be 1.73–9.76 × 10−4 nucleotide substitutions
Nature (8,976 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Their reproduction is both rapid and profuse. The combination of a high mutation rate and a horizontal gene transfer ability makes them highly adaptable,
Single-nucleotide polymorphism (5,151 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
favorable genetic adaptation. Other factors, like genetic recombination and mutation rate, can also determine SNP density. SNP density can be predicted by the
Peter Forster (geneticist) (783 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Schürenkamp M, Pfeiffer H, Neuhuber F, Brinkmann B: "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers." Proc R Soc B 282:20142898, 2015. Elisabeth Hamel
Stepwise mutation model (863 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
infinity, while the product of the Ne (effective population size) and the mutation rate is fixed, the mean number of different alleles in the population rapidly
Peopling of Southeast Asia (2,837 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
populations to infer dates of initial separation of 40–45 kya (adjusted for a mutation rate of 0.5 × 10−9 per year; Scally 2016). Larena, Maximilian; Sanchez-Quinto
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (7,263 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
anatomically modern humans out of Africa across the world. By calibrating the mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to match this narrative, the study suggested that
Chernobyl disaster (30,017 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
two primary individuals involved with the attempt to suggest that the mutation rate among animals was, and continues to be, higher in the Chernobyl zone
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (10,282 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through a cross-species transmission, rapid evolution is expected. The mutation rate estimated from early cases of SARS-CoV-2 was of 6.54×10−4 per site per
Utricularia gibba (1,592 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
environment. It had also been previously proposed that an increased mutation rate due to greater environmental mutagen exposure could have increased natural
Tradescantia (2,108 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
ISSN 1424-8581. PMID 21709415. S2CID 39983260. Ichikawa, Sadao (1972). "Somatic Mutation Rate in Tradescantia Stamen Hairs at Low Radiation Levels: Finding of Low
Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2,436 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
spontaneously mutate the idiotypic region of their immunoglobulin. This high mutation rate makes them prone to the selection of B-cells lacking the CD20 antigen
Denisovan (6,291 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
about 804,000 years ago, and from each other 640,000 years ago. Using a mutation rate of 1x10−9 or 0.5x10−9 per base pair (bp) per year, the Neanderthal/Denisovan
Isolation by distance (1,671 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\sqrt {2k}}{\sigma }}}} The equation takes into account distance (r), mutation rate (k), and the standard deviation of migration (σ). The kinship coefficient
Paternal mtDNA transmission (2,283 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Helgason A, Gulcher JR, Stefansson K, Donnelly P (May 2000). "The mutation rate in the human mtDNA control region". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66 (5): 1599–609
Carcinogenesis (13,343 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Loss of capacity to repair genetic errors, leading to an increased mutation rate (genomic instability), thus accelerating all the other changes. These
Zaire ebolavirus (5,128 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and in the reservoir among the local human population. The observed mutation rate of 2.0 x 10−3 substitutions per site per year is as fast as that of
DNA replication (6,655 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
DNA increase at 37 °C, the rate was 749 nucleotides per second. The mutation rate per base pair per replication during phage T4 DNA synthesis is 1.7 per
Base excision repair (3,470 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
pattern. Deletion mutations in BER genes have shown to result in a higher mutation rate in a variety of organisms, implying that loss of BER could contribute
HKA test (817 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
formula: θ=4Νeμ, where Νe is the effective population size and μ is the mutation rate (substitutions per site per unit of time). Hudson et al. proposed applying
Gene (11,219 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(1): 139. Nachman MW, Crowell SL (September 2000). "Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans". Genetics. 156 (1): 297–304. doi:10.1093/genetics/156
Digital transcriptome subtraction (1,428 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mitochondrial DNA are highly abundant and polymorphic due to rapid mutation rate. Immunoglobulin region - The immunoglobulin loci is highly polymorphic
Glioma (5,601 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Reports. 3 (3): 255–60
Ranajit Chakraborty (1,434 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Chakraborty R, Fuerst PA. 1976. Infinite allele model with varying mutation rate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:4164-4168. Chakraborty R, Nei M. 1977
Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 142 (1,823 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutation rate of CCDC142 compared to benchmark proteins, Cytochrome C and Fibrinogen A, which mutate slowly and quickly respectively. Mutation rate,
Legitimacy (family law) (8,085 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
M; Pfeiffer, H; Neuhuber, F; Brinkmann, B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc Biol Sci. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb
Genomic evolution of birds (1,844 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
highly conserved among them. It has also been proven that birds’ point mutation rate (~1.9 x 10-3 mutations per site and Ma in average) is smaller when compared
