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Longer titles found: Hysteresis (economics) (view), Magnetic hysteresis (view), Bouc–Wen model of hysteresis (view), Preisach model of hysteresis (view), Chaotic hysteresis (view)

searching for Hysteresis 213 found (632 total)

alternate case: hysteresis

Time loop (1,257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The time loop or temporal loop is a plot device in fiction whereby characters re-experience a span of time which is repeated, sometimes more than once
Antifreeze protein (5,663 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
point (busting temperature of AFP bound ice crystal) known as thermal hysteresis. The addition of AFPs at the interface between solid ice and liquid water
Cell cycle checkpoint (4,564 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
necessary, as M phase initiation is an all-or-nothing event engaging in hysteresis. Hysteresis of Cdk1 activity via cyclin B drives M phase entry by establishing
Hydrophobe (3,007 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
static hydrophobicity, and contact angle hysteresis and slide angle are dynamic measures. Contact angle hysteresis is a phenomenon that characterizes surface
Electromagnetic brake (1,135 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
widest available torque range of any of the hysteresis products. Most applications involving powered hysteresis units are in test stand requirements. When
Electromagnetic clutch (1,531 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetic drag between the rotor and the hysteresis disk takes place causing rotation. In a sense, the hysteresis disk is pulled after the rotor. Depending
Single domain (magnetic) (1,672 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
defined as a particle that is in a single-domain state throughout the hysteresis cycle, including during the transition between two such states. This is
Exchange bias (1,241 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
by the equation for reasonable values of the parameters. The amount of hysteresis shift Hb is not correlated with the density n of uncompensated spins in
Direct torque control (1,883 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
bands as fast as possible. Thus direct torque control is one form of the hysteresis or bang-bang control. Overview of key competing VFD control platforms:
SAE J2452 (278 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
coefficient (RRC) indicates the amount of force required to overcome the hysteresis of the material as the tire rolls. Tire pressure, vehicle weight and velocity
AC motor (6,144 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
designed with magnetized rotors (or several variations on that idea; see "Hysteresis synchronous motors" below). If a conventional squirrel-cage rotor has
Vicalloy (251 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
high as 3.5 MGOe when appropriately cold worked. 'Vicalloy' was used in hysteresis motors both in solid and laminated form (for higher frequency applications)
Quadruplex telegraph (810 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
practicality, Edison found other additional relays were necessary to provide hysteresis that prevented the switch from being in-determinant or fluttering at the
Electron-beam processing (1,613 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition and reduces polarization hysteresis losses in the material. Electron-beam processing involves irradiation
Torque limiter (715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A torque limiter is an automatic device that protects mechanical equipment, or its work, from damage by mechanical overload. A torque limiter may limit
Quantitative analysis of behavior (255 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
matching law, melioration, scalar expectancy, signal detection, neural hysteresis, and reinforcement control. Matching law Rate of response Rate of reinforcement
Busemann biplane (791 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
destroys the constructive interference and results in shock choking and flow hysteresis effects, which greatly increase drag. In shock choking, the shockwaves
National Geophysical Research Institute (301 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
alternating magnetic field and thermal demagnetizers, high-field and low-field hysteresis and susceptibility meter. Geochemical laboratory consisting of fully automated
Andy Thomas (1,202 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Adelaide University Engineering Society's (AUES) annual publication, Hysteresis. The caption below a photograph of the 21-year-old Thomas reads: A.S.W
Ultrahydrophobicity (5,699 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
static hydrophobicity, and contact angle hysteresis and slide angle are dynamic measures. Contact angle hysteresis is a phenomenon that characterizes surface
Hsiung-Zee Wong (343 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Intersection Gallery (probably Intersection for the Arts). Wong founded Hysteresis, a women's creative arts group that included Bay-area artists, at Mills
Ultrahydrophobicity (5,699 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
static hydrophobicity, and contact angle hysteresis and slide angle are dynamic measures. Contact angle hysteresis is a phenomenon that characterizes surface
Belleville washer (2,566 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
divided by n. In a parallel stack, hysteresis (load losses) will occur due to friction between the springs. The hysteresis losses can be advantageous in some
Electric motor (13,146 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
made using electrical steel which has a specified magnetic permeability, hysteresis, and saturation. Laminations are used to reduce losses that would result
Mullins effect (322 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
filled rubber there can be additional contributions to the mechanical hysteresis from filler particles debonding from each other or from the polymer chains
SAE J1269 (139 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
thus measured indicates the proportion of energy that is lost to the hysteresis of the material as the tire rolls. Hall, D. E.; J. C. Moreland (2001)
