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Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher
airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Live Aid, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
I read that it had all been started by another reporter sent to Africa by the Telegraph more than a century before me. His name was Henry Morton Stanley. In the Victorian era, Stanley was the world's best-known journalist, famous for the scoop of the century - tracking down the Scottish explorer, David Livingstone, in November 1871. The soundbite he came up with was as glib and memorable as any a modern spin doctor could conjure. Stanley's `Dr Livingstone, I presume,' greeting remains so dominant that it has overshadowed his much greater and more significant achievement. It came on his next epic trip to Africa between 1874 and 1877, when he solved the continent's last great geographical mystery by mapping the Congo River. Commissioned jointly by the Telegraph and an American newspaper, The New York Herald, he hacked his way through a swathe of territory never before visited by a white man, crossing the Congo River basin and proving that the continent's previously impenetrable hinterland could be opened up by steamboats on a single, huge river.
Stanley followed the established explorer's route to Zanzibar, but as he assembled an expedition party there he concealed the real motive of his trip. The RGS had many friends in Zanzibar and they would have sought to block any freelance attempt to track their man. Stanley was right to be suspicious of some of the stuffier attitudes within the RGS. After finding Livingstone in November 1871 at the small settlement of Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, where the 'Doctor Livingstone, I presume?' greeting scene was played out, the two men spent four months together. But Stanley could not persuade Livingstone to return to Zanzibar. So he returned by himself, carrying a bundle of thirty letters and a journal written by Livingstone as proof that he had found the explorer. This was not enough to silence the sniping from many senior members of the RGS. They leaked stories to the press demanding that handwriting experts analyse the letters Stanley 'claimed' to have been written by Livingstone and sneered that Stanley was just a newspaperman, not a professional explorer.
In our headlights I could see we were approaching the iron bridge across the Lukuga River on the northern edge of town. A Royal Navy officer, Commander Verney Lovett Cameron, had been the first European to explore the river. Cameron was one of the great `what if' figures of African exploration, an adventurer of no less ambition than Stanley, but who somehow never quite staked his own place in the public's imagination. He never came up with a soundbite as memorable as `Dr Livingstone, I presume?' Cameron actually beat Stanley to this spot by two years. He, too, had heard tales from the Arab slavers about an immense river somewhere out there to the west. And he, too, was willing to trek through the bush for week after week to check if it were true. But, unlike Stanley, he failed to make the river descent. Once he reached the upper Congo River he tried to persuade local villagers to take him downriver in their canoes, but they refused.
Crossing the Heart of Africa: An Odyssey of Love and Adventure by Julian Smith
“What would I not have given for a bit of friendly wilderness, where, unseen, I might vent my joy in some mad freak, such as idiotically biting my hand, turning a somersault, or slashing at trees, in order to allay those exciting feelings that were well-nigh uncontrollable.” At the lakeshore Stanley pushed through crowds of people and saw a pale, gray-bearded man sitting under a mango tree. He briefly considered running over and embracing him but then decided to walk over deliberately. He took off his hat and uttered one of the most famous lines in journalism: “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Except he probably didn’t. As Tim Jeal, Stanley’s biographer, writes, the explorer probably thought up his immortal phrase months later. Livingstone didn’t record it in his account of the meeting, and Stanley tore the relevant pages out of his own journal. Either way, the words stuck and helped make Stanley a household name once he returned home. Stanley and Livingstone hit it off like a long-lost father andson and explored the northern end of the lake together.