Günter P. Wagner (1,272 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
individuals while the latter measures the tendency to vary, as measured in mutation rate and mutational variance. He published the first mathematical model for
Transposable element (6,646 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transposition increases if the cell is subjected to stress, thus increasing the mutation rate under these conditions, which might be beneficial to the cell. Cells
Donald F. Jones (503 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(4), pp. 462–473, PMC 1209049, PMID 17246933 Jones, D F (1936), "The Mutation Rate in Somatic Cells of Maize.", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (published
Computer virus (8,945 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Some viruses employ polymorphic code in a way that constrains the mutation rate of the virus significantly. For example, a virus can be programmed to
Phylogenetic footprinting (946 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
analysis must be performed that will show that the motifs reported have a mutation rate meaningfully less than that of the surrounding nonfunctional sequence
Bacteria (15,243 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation rate. Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells. This can
Foot-and-mouth disease (7,496 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to be distinct lineages; SAT 1 and SAT 2 are unresolved clades. The mutation rate of the protein-encoding sequences of strains isolated between 1932 and
J. B. S. Haldane (11,304 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
methods for estimating human mutation rates; the first estimates of mutation rate in humans (2 × 10−5 mutations per gene per generation for the X-linked
3D Virtual Creature Evolution (1,031 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of an individual is created via crossover of parents and mutation. Mutation rate in body and brain is then determined. Specific mathematical operations
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (5,309 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that this virus was introduced to Xinjiang along the Silk Road. The mutation rate was estimated to be 3.44 × 10−6 substitutions per site per year (95%
Neanderthal (31,188 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
error for every 200 letters (base pairs) based on the implausibly high mutation rate, probably due to the preservation of the sample. In 2012, British-American
Birth defect (8,909 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
David L.; Jeffreys, Alec J. (25 April 1996). "Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident". Nature. 380 (6576): 683–686. Bibcode:1996Natur
Genome size (4,631 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mbp}}} In 1991, John W. Drake proposed a general rule: that the mutation rate within a genome and its size are inversely correlated. This rule has
Crisis of the Late Middle Ages (4,951 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Lucy A.; Wang, Zuyun; Guo, Zhaobiao (2013). "Historical variations in mutation rate in an epidemic pathogen, Yersinia pestis". Proceedings of the National
RNA-based evolution (1,630 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
diversity of life. RNA virus evolution appears to be facilitated by a high mutation rate caused by the lack of a proofreading mechanism during viral genome replication
Betaarterivirus suid 1 (2,813 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
maintaining diagnostic PCR detection assays is difficult due to the high mutation rate of this virus, see Risk of Missed PRRS PCR Detection. In the early 2000s
Monogamy (10,518 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
M; Pfeiffer, H; Neuhuber, F; Brinkmann, B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
Indigenous peoples in Canada (11,971 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefansson, Kári; Donnelly, Peter (May 2000). "The Mutation Rate in the Human mtDNA Control Region". American Journal of Human Genetics
FAM76A (2,192 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutation rate of FAM76A relative to cytochrome C and fibrinogen. Mutation rate, m, which is the corrected percent of amino acid changes between the Homo
Cancer (19,019 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Reports. 3 (3): 255–60
Natural selection (11,624 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
OCLC 3138680061. Lynch, Michael (August 2010). "Evolution of the mutation rate". Trends in Genetics. 26 (8): 345–352. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2010.05.003
Chestnut blight (4,397 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
evolution and invasion pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe: Mutation rate, and selection pressure differ between genome domains". Virology. 514:
Social construction of schizophrenia (5,757 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Dubé, M. P.; Eyre-Walker, A. (2010). "Direct Measure of the De Novo Mutation Rate in Autism and Schizophrenia Cohorts". The American Journal of Human
Mitochondrion (15,284 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
PMID 19500773. Nachman MW, Crowell SL (September 2000). "Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans". Genetics. 156 (1): 297–304. doi:10.1093/genetics/156
Non-coding DNA (6,104 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the number of functional loci that could be expected given a typical mutation rate. Ohno hypothesized that mammal genomes could not have more than 30,000
Murine coronavirus (4,294 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
treat hepatitis virus infection in mouse, mainly because of the high mutation rate and the variety of virus strains, and the fact that vaccination may
MSH6 (2,957 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
do so results in microsatellite instability, an elevated spontaneous mutation rate (mutator phenotype), and susceptibility to HNPCC. hMSH6 combines with
Rate of evolution (2,497 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
nearly neutral mutations, then the substitution rate is equal to the mutation rate per gamete of the mutants. The existence of a molecular clock was first
