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Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything by Steven Levy
Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, information retrieval, information trail, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, rolodex, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush
But wait-intercut with the speech we see a solitary figure of hope. A young woman in bright red shorts and a T-shirt with the Macintosh "Picasso" logo. She carries a sledgehammer. At the end of the speech she bursts into the room, races down the aisle, and flings the sledgehammer into the screen. The Big Brother image evaporates in a white-hot explosion. Apocalypse! The inmates are stunned in slackjawed amazement. And on the screen-not the screen just destroyed, but the television screens of 43 million people watching the Super Bowl-appeared the followingwords: On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like "1984." This was the notorious "1984" spot. Directed by Ridley Scott, it had all the cyberpunk film noir of his recent cult hit Blade Runner, and a more coherent plot-IBM takes a fall.
Scott recruited an Olympic athlete to hurl the hammer and London skinheads as audience extras. Apple Computer bought air time for it only twice: once late in December, in an obscure television market some- where on the Great Plains, so that it would be eligible for the inevitable awards in the new year; and the other during the Super Bowl. But Apple's board of directors, by and large aging white men un attuned to the semiotics of video dips, had hated it. Apple tried to sell off its commitment. Only at the last minute, when its advertising agency couldn't resell the time slot, did the company finally draw in its gut and give the okay to air the" 1984" spot. It turned out to be one of the most famous commercials ever aired-the network news shows even did reports on it. (Later, Apple's John Sculley would speak of the advertisement, as if he had known its power all along, as an example of "event marketing.")
Long after people forgot who played in that Super Bowl, they remembered the commercial. It was Apple's first official public acknowledgment that Macintosh existed. Real Artists Ship. Those words must have been ringing in the ears of Mac team designers, in Jobs's mocking whiny cadence, for weeks before the scheduled launch. When I visited Bandley 3 in November 1983, the atmosphere was a mix of euphoria and panic. While most key components of Macintosh had been finished for weeks or even months, others were still unresolved, notably those concerning the system software that was contained on floppy disks included with the machine. The least-finished part of the Macintosh was the Finder, the part of the system software visible to the user. It was through the Finder that the Macintosh magic would first appear, where even the most computerphobic user could instantly get to work, wielding the mouse to launch programs, put files into folders, delete or copy documents, and, eponymously, find things.
Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender, Rick Tetzeli
Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Charles Lindbergh, computer age, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, market design, McMansion, Menlo Park, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog
“I mean, his whole thing of knowing exactly what he’s going to say, but up on stage saying it in such a way that he is trying to make you think he’s thinking it up right then …” Gates just laughs. Making the “1984” ad with Steve was a pirate enterprise for creative director Clow, art director Brenton Thomas, and Steve Hayden, who wrote the copy. Steve didn’t let the board see the ad until a couple of days before the Super Bowl, and they were horrified. Directed by Blade Runner’s Ridley Scott, the sixty-second spot features a lone woman, in color, running through a sea of gray men and women listening obediently to a huge talking head nattering threateningly from an enormous screen about the enlightened potential of absolute conformity. As the ad nears its end, the woman hurls the large hammer she’s been carrying and smashes the screen. A simple line follows: “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’ ” Sculley got cold feet and told Chiat\Day to sell off the expensive Super Bowl ad space it had purchased.
Others found the experience exhilarating, but not something they’d want to repeat, and left Apple to find a less stressful employment environment. And then there was the small group of folks who loved it so much they stuck around, ready to do whatever it would take all over again, in order to work in the rarefied, exhilarating, and charged atmosphere that Steve created when he was running the show. When the job was over, Steve had the signatures of the forty-six key players on the team engraved on the inside of every Mac. Even people working on the Apple II found Steve’s performance inspiring. “We used to say that the Mac people had God on their side,” said one only half jokingly. THE DEBUT OF the Macintosh established Steve as a master showman. Between the famous “1984” ad, which played just once, during the Super Bowl broadcast on January 22, 1984, and the Mac’s official presentation at the Flint Auditorium on the campus of Cupertino’s De Anza College on January 24, 1984, Steve transformed expectations of what a product introduction could be.
NOW STEVE FACED the challenge of delivering on this promise within the gnawing confines of Apple. It would be a staggeringly ambitious project—one that no one at Apple but Steve could have imagined, and one that no one but he could have made so maddeningly complicated. The long road had many detours and would be pockmarked with collateral damage, but it would eventually lead to the introduction of the Macintosh computer in 1984. After that visit to Xerox PARC, Steve completed what had been a slow abandonment of the Apple III development. The more he realized that the machine was simply a modest renovation of the Apple II, the more his attention wandered. Now he turned away completely, with the intention of applying what he’d learned at PARC to another computer already under development at Apple. This machine was specifically designed for Fortune 500 companies that required heavy-duty networked computing to accomplish tasks that were significantly more data-intensive than anything that could be handled by the Apple II or even the Apple III.
Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson
air freight, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fixed income, game design, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Jony Ive, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, profit maximization, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog
It was a closed and controlled system, like something designed by Big Brother rather than by a hacker. So the “1984” ad was a way of reaffirming, to himself and to the world, his desired self-image. The heroine, with a drawing of a Macintosh emblazoned on her pure white tank top, was a renegade out to foil the establishment. By hiring Ridley Scott, fresh off the success of Blade Runner, as the director, Jobs could attach himself and Apple to the cyberpunk ethos of the time. With the ad, Apple could identify itself with the rebels and hackers who thought differently, and Jobs could reclaim his right to identify with them as well. Sculley was initially skeptical when he saw the storyboards, but Jobs insisted that they needed something revolutionary. He was able to get an unprecedented budget of $750,000 just to film the ad, which they planned to premiere during the Super Bowl. Ridley Scott made it in London using dozens of real skinheads among the enthralled masses listening to Big Brother on the screen.
Campbell, a former football coach, decided to throw the long bomb. “I think we ought to go for it,” he told his team. Early in the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII, the dominant Raiders scored a touchdown against the Redskins and, instead of an instant replay, television screens across the nation went black for an ominous two full seconds. Then an eerie black-and-white image of drones marching to spooky music began to fill the screen. More than ninety-six million people watched an ad that was unlike any they’d seen before. At its end, as the drones watched in horror the vaporizing of Big Brother, an announcer calmly intoned, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’” It was a sensation. That evening all three networks and fifty local stations aired news stories about the ad, giving it a viral life unprecedented in the pre–YouTube era.
Chief engineer at Atari, who designed Pong and hired Jobs. GIL AMELIO. Became CEO of Apple in 1996, bought NeXT, bringing Jobs back. BILL ATKINSON. Early Apple employee, developed graphics for the Macintosh. CHRISANN BRENNAN. Jobs’s girlfriend at Homestead High, mother of his daughter Lisa. LISA BRENNAN-JOBS. Daughter of Jobs and Chrisann Brennan, born in 1978; became a writer in New York City. NOLAN BUSHNELL. Founder of Atari and entrepreneurial role model for Jobs. BILL CAMPBELL. Apple marketing chief during Jobs’s first stint at Apple and board member and confidant after Jobs’s return in 1997. EDWIN CATMULL. A cofounder of Pixar and later a Disney executive. KOBUN CHINO. A Soōtoō Zen master in California who became Jobs’s spiritual teacher. LEE CLOW. Advertising wizard who created Apple’s “1984” ad and worked with Jobs for three decades.
Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
Lee Clow is a celebrated art director in the advertising industry. He’s perhaps best known for the commercial announcing the launch of the Macintosh. It aired during the Super Bowl and created an instant sensation by reframing what might have been seen as a mere corporate rivalry between Apple and IBM as a struggle between good and evil, fascism and freedom. Blaine Cook was Twitter’s long-haired lead engineer in its earliest days—an exemplar of the “hippie-hacker” type that the company liked to hire. John Couch was one of the first high-level employees that Apple hired. He was present at the famous demo that Xerox PARC gave to Apple, and he implemented some of what he saw there in the Lisa computer. After the Lisa failed to sell, Couch left Apple, only to return years later as a marketing executive. David Crane is one of the four programmer-founders of Activision, the Atari spin-off that made cartridges for the Atari’s home game console, the VCS.
PARC Opens the Kimono The quotes from Dean Hovey, Jim Sachs, and Jim Yurchenco come from Alex Soojung-Kim Pang’s “Making the Macintosh” history project for the Stanford University Library. Bill Atkinson’s quotes here and in other chapters are from Bill Moggridge’s Designing Interactions, 2007. Hello, I’m Macintosh Steve Jobs’s “shithead” quote can be found in Walter Isaacson’s Steve Jobs. Jef Raskin’s “king of France” quote is from Michael Moritz’s The Return to the Little Kingdom. The quotes from Mike Murray, Joanna Hoffman, and Andy Cunningham are from a panel discussion held at the Computer History Museum in 2004: “The Macintosh Marketing Story: Fact and Fiction, 20 Years Later.” Burrell Smith’s quote is from the May 1985 Whole Earth Review. Lee Clow’s quotes are from a video interview by Ann-Christine Diaz, published in 2012 by Advertising Age: “The Art of the Super Bowl Ad: Lee Clow on How Apple’s ‘1984’ Almost Didn’t Happen—The Real Story on Why the Spot Only Aired Once.”