“The Manyema Hordes of Tippu Tip: A Case Study in Social Stratification and the Slave Trade in Eastern Africa.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 7, no. 1 (1974): 69–84. Paice, Edward. Lost Lion of Empire: The Life of Cape-to-Cairo Grogan. London: HarperCollins, 2001. Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa, 1876–1912. New York: Random House, 1991. “People of Africa’s Past: Ewart Grogan.” Travel Africa, no. 11 (Spring 2000). Pettitt, Clare. Dr. Livingstone, I presume?: Missionaries, Journalists, Explorers, and Empire. London: Profile, 2007. Roberts, Chalmers. “A Wonderful Feat of Adventure.” World’s Work, January 1901. Rocco, Fiametta. The Miraculous Fever-tree: Malaria, Medicine and the Cure That Changed the World. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. Royal Geographical Society. “Count Götzen’s Journey Across Equatorial Africa.” Geographical Journal 5, no. 4 (1895): 354–60
The Phantom Atlas: The Greatest Myths, Lies and Blunders on Maps by Edward Brooke-Hitching
It was a gruelling, three-year mission into the interior of Africa, in which the pair suffered all manner of tropical diseases: several times Burton fell gravely ill and Speke went temporarily blind – he also lost his hearing for a time when a beetle crawled into his ear and he tried to fish it out with a knife. When Burton became too ill to move, Speke continued solo and identified Lake Victoria as the true source in 1858 (much to the disbelief and protest of Burton). The pair feuded for years until in 1874 Henry Morton Stanley (deliverer of the famous and probably invented line ‘Doctor Livingstone I presume?’) circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke’s findings. This finally laid the Moon Mountains myth to rest, but the discussion was now as to which mountains served as its basis. In 1940, the writer G. W. B. Huntingford made the case for the range to be identified with Mount Kilimanjaro, but was ridiculed by his peers, though Sir Harry Johnston had made the same argument in 1911, as did Dr Gervase Mathew in 1963.
The Pentagon's Brain: An Uncensored History of DARPA, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency by Annie Jacobsen
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, John Markoff, John von Neumann, license plate recognition, Livingstone, I presume, low earth orbit, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, place-making, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game
Four days before the first nuclear launch, all ships and aircraft were in place. U.S. reconnaissance aircraft patrolled the skies over the South Atlantic. Ships carrying antiaircraft rockets were at the ready, in the unforeseen event of Soviet sabotage. The commander of Task Force 88 sent his final coded message to the ARPA office at the Pentagon, a prearranged indication that the operation was a go at his end. “Doctor Livingstone, I presume?” the commander stated clearly into a ship-to-shore radio microphone. The first test would take place on August 27, 1958. Although no one had a name for it at the time, Operation Argus was the world’s first test of an electromagnetic pulse bomb, or EMP. Halfway across the world, in Switzerland, a remarkable series of events was taking place. It was the height of the summer season, and Ernest O.
For quotes from York, see Making Weapons, 129–30. 11 unusual backstory: Melissinos, Nicholas C. Christofilos: His Contributions to Physics, 1–15. 12 “responsible people”: IDA-ARPA Study No. 1, 19. 13 “The group has”: IDA-ARPA Study No. 1, 19. 14 Brazilian Anomaly: Operation Argus 1958, 19. 15 so many moving parts: Ibid., 22-26. 16 missile trajectory: Ibid., 48; list of shipboard tests and remarks, 56. 17 “Doctor Livingstone, I presume?”: Ibid., 34. 18 watched fireworks: Childs, 525. 19 “The President has asked”: Ibid., 521. 20 detection facilities: DARPA: 50 Years of Bridging the Gap, 58. 21 Wissmer examined Lawrence: Childs, 526. 22 had Harold Brown participate: Supplement 5 to “Extended Chronology of Significant Events Leading Up to Disarmament,” Joint Secretariat, Joint Chiefs of Staff, April 21, 1961, (unpaginated), York Papers, Geisel. 23 “I could never”: Childs, 527. 24 Christofilos effect did occur: Argus 1958, 65–68; Interview with Doug Beason, June 2014; “Report to the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack,” 161. 25 The telegram marked: Edward Teller, telegram to General Starbird, “Thoughts in Connection to the Test Moratorium,” August 29, 1958, LANL.
Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route
There he lay sick, penniless and exhausted, lost to the world, utterly out of touch with Europe, his mission a failure, his whereabouts one of the mysteries of the age: and there on November 10, 1871, Henry Stanley of the New York Herald, advancing into his camp beneath the Stars and Stripes, with his caravan of porters loaded with bales of food, tents, expensive equipment and ingenious accessories to African travel, walked through the wondering crowd of Arabs, took off his hat, and uttered one of the epic texts of the Victorian age, as sacred to the faithful as it was comic to the irreverent: ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume?’ ‘“Yes”, he said with a kind smile, lifting his cap slightly.’ 5 Stanley was a Welshman. Born John Rowlands at Denbigh in 1841, he had run away from the workhouse at St Asaph, and shipped as a cabin-boy for the United States. There he was adopted by a kindly cotton-broker, Mr Stanley of New Orleans. After fighting on both sides in the civil war (he was never a man of strong convictions) Stanley had taken to journalism, becoming the best-known special correspondent of the New York Herald.
As for Stanley himself, ‘what would I not have given for a bit of friendly wilderness, where, unseen, I might vent my joy in some mad feat, such as idiotically biting my hand, turning a somersault, or slashing at trees, in order to allay those exciting feelings, that were well-nigh uncontrollable’. He did control them, however, not wishing to ‘detract from the dignity of a white man appearing in such extraordinary circumstances’, and so gave his folk-phrase to the language—‘Dr Livingstone, I presume’. Livingstone, it seemed, did not in the least wish to be rescued. Now that fresh supplies were at hand, he wanted only to complete his task. Stanley had other duties to perform, and taking Livingstone’s precious journals with him, and bidding an affectionate and respectful goodbye to the old man, in March 1872 he left for the coast to sublimate his scoop—which very rightly made him celebrated throughout the world.
Them: Adventures With Extremists by Jon Ronson
These are characteristics which are sadly lacking in some Englishmen.’ Now, in the hut, Dr Paisley addressed the crowd. ‘I’m under police surveillance. Everywhere I go, I have policemen sitting with me. Now I have a journalist. And he wants to record me, to use my words against me in future days.’ ‘Of course,’ I said, ‘David Livingstone had a journalist along with him too.’ ‘Well,’ replied Dr Paisley, ‘he had a journalist who caught up on him. Mr Dr-Livingstone-I-Presume. And Stanley, as a journalist, took all the glory. As if Livingstone was lost!’ I felt that the best course of action, at that point, was to deride journalism. So I mentioned that Stanley lived to regret uttering those famous words, because the music-hall comedians of the time mocked him for it. This information seemed to please Dr Paisley a lot. ‘Well, don’t you be saying it to me, or all the comedians will laugh at you too.
The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution by Henry Schlesinger
Albert Einstein, animal electricity, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, British Empire, Copley Medal, Fellow of the Royal Society, index card, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Livingstone, I presume, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, Stephen Hawking, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, Thomas Davenport, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Yogi Berra
Labor-saving household products that included everything from the first electric iron and electric fan to the sewing machine and toaster were all patented and often publicized. Never mind that many of the products were years, even decades away from practical use, they showed what was possible with the power of electricity. The battery also found some unusual uses. It was said that the African explorer and journalist Henry Morton Stanley (of “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” fame) carried a small battery during his 1870s African expedition that gave tribal leaders a shock when they shook hands in order to instill in them a sense of his superiority and power. When the trick received criticism, one defender wrote, “It is beyond understanding why fault should be found with this harmless and efficient method of teaching a truth.” THE 1890S WORLD’S FAIRS BECAME high-voltage showcases for electricity.