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup (5,360 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
21 June 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013. Dolgin, Elie (2009). "Human mutation rate revealed". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2009.864. Retrieved 18 September
Indigenous peoples of the Americas (20,239 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Sigurğardóttir, S; Guicher JR; Stefansson K; Donnelly P (2000). "The mutation rate in the human mtDNA control region". Am J Hum Genet. 66 (5): 1599–609
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (7,590 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
exposure may result in excessive production of lymphocytes and increased mutation rate during an illness. Several studies have identified lower rates of ALL
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (4,532 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
species. The MT-CO1 gene sequence is suitable for this role because its mutation rate is often fast enough to distinguish closely related species and also
Archaeogenetics (5,816 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is used over mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA because of its faster mutation rate as well as its intraspecific variation due to a higher consistency of
Genic capture (600 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutation should be deleterious, thereby leading to non-zero overall mutation rate, maintaining variance in fitness. Rowe and Houle's simple model defines
Melanoma (15,000 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
A, Dumont BL, Han L, et al. (November 2012). "Estimating the human mutation rate using autozygosity in a founder population". Nature Genetics. 44 (11):
Genome survey sequence (1,518 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dog genome, it can estimate the global parameters, such as neutral mutation rate and repeat content. GSS is also an effective way to large-scale and
Infidelity (11,073 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
M; Pfeiffer, H; Neuhuber, F; Brinkmann, B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc Biol Sci. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb
Escherichia virus T4 (5,395 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
DNA increase at 37 °C, the rate was 749 nucleotides per second. The mutation rate per base pair per replication during virus T4 DNA synthesis is 1.7 per
Evolution of descended testes in mammals (745 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Ehrenstein G., Hedgram A. (1957). Gonad temperature and spontaneous mutation-rate in man. Nature 180: 1433-1434. Heller, R.E. (1929). New evidence for
James F. Crow (3,155 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Educational Review. pp. 153–161. Crow, J. F. (1997). "The high spontaneous mutation rate: Is it a health risk?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Structural variation (3,569 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
deletions, tandem duplications, inversions, mobile element insertions. The mutation rate is also much higher than microscopic structural variants, estimated
Evolution of snake venom (5,662 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
evolving through neutral evolutionary processes; the non-synonymous mutation rate, however, was found higher in many cases, indicating directional selection
Synthetic lethality (2,718 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutations in genes employed in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) cause a high mutation rate. In tumors, such frequent subsequent mutations often generate "non-self"
HIV drug resistance (2,129 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
known for its lack of error correcting mechanisms, resulting in a high mutation rate. Mutations that confer a substantial selective advantage to HIV survival
Emergent virus (4,221 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
epidemics in humans, influenza A also has pandemic potential and a higher mutation rate, therefore is most significant to public health. Influenza A viruses
Immunodominance (1,082 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
case of HIV, immunodominance can be unfavourable because of the high mutation rate of HIV. The immunodominant epitope can be mutated in the virus, thus
DNA nanoball sequencing (1,987 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mendelian disorder, and were able to estimate the inter-generation mutation rate. The Institute for Systems Biology has used this technology to sequence
Investigations into the origin of COVID-19 (13,884 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through a cross-species transmission, rapid evolution is expected. The mutation rate estimated from early cases of SARS-CoV-2 was of 6.54×10−4 per site per
DNA nanoball sequencing (1,987 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mendelian disorder, and were able to estimate the inter-generation mutation rate. The Institute for Systems Biology has used this technology to sequence
Spanish flu research (2,523 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA from a modern strain. Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into
Haldane's dilemma (2,845 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
describes computer simulations of small populations with variations in mutation rate and other factors, and produces results that are dramatically different
Haplogroup O-M176 (3,888 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
slow mutation rate (μ = 0.76 x 10−9 per bp per year as according to Qiaomei Fu et al. 2014) or 3,900 years using a relatively fast mutation rate (μ =
Allele frequency spectrum (1,567 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
where θ = 2 N μ {\displaystyle \theta =2N\mu } is the population scaled mutation rate. Deviations from demographic equilibrium or neutrality will change the
Sub-Saharan Africa (22,162 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
populations to infer dates of initial separation of 40–45 kya (adjusted for a mutation rate of 0.5 × 10−9 per year; Scally 2016). Pickrell, Joseph K.; Patterson