Robert Woodhead is the programmer behind Wizardry, a version of Dungeons and Dragons played on the Apple II computer. Kristina Woolsey was the director of Atari Research after the first director, Alan Kay, left for Apple. Later she, too, went to Apple in order to run Apple’s research project in multimedia. Steve Wozniak, aka Woz, was the technical genius behind the Apple II, the everyman machine that launched the personal computer revolution in 1977. At the time the two Steves—Jobs and Woz—were close friends. But by the time Jobs passed away the two were so estranged that Woz skipped Jobs’s memorial service. Richard Saul Wurman founded the TED festival in 1984 after noticing a convergence in the fields of technology, entertainment, and design. The first festival had Steve Jobs demoing the Macintosh, Nicholas Negroponte talking about the future, and a 3-D graphics presentation from the proto-Pixar team at Lucasfilm.
The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara
"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K
Four years later, as they prepared to announce the new Macintosh computer to the public, Apple executives focused on marketing messages that emphasized “the radical, revolutionary nature of the product.” One result was one of the most famous pieces of television advertising in history, the jaw-dropping spot broadcast into millions of American living rooms during the 1984 Super Bowl, when a lithe young woman ran through a droning audience, hurled a hammer at a Big Brother–like image projected on a blue screen, and shattered it.5 The barely veiled punch at IBM, Apple’s chief rival, reflected a broader anti-establishment streak in this techie rhetoric that went beyond marketing plans and ad slogans. “Mistrust Authority—Promote Decentralization,” read one plank of the “hacker ethic” journalist Steven Levy used in 1984 to describe the remarkable new subculture of hardware and software geeks who had helped make the computer personal.
Yet Sculley kept reminding everyone of his Coke-versus-Pepsi model: Apple shouldn’t imitate, it should present itself as something completely different. Steve Jobs agreed. “We need ads that hit you in the face,” he said. “It’s like it’s so good we don’t have to show photographs of computers.” “Macintosh advertising,” the agency brass concluded, “must be distinctive and mirror the radical, revolutionary nature of the product.”34 And distinctive it was. On January 22, 1984, the Mac debuted on the world stage in a $1.3 million television commercial aired during the Super Bowl. Directed by Hollywood science-fiction auteur Ridley Scott, the ad was sixty seconds of jaw-dropping visuals riffing off George Orwell’s 1984 and all the computational allusions made to it ever since. The tagline: “On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce the Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”
And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’” The computer itself never appeared. Macintosh ads blanketed the nation’s television airwaves in the months that followed, through the Winter and Summer Olympics, through a presidential campaign season of ads celebrating the Republicans’ “Morning in America” and the Democrats’ first female vice-presidential nominee. No other Mac ad was quite as memorable as that Super Bowl spot—few ads in history ever matched the buzz it created—but the message of all of them was the same. We are not IBM. We are not the establishment. Our computers will set you free. Over video of an elegantly manicured female finger clicking on a mouse, the tagline for all of them read: “Macintosh. The computer for the rest of us.” MORNING IN AMERICA By October, as the economy sped up to a gallop and the Mondale campaign limped toward an expected drubbing on Election Day, Regis McKenna had gotten philosophical.
Revolution in the Valley: The Insanely Great Story of How the Mac Was Made by Andy Hertzfeld
Jef convinced him to take a one-year leave of absence from medical school at the University of Washington to become the first Macintosh programmer in September 1980. He was instrumental in convincing Burrell to switch from the 6809 to the 68000 microprocessor, which turned Jef’s research project into the future of Apple. A year and a half later, in December 1981, he had to leave the project to return to finish his M.D./Ph.D. degree, but he eventually returned to Apple in the summer of 1984. He left Apple to co-found NeXT with Steve Jobs in September 1985, and after a seven-year stint at Sun and year and a half at Eazel, he returned to Apple as a vice president of software technology in January 2002. Steve Wozniak Steve Wozniak co-founded Apple Computer with Steve Jobs in 1976. His brilliant design for the hardware and software of the Apple II created the foundation for Apple’s initial success. While he didn’t work directly on the original Macintosh, his engineering genius, impeccable integrity and playful sense of humor were a primary inspiration for the Macintosh team.
Bruce became one of the main architects of the Macintosh system software after starting at Apple in January 1982: he wrote the resource manager, dialog manager, and the Finder. After leaving Apple in the summer of 1984, he attended graduate school at Carnegie Mellon, earning his Ph.D. in Computer Science. In 1999, he co-founded Marketocracy, Inc. Brian Howard Brian Howard was Jef Raskin’s close friend and collaborator, starting at Apple in January 1978 and working on the Macintosh project from its inception. Originally, Brian’s official job was writing documentation, but he soon became indispensable as Burrell Smith’s assistant, helping Burrell interface with the rest of the organization. He’s worked at Apple continuously since 1978, co-designing many of the best Macintoshes over the years, such as the Macintosh IIci. Steve Jobs Steve Jobs co-founded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak in 1976, when he was twenty-one years old.
Over its lifetime, Thunderscan sold approximately 100,000 units and improved countless documents by providing users with an inexpensive way to capture high-resolution graphics with their Macintoshes. October 1984 The Macintosh’s first multitasking environment The first commercial product I worked on after going on leave of absence from Apple (see “Leave of Absence” on page 229) was a low-cost, high-resolution scanner for the Macintosh called Thunderscan. I created Thunderscan in collaboration with a tiny company named Thunderware. I started working on it in June 1984, and by early October, it was almost complete. Tom Petrie, one of the two principals at Thunderware (the other was Victor Bull, who I worked with on my first project for Apple, the Silentype thermal printer), arranged a few demos for various computer magazines in hopes of currying favorable reviews to promote the product. On October 11th, 1984, I drove with Tom to an office in Hillsborough, just south of San Francisco, to demonstrate Thunderscan for Byte magazine.
Start With Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to Take Action by Simon Sinek
Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Black Swan, business cycle, commoditize, hiring and firing, John Markoff, low cost airline, Nick Leeson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route
IBM targeted their technology to corporations and not, as Apple intended, as a tool for individuals to target corporations. With clarity of purpose and amazing discipline, Apple Computer’s success seemed to follow the Law of Diffusion almost by design. In its first year in business, the company sold $1 million worth of computers to those who believed what they believed. By year two, they had sold $10 million worth. By their third year in business they were a $100 million company, and they attained billion-dollar status within only six years. Already a household name, in 1984 Apple launched the Macintosh with their famed “1984” commercial that aired during the Super Bowl. Directed by Ridley Scott, famed director of cult classics like Blade Runner, the commercial also changed the course of the advertising industry. The first “Super Bowl commercial,” it ushered in the annual tradition of big-budget, cinematic Super Bowl advertising.
The first “Super Bowl commercial,” it ushered in the annual tradition of big-budget, cinematic Super Bowl advertising. With the Macintosh, Apple once again changed the tradition of how things were done. They challenged the standard of Microsoft’s DOS, the standard operating system used by most personal computers at the time. The Macintosh was the first mass-market computer to use a graphical user interface and a mouse, allowing people to simply “point and click” rather than input code. Ironically, it was Microsoft that took Apple’s concept to the masses with Windows, Gates’s version of the graphical user interface. Apple’s ability to ignite revolutions and Microsoft’s ability to take ideas to the mass market perfectly illustrate the WHY of each company and indeed their respective founders. Jobs has always been about challenge and Gates has always been about getting to the most people.
Like a lighthouse, her complexion and the color of her clothes seemed to shine through gray air. Pursued by security, she ran with a sledgehammer. This would not end well for the status quo. On January 22, 1984, Apple launched their Macintosh computer with their now-famous commercial depicting an Orwellian scene of a totalitarian regime holding control over a population and promised that “1984 won’t be like 1984.” But this advertising was much more than just advertising. It was not about the features and benefits of a new product. It was not about a “differentiating value proposition.” It was, for all intents and purposes, a manifesto. A poetic ode to Apple’s WHY, it was the film version of an individual rebelling against the status quo, igniting a revolution. And though their products have changed and fashions have changed, this commercial is as relevant today as it was twenty-five years ago when it first aired.
From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly
Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
Adobe Systems was formed by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who pioneered laser printing technology at Xerox PARC in the late 1970s. In 1982, when Xerox had failed to market the technology, Warnock and Geschke started their own company.61 Adobe grew rapidly, supplying a software technology known as Postscript for manufacturers of laser printers and for the Apple Macintosh. That the Macintosh was subsequently able to dominate the high-end desktop publishing market was due largely to Adobe’s technology. By 1984, half of Adobe’s income came from Apple royalties. By the late 1990s, however, Adobe’s Postscript technology was no longer unique; both Apple and Microsoft had developed their own systems. Recognizing that its niche in printing software was evaporating, Adobe made a number of strategic acquisitions in order to diversify into desktop publishing and electronic document distribution. Intuit was established in 1983 by Scott Cook, a former Procter & Gamble brand manager.
The concept of a windows-based operating system had originated in the 1970s at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC),26 where most of the ideas now standard in a graphical user interface, including overlapping windows, pull-down menus, and point-and-click task selection by means of a mouse, originated. The work at Xerox PARC had led to the Xerox Star, announced in May 1981—a failure in the market, primarily because its price ($40,000) was much too high for a personal computer. The concept of the graphical user interface was also adopted by Apple Computer for its Lisa computer, launched in May 1983. Though universally regarded as a path-breaking product, the Lisa also failed in the market because of a high price ($16,995). Apple Computer’s second attempt—the $2,500 Macintosh, launched in January 1984—was much more successful. The Macintosh’s unique selling point was its userfriendly interface.27 It succeeded in capturing 5–10 percent of the personal computer market for the next decade. But because it was a proprietary system, it never attracted as many software and hardware suppliers as the IBM-compatible PC.