Fracture in polymers (3,277 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
about failure in polymer due to: chain scission, built up heat due to hysteresis, recrystallization of material and cumulative crack generation. Chain
Voigt effect (3,574 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the hysteresis corresponding to the Voigt effect, and the asymmetric part corresponding to the longitudinal Kerr effect. In the case of the hysteresis presented
Temperature-responsive polymer (5,986 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cooling and heating is called hysteresis. The cloud points are dependent on the cooling and heating rates, and hysteresis decreases with lower rates. There
Meglos (1,568 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
on Tigella they are trapped in a time loop (which they call a chronic hysteresis), causing them to repeat a small "pocket of time" over and over again
Giant magnetoresistance (5,627 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
layers led to a significant reduction of the residual magnetization in the hysteresis loop. Electrical resistance changed by up to 50% with the external magnetic
Wiegand Sensor (433 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
made by wrapping a coil around a Vicalloy wire core, which, due to the hysteresis inherent in the Wiegand effect, induces a pulse in the coil each time
Irmgard Flügge-Lotz (2,030 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
discontinuous automatic control, which has found wide application in hysteresis control systems; such applications include guidance systems, electronics
Ratcheting (448 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
incremental inelastic deformation characterized by a shift of the stress-strain hysteresis loop along the strain axis. When the amplitude of cyclic stresses exceed
Madan Rao (1,062 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
an MSc in physics in 1982 and proceeded to do his doctoral studies on Hysteresis in Model Spin Systems at the Indian Institute of Science under the guidance
G2-M DNA damage checkpoint (2,241 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
loop that predicted the irreversible transition into mitosis driven by hysteresis. Through experiments in Xenopus laevis cell-free egg extracts, such model
Wilson–Cowan model (2,873 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The key findings include the existence of multiple stable states, and hysteresis, in the population response. The Wilson–Cowan model considers a homogeneous
Inductively coupled plasma (938 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Review of inductively coupled plasmas: Nano-applications and bistable hysteresis physics 5 011108 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5012001 Cornelis, RITA; Nordberg
Ricarda Winkelmann (521 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
org/10.1073/pnas.1810141115 (2,000+ citations) Winkelmann et al, The Hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, 2020, Nature DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2727-5
Inline speed skating (3,771 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Robert Marotta FIRS Secretary General." Harder wheels minimize elastic hysteresis energy absorption, due to skater's weight deforming the solid polyurethane
Permendur (410 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
composition to Permendur 49 but is grain-oriented so it has a square hysteresis loop and much lower core losses, for better performance in transformers
Swayam (1,491 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
this. Components of passive ACS include permanent magnets and hysteresis rods. The hysteresis rods are soft magnetic materials which damp the angular oscillations
RiAFP (1,221 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
aforementioned effect of AFPs on ice crystal nucleation is lost at the thermal hysteresis point. At a certain low temperature, the maximum convexity of the ice
Peter Bruce (1,269 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
G. (9 December 2019). "Superstructure control of first-cycle voltage hysteresis in oxygen-redox cathodes". Nature. 577 (7791): 502–508. Bibcode:2019Natur
Insect winter ecology (3,579 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hysteresis proteins that depress the hemolymph freezing point below the melting point by as much as 5.58°C(ΔT=thermal hysteresis). Thermal hysteresis
BAITSSS (3,475 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Results indicated that the pattern of hysteresis from BAITSSS closely followed the lysimeter and showed weak hysteresis related to net radiation when compared
Silver iodide (550 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Dimitrakis, G.; Price, D. M.; Reading, M.; Vaidhyanathan, B. (2006). "Hysteresis in the β–α Phase Transition in Silver Iodine" (PDF). Journal of Thermal
Iron(II) bromide (427 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Lawrence, P. E. (10 December 1967). "Metamagnetic Phase Transitions and Hysteresis in FeCl2". Physical Review. 164 (2): 866–878. Bibcode:1967PhRv..164..866J
Azzedine Bousseksou (1,781 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the application of an intense magnetic field (32 Tesla) pulsed into the hysteresis cycle of a spin transition molecule (Fe(Phen)2(NCS)2) allowing the information
Iron(II) bromide (427 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Lawrence, P. E. (10 December 1967). "Metamagnetic Phase Transitions and Hysteresis in FeCl2". Physical Review. 164 (2): 866–878. Bibcode:1967PhRv..164..866J
Water activity (2,318 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the measurement chamber. The sensor does not have any physically given hysteresis as it is known from capacitance hygrometers and sensors, and does not
Florence Martin (822 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"A Contribution to the Study of Oxygen at Low Pressures" and "Magnetic Hysteresis Losses in Feebly Magnetic and in Diamagnetic Substances". In 1899 she
Ruth Pfeiffer (274 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dissertation was titled, Statistical problems for stochastic processes with hysteresis. Mark Freidlin was Pfeiffer's doctoral advisor. Pfeiffer is a tenured