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (5,354 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Gene Product Mutation rate Function Mutation type Influence on cell function Clinical impact on ENKTCL-NT TP53 p53 13-62% tumor suppressor gain promotes
Ageing (16,418 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Pfeiffer H, Neuhuber F, Brinkmann B (March 2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 282 (1803): 20142898
Michael Savage (10,901 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
for many years because they address an infectious agent with a low mutation rate. A 2013 Ethics Alarms article recounts Savage saying that "...one of
Bette Korber (3,231 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
HIV sequence evolution began, using a model of evolution based on the mutation rate of HIV strains and assuming that variable was the same on all branches
Cancer epigenetics (11,937 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Reports. 3 (3): 255–60
Management of HIV/AIDS (14,479 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
including lowering the viral "set-point" or baseline viral load, reduce the mutation rate of the virus, and reduce the size of the viral reservoir (See section
Philip Awadalla (1,252 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
PMID 20101240. Awadalla, Philip; et al. (2010). "Direct Measure of the De Novo Mutation Rate in Autism and Schizophrenia Cohorts". American Journal of Human Genetics
Interbreeding between archaic and modern humans (9,945 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
preserved independently in both for so long due to HLA alleles' high mutation rate. Tibetan people received an advantageous EGLN1 and EPAS1 gene variant
DNA methylation (12,854 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
altering Dam activity in bacteria results in an increased spontaneous mutation rate. Bacterial viability is compromised in dam mutants that also lack certain
H5N1 genetic structure (4,637 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
respiratory tracts of mammals. Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The segmentation of the influenza
Richard M. Myers (1,468 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
believed the high doses of radiation could have increased the germline mutation rate, but they would need methods to measure mutations in the children of
Causes of autism (11,935 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
much higher resolution than DNA microarray studies has shown that the mutation rate is approximately 20% and not elevated in autism compared to sibling
The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution (1,070 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(October 14, 2016). "Genetic drift, selection and the evolution of the mutation rate". Nature Genetics. 17 (11): 704–714. doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.104. PMID 27739533
Probabilistic context-free grammar (5,430 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
probability that the base is not paired. For unpaired bases a 4 X 4 mutation rate matrix is used that satisfies that the mutation flow from X to Y is
Haplogroup R1a (10,735 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Kivisild, T; Scozzari, R; Cruciani, F; et al. (2004). "The effective mutation rate at Y chromosome short tandem repeats, with application to human population-divergence
C3orf67 (1,285 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mutation rate of C3orf67.
Haplogroup O-M122 (9,047 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
<-> 41,942] ybp 35,000 (with slower average mutation rate) or 30,000 (with faster average mutation rate) years ago 31,500 [95% CI 29,600 <-> 33,400]
Horizontal transfer of mitochondria (1,286 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
periodically acquire mitochondria from its host and ensure overcoming high mutation rate that would promote the accumulation of deleterious mutations in their
Linear no-threshold model (6,654 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
small the dose is. A 1958 analysis of two decades of research on the mutation rate of 1 million lab mice showed that six major hypotheses about ionizing
Haplogroup O-M175 (8,049 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
942] years ago (Karmin 2015) 35,000 or 30,000 years ago depending on mutation rate Possible place of origin East Asia Ancestor NO Descendants Primary:
Oswaldo Frota-Pessoa (676 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Frota-Pessoa, O. 1961. On the number of the gene loci and the total mutation rate in man. Amer. Nat. vol. 45, p. 217–222. Martello, N., Santos, J.L.F
Effects of the Chernobyl disaster (14,348 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
G.; Piatak, O.; Stepanova, E. I.; Skvarskaja, E. (2001). "Very high mutation rate in offspring of Chernobyl accident liquidators". Proceedings of the
Evolution of mammals (13,560 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
molecular phylogeneticists, sometimes quite harshly: Mitochondrial DNA's mutation rate in mammals varies from region to region — some parts hardly ever change
Cancer genome sequencing (2,997 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is to identify driver mutations: genetic changes which increase the mutation rate in the cell, leading to more rapid tumor evolution and metastasis. It
Molecular-weight size marker (4,359 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
used in population genetics. Microsatellites have a high and complex mutation rate, which is their major disadvantage. AFLP Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Haplogroup N-M231 (11,114 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
300] years before present (YFull) 44,700 or 38,300 ybp depending on mutation rate 41,900 [95% CI 40,175-43,591] ybp Coalescence age 21,700 [95% CI 19
Bulgarian Turks (15,600 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
counterparts based on allele size information, the method depends on mutation rate, sometimes can likely provide biased estimate, but RST will not perform
TEX9 (1,177 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
TEX9's mutation rate compared to fibrinogen, beta-globin, and cytochrome c.