In early 1985, Microsoft and IBM had begun joint development of a new operating system intended to be the long-term replacement for MS-DOS. Meanwhile, inside Microsoft, development of Windows continued under its own momentum. In late 1987, Windows 2.0 was released to modest acclaim. The interface had been polished considerably, and its main visual elements were almost indistinguishable from those of the Macintosh. Microsoft had obtained a license from Apple Computer for Windows 1.0 but had not renogotiated it for the new release. Version 2.0 so closely emulated the “look and feel” of the Macintosh that Apple sued for copyright infringement in March 1988. The Apple-vs.-Microsoft lawsuit consumed many column-inches of reportage and rattled on for 3 years before a settlement in Microsoft’s favor was reached in 1991.33 So far as can be ascertained, the lawsuit was something of a sideshow that had little bearing on Microsoft’s or any other company’s technical or marketing strategy.
Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade
Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, white picket fence, women in the workforce
As the elegant Macintosh approached its release date, Jobs got each of the forty-seven members of his team to sign their names inside the molding of the original design for the Macintosh case.46 Macintosh debuted in 1984, targeted to a family market, but it promptly fizzled Its initial failure followed a remarkably cinematic one-time-only television ad that aired during the 1984 Super Bowl. Later, after the computer was repositioned, the Macintosh achieved a 10 percent market share primarily as a result of its use in desktop publishing and education. The easy learning curve of the Mac’s intuitive GUI desktop made it ideal for use in the classroom among first- ime student users who knew nothing about operating systems or command lines. Buying only one Mac per classroom made the computer a very affordable tool, and in this way Jobs’ and Raskins’ invention accessed and influ nced an entire generation.
The next year, Jobs lost control of the Lisa project at Apple, and after a bitter corporate battle he was reassigned to administer another project—a less powerful computer whose design originated with Apple architect Jef Raskin. Raskin had worked at SRI in the early 1970s when Engelbart’s group was still focusing on problems with the “man and computer” interface. At SRI, Raskin also had extensive contact with the PARC personnel. Jobs now insisted that Raskin’s new desktop computer should have features that were not in the original design, including Engelbart’s mouse.43 Before he left Apple in 1982, Raskin named the new computer after a favorite variety of apple that grew abundantly in the hills around Cupertino. Raskin’s name was really a pun, of course. To most buyers, a Mac computer was a variety of Apple computer, just as a Macintosh was a kind of apple.
The machine’s excellent performance relied on more than a megabyte of memory to run an elegant new operating system. Macintosh’s designers pilfered Lisa’s OS and rewrote it in greatly reduced machine code so that it would fi onto a single chip. The Macintosh project was cocooned in a separate building over which Jobs himself hoisted a pirate fla . John Sculley remembered that “Steve’s ‘pirates’ were a handpicked pack of the most brilliant mavericks inside and outside Apple. Their mission . . .was to blow people’s minds and overturn standards . . . The pirates ransacked the company for ideas, parts, and design plans.”45 Lisa turned out to be exactly the overpriced marketing disaster Jobs had predicted. Macintosh quickly became the company’s only hope of survival, and Jobs regained enough influ nce within Apple to install John Sculley as CEO by late summer. As the elegant Macintosh approached its release date, Jobs got each of the forty-seven members of his team to sign their names inside the molding of the original design for the Macintosh case.46 Macintosh debuted in 1984, targeted to a family market, but it promptly fizzled Its initial failure followed a remarkably cinematic one-time-only television ad that aired during the 1984 Super Bowl.
Trillion Dollar Coach: The Leadership Playbook of Silicon Valley's Bill Campbell by Eric Schmidt, Jonathan Rosenberg, Alan Eagle
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, cloud computing, El Camino Real, Erik Brynjolfsson, fear of failure, Jeff Bezos, longitudinal study, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple
To kick off the launch, the company made a big move: it bought a slot to run a commercial during the Super Bowl, which would be played in Tampa, Florida, on January 22, 1984. Once the ad was produced, Bill and the team showed it to Apple cofounder Steve Jobs. An allusion to George Orwell’s novel 1984, it showed a young woman running through a dark hallway, fleeing guards, and emerging into a chamber where hundreds of gray-clad, head-shaven men are listening, zombie-like, to a droning “big brother” figure on a large screen before them. With a yell, she throws a large mallet through the screen, causing it to explode. A narrator promises that the Apple Macintosh will show us why “1984 won’t be like 1984.”* Steve loved the ad. E. Floyd Kvamme, Bill’s boss at the time, loved the ad. Bill loved the ad.
aberrant geniuses, 61–64 active listening, 89–90 Adobe Systems, 181–82 AdWords, 31, 34, 91n Alphabet, 21, 114–15, 185 Altamont Capital Partners, 95 Amazon, 177–78 Andreessen, Marc, 1 Android operating system, 114 applause, percussive, 166–68 Apple. See also Claris; Jobs, Steve App Store and, 68 board of directors of, 12–13, 73–74, 161 building of, 21 decision making at, 55 Google’s relationship with, 114 iPhone, 114, 134–35 Jobs’s return to, 12–13, 13n, 37, 136 nonconformists at, 69 problem-focused coping at, 135, 136 Super Bowl ad (1984), 8–9, 9n Super Bowl XIX and, 168–69 “Think Different” ad, 37 women at, 127 App Store, 68 Archambeau, Shellye, 15, 104–5, 130–31 Armstrong, Kristina Homer, 163 Arora, Nikesh, 115 Ashridge Business School, 101n The Athena Doctrine (Gerzema and D’Antonio), 150–51 @Home, 85 AT&T, 58–59, 59n Auerbach, Red, 83–84 authentic leadership, 98 authoritarian management style, 35–36 autonomy, 91 Baker, Mari, 163–64 Ballmer, Steve, 38, 59–60 baseball trip, 170 Batch, Charlie, 16, 140 Bavor, Clay, 167–68 Benioff, Marc, 38 Berkshire Hathaway, 107n, 108 Bezos, Jeff, 1, 177–78 “Billisms,” top ten, 159 Biondolillo, Deb, 127, 149 Black, Lee, 16, 18, 19 Bloom, Spike, 169 boards of directors, 73–77 Bocci, Eileen, 17n Bollinger, Lee C., 15, 109–10, 147 Boston Celtics, 137 Boston College, 5, 170, 171–72 Bradley, Todd, 139 Brin, Sergey at Bill’s memorial, 1 Bill’s partnership with, 21, 119 on Bill’s warmth and competence, 156 “disorg” and, 31–33 dual class structure, 107–8 as Google founder, 180 trip reports and, 42 Brookfield, Debbie, 46 Brown, Shona, 100, 132–33 Buffett, Warren, 108 Burton, Eve, 129 Butts, Al, 169, 170 Butts, Derek, 169 Cabo San Lucas, 17, 18, 19, 164, 170, 175 Campbell, William Vincent, Jr.
That team has hundreds of people now, every one of whom has learned Bill’s percussive clap. * * * THE PERCUSSIVE CLAP CHEER DEMONSTRABLY FOR PEOPLE AND THEIR SUCCESSES. * * * ALWAYS BUILD COMMUNITIES Super Bowl XIX was played in January 1985 at Stanford Stadium in Palo Alto, walking distance from Bill’s home. The stadium was a large bowl, built in 1921 and lined with wooden benches renowned for leaving patrons with splinters as souvenirs of the day spent sitting and watching a game.* So when the Super Bowl came to town, Bill and the marketing team at Apple spied an opportunity: they lined the entire stadium, 80,000-plus seats, with cushions emblazoned with the Apple logo on one side and the Super Bowl’s on the other. Since the game was practically in his backyard, and since he was personally responsible for saving the backsides of tens of thousands of fans, Bill decided to check it out for himself.
Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum
active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking
There will be individuals and episodes I have missed.10 The story I tell has a particular center of gravity: the years 1964 to 1984. Although this book advances to (indeed, looks beyond) the present day, this twenty-year period is where much of the narrative unfolds. Why this particular span? 1964 was the year IBM released its Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter or MT/ST, the product that would, by the end of that same decade, become the core of their word processing product line. And of course 1984 has at least one large significance in the history of personal computing: it was the year the Apple Macintosh was released (it came to the attention of many people for the first time during a memorable sixty-second Super Bowl commercial, replete with Orwellian imagery and directed by Ridley Scott). The Macintosh introduced the public at large to the mouse, to windows, icons, bitmapped graphics, and to the whole point-and-click paradigm of working with a computer.
In one of the most influential literary endorsements ever tendered, Ronald Reagan helped catapult Tom Clancy to celebrity by pronouncing his first published novel, The Hunt for Red October (1984), “the perfect yarn.”38 Clancy wrote his first draft on an IBM Selectric; always the forecaster of technological trends, however, he gave an Apple computer running WordStar a cameo appearance—his hero Jack Ryan uses it as he pecks away on just such a monograph as might be published by the Naval Institute Press, the small Annapolis-based house specializing in naval history that would in fact acquire Clancy’s own manuscript.39 The book found its way thence to readers inside the nearby DC beltway, and eventually all the way to the Oval Office. Clancy was soon able to afford his own Apple IIe computer and had already traded up to a Macintosh by his third book, his fame and career well launched.40 About writing, and indeed about computers, he would remain always unsentimental: “If your objective is to write a book, get a computer and write the damn book,” he told an audience much later in life.