Content Provider: Selected Short Prose Pieces, 2011–2016 by Stewart Lee
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Boris Johnson, call centre, centre right, David Attenborough, Etonian, James Dyson, Livingstone, I presume, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, Socratic dialogue, trickle-down economics, wage slave, young professional
And is Gove’s view on the UKIP parents an honest one, born of heartfelt personal experience, or is it, given UKIP’s growing power, politically expedient to confirm to their supporters that they could make fit parents? Deep in a British Library vault, I found a set of late-1880s letters exchanged between the then prime minister, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, and the explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley. Stanley is famous for his catchphrase “Dr Livingstone, I presume”, which finally rang true after decades of irrelevance when, quite by chance, he encountered a physician of that name at Lake Tanganyika in 1871. The letters shed some light on both the possible inspiration for Edgar Rice Burroughs’s classic 1912 novel, Tarzan of the Apes, and on the current UKIP fostering controversy. Exploring the Belgian Congo in 1889, Stanley was made aware of the existence of an abandoned boy, whom he presumed four years old, being raised by presumably friendly apes.
Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
Stanley, a naturalized American of illegitimate Welsh origin, to search out and interview the famous missionary-explorer, one of Britain’s greatest heroes, who had not been heard from since 1866. After an epic march across ‘Fatal Africa’, Stanley tracked the shy Scots missionary in November 1871 to the shores of Lake Tanganyika where, on first meeting, he uttered the much parodied salute, ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume.’ Thereafter, the threadbare Glaswegian became the kind of homespun imperial celebrity the Victorian media craved. Livingstone, in contrast to Stanley’s crude, and sometimes violent, racism, wanted to transform Africa’s prospects through a combination of trade and the Gospel. His actual achievements were limited, but in the longer term his mission and his myth had lasting consequences.
Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
On February 26, 1885, representatives from fourteen European nations concluded a marathon three-month-long conference in Berlin, during which they attempted to sort out their competing claims in Africa. At the time, 80 percent of Africa remained unclaimed by the colonial powers, but the so-called Dark Continent had started to attract considerable interest all over Europe, thanks in part to the sensational reports of explorers like Henry Morton Stanley (of “Dr. Livingston, I presume?” fame). For some Europeans, Africa seemed like a fantastical world, a primordial wilderness promising mystery and adventure. For others, it looked like one big gold mine, both literally and figuratively. For the 50 T he D rea m o f the L ab y rinth increasingly industrialized European powers, the temptations would prove irresistible. After the Congress of Berlin, Great Britain came away with a string of territories stretching in an almost unbroken chain from the Cape to Cairo (including present-day Egypt, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, as well as Nigeria and Ghana); Germany staked its claim in East Africa (Namibia and Tanzania); while France consolidated control over much of western Africa (Chad, Mauritania, and French Equatorial Africa).
To the Edges of the Earth: 1909, the Race for the Three Poles, and the Climax of the Age of Exploration by Edward J. Larson
back-to-the-land, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Livingstone, I presume, Scientific racism, the scientific method, trade route, yellow journalism
To mount an 1866 expedition to confirm the Nile’s source, the society tapped fifty-three-year-old David Livingstone, who had gained worldwide fame for his earlier journeys in southern Africa. Also entering by way of Zanzibar, but no longer up to the rigors of such travel, Livingstone was sick, disoriented, and low on supplies somewhere in the eastern Congo River basin by 1870. Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh-born journalist sent by the New York Herald to find him, reached the explorer in 1871. “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Stanley reported asking in an affected British understatement. “Yes, that is my name” came the reply that echoed around the globe.36 Hooked on the fame and money it brought him, Stanley returned to the region once more for the New York Herald and twice for Belgian King Leopold II, who wanted to claim and colonize the Congo. In 1889, on the last of these expeditions, Stanley sighted the snowcapped equatorial peaks that he identified as the fabled Mountains of the Moon but called by their local name, the Ruwenzori Range.
Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman
British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade
What had become of the lone, lost Scot, Mr Valiant-for-Truth abandoned in the jungle, was a gift of a story to the rapidly growing mass media. James Gordon Bennett of the New York Herald recognized the commercial potential of a world scoop and Henry Morton Stanley’s marathon journey to discover Livingstone’s fate was the result. Stanley’s celebrated greeting, when he eventually found Livingstone at Ujiji, in what is now western Tanzania – ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume?’ – guaranteed the immortality of both men. Afterwards, they travelled together for a while, and then Stanley left Livingstone to continue his search for the source of the Nile. One year later, Livingstone was still in Africa, but by now he was a very sick man able to travel only if carried in a litter by his porters. His death in 1873 – he was discovered, it was said, kneeling in prayer – provided Britain with another imperial pietà.