Molecular magnet (70 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
combinations Single-molecule magnet, a single molecule that exhibits magnetic hysteresis of itself, without collective long-range ordering This disambiguation
M. Azizur Rahman (1,282 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Rahman originated the concept of an IPM motor when he discovered that a hysteresis motor is a temporarily magnetized permanent magnet synchronous machine
Doctor Who at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop Volume 4: Meglos & Full Circle (103 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
5 "The Screens of Zolpha-Thura" 6 "The Last Zolpha-Thuran" 7 "Chronic Hysteresis" 8 Peter Howell "To Tigella" 9 "The Deon Oath" 10 "The Power Room" 11
C-element (2,739 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
In digital computing, the Muller C-element (C-gate, hysteresis flip-flop, coincident flip-flop, or two-hand safety circuit) is a small binary logic circuit
Strain gauge (4,032 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
bonding. Hysteresis is an error of return to zero after pressure excursion. Repeatability - This error is sometimes tied-in with hysteresis but is across
Varicap (1,562 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
capacitance. Ferroelectric capacitors have a variable capacitance due to hysteresis effects. Diffusion capacitance Sedra, Adel; Smith, Kenneth (2010). Microelectronic
AeroCube-3 (694 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
freeflying CubeSat picosatellite. In this phase, permanent magnets and hysteresis material will align the satellite with Earth's magnetic field. In this
Atherton (653 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Atherton–Todd reaction, in organic chemistry Jiles–Atherton model, magnetic hysteresis model Atherton antechinus (Antechinus godmani), also known as Godman's
Beetle (16,240 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hysteresis proteins that depress the hemolymph freezing point below the melting point by as much as 5.58°C(ΔT=thermal hysteresis). Thermal hysteresis
Susceptance (1,136 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
SI electromagnetism units Steinmetz, C.P. (May 1894). "On the law of hysteresis (part III), and the theory of ferric inductances". Transactions of the
Abductin (2,140 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
structure because of temperature was fully reversible and did not display any hysteresis. The PPII conformation, which is widely present in elastomeric proteins
Bernard Haigh (612 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Strain-energy Function and the Elastic limit (1922) Stresses in Bridges (1924) Hysteresis in relation to cohesion and fatigue (1928) Electric welding as an integral
Stimulus–response model (860 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
 171–214. ISBN 978-0-470-84836-4. Geoffrey W. Hoffmann (1988). "Neurons with hysteresis?". In Rodney Cotterill (ed.). Computer simulation in brain science. Cambridge
Computational Fluid Dynamics for Phase Change Materials (1,600 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
phase change are the enthalpy-temperature relationship and temperature hysteresis. PCMs tend to have varying enthalpy temperature relationships due to the
Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (3,169 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Automatic RTS/CTS or DTR/DSR hardware flow control with programmable hysteresis, Automatic Xon/Xoff software flow control, RS-485 half duplex direction
DNA condensation (1,964 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
counterions in the solution.[ref] DNA condensation by proteins can exhibit hysteresis, which can be explained using a modified Ising model. Nowadays descriptions
Capillary number (568 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(2018), 125(2), 193-210 Shi, Z.; et al. (2018). "Dynamic contact angle hysteresis in liquid bridges". Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering
Infest (festival) (1,454 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Ego Saturday Atari Teenage Riot, Velvet Acid Christ, Grausame Töchter, Hysteresis, Monica Jeffries, Tapewyrm Sunday 3Teeth, Leaether Strip, Displacer, Rroyce
DNA-binding protein from starved cells (1,527 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
complexes can get trapped in long-lived metastable states that exhibit hysteresis. Because of this, the extent of DNA condensation by Dps can depend not
Glam (album) (314 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Bar" 4:26 4. "Tankpark" 4:52 5. "Mood Leck Backlash" 3:30 6. "Rerelease Hysteresis" 4:07 7. "Pool, Smooth and Hidder" 2:53 8. "Flim" 2:52 9. "Tiplet Metal
Sally Brooker (729 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Brooker". Brooker, Sally (24 April 2015). "Spin crossover with thermal hysteresis: practicalities and lessons learnt". Chemical Society Reviews. 44 (10):
Nickel(II) oxide (1,406 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Aldo; Dini, Danilo; Abate, Antonio (August 2019). "Stability and Dark Hysteresis Correlate in NiO‐Based Perovskite Solar Cells". Advanced Energy Materials
Captive bubble method (1,905 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
possible contact angle. Marmur, Abraham (April 1998). "Contact-angle hysteresis on heterogeneous smooth surfaces: theoretical comparison of the captive
Regenerative circuit (3,553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
larger amplitude and back to no oscillation without jumps of amplitude or hysteresis in control. Two important attributes of a radio receiver are sensitivity
Biological applications of bifurcation theory (2,558 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
concentration measured by a GFP-expressing lac promoter exhibits bistability and hysteresis (Figure 10, left and right respectively). Biochemical switches in the
Sensory design (1,504 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Lahey, Timothy (2002). "Modelling Hysteresis in the Bending of Fabrics" (PDF): 17–21. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal
Programmable thermostat (1,925 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the end user. "Smart PID controller". "Temperature Controllers Using Hysteresis". Thermostat With Adjustable Differential Energy Savers, Programmable