I couldn’t for the life of me see any way in which a computer could be of any use in the life or work of a writer.”86 Nonetheless, by 1982 Adams had purchased a dedicated word processor called a Nexus; a year or two later (the Hitchhiker’s trilogy already complete) he bought the British computer known as an Apricot, which ran MS-DOS.87 He was an enthusiast, in short order accumulating a plethora of models and brands, also including a BBC Micro and a Tandy 100.88 Sometime in 1984 he found himself at a small company in Cambridge, Massachusetts, called Infocom, where they were adapting his breakthrough novel The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (1979) as a piece of interactive fiction—a surprisingly popular form at the time that allowed players to read prose presented on their screen and type responses in something approximating natural language, thereby to advance the story through one of its branching plotlines.89 (Future poet laureate Robert Pinksy would also dabble in the genre, producing an “electronic novel” called Mindwheel with the assistance of a team of programmers for Brøderbund Software in 1984.) While visiting Infocom, Adams saw one of the just-released Apple Macintosh computers and was instantly captivated by it; he subsequently claimed to own the first one in England, and was profiled in MacWorld magazine.90 He would go on to acquire at least one of most Apple Macintosh products released thereafter, and the number of Douglas Adams Macs that thus ended up populating the world would eventually yield at least one memorable surprise, as we will see in Chapter 10.
Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP
“So I had this prejudice that computers were things that stapled you and punched you,” Leary recalled.72 The military-run, prohibitively expensive, all-controlling IBM supercomputer was the epitome of both big business and big government. IBM was “Big Brother,” as Leary saw it. This lingering image is what Apple mocked with such ingenuity in its famous one-minute 1984 Super Bowl ad, directed by Ridley Scott. An athletic blonde woman in T-shirt and shorts is seen charging past storm troopers, right into the heart of power, carrying that most iconic of tools, a sledgehammer. Then she throws the hammer, smashing the oppressor’s larger-than-life image: “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh,” the video concludes, “and you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”73 The personal computer had become the ultimate power tool of liberation. Leary purchased his first personal computer in early 1983. “I’ve learned so much about drugs and the brain in the last six months from working with a personal computer,” he told the audience at the Julia Morgan Theatre in Berkeley in July 1983.
., 49. 65.Stewart Brand, “SPACEWAR: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” Rolling Stone, December 7, 1972, 58. 66.Brand, Two Cybernetic Frontiers, 78. 67.Stewart Brand, “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time 145, no. 12 (March 1, 1995): 54–56. 68.Ken Goffman, “Wake Up, It’s 1984!” High Frontiers 1 (1984): 3. 69.Ibid. 70.Terence McKenna, “Phychopharmacognosticon,” High Frontiers 4 (1988): 12. 71.Ibid., 11–12. 72.Quoted in Goffman, “Wake Up, It’s 1984!” 23. 73.“Apple Macintosh Ad—Aired during the SuperBowl 1984,” YouTube video, posted November 9, 2009, http://youtu.be/8UZV7PDt8Lw. 74.Timothy Leary, “Access Codes & Carnival Blasts,” High Frontiers 1 (1984): 24. 75.Elizabeth Mehrin, “People in the News: Timothy Leary,” PC Magazine, February 7, 1984, 62. 76.Timothy Leary, Chaos and Cyber Culture (Berkeley, CA: Ronin, 1994), 120. 77.Mehrin, “People in the News: Timothy Leary.” 78.Katie Hafner, “The Epic Saga of the Well,” Wired 5.5 (May 1997): 98–142. 79.Ibid. 80.Ibid. 81.For a video of one of these parties, see Susan Hedin, “WELL Party 1989,” YouTube video, posted August 24, 2009, http://youtu.be/RhWbQMrqyEc. 82.DEC’s VAX systems were still used for testing the ICBM program in 2012; the WELL replaced its VAX in 1988.
LSD, PC Magazine joked in an article about Leary’s wild party, would now stand for “Leary’s Software Development.”77 But Leary wasn’t nearly as good at organizing and software engineering. His plans to develop what he then called artificial intelligence with XOR didn’t go anywhere. But it was 1984—the year that wasn’t supposed to be like 1984, as Apple had put it in its Orwell-evoking ad. The Macintosh was here. William Gibson published Neuromancer, and an era-defining subculture emerged. Yet something was missing. It was again Stewart Brand, of Whole Earth fame, who turned a cybernetic vision into reality. A little less than a year after Leary’s party, on a day in the late fall of 1984, Brand had a fateful lunch with Larry Brilliant, in a restaurant in La Jolla. Both men were in town for a conference of the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute. Brilliant, a doctor, was a roly-poly man with a goatee and a lot of excess energy.
Creative Selection: Inside Apple's Design Process During the Golden Age of Steve Jobs by Ken Kocienda
1960s counterculture, anti-pattern, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bash_history, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, HyperCard, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, premature optimization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, zero-sum game
Not only was the intersection freely discussed inside the company, but oddly for Apple, the discussion didn’t stop at the edge of the Cupertino campus. Steve Jobs told everyone what he thought about this topic himself, on stage, during the keynote presentation to announce the original iPad: The reason that Apple is able to create products like the iPad is because we’ve always tried to be at the intersection of technology and liberal arts, to be able to get the best of both, to make extremely advanced products from a technology point of view, but also have them be intuitive, easy to use, fun to use, so that they really fit the users. The users don’t have to come to them, they come to the user.2 The notion of working at the intersection goes back far into Apple history. Steve used it to explain why the original Macintosh in 1984 had proportionally spaced fonts instead of the monospace teletype-like characters typical on computers of the day.3 From that time forward, working at the intersection became a summation of the qualities Apple aspired to instill in its products.
Without the long-term influence of Stallman’s ideas and all the free software inspired by them, the internet as we know it would not exist. There would likely be no web search engines, streaming music, or YouTube. No Wikipedia either. No chat apps. No social networks. No smartphones. The world would be a different place. My life would be different too. Before coming to Apple, I had a job at a startup called Eazel. Our goal was to create an easy-to-use Linux system suitable for everyday computing, a free software alternative to Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. The company was led by programmers who worked on the original Macintosh in the 1980s, including Bud Tribble, the first software manager for the Mac, and Andy Hertzfeld, the software wizard whose graphical user interface code helped to set the Mac apart from the text-mode personal computers that were the norm of the time. These fellows were my heroes, and I joined the company to work with them.
For everyone else, the (correct) reaction is: “Yech!” Back in the 1980s, Apple had helped to change this with the Macintosh. The graphical user interface of the Mac, with its mouse and icons, offered a more direct experience. Interacting with an object meant moving the mouse to the object you wanted. Picking it up was done with a click and hold on the mouse button, a gesture that evoked grasping the object with your hand. Dropping the object into a folder meant moving the object on top of an icon of a folder and releasing the mouse button. All these conventions made computing friendlier, and they helped to introduce the concept of direct manipulation: You could see icons on the screen that represented the objects available to interact with, and you could point at them with the mouse. Apple didn’t invent direct manipulation—a computer scientist named Ben Shneiderman did in 19825—but the Mac was quick to popularize it.
Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost
Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional
(Long obsolete, those original Macintoshes are now much sought after by collectors.) In early 1983, with less than a year to go before the Macintosh launch, Jobs persuaded Sculley to become CEO of Apple. This was seen by commentators as a curious choice because the forty-year-old Sculley had achieved national prominence by masterminding the relaunch of Pepsi-Cola against Coca-Cola in the late 1970s. But behind the move lay Jobs’s vision of the computer as a consumer appliance that needed consumer marketing. In what was one of the most memorable advertising campaigns of the 1980s, Apple produced a spectacular television advertisement that was broadcast during the Super Bowl on 22 January 1984: Apple Computer was about to introduce its Macintosh computer to the world, and the commercial was intended to stir up anticipation for the big event. It showed a roomful of gaunt, zombie-like workers with shaved heads, dressed in pajamas like those worn by concentration camp prisoners, watching a huge viewing screen as Big Brother intoned about the great accomplishments of the computer age.
Microsoft, which came late to the PDA/smartphone platform business by licensing Windows-based mobile operating systems, had some success in the enterprise market before smartphones became consumer oriented and the touchscreen-based Apple iOS and Android systems rose to dominance. While Apple’s Macintosh was a technical success at its launch in 1984, it helped Microsoft far more than Apple itself (by showing the dominant operating-system company the way to a user-friendly graphics-based operating system). Apple Computer was struggling as a company in the mid-1980s, and co-founder and Macintosh team leader Steve Jobs lost a boardroom battle, was isolated from Apple’s management, and elected to resign from the firm. In 1985 Jobs formed NeXT, a computer platform development company focused on the educational and business markets. NeXT acquired the small computer graphics division of Lucasfilms, which it later spun-off as Pixar—the IPO made Jobs a billionaire.
Suddenly, a tanned and beautiful young woman wearing bright red track clothes sprinted into the room and hurled a sledgehammer into the screen, which exploded into blackness. Then a message appeared: “On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce the Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.” Apple ran the commercial just once, but over the following weeks it was replayed on dozens of news and talk shows. The message was reinforced by a blaze of publicity eventually costing $15 million. There were full-page newspaper advertisements and twenty-page copy inserts in glossy magazines targeted at high-income readers. Although priced at $2,500—only 15 percent of the cost of the Lisa—sales of the Macintosh after the first flush of enthusiasm were disappointing. Much of the hope for the Macintosh had been that it would take off as a consumer appliance, but it never did. Sculley realized that he had been misled by Jobs and that the consumer appliance idea was ill-conceived: People weren’t about to buy $2,000 computers to play a video game, balance a checkbook, or file gourmet recipes as some suggested.