The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis
Airbus A320, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
To find Sino Zim I was told to head back out and carry on past the headquarters of Megawatt House, the dilapidated state electricity company. I reached Livingstone House, an angular and imposing twenty-two-story building that was the city’s tallest when it was constructed under white rule and named after the Scottish missionary pioneer immortalized in Western imaginings of Africa through his encounter in 1871 with the British explorer Stanley (‘Dr. Livingstone, I presume?’). Today the skyscraper houses, among other things, Zimbabwe’s ineffectual anticorruption commission. Its proprietors were the same outfit that has snapped up another office complex across town and a hotel that is popular for weddings in the suburbs – the Queensway Group.46 The lobby at Livingstone House was only slightly less grand than that of Luanda One, the Queensway Group’s Angolan skyscraper.
Posh Boys: How English Public Schools Ruin Britain by Robert Verkaik
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alistair Cooke, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, G4S, gender pay gap, God and Mammon, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, loadsamoney, mega-rich, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, trade route, traveling salesman, unpaid internship
After the fall of Gordon at Khartoum the emboldened armies of Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Muslim Mahdi, cut off Equatoria and threatened Cairo, key to Britain’s influence in the region. In 1885, Emin Pasha, the governor whom Gordon had personally appointed to office, withdrew further south, to Wadelai near Lake Albert, but was in imminent danger of capture by the Mahdi’s superior forces. The following year, Britain assembled the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, led by Henry Morton Stanley (of ‘Dr Livingstone I presume’ fame) and set about the rescue of Pasha. Major Edmund Musgrave Barttelot was one of eight public school-educated officers and gentlemen explorers who volunteered for the mission. As Stanley’s second in command, he was in charge of the rear column together with an Anglo-Irish gentleman explorer, James Sligo Jameson, an ancestor of the Jameson whiskey family. While the main column pressed on to relieve Emin Pasha, Barttelot’s column was left in the jungle to wait for replacement slave porters to be brought upriver.
Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future – Lessons From the World’s Limits by Richard Davies
agricultural Revolution, air freight, Anton Chekhov, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, clean water, complexity theory, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, large denomination, Livingstone, I presume, Malacca Straits, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, school choice, school vouchers, Scramble for Africa, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, the payments system, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uranium enrichment, urban planning, wealth creators, white picket fence, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
History echoes strongly in Kinshasa, with the roots of economic distrust and self-reliance down to the legacy of two men: a foreign colonial founder, and a home-grown dictator. THE KING, AND THE MESSIAH A ROYAL LIAR Kinshasa has lies and deception in its bedrock. The city was founded by Henry Morton Stanley, a journalist and explorer born in Wales, most famous for his reaction – ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume?’ – when he found the Scottish explorer, long presumed dead, close to the modern border of Tanzania in 1871. Stanley returned to central Africa in 1874, publishing an account of his travels that sold well across Europe. Unable to finance a third trip in Britain he nonetheless set off again in 1879, this time funded by the International African Association (IAA), a company bankrolled and controlled by King Leopold II of Belgium.
Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson
British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game
As I advanced slowly towards him I noticed he was pale, looked wearied, had a grey beard, wore a bluish cap with a faded gold band round it, had on a red-sleeved waistcoat and a pair of grey tweed trousers. I would have run to him, only I was a coward in the presence of such a mob – would have embraced him, only, he being an Englishman, I did not know how he would receive me; so I did what cowardice and false pride suggested was the best thing – walked deliberately up to him, took off my hat, and said: ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume.’ It took an American to take British understatement to its historic zenith. When Stanley’s story broke, it dominated the front pages of the English-speaking world. Yet this was more than just a scoop. It was also a symbolic meeting between two generations: the Evangelical generation that had dreamt of a moral transfiguration of Africa and a new, hard-nosed generation with more worldly priorities.