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (6,479 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
between speed and precision. Using the magnet alone to scan is slow, due to hysteresis, but is precise. Electrostatic plates can be used in addition to the magnet
York (group) (1,102 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
(2012) "Damien.S vs. Under - The Cars Below (York remix)" (2014) "Floe - Hysteresis (York retouch version)" (2014) "Funkstar Deluxe - Sun Is Shining (Steve
Hawarden, New Zealand (877 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Office. Brooker, Sally (24 April 2015). "Spin crossover with thermal hysteresis: practicalities and lessons learnt". Chemical Society Reviews. 44 (10):
Xylomannan (278 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Serianni AS; Sformo T; Barnes BM; Duman JG (2009). "A nonprotein thermal hysteresis-producing xylomannan antifreeze in the freeze-tolerant Alaskan beetle
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (1,534 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Review of inductively coupled plasmas: Nano-applications and bistable hysteresis physics 5 011108 https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5012001 Hieftje, Gary; et al
Electric machine (2,240 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Metadyne, Eddy current clutch, Eddy current brake, Eddy current dynamometer, Hysteresis dynamometer, Rotary converter, and Ward Leonard set. A rotary converter
James Ferrell (930 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Eduardo D; Ferrell, James E (2003). "Building a cell cycle oscillator: Hysteresis and bistability in the activation of Cdc2". Nature Cell Biology. 5 (4):
Barium titanate (1,643 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
22.221. Shieh, J.; Yeh, J. H.; Shu, Y. C.; Yen, J. H. (2009-04-15). "Hysteresis behaviors of barium titanate single crystals based on the operation of
Bikas Chakrabarti (743 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Switzerland (2017) B. K. Chakrabarti and M. Acharyya, Dynamic Transitions and Hysteresis, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 847 (1999) A. Das and B. K. Chakrabarti, Quantum
Thermo-magnetic motor (655 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
C. B.; Gandra, F. G.; Gama, S. (2017). "On the influence of thermal hysteresis on the performance of thermomagnetic motors". Journal of Applied Physics
Rayleigh law (361 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1080/00018735500101204. Turik, A.V. (1963). "Theory of polarization and hysteresis of ferroelectrics". Soviet Physics - Solid State. 5 (4): 885–887. Damjanovic
Principal curvature-based region detector (863 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
images are cleaned by a morphological closing and eigenvector-flow guided hysteresis thresholding. Then traditional watershed algorithm is applied on images
Airfoil (3,492 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Traub, Lance W. (24 March 2016). "Semi-Empirical Prediction of Airfoil Hysteresis". Aerospace. 3 (2): 9. Bibcode:2016Aeros...3....9T. doi:10.3390/aerospace3020009
Betty Ann Wong (711 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Morton Subotnick, Nathan Rubin, and Colin Hampton, and performed with Hysteresis, a women's creative arts group that included several Bay-area artists
Biomimetics (8,731 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to make better cutting tools. New ceramics that exhibit giant electret hysteresis have also been realized. Neuromorphic computers and sensors are electrical
Francis Gibson Baily (432 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
died in Juniper Green, south-west of Edinburgh, on 23 February 1945. Hysteresis of Iron and Steel in a Rotating Magnetic Field (1894) The Distribution
Hydrogel dressing (3,556 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
prevent tearing. Hai Lei et al. demonstrated that poor elasticity and hysteresis in naturally-derived protein-based hydrogels can be remedied by the addition
John Eckland (964 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
turbines, windmills: US4374631, Windmill speed limiting system utilizing hysteresis, 4715782, inventor: David Shimmel; Hydraulic control, 4915590 patent inventors:
MAPK/ERK pathway (3,140 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
entering S-phase. This mitogen stimulated, bistable E2F switch is exhibits hysteresis, as cells are inhibited from returning to G1 even after mitogen withdrawal
Stoner–Wohlfarth astroid (259 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
61.12. Stoner, E.C.; Wohlfarth, E.P (1948). "A Mechanism of Magnetic Hysteresis in Heterogeneous Alloys". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
David Snoke (2,551 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1103/PhysRevB.44.2991. PMID 9999890. D.W. Snoke; J.D. Crawford (1995). "Hysteresis in the Mott transition between plasma and insulating gas". Physical Review
Lotus Carlton (1,460 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
same as that on the Esprit Turbo SE, with a combination of oils and low hysteresis. This allows for improved high-speed stability and better performance
Jonathan M. Gregory (1,135 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Weaver, A. J. (2003). "The role of the Atlantic freshwater balance in the hysteresis of the meridional overturning circulation". Climate Dynamics. 21 (7–8):
Ujikaji (357 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
2014 UJI-006CS Pan Gu The People are Panthers 2015 UJI-007CD Tim O'Dwyer Hysteresis 2015 UJI-010LP Yuen Chee Wai & Lasse Marhaug In Praise of Shadows 2018
Relaxor ferroelectric (633 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
interest in the fields of energy storage. Furthermore, due to their slim hysteresis curve with high saturated polarization and low remnant polarization, Relaxor
EQUiSat (1,978 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
algorithms required to de-tumble and stabilize the satellite. Two pairs of hysteresis rods were used to impart a torque on the satellite to offset tumbling