The Road Ahead by Bill Gates, Nathan Myhrvold, Peter Rinearson
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, California gold rush, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Donald Knuth, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, glass ceiling, global village, informal economy, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, Mitch Kapor, new economy, packet switching, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture
Microsoft wanted to create an open standard and bring graphical capabilities to any computer that was running MS-DOS. 1995: Graphical user interface in Microsoft Word for Windows The first popular graphical platform came to market in 1984, when Apple released its Macintosh. Everything about the Macintosh's proprietary operating system was graphical, and it was an enormous success. The initial hardware and operating-system software Apple released were quite limited but vividly demonstrated the potential of the graphical interface. As the hardware and software improved, the potential was realized. We worked closely with Apple throughout the development of the Macintosh. Steve Jobs led the Macintosh team. Working with him was really fun. Steve has an amazing intuition for engineering and design as well as an ability to motivate people that is world class. It took a lot of imagination to develop graphical computer programs.
We created a word processor, Microsoft Word, and a spreadsheet, Microsoft Excel, for the Macintosh. These were Microsoft's first graphical products. The Macintosh had great system software, but Apple refused (until 1995) to let anyone else make computer hardware that would run it. This was traditional hardware-company thinking: If you wanted the software, you had to buy Apple computers. Microsoft wanted the Macintosh to sell well and be widely accepted, not only because we had invested a lot in creating applications for it, but also because we wanted the public to accept graphical computing. Mistakes such as Apple's decision to limit the sale of its operating-system software for its own hardware will be repeated often in the years ahead. Some telephone and cable companies are already talking about communicating only with the software they control. 1984: the Apple macintosh computer It's increasingly important to be able to compete and cooperate at the same time, but that calls for a lot of maturity.
The Altair 8800 was superseded by the Apple I. Then came the Apple II, the original IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh, IBM PC AT, 386 and 486 PCs, Power Macintoshes, and Pentium PCs. Each of these machines was somewhat compatible with the others. For instance, all were able to share plain-text files. But there was also a lot of incompatibility because each successive computer generation showcased fundamental breakthroughs the older systems didn't support. Compatibility with prior machines is a great virtue in some cases. Both PC-compatibles and the Apple Macintosh provide some backwards compatibility. However, they are incompatible with each other. And at the time the PC was introduced, it was not compatible with IBM's prior machines. Likewise, the Mac was incompatible with Apple's earlier machines. In the world of computing, technology is so dynamic that any company should be able to come out with whatever new product it wants and let the market decide if it has made the right set of trade-offs.
Dealers of Lightning by Michael A. Hiltzik
Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, computer age, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, index card, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, oil shock, popular electronics, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game
April 27: Xerox unveils the Star workstation, the commercial offspring of the Alto and other PARC technology, at a Chicago trade show to wide acclaim. August 24: IBM unveils the Personal Computer, forever altering the commercial landscape of office computing and making the Star obsolete. May: Apple introduces the Lisa, a personal computer with a graphical interface based on principles developed at PARC. September 19: Bob Taylor resigns from PARC under pressure. Within a few months many of the center’s top computer engineers and scientists will resign in sympathy. January: Apple introduces the Macintosh, the popular successor to the Lisa and the most influential embodi-ment of the PARC personal computer, with a striking “1984”-style television commercial during the Super Bowl. INTRODUCTION The Time Machine It was April in California’s Santa Clara Valley, a fine time to be changing the world. Very late one night in 1973 a small group assembled inside the office of an electronics engineer named Charles P.
That sign appeared one day in 1979, when a Silicon Valley legend in the making walked through PARC’s front door. CHAPTER 23 Steve Jobs Gets His Show and Tell Thus we come to Steven P. Jobs. The Apple Computer cofounder’s visit to PARC, from which he reputedly spirited off the ideas that later made the Apple Macintosh famous, is one of the foundation legends of personal computing, as replete with drama and consequence as the story of David and Goliath or the fable of the mouse and the lion with an injured paw. It holds enough material to serve the mythmaking of not one corporation but two, Xerox and Apple. If one seeks proof of its importance, one need look no further than the fact that to this date no two people involved in the episode recollect it quite the same way. For a chronicler of PARC this presents a unique difficulty.
In an unexpected burst of proprietary pride, Xerox turned him down. (The company had already divested its equity in Apple, thus missing out on the computer company’s extraordinary run-up in value at the time of its 1980 initial public stock offering.) Steve Jobs made his offer instead to Tesler, one of Smalltalk’s developers. Heeding the mysterious tarot, Tesler accepted the job that April. He would go on to head the Lisa user interface team and to help design the Macintosh, eventually rising to the position of Apple’s chief scientist. The sign he was waiting for had come. PARC’s elitism had begun to seem threadbare, and even a little reactionary. “I remember once I said to Bob Taylor, ‘You know, I’ve been going to these Homebrew computer meetings and I’ve been talking to people at Apple and hanging out in the personal computer scene. There’s a lot of smart people out there who are going to run way ahead of PARC in PCs.
How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional
In the 1990s, the town was overrun by gang violence, but it has been significantly gentrified in the time since then—so much so that in 2012, GQ named its central road, Abbot Kinney Boulevard, “the Coolest Block in America.” Venice has always attracted an interesting mix of creative types. A few blocks from Snapchat’s bungalow office sat the Binoculars Building, designed by Frank Gehry, which features a massive, eponymous pair of binoculars over the entrance. It now serves as Google’s Los Angeles office, but it was built for the famous advertising firm Chiat/Day, which created the “1984” ad for Apple and Steve Jobs that introduced the Macintosh. Google relocated its Los Angeles office from Santa Monica to the Binoculars Building in 2011, a move that began the migration of the Los Angeles tech scene to Venice. But Snapchat is the most prominent homegrown startup, serving as the tentpole for Venice. Evan chose Venice because Snapchat is primarily an entertainment company, not a technology company. And Southern California is the perfect place to start a popular entertainment company.
Evan created Snapchat, which let people quickly trade pictures back and forth as a means of conversing, using Jobs’s iPhone. But the connection goes a level deeper, to the way the men think. In the 1980s, then-Apple CEO John Sculley and Steve Jobs went to see Dr. Land at his lab on the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In a 2010 interview, Sculley recalled the visit: Dr. Land and Steve were both looking at the center of the table the whole time they were talking. Dr. Land was saying: “I could see what the Polaroid camera should be. It was just as real to me as if it was sitting in front of me before I had ever built one.” And Steve said: “Yeah, that’s exactly the way I saw the Macintosh.” He said if I asked someone who had only used a personal calculator what a Macintosh should be like they couldn’t have told me. There was no way to do consumer research on it so I had to go and create it and then show it to people and say now what do you think?
The buildings were filled with content analysts typing away at rows of desks covered with Apple desktop monitors. But if anyone asked, there was a bed in the corner, a closet full of clothes, and some pictures on the wall so it looked like someone’s home as well. Some of the neighbors weren’t too pleased with the thinly veiled operation, and the LA Department of Building and Safety inspected Snapchat’s offices after receiving multiple complaints. New hires started off working on the Live college campus stories, then moved up to the local team, curating city stories. If they did well on local, they would become content analyst leads and would be in charge of covering big stories like the Grammys or the Super Bowl. Chloe recruited students from nearby colleges like UCLA to offer their perspective on college campus stories, and remote workers overseas helped Snapchat translate Live Stories.
From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War
As early as 1972, Brand had suggested that computers might become a new LSD, a new small technology that could be used to open minds and reform society. During the Super Bowl of 1984, Apple Computer introduced its Macintosh with a like-minded suggestion. Its mouse and monitor might have ﬁrst been designed in research institutes funded by the Defense Department, but in the ad, a lithe blonde woman in a track suit raced up a theater aisle through row after row of gray-suited workers and threw a hammer into the maw of Big Brother on the screen. Thanks to the Macintosh, a voice then intoned, 1984 would not be like 1984. Like the Merry Pranksters in their bus, the ad implied, the executives of Apple had unleashed a new technology on Americans that would, if they only embraced it, make them free. By 1984 the New Communalist movement had disappeared. Nevertheless, thanks in large part to the entrepreneurship of Stewart Brand and the networks he assembled, its ideals lived on.
The great machines of empire had been miniaturized and turned over to individuals, and so transformed into tools with which individuals could improve their own lives. Like many myths, this one contains several grains of truth. The 1970s did in fact witness the rise of a new form of computing, and Bay area programmers, many with countercultural leanings, played an important part in that process. And as they were distributed, some of the new computers—particularly the 1984 Apple Macintosh—were explicitly marketed as devices one could use to tear down bureaucracies and achieve individual intellectual freedom. Yet, the notion that the [ 103 ] [ 104 ] Chapter 4 counterculture gave rise to personal computing and computer networking obscures the breadth and complexity of the actual encounter between the two worlds. As Stewart Brand’s migrations across the 1960s suggest, New Communalistvisionsofconsciousnessandcommunityhadbecomeentangledwith the cybernetic theories and interdisciplinary practices of high-technology research long before computers were miniaturized or widely interlinked.