A Man for All Markets by Edward O. Thorp
3Com Palm IPO, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy and hold, buy low sell high, carried interest, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, Edward Thorp, Erdős number, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, George Santayana, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, High speed trading, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, Mason jar, merger arbitrage, Murray Gell-Mann, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Norbert Wiener, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical arbitrage, stem cell, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the rule of 72, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, Works Progress Administration
This left me much more on my own and I responded by exploring endless worlds, both real and imagined, to be found in the books my father gave me. Over the next couple of years I read books including Gulliver’s Travels, Treasure Island, and Stanley and Livingstone in Africa. When, after an eight-month arduous and dangerous search, Stanley found his quarry, the only European known to be in Central Africa, I thrilled to his incredible understatement, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume,” and I discussed the splendor of the Victoria Falls on the Zambezi River with my father, who assured me (correctly) that they far surpassed our own Niagara Falls. Gulliver’s Travels was a special favorite, with its tiny Lilliputians, giant Brobdingnagians, talking horses, and finally the mysterious Laputa, a flying island in the sky supported by magnetic forces. I enjoyed the vivid pictures it created in my mind and the fantastical notions that spurred me to imagine for myself further wonders that might be.
The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World by Randall E. Stross
Albert Einstein, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, death of newspapers, distributed generation, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Livingstone, I presume, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban renewal
When he tried to burnish his public image with exaggerated claims of progress in his laboratory, for example, he demonstrated a hunger for credit unknown in his earliest tinkering. The mature Edison, post-fame, is most appealing whenever he returned to acting spontaneously, without weighing what action would serve to enhance his public image. One occasion when Edison cast off the expectations of others in his middle age was when he met Henry Stanley, of “Dr. Livingstone, I presume” fame, and Stanley’s wife, who had come to visit him at his laboratory. Edison provided a demonstration of the phonograph, which Stanley had never heard before. Stanley asked, in a low voice and slow cadence, “Mr. Edison, if it were possible for you to hear the voice of any man whose name is known in the history of the world, whose voice would you prefer to hear?” “Napoléon’s,” replied Edison without hesitation.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
A Civil War veteran, a foreign correspondent, and an amateur geographer, Stanley in 1871 accepted an assignment from the New York Herald to find the missing Livingstone. Knowing that Stanley had fought on both sides in the Civil War gives some idea of his versatility. His quest through central Africa took six months, but he had succeeded by the end of the year, when he did in fact greet the missing missionary with the famous salutation “Dr. Livingstone, I presume.” Stanley and Livingstone became household names during the next few years. They stimulated the imagination, the curiosity, and the ambition of Europeans who had come to think of the entire globe as their domain. During the next six years Stanley continued to explore Africa, circumnavigating Lake Victoria. He located the southern sources of the Nile, ending with an epoch-making journey down the Congo River.
Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried
Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional
article about Hickok: “Wild Bill,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, February 1867, p. 273. telling the St. Louis Democrat: The article appeared in the April 16, 1867, edition. The reporter was Henry Stanley, who went on to his own renown as the journalist later sent to the jungles of Africa to find the lost Scottish explorer David Livingstone; it was he who spoke—or at least claimed that he spoke—the immortal words “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” $4,485.22: Harvey, Nov. 28, 1868, entry, 1867 datebook, DHC. “physical disability”: July 1864 draft registry for St. Joseph, Mo., line 14, National Archives and Record Center. “Started out this morning”: Harvey, Jan. 7, 1869, entry, 1869 datebook, DHC. “equal parts spirits”: Harvey, undated entries, 1879–1880 datebook, DHC. “His nervous disposition”: Minnie Harvey in Harold L. Henderson, “Harvey,” p. 15.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
His public was becoming anxious, so the New York Herald dispatched the journalist Henry Morton Stanley (who had emigrated from Britain to the United States at the age of seventeen) to Africa with the simplest of directives but the most challenging of assignments: ‘Find Livingstone.’13 Stanley found the doctor at Ujiji, on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, in November 1871, and secured himself an entry in every dictionary of quotations with the greeting: ‘Doctor Livingstone, I presume.’ Their meeting reinforced popular interest in Africa, while Stanley's report that Livingstone, already unwell, intended to continue his explorations of the Great Lakes prompted the Royal Geographical Society to dispatch a relief column, under the leadership of Verney Lovett Cameron, a naval officer who had sailed with Britain's anti-slavery squadron. The Livingstone East Coast Expedition started out from Bagamoyo, on the mainland opposite Zanzibar in March 1873.