Output gap (1,425 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inflicted on an economy's long-term potential through what economists term “hysteresis effects.” In essence, workers and capital remaining idle for long stretches
Three Gorges Reservoir Region (1,056 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Andres; Li, Huajin; Cao, Yangjian (16 July 2019). "Characteristics and hysteresis of saturated-unsaturated seepage of soil landslides in the Three Gorges
1998 Russian financial crisis (3,364 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
February 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2011. Ould-Ahmed, Pepita (2003). "Barter Hysteresis in Post-Soviet Russia: An Institutional and Post Keynesian Perspective"
Output gap (1,425 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inflicted on an economy's long-term potential through what economists term “hysteresis effects.” In essence, workers and capital remaining idle for long stretches
OpenGL Performer (726 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
threads. Performer allowed the scene to describe levels of detail with hysteresis bands and fade capabilities. Frame rate and statistics were monitored
Three Gorges Reservoir Region (1,056 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Andres; Li, Huajin; Cao, Yangjian (16 July 2019). "Characteristics and hysteresis of saturated-unsaturated seepage of soil landslides in the Three Gorges
Pyroelectricity (2,406 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Olsen, Randall B.; Evans, Diane (1983). "Pyroelectric energy conversion: Hysteresis loss and temperature sensitivity of a ferroelectric material". Journal
Low rolling resistance tire (1,587 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
coefficient (RRC) indicates the amount of force required to overcome the hysteresis of the material as the tire rolls. Tire pressure, vehicle weight and velocity
Lotus effect (1,862 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
01.001. Rulon E. JohnsonJr.; Robert H. Dettre (1964). "Contact Angle Hysteresis. III. Study of an Idealized Heterogeneous Surface". J. Phys. Chem. 68
Shakedown (continuum mechanics) (468 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
stage the growth is stopped and further cyclic loading produces closed hysteresis loops of stress–strain. Finally in case 3 the growth of residual strain
Thermoporometry and cryoporometry (2,200 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"Curvature-dependent metastability of the solid phase and the freezing-melting hysteresis in pores", Phys. Rev., 73 (1): 7, Bibcode:2006PhRvE..73a1608P, doi:10
Pulse-width modulation (3,712 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetic flux are estimated and these are controlled to stay within their hysteresis bands by turning on a new combination of the device's semiconductor switches
Hennesey (578 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Crow's Nest" Unknown Richard Baer January 1, 1962 (1962-01-01) 79 15 "Hysteresis Synchronous Can Be Fun" Unknown Unknown January 8, 1962 (1962-01-08) 80
Christos V. Massalas (279 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
addition, he is the chairman of the Board of Higher Education (SAPE). "Hysteresis Modeling and Applications". World Scientific Publishing Co. Retrieved
Ocular tonometry (2,290 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
flattens inward and outward is measured by the machine and termed corneal hysteresis (CH). The machine uses this value to correct for the effects of the cornea
Eddy current (3,452 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
31 Wangsness, Roald. Electromagnetic Fields (2nd ed.). pp. 387–8. G. Hysteresis in Magnetism: For Physicists, Materials Scientists, and Engineers, San
Gillette (10,441 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Welsh, experimented with tandem blades and discovered what he called the "hysteresis effect"; a blade pulling the whisker out of the hair follicle before cutting
Lee Young-hee (physicist) (1,532 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
transparent graphene/carbon nanotube transistors (Nature Materials, 2013) Small Hysteresis Nanocarbon-Based Integrated Circuits on Flexible and Transparent Plastic
Bimal Kumar Bose (1,724 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
networks, transistor ac power switch for matrix converters, adaptive hysteresis-band current control, etc. He also pioneered power electronics applications
Florida Reef (3,847 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
80°24′W / 25.1°N 80.4°W / 25.1; -80.4 Bhattacharyya, Joydeb (2015). "Hysteresis In Coral Reefs Under Macroalgal Toxicity And Overfishing". Journal of
Franklin Orr (1,267 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
E.J. Spiteri, F.M. Orr, M.J. Blunt "Impact of relative permeability hysteresis on geological CO2 storage", Water Resources Research, 42(12), 1042 (2006)
Vanadium(IV) oxide (2,389 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Polyakov, A.; Shabalov, A. (2009-11-15). "Nonhysteretic behavior inside the hysteresis loop of VO2 and its possible application in infrared imaging". Journal
Alfaxalone (2,654 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of concentration-dependent hysteresis and biphasic electroencephalogram effects of alphaxalone in rats". The
Self-cleaning surfaces (6,190 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
superhydrophobic surface, Contact angle hysteresis is an important consideration. Low levels of contact angle hysteresis will enhance the self-cleaning effect
Vienna rectifier (969 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Analysis of the Variation and Control of the Neutral Point Potential of Hysteresis Current Controlled Three-Phase/Switch/Level PWM Rectifier Systems”, Proceedings
Ammonium chloride (4,366 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Rodríguez, F; Moreno, M (1993). "Phase transition temperatures and thermal hysteresis in NH4Cl1−xBrx (x≤0.05) crystals determined through charge transfer spectra
Irreversible process (2,510 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electric current through a resistance Magnetization or polarization with a hysteresis Unrestrained expansion of fluids Spontaneous chemical reactions Spontaneous