The hacker ethic helped make hackers particularly appealing to Stewart Brand and Kevin Kelly. Soon after Levy had shown them his book, Brand and Kelly got in touch with members of the hacking community, including Lee Felsenstein; Bill Budge, a software author; Andy Hertzfeld, a key member of Apple’s Macintosh development team; and Doug Carlston, founder and president of Broderbund Software Inc. Together they invited some four hundred self-described hackers to pay ninety dollars each to join them, the Whole Earth crew, and about twenty mainstream journalists for a three-day weekend in November 1984 at Fort Cronkhite, a former army base in the Marin Headlands just across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. At one level, the event was a master stroke of networking. Having been alerted to the existence of a new and potentially inﬂuential community by a member of their own Whole Earth network (Levy), Brand and Kelly reached out to that community and entrepreneurially extended and diversiﬁed their own networks.
Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta
23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game
Walter Thompson, where he stayed until Eastman Kodak, a client, recruited him to be its director of marketing. Then, in 1983, John Sculley, recently appointed the CEO of Apple, heard about Campbell from a relative and began courting him for the job of vice president of marketing. He clinched the sale by demonstrating for Campbell the revolutionary Macintosh computer, which Apple would introduce in 1984. “It would be pretty unusual today to hire a football coach to be your VP of sales,” Sculley later told a reporter. “But what I was looking for was someone who could help develop Apple into an organization.” Campbell took over sales as well as marketing just months after he joined Apple, and set about firing the consultants and most of a sales force that “wore polyester pants and gold chains.” He said he replaced them with recent college graduates, half of them women, and all hungry to succeed.
Steve Jobs and Apple are wave makers; companies like Dell—or Quincy Smith’s CBS and Irwin Gotlieb’s GroupM—attempt to ride the wave; newspapers crash into them. The Apple wave started with the Apple II, which launched the PC era in 1977; followed in 1984 by the Macintosh, with its innovative graphical user interface; followed by Pixar studios, which transformed movie animation; followed by the iPod and iTunes and the iPhone. It’s probably safe to say that Intel and HP created waves. Ditto Amazon. There are those who say Microsoft doesn’t qualify because it rode the waves others invented, but it is inarguable that it has thrived for three decades and changed computing. It is much too soon to know whether companies like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, or Wikipedia will have a lasting impact. It is not too early, however, to call Google a wave maker.
Campbell’s boldness appealed to the ever-rebellious Steve Jobs. The two men bonded. By 1984, said Campbell, “Sculley and Jobs were going at each other already.” Although Jobs had recruited Sculley to bring professional management to Apple, he came to think he was more interested in marketing, including marketing himself, than in Apple products; Sculley believed Jobs wanted an acolyte, not a CEO. Nevertheless, Campbell earned the rare distinction of being able to both befriend Jobs and command Sculley’s respect. Before Sculley succeeded in pushing Jobs out of Apple in 1985, Campbell warned him it would be a huge mistake. Tensions flared between Campbell and Sculley, and in 1987 Campbell was put in charge of Apple’s Claris software division, with the intention of spinning it off as a private company with Campbell at the helm.
Game Over Press Start to Continue by David Sheff, Andy Eddy
affirmative action, air freight, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, game design, HyperCard, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, pattern recognition, profit motive, revision control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak
Apple, which has a growing R&D budget for multimedia, will probably launch a CD-ROM-playing machine—a unit containing a Macintosh computer processor and operating system that will, presumably, hook up to televisions, much like a VCR. Apple, however, has the disadvantage of not understanding the under-$500 consumer market. An earlier plan to develop a video-game system was reportedly abandoned. “They realized how important the software business was,” Arakawa says. “Who is going to make it for them?” Nonetheless, as it became clear that the consumer business is where the industry is going, Apple has set a course. To beat the drum for the company’s first entry into the consumer business, Apple chairman John Sculley showed up at the Consumer Electronics Show in January 1992. In a speech he observed that “the personal-computer industry and traditional consumer-electronics industry are converging on an inevitable and potentially wonderful collision course.”
In spite of his other projects, Bushnell had accepted a job as a consultant for Commodore in 1990. He said he was devoting “by far the biggest chunk” of his time to Commodore, “beating the drum and evangelizing for multimedia.” Commodore released CDTV in early 1991. The multimedia machine was actually an Amiga computer hidden inside the sleek box of a consumer-electronics product (much as the Apple multimedia player would probably be a Macintosh in a cabinet designed for living rooms instead of offices). Commodore’s primary advantage was the Amiga; it had a readymade software library, and there was a software-development community that appreciated the machine. The Amiga processor was attached to a built-in CD-ROM drive and controlled by a fancy remote controller, although a keyboard, mouse, and floppy-disk drive could be added.
Levy, Richard C., and Ronald O. Weingartner, Inside Santa’s Workshop: How Toy Inventors Develop, Sell, and Cash In on Their Ideas (New York: Henry Holt, 1990). Levy, Steven, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell, 1984). Loftus, Geoffrey R., and Elizabeth F. Loftus, Mind at Play: The Psychology of Video Games (New York: Basic, 1983). McLuhan, Marshall, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). Moritz, Michael, The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer (New York: William Morrow, 1984), p. 13. Nakata, Hiroyuki, Success Legend in the Semiconductor Era: Nintendo’s Great Strategy (The Day Mario Exceeded Toyota) (Tokyo: JICC, 1990). Okimoto, Daniel I., Between MITI and the Market: Japanese Industrial Policy for High Technology (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989).
The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding
affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks
It shows Big Brother projected on a screen, addressing lines of workers. These skinhead drones wear identical uniforms. Into the grey nightmare bursts an attractive young woman. She wears orange shorts and a white tank top. She is carrying a hammer! Police in riot gear run after her. As Big Brother announces ‘We shall prevail’, the heroine hurls the hammer at him. The screen explodes in a blaze of light; the workers are open-mouthed. A voice announces smoothly: ‘On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.’ The 60-second advert was screened to nearly 100 million Americans during the Super Bowl, and was subsequently hailed as one of the best ever. Isaacson writes: ‘Initially the technologists and hippies didn’t interface well. Many in the counterculture saw computers as ominous and Orwellian, the province of the Pentagon and the power culture.’
That was still to come. 10 DON’T BE EVIL Silicon Valley, California Summer 2013 ‘Until they become conscious, they will never rebel.’ GEORGE ORWELL, 1984 It was an iconic commercial. To accompany the launch of the Macintosh in 1984, Steve Jobs created an advert that would captivate the world. It would take the theme of George Orwell’s celebrated dystopian novel and recast it – with Apple as Winston Smith. His plucky company would fight the tyranny of Big Brother. As Walter Isaacson recounts in his biography of Jobs, the Apple founder was a child of the counterculture. He practised Zen Buddhism, smoked pot, walked around barefoot and pursued faddish vegetarian diets. He embodied the ‘fusion of flower power and processor power’. Even as Apple grew into a multi-billion dollar corporation, Jobs continued to identify with computing’s early subversives and long-haired pioneers – the hackers, pirates, geeks and freaks that made the future possible.
Many in the counterculture saw computers as ominous and Orwellian, the province of the Pentagon and the power culture.’ The commercial asserted the opposite – that computers were cool, revolutionary and empowering, instruments of self-expression. The Macintosh was a way of asserting freedom against an all-seeing state. Almost 30 years later, following Jobs’s death in 2011, an NSA analyst came up with a smirking rejoinder. He prepared a top-secret presentation and, to illustrate the opening slide, he pulled up a couple of stills from Jobs’s commercial – one of Big Brother, the other of the blonde heroine with the hammer and the orange shorts. Under the heading ‘iPhone Location Services’ he typed: ‘Who knew in 1984 …’ The next slide showed the late Jobs, holding up an iPhone. ‘… that this would be Big Brother …’ A third slide showed crowds of whooping customers celebrating after buying the iPhone 4; one fan had inked the name on his cheek.
The Monk and the Riddle: The Education of a Silicon Valley Entrepreneur by Randy Komisar
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, belly landing, discounted cash flows, estate planning, Jeff Bezos, Network effects, new economy, Pepto Bismol, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs
While Apple clearly had to be financially successful, its more fundamental purpose was to innovate, invent, and lead an entire cultural revolution that Page 76 everyone there saw leaping from those keyboards and screens with silicon brains. Apple's 1984 Super Bowl commercial, where the free thinking individual charges through the faceless, gray crowd to shatter the tyranny of Big Brother, was gospel, not hype, throughout the Apple organization. All the people I met there, passionate young people, truly believed they were changing the world, not selling computers. I took a mental health day and rode my bicycle mile after mile through the backcountry of Marin county. Seventy-five miles later, I still didn't know what to do. The next morning, I walked into work, puzzling through the options. I can still remember sitting in my office at the end of the hall and looking down the long corridor.
Then the competition would look sufficiently like Apple to erode Apple's margins and back it into a corner of its own making, with declining share and profit. Along with many others inside Apple, I was a strong proponent of licensing the Macintosh operating system in order to preempt Microsoft in setting the standard for user-friendly computing. After all, it was Apple's birthright, its overriding Page 109 mission. It would mean cannibalizing our own model, sacrificing margins for volume and market share, but it seemed better than circling the wagons and defending an ever-declining piece of the PC business. Apple's general counsel, my boss, asked me to develop a licensing plan for the Mac operating system, with safeguards for protecting Apple's basic interests. In a first step toward a new strategy, a colleague and I were assigned to negotiate a license of the Mac look and feel to Apollo Computer in Massachusetts, one of the leading manufacturers of workstations at the time.