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
British Honduras’s trade deficit was a direct result of its hunger for British goods, and a heavy drain on Westminster. Once imperial tastes had formed, people were unlikely to respond to pleas to ‘buy local’, as the Colonial Office learnt the hard way in the inter-war years.136 In the era of the ‘new imperialism’ in the 1880s–’90s, imperial symbols and slogans gained ground in advertising. The craze for African explorer H. M. Stanley (‘Dr Livingstone, I presume’) was an advertiser’s dream. Stanley appeared in ads for soap and Bovril, and sipped tea with the Emin Pasha in his tent at Kavalli, on the southern shore of Lake Albert. ‘Stanley: “Well, Emin, old fellow, this Cup of the United Kingdom Tea Company’s Tea makes us forget all our troubles.” Emin: “So it does, my boy.”’ What else was the Emin to say? In a pioneering study, the literary scholar Thomas Richards argued that these imperial adverts showed the ‘homogenizing power of the commodity’.137 Ads for Bovril and Pear’s soap used African settings and placed indigenous people all over the world in the same subservient position: as grateful recipients of civilizing goods.
Principles of Corporate Finance by Richard A. Brealey, Stewart C. Myers, Franklin Allen
3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, compound rate of return, computerized trading, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, equity premium, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, fudge factor, German hyperinflation, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, inventory management, Iridium satellite, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, linear programming, Livingstone, I presume, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, market friction, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, Real Time Gross Settlement, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the rule of 72, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, VA Linux, value at risk, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game, Zipcar
(b) the stock price is above the exercise price? 4. Put–call parity What is put–call parity and why does it hold? Could you apply the parity formula to a call and put with different exercise prices? 5. Put–call parity There is another strategy involving calls and borrowing or lending that gives the same payoffs as the strategy described in Problem 3. What is the alternative strategy? 6. Option payoffs Dr. Livingstone I. Presume holds £600,000 in East African gold stocks. Bullish as he is on gold mining, he requires absolute assurance that at least £500,000 will be available in six months to fund an expedition. Describe two ways for Dr. Presume to achieve this goal. There is an active market for puts and calls on East African gold stocks, and the rate of interest is 6% per year. 7. Option payoffs Suppose you buy a one-year European call option on Wombat stock with an exercise price of $100 and sell a one-year European put option with the same exercise price.
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Return to beginning of chapter BLANTYRE pop 17,300 One of Scotland’s most famous sons is David Livingstone, the epitome of the Victorian missionary-explorer, who opened up central Africa to European influence in the 19th century. After disappearing for several years during an expedition to the source of the Nile, he was famously ‘found’ by American newspaper reporter Henry Stanley in 1871, with the immortal words ‘Dr Livingstone, I presume?’. Visitors with an interest in Africa shouldn’t miss the absorbing David Livingstone Centre (NTS; 01698-823140; 165 Station Rd; adult/child £5/4; 10am-5pm Mon-Sat, 12.30-5pm Sun Easter-Dec), set in Livingstone’s birthplace, which tells the story of his life. In 30 years it’s estimated he travelled 29,000 miles through central Africa, mostly on foot – the sheer tenacity of the man was incredible.