Tuned mass damper (2,667 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 2010-02-07. Sauter, D; Hagedorn, P (December 2002). "On the hysteresis of wire cables in Stockbridge dampers". International Journal of Non-Linear
Acoustic Research (1,534 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a T-bar sub-chassis that greatly reduced acoustic feedback. A 24-pole hysteresis-synchronous, permanent magnet Hurst AC motor propelled the platter via
SQUID (2,958 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
R {\displaystyle R} is connected across the junction to eliminate the hysteresis (in the case of copper oxide based high-temperature superconductors the
Conservation and restoration of leather objects (2,985 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
air and the result is a hard or brittle state, this is referred to as hysteresis. This is due to the interconnected nature of external heat and moisture
Rahul Pandit (1,715 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
quasiperiodic Schroedinger operators. He is known to have developed a a theory of hysteresis loops in model spin systems and a cardiac arrhythmias model and his studies
Garth Carnaby (509 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
governance. Carnaby, Garth A., and Ning Pan. "Theory of the compression hysteresis of fibrous assemblies." Textile Research Journal 59.5 (1989): 275–284
Dual-mass flywheel (591 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Representation of the friction hysteresis of a two-stage arc spring supported by a sliding shell in a torque-angle characteristic curve.
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (4,414 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the radio network parameter cell reselection parameters, slow reselect hysteresis for a period of 5 seconds. The next diagram illustrates where a given
Stirling cycle (1,608 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
temperature, it causes thermodynamic losses known as "heat transfer losses" or "hysteresis losses". However, the heat exchangers still work well enough to allow
PicoScope (software) (843 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
window pulse width, level dropout, window dropout, runt pulse, variable hysteresis, and logic. Mixed signal variants combine digitised analogue triggers
Chemical force microscopy (1,782 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
linear moieties. A quick note to mention is the work corresponding to the hysteresis in the force profile (Figure 2) does not correlate to the bond energy
Reduced derivative (1,000 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
z=z(t)-z(s).} Mielke, Alexander; Theil, Florian (2004). "On rate-independent hysteresis models". NoDEA Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl. 11 (2): 151–189
Upis ceramboides (411 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Serianni AS; Sformo T; Barnes BM; Duman JG (2009). "A nonprotein thermal hysteresis-producing xylomannan antifreeze in the freeze-tolerant Alaskan beetle
CRC-based framing (896 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
number of times. The receiver then declares that it has found the frame. A hysteresis function is applied to keep the receiver in lock in the presence of a
Sputter deposition (2,788 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
majority of reactive-based sputtering processes are characterized by an hysteresis-like behavior, thus needing proper control of the involved parameters
Cerium (5,345 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transformation. Transformation temperatures are subject to substantial hysteresis and values quoted here are approximate. Upon cooling below −15 °C, γ-cerium
Mark Vishik's seminar at Moscow State University (337 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
semigroups. March 5 Pavel Gurevich: Reaction-diffusion equation with hysteresis. March 12 Natalia Chalkina: Inertial manifolds and the spectral gap condition
Analog-to-digital converter (5,341 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a set of op-amp comparators and a priority encoder. A small amount of hysteresis is built into the comparator to resolve any problems at voltage boundaries
Single crystal (3,352 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Collet, Eric; Long, Jeffrey R.; Rigaut, Stéphane (15 January 2020). "Hysteresis Photomodulation via Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Isomerization of
Phase transition (5,687 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
temperatures, but phenomena like supercooling and superheating survive and hysteresis is observed on thermal cycling. Second-order phase transitions are also
Flame lift-off (783 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
L. (1988-01-01). "Structure of attached and lifted gas jet flames in hysteresis region". Symposium (International) on Combustion. 21 (1): 1463–1471. doi:10
Milankovitch cycles (5,072 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Blatter H (August 2013). "Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume". Nature. 500 (7461): 190–3. Bibcode:2013Natur.500
Rick Turner (luthier) (555 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
curved plates on the front and back in order to reduce standing wave hysteresis loss and the use of 18 volt preamps in an attempt to tame the 'quack'
Xylem (6,714 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"Capillary Rise in a Microchannel of Arbitrary Shape and Wettability: Hysteresis Loop". Langmuir. 28 (49): 16917–16926. doi:10.1021/la3036242. PMID 23171321
Telford Medal (3,370 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
J.; Buisson, M. S. R.; Sharma, R. S. (2003). "Coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and stress–strain behaviour in unsaturated soils". Géotechnique. 53: 41–54
Geoffrey W. Hoffmann (831 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
resulted in the discovery of a neural network in which neurons exhibit hysteresis and thus can learn without synaptic modification. He also discovered,
Electrodynamic suspension (1,887 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
frequency and conductor configuration). Given the details of the applicable hysteresis loop, frequency-dependent variability of behavior should be of minimal
Perepiteia (1,443 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