Her ambivalence and Lenny's focus on the formula over the mission brought to mind my experience at Apple, specifically one of the most pivotal negotiations I was involved in there, which was reported only recently for the first time. Apple's big idea had been Computing for the Rest of Us. But the company increasingly found itself hostage to the margins and quarterly results generated by its business model, which was built around premium hardware. Its share of the PC business was limited as it became addicted to selling computers at much higher margins and prices than its competition. Its intuitive, friendly interface was the justification for those margins, but that business model and Apple's position were threatened by none other than Microsoft. In 1986 we had all seen Windows 1.0, and while it posed no threat to the Macintosh operating environment at the time, we understood what it meant.
The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
The advertisement closes with the text, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.19 Recounting the story of the ad, industry journalist Adelia Cellini noted, “Apple wanted the Mac to symbolize the idea of empowerment, with the ad showcasing the Mac as a tool for combating conformity and asserting originality. What better way to do that than have a striking blond athlete take a sledgehammer to the face of that ultimate symbol of conformity, Big Brother?”20 In many ways, this ad represents the apex of the personal computer revolution. The anti-institutional counterculture nerd ethos of the 1960s and 1970s had grown into the personal computer industry—an industry large enough by this time that it could now buy an advertisement during the Super Bowl. Yet the advertisement it used to make a splash still paradoxically evoked a deep strain of radical individualism and personal expression in the midst of conformity.
A liberationist ethic also became entrenched in the overt marketing of personal computing devices, most famously in a classic television commercial, Apple’s 1984 spot. Following the rousing success of Apple’s first two home computer models, Steve Jobs wanted to do something big to roll out its third model, the Macintosh personal computer. He hired Ridley Scott, who two years earlier had directed the sci-fi classic Bladerunner, to make the commercial.18 The result was a powerful and intense ad that referenced the dystopian future of George Orwell’s classic novel 1984. In the ad, a young woman breaks into a large auditorium where a crowd of mindless automatons sit listening to a giant screen of a speaking man, presumably Big Brother. The woman, representing the Macintosh (she has a sketch of the Mac on her tank top), smashes the screen. The advertisement closes with the text, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh.
The quotation is taken from his essay “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, 1 Mar. 1995. 13. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/peoples-computer/peoples-1972-oct/index.html 14. http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/homebrew_and_how_the_apple.php 15. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/homebrew/V2_01/index.html 16. http://www.gadgetspage.com/comps-peripheral/apple-i-computer-ad.html 17. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 1996). 18. http://pdgmag.com/2012/02/02/steve-jobs-lee-clow-and-ridley-scott-the-three-geniuses-who-made-1984-less-like-1984/ 19. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8 20. Adelia Cellini, “The Story Behind Apple’s ‘1984’ TV Commercial: Big Brother at 20.” MacWorld 21, no. 1 (2004): 18. 21. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/12/biztech/articles/122099outlook-bobb.html?
Loonshots: How to Nurture the Crazy Ideas That Win Wars, Cure Diseases, and Transform Industries by Safi Bahcall
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Astronomia nova, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Gary Taubes, hypertext link, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, PageRank, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, Wall-E, wikimedia commons, yield management
Apple’s attempts to win back the spotlight with the Apple III and the Lisa, projects led by Jobs until he lost interest (in one case) or was kicked off (in the other), flopped. The legendary Super Bowl ad in early 1984 for a new Apple product, called the Macintosh, created tremendous publicity and an initial burst of sales. But the computer was painfully slow, had no hard drive, and frequently overheated (Jobs had insisted on no fan, to keep it quiet). In a year in which IBM and Commodore each sold over two million computers, Macintosh sales dwindled to less than ten thousand per month. Even more dangerous to the company’s future than its string of failures, however, was its string of exits. A stream of departing employees signals serious dysfunction. As mentioned earlier, after founding what became Bell Labs, Theodore Vail said that no group “can be either ignored or favored at the expense of the others without unbalancing the whole.”
Soldiers tend to favor soldiers. Jobs proudly and publicly referred to his team, working on the Macintosh, as artists. He referred to the rest of the company, developing the Apple II franchise, as bozos. Apple II engineers took to wearing buttons with a circle and line running through an image of Bozo the Clown. Wozniak, an engineer with the demeanor of a teddy bear, was widely beloved at the company and in the industry. He resigned, openly complaining about the demoralizing attacks. Departures in the Apple II group became so common that one joke ran, “If your boss calls, be sure to get his name.” The toxicity spread. Key designers on the Macintosh side soon began leaving as well. It didn’t take long for the Apple Board of Directors and its recently hired CEO, John Sculley, to conclude the dysfunction was not sustainable.
It opened its system, licensing out Macintosh software and architecture. Clones proliferated, just like Windows-based PCs. When Jobs returned to Apple, he insisted that the board agree to shut down the clones. It cost Apple over $100 million to cancel existing contracts at a time when it was desperately fighting bankruptcy. But that S-type loonshot, closing the ecosystem, drove the phenomenal rise of Apple’s products. The sex appeal of the new products lured customers in; the fence made it difficult to leave. Just like the failure of Friendster prior to Facebook, or the failure of cholesterol-lowering drugs and diets prior to Endo’s statins, or the failure of the Comets before the Boeing 707, IBM’s failure with OS/2 had been a False Fail. In rescuing Apple, Jobs demonstrated how to escape the Moses Trap.
Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator
Jobs went back to Cupertino and called a board meeting, saying he had to build a new computer based on the PARC architecture and that it should not be backward-compatible with the existing Apple II. The board thought he was crazy, but Jobs applied his charisma—his “reality distortion field”—and got his way. Xerox got its Apple shares, and in December of 1980, Apple went public at $22 per share. Xerox’s holdings were instantly worth millions. The first version of a computer using the PARC architecture, the Lisa, was a commercial failure, but when Jobs introduced the Macintosh in an iconic advertisement that aired during the 1984 Super Bowl, the long-awaited vision of the future arrived. The tragedy for Xerox was that two years later, the Xerox CFO sold all its Apple stock. Imagine what it would have meant to the company if it had held on to 5 percent of Apple, which would now be worth about $32 billion. In 1985, after the debut of the Macintosh, Microsoft quickly introduced Windows, an operating system that totally mimicked the Macintosh.
Less than two minutes into the San Francisco demo, Engelbart said, “If in your office you as an intellectual worker were supplied with a computer display backed up by a computer that was alive for you all day and was instantly responsive to every action you have, how much value could you derive from that?” Engelbart had built a working prototype of what we today would easily recognize as a contemporary Internet device—fifteen years before the introduction of the Apple Macintosh. The next year Engelbart took a team from the Stanford Research Institute to the Lama Foundation commune, north of Taos, New Mexico. It was Stewart Brand who suggested that Lama might provide an atmosphere, as John Markoff wrote, “to create a meeting of the minds between the NLS researchers and the counterculture community animated by the Whole Earth Catalog.” The land outside Taos was full of alternative communities—Morningstar East, Reality Construction Company, the Hog Farm, New Buffalo, and the Family, to name a few.
In 1985, after the debut of the Macintosh, Microsoft quickly introduced Windows, an operating system that totally mimicked the Macintosh. Whatever advantage Apple had was quickly extinguished, and Steve Jobs was forced out of the company. Jobs immediately set out for revenge on his old company by building a new computer called NeXT. Not long after that, a twenty-nine-year-old English engineer, Tim Berners-Lee, took up a position at the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN). The Internet at this point was purely an academic research network linking physicists around the world and allowing them to share research documents, and CERN was the largest European node of the network. Finding documents was getting increasingly dicey as the network got more popular, so Berners-Lee began to work on the concept of hypertext as a way for researchers to link directly to other documents in their references.
The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant
Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day
But creating a mythology around that product is, especially in the early stages, as important to selling it as anything else. Traditional marketing campaigns are important too, of course, and Apple has run plenty of iPhone ads. There hasn’t been a truly classic iPhone spot or campaign, on the level of the famous Ridley Scott–directed “Big Brother” ad that introduced the Macintosh during the 1984 Super Bowl, the “Think Different” ads that reminded audiences that the Apple brand was associated with geniuses and world-changers in the late 1990s, the earbuds-and-silhouette campaign that created an efficient aesthetic shorthand for iPod cool in the early 2000s, or even the “I’m a Mac,” “I’m a PC” ads that played off Windows-based computers’ reputation for being buggy and lame. The closest thing the iPhone has to a classic is probably the “There’s an App for that” campaign in 2008.
They helped prove that user interface design, long derided as dull—the province of grey user settings and drop-down menus; “knobs and dials” as Christie puts it—was ripe for innovation. As Bas and Imran’s stars rose inside Apple, they started casting around for new frontiers. Fortunately, they were about to find one. While training to be a civil engineer in Massachusetts, Brian Huppi idly picked up Steven Levy’s Insanely Great. The book documents how in the early 1980s Steve Jobs separated key Apple players from the rest of the company, flew a pirate flag above their department, and drove them to build the pioneering Macintosh. Huppi couldn’t put it down. “I was like, ‘Wow, what would it be like to work at a place like Apple?’” At that, he quit his program and went back to school for mechanical engineering. Then he heard Jobs was back at the helm at Apple—serendipity. Huppi landed a job as an input engineer there in 1998. He was put to work on the iBook laptop, where he got to know the Industrial Design group, whose profile had already begun to rise under its head, Jonathan Ive.