Duplex sequencing (2,255 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
identify rare variants accurately using standard NGS methods with a mutation rate of (10−2 to 10−3). Errors that happen early during sample preparation
Epigenetic clock (7,669 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
M; Pfeiffer, H; Neuhuber, F; Brinkmann, B (2015). "Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers". Proc Biol Sci. 282 (1803): 20142898. doi:10.1098/rspb
Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (5,073 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
seemed to have little to do with cell cycle control, the low somatic mutation rate and the absence of cancer predisposition in DCC heterozygotes were fairly
DNA damage theory of aging (10,063 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in the mitochondrial DNA of an animal species is due to low guanine mutation rate in the mitochondria of that species). Lymphoblastoid cell lines established
Kári Stefánsson (12,357 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
population history and genetic anthropology include pioneering work on the mutation rate and mechanisms in mitochondria and the Y chromosome;  comparing ancient
C15orf54 (1,139 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Relative mutation rate of C15orf54 (blue) compared to fibrinogen alpha (grey) and cytochrome C (orange)
Selfish genetic element (10,172 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
paternal, is also much debated, but one key hypothesis is that the mutation rate is lower in female compared to male gametes. The conflict between mitochondrial
Haplogroup G-M377 (4,160 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(estimated to be 1950), with a standard deviation of 107 years. The mutation rate used is based on that of family groups with known most recent common
Pleistocene wolf (7,434 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sequence and that of a modern wolf, a direct estimate of the genome-wide mutation rate in dogs / wolves could be made to calculate the time of divergence.
Zaprionus tuberculatus (1,952 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
evolution rate of the mariner transposable element. A slowing mariner mutation rate helps to explain low divergence in the melanogaster species subgroup
Somatic evolution in cancer (9,668 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation rate in vivo: synergism with ionizing radiation". EMBO Rep. 3 (3): 255–60
Substitution model (8,566 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
phylogenetics). This is the equivalent to the statement that one is setting the mutation rate μ {\displaystyle \mu } to 1) and reducing the number of free parameters
C6orf136 (1,340 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Relative mutation rate of C6orf136 (blue) compared to fibrinogen alpha (grey) and cytochrome C (orange)
Haplogroup O-M117 (4,861 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
2015, or 7,500 or 6,400 years ago (depending on which estimate of the mutation rate is used) according to Poznik et al. 2016. Haplogroup O-M117 or O-M133
Adaptive evolution in the human genome (4,272 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mutations. However, this second explanation seems unlikely, because the mutation rate in the human genome is fairly low, so selection would be relatively
NUMT (7,338 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
detail as an insertion. Constant erosion of phylogenic signals and high mutation rate in animal mtDNA make recognition of such modification, especially deletion
Off-target genome editing (6,818 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sequence resulted in a higher tolerance and thus, a higher off target mutation rate. Bulges of 2bp-5bp strikingly were more tolerant and mutation inducing
Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes (2,553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
antigens to tumor immunogenicity is expected to vary according to the mutation rate: higher in lung carcinomas arising in tobacco smokers, in melanomas
Genome skimming (4,424 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inheritance, high copy-number in the cell, lack of recombination, and high mutation rate. It is often used for phylogenetic studies as it is very uniform across
List of Plasmodium species (17,466 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
An estimation of the date of evolution of this genus based upon the mutation rate in the cytochrome b gene places the evolution of P. falciparum at 2