system described by Heins simply demonstrates a change in the motor's hysteresis drag, increasing the speed of the rotor but not producing any energy.[unreliable
Inline skates (4,661 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
less affected by road bumps. Harder wheels (which grant minimal elastic hysteresis energy absorption) maintain rolling speed far better while softer wheels
They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha-Haaa! (1,575 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
used a Variable Frequency Oscillator to alter the 60 Hz frequency of the hysteresis motor of a multitrack tape recording machine. He first recorded the rhythm
Flexure bearing (534 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rates, bearing types, single and multi-strip design, material types, hysteresis and fatigue Weinstein, Warren D., "Microperformance of Metals". Machine
General Electric (14,084 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
United States, Steinmetz was already publishing in the field of magnetic hysteresis and had earned worldwide professional recognition. Led by Steinmetz, Eickemeyer's
Nagamori Awards (198 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
contributions to basic driving principles of piezoelectric actuators For contributions to iron hysteresis and enahnced Kalman filter for synchronous motors
Condensed matter physics (6,519 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 13 June 2012. Visintin, Augusto (1994). Differential Models of Hysteresis. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-54793-8. Merali, Zeeya (2011). "Collaborative
Automation (11,704 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
theory of discontinuous automatic control, which became widely used in hysteresis control systems such as navigation systems, fire-control systems, and
Vivek Ranade (2,064 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Sardeshpande, Madhavi V.; Juvekar, Vinay A.; Ranade, Vivek V. (2010). "Hysteresis in cloud heights during solid suspension in stirred tank reactor: experiments
NOAA-14 (2,805 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
optical system, and baseplate. The scanner module included an 80-pole hysteresis synchronous motor housing and a scan mirror. The scan motor continuously
Corvette leaf spring (2,015 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of the leaves of a multi-leaf steel spring results in stiction-based hysteresis with respect to spring compression. This stiction reduces suspension compliance
Barocaloric material (667 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mason, Jarad A. (2022-05-09). "Colossal barocaloric effects with ultralow hysteresis in two-dimensional metal–halide perovskites". Nature Communications. 13
Chandreshekhar Sonwane (2,193 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ludovice, “A note on micro-and mesopores in the walls of SBA-15 and hysteresis of adsorption isotherms” Journal of Molecular Catalysis. A: Chemical,
NOAA-13 (3,203 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
optical system, and baseplate. The scanner module included an 80-pole hysteresis synchronous motor housing and a scan mirror. The scan motor continuously
John R. Clarke (scientist) (3,557 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
maint: unfit URL (link) Taylor NA, Clarke JR (1993). "Pulmonary function hysteresis during compression to, and decompression from 31.3 ATA". Acta Physiologica
Paul Davidson (economist) (3,323 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
JSTOR 4538333. Davidson, P. (1993). "The Elephant and the Butterfly: Or Hysteresis and Post Keynesian Economics". Journal of Post Keynesian Economics. 15
Axial compressor (5,078 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
downstream static pressure are constant. In the compressor, a pressure-rise hysteresis is assumed. It is a situation of separation of air flow at the aero-foil
Lugiato–Lefever equation (3,133 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle |E_{\text{in}}|^{2}} is increased and then decreased, one covers a hysteresis cycle. If we refer to the modes of the empty cavity, in the case of the
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (5,941 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
task (such variables are considered to have no 'memory', and do not show hysteresis); in particular, local flow intensive variables are not admitted as independent
Sessile drop technique (4,388 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
caused by the surface chemistry. In order to measure the contact angle hysteresis, the sessile droplet can be increased gradually in volume. The maximum
Graphene (26,203 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as water and oxygen molecules. This leads to non-repetitive and large hysteresis I-V characteristics. Researchers must carry out electrical measurements
Hermann Simon (manager) (1,192 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Düsseldorf: Econ Verlag. ISBN 0-8342-0877-6. Simon, Hermann (1997). "Hysteresis in Marketing - A New Phenomenon?". Sloan Management Review. 38 (3): 39–49
Swedish Social Democratic Party (7,381 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(2005): 1–23 A. Fatas, Ms Valerie Cerra, and Ms Sweta Chaman Saxena, “Hysteresis and Business Cycles,” IMF Working Papers, IMF Working Papers (International
Magnetically controlled shunt reactor (1,211 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reactive power, its operating range should be offset to non-linear area of hysteresis characteristic; and this is achieved for the account of additional biasing
Capacitor (14,678 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
disconnecting it, after a short time it may develop a voltage due to hysteresis in the dielectric. This effect is objectionable in applications such as
Low pressure hydrocephalus (476 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Williams, M.A. (2002). "Low pressure hydrocephalus and ventriculomegaly: hysteresis, non-linear dynamics, and the benefits of CSF diversion". British Journal
100,000-year problem (2,548 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Ayako; et al. (2013). "Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume". Nature. 500 (7461): 190–193. Bibcode:2013Natur.500