It would be ideal for a trackpad as well as a touchscreen tablet; an idea long pursued but never perfected in the consumer market—and one certainly interesting to the vets of the Newton (which had a resistive touch screen) who still hoped to see mobile computing take off. And it wouldn’t be the first time a merry band of Apple inventors plumbed another organization for UI inspiration. In fact, Silicon Valley’s premier Prometheus myth is rife with parallels: In 1979, a young squad of Apple engineers, led by Steve Jobs, visited the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center and laid eyes on its groundbreaking graphical user interface (GUI) boasting windows, icons, and menus. Jobs and his band of “pirates” borrowed some of those ideas for the embryonic Macintosh. When Bill Gates created Windows, Jobs screamed at him for stealing Apple’s work. Gates responded coolly: “Well, Steve, I think there’s more than one way of looking at it. I think it’s more like we both had this rich neighbor named Xerox and I broke into his house to steal the TV set and found out that you had already stolen it.”
In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy
23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator
What about a Google-ized version of Apple’s Safari browser? Jobs bonded especially with Brin; both lived in Palo Alto, and the pair would take long walks around the town and up in the hills … current and future kings of the Valley, inventing the future. In August 2006, Jobs invited Eric Schmidt to sit on Apple’s board of directors, which included Google board member Arthur Levinson, CEO of Genetech; and Bill Campbell, Google’s corporate coach. Al Gore sat on Apple’s board, while he was the self-described “virtual advisory board” at Google. Intel CEO Paul Otellini, who was on Google’s board, had started supplying the chips for Macintosh computers. There was so much overlap that it was almost as if Apple and Google were a single company. Smart phones seemed to be the logical nexus of the unofficial partnership.
Michael Brin also talked about his son in Tom Howell, “Raising an Internet Giant,” University of Maryland Diamondback; and Adam Tanner, “Google Co-founder Lives Modestly, Émigré Dad Says,” USA Today, April 6, 2004; and Mark Malseed, “The Story of Sergey Brin,” Moment, February 2007. Malseed expanded on his research in The Google Story. 15 “Suppose all the information” Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web (New York: HarperBusiness, 2000), p. 4. 15 The web’s pedigree I give a detailed account of the work of Bush, Englebart, and Atkinson in Insanely Great: The Story of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything (New York: Penguin, 1994), and discuss Nelson’s work in Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Doubleday, 1984). 16 personalized movie ratings Sergey Brin, résumé at http://infolab.stanford.edu/~sergey/. 17 “Why don’t we use the links” Page and Brin spoke to me in 2002 about developing the early search engine, a subject we also discussed in conversations in 1999, 2001, and 2004. 17 “The early versions of hypertext” Battelle, The Search, p. 72. 20 “For thirty years” Carolyn Crouch et al., “In Memoriam: Gerald Salton, March 8, 1927–August 28, 1995,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47(2), 108; “Salton Dies; Was Leader in Information Retrieval Field,” Computing Research Association website. 20 the web was winning I looked at the state of web search in “Search for Tomorrow,” Newsweek, October 28, 1996. 21 “The idea behind PageRank” John Ince, “The Lost Google Tapes,” a series of interviews with Google.
The timeline continued to the work of Douglas Engelbart, whose team at the Stanford Research Institute devised a linked document system that lived behind a dazzling interface that introduced the metaphors of windows and files to the digital desktop. Then came a detour to the brilliant but erratic work of an autodidact named Ted Nelson, whose ambitious Xanadu Project (though never completed) was a vision of disparate information linked by “hypertext” connections. Nelson’s work inspired Bill Atkinson, a software engineer who had been part of the original Macintosh team; in 1987 he came up with a link-based system called HyperCard, which he sold to Apple for $100,000 on the condition that the company give it away to all its users. But to really fulfill Vannevar Bush’s vision, you needed a huge system where people could freely post and link their documents. By the time Berners-Lee had his epiphany, that system was in place: the Internet. While the earliest websites were just ways to distribute academic papers more efficiently, soon people began writing sites with information of all sorts, and others created sites just for fun.
Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges and Leaderboards by Yu-Kai Chou
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, functional fixedness, game design, IKEA effect, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, loss aversion, Maui Hawaii, Minecraft, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs
Suddenly, a woman in full color runs in and throws a sledgehammer at the big screen, completely shattering it. Then, a deep male voice says, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”6 Through this commercial, Apple reassures viewers that the world wouldn’t be controlled by “Big Brother” - IBM, but would be liberated by Apple’s computers. Though Apple’s Board did not really approve of this commercial and it was almost thrown into the garbage bin, when finally aired, it became one of the most successful commercials in history. In his book, Electric Dreams: Computers in American Culture, Ted Friedman discusses how powerful the commercial was: Super Bowl viewers were overwhelmed by the startling ad. The ad garnered millions of dollars worth of free publicity, as news programs rebroadcast it that night.
September 28, 2010.↩ Wikimedia Blog. “Who are Wikipedias Donors”. 02/05/2012.↩ Maney, Kevin. “Apple’s ‘1984’ Super Bowl Commercial Still Stands as Watershed Event”. USA Today. January 28, 2004.↩ Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. Secker & Warburg. 1949.↩ Youtube, “Apple - 1984” URL: http://www.yukaichou.com/1984↩ Friedman, Ted. Electric Dreams: Computers in American Culture, 2005.↩ Hormby, Tom. Low End Mac. “Think Different: The Ad Campaign that Restored Apple’s Reputation”. 8/10/2013.↩ Siltanen, Rob. Forbes. “The Real Story Behind Apple’s ‘Think Different’ Campaign”. 12/14/2011.↩ Waze Website: waze.com↩ In Norse mythology and the Comic Book Marvel Universe, Mjolnir is the divine thunder hammer of Thor.↩ Jujing, Guo. The Twenty-four Paragons of Filial Piety. Yuan Dynasty (1260–1368).↩ Zamzee Blog.
When people freak out about “Oh look! There are more Android users than iPhone users now!”, that’s basically saying that all these non-Apple smartphone companies combined have surpassed Apple. Big deal.) So the multi-billion dollar question is: So, how did Apple do this? Besides offering stellar products with elegant design and meticulous engineering, Apple has been one of the few electronics companies that actually try to sell a higher meaning. Lets examine two of the most successful commercials in history - both from Apple. The Crazy Ones in 1984 The first Apple commercial that reached massive fame and success, is the “1984” commercial, aired in 1984’s Super Bowl XVIII on CBS4. This is a build-up of the popular novel “Nineteen Eighty-Four” by George Orwell, published in 1948 about a futuristic dystopian world where a unified society is controlled and brainwashed by a centralized government5.
Behind the cloud: the untold story of how Salesforce.com went from idea to billion-dollar company--and revolutionized an industry by Marc Benioff, Carlye Adler
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, business continuity plan, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, iterative process, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, platform as a service, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs
I focused my studies at the University of Southern California on building companies and creating new technologies, and ran Liberty Software out of my dorm room. The lessons I learned as an entrepreneur were pivotal, as were those I learned working for somebody else. In 1984, I had a summer job at Apple writing some of the ﬁrst native assembly language for the Macintosh. I had the opportunity to work on the most exciting and important project at Apple, and it was like getting paid to go to Disneyland. There were fruit smoothies in the refrigerators, a motorcycle in the lobby, and shiatsu massages. The very best part was being able to witness Steve Jobs walking around, motivating the developers. Steve’s leadership created the energy and spirit in the ofﬁce. Apple encouraged the ‘‘think different’’ mind-set throughout its entire organization. We even had a pirate ﬂag on the roof. That summer, I discovered that it was possible for an entrepreneur to encourage revolutionary ideas and foster a distinctive culture. xix INTRODUCTION That lesson became even more obvious when I returned to Apple for a second summer internship as a technical sales support person with an Apple partner.
Events proved to be an effective way to maximize the viral effect. Play #28: Build Street Teams and Leverage Testimony Although I had been inspired by the customer energy that Steve Jobs had built around the Macintosh, the idea for cultivating a group of salesforce.com enthusiasts did not come from the technology community; it emanated from the hip-hop community. A friend introduced me to MC Hammer, who visited our San Francisco ofﬁce (wearing a business suit, not the trademark Hammer pants) and shared his ‘‘Street Team’’ concept: that of building local networks of people to back you. At the time, I didn’t know how salesforce.com Street Teams would work in action, but I thought that MC Hammer was a creative genius and that this unconventional idea was worth investigating. Our City Tour program served as a vehicle to extend the salesforce.com message, ignite passion behind the idea, and help us build salesforce.com Street Teams to get customers out and selling for us on a local level.
Oracle had about two hundred people when I started, and the fast-growing company prized the efforts of young people and rewarded them. Founder and CEO Larry Ellison regularly xx Introduction walked the halls to chat with employees. (I usually took these opportunities to share my enthusiasm for Macs.) Soon after I sent Larry a note asking when Oracle would be on the Macintosh and included a business plan about how to make us successful in the Apple market, Larry made me the director of Oracle’s Macintosh division. Being responsible for the division that created software for personal computers was an amazing opportunity. Then, after Tom Siebel, the executive who ran direct marketing, resigned and recommended me as his replacement, I inherited an even more exciting and formative role. It was Larry’s vision that inspired me. He wanted me to create an ‘‘electronic village’’ and the next generation of sales and marketing using state-of-the-art electronic conferencing technology, software systems