Liquid-crystal display (14,081 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ih=784&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X Liquid Crystal Display Device with a hysteresis, HA van Sprang and AJSM de Vaan; European patent: EP0155033B1; 31 January
Capillary bridges (3,512 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
liquid bridges in atomic force microscopy(AFM): Formation, rupture, and hysteresis, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184702 (2009) Ft. B. EDWARDS , Joint Tolerances in
Pico Technology (1,319 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
window pulse width, level drop-out, window drop-out, runt pulse, variable hysteresis, and logic. Mixed signal variants combine digitised analogue triggers
Kibble balance (2,355 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
R.L.; Williams, E.R.; Smith, D.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J. (2001). "Hysteresis and related error mechanisms in the NIST watt balance experiment". Journal
MLDesigner (1,349 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
permit to models systems that include time-events and state events, like hysteresis. Connections between ports of different types are made possible by inserting
Dielectric elastomers (1,694 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
biocompatible. Remaining issues include drying of the hydrogels, ionic build-up, hysteresis, and electrical shorting. Early experiments in semiconductor device research
Anders Levermann (1,020 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
223-227 (cover story). Garbe, Albrecht, Levermann, Donges, Winkelmann, "The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet", Nature, 585 (2020), 538-544 (cover story)
7400-series integrated circuits (3,702 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
tolerant inputs. 74AUP Advanced Ultra-Low-Power 0.8–3.6 V <5 ns 4 mA Hysteresis inputs with less than 1 mA current draw. 74AUP1T Advanced Ultra-Low-Power
Intrinsically disordered proteins (5,753 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"Mechanical unzipping and rezipping of a single SNARE complex reveals hysteresis as a force-generating mechanism". Nature Communications. 4 (4): 1705.
Neon compounds (4,119 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
neon can be absorbed at 100 K at pressures up to 100 bars, and shows hysteresis, being retained till lower pressures. The pores easily take up six atoms
Cucujus clavipes (913 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Voituron, T. Sformo, B. M. Barnes, and J. G. Duman. 2011. A thermal hysteresis-producing xylomannan glycolipid antifreeze associated with cold tolerance
Global Academy of Technology (653 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the student clubs are: IT-VIRTUOSO — Dept of CSE INSPIRE — Dept of ISE HYSTERESIS — Dept of EEE RESONANCE -Dept of ECE The CSE student club - IT-Virtuoso
Operational amplifier (10,073 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
non-inverting input. An important application of it is the comparator with hysteresis, the Schmitt trigger. Some circuits may use positive feedback and negative
Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (2,805 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Michigan and Huron water levels since 1860 Evaluation of the Potential for Hysteresis in Index-Velocity Ratings for the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Near
Fog collection (2,274 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is coated in a chemical that decreases water droplet's contact angle hysteresis, which allows for more small droplets to form. This type of netting can
Wearable technology (9,474 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
with conventional, bulky wearables, including measurement artifacts, hysteresis, and motion-induced irritation to the skin. With this inherent ability
Hemorheology (4,939 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
={\frac {4A}{\pi \omega \Delta d^{2}}}} where d is the displacement. The hysteresis shown in figure 3 represents the viscoelasticity present in red blood
Megamasso (1,876 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
BEZOARSTEIN (October 3, 2012) BEZOARSTEIN (ベゾアルステーン) Shellfish (セルフィッシュ) Hysteresis (ヒステリシス) Winter Hollow (December 12, 2012) WINTER HOLLOW Gokkan (ゴッカン)
Dynamic steady state (899 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
jstor.org/stable/27847256 Iwan, W. D. A Distributed-Element Model for Hysteresis and Its Steady-State Dynamic Response. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Volume
Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (4,602 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Estrada, David; Liao, Albert (2009). "Avalanche, joule breakdown and hysteresis in carbon nanotube transistors" (PDF). 2009 IEEE International Reliability
Mete Sozen (1,395 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Reinforced Concrete Containment Structure (1990) DE LA COLINA, JAIME. A Hysteresis Model for Reinforced Concrete Space Frame Structures (1993) DRAGOVICH
Tribology (7,909 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
phase is almost entirely recovered in the decompression phase (elastic hysteresis); Break deformations – deformations that lead to the breaking of bumps
Superconducting computing (2,074 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
an appropriately sized shunt resistor, to make them switch without a hysteresis. Clocking signals are provided to logic gates by separately distributed
Neuronal noise (2,368 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
S2CID 7256148. Li, C., Yu, J., & Liao, X. (2001). "Chaos in a three‐neuron hysteresis hopfield‐type neural networks". Physics Letters A. 285 (5–6): 368–372
Direction finding (10,394 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
modulation characteristics. The comparator operation usually includes hysteresis, to avoid jitter in the selection process when the bearing of the incoming
Electronic properties of graphene (4,995 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as water and oxygen molecules. This leads to non-repetitive and large hysteresis I-V characteristics. Researchers must carry out electrical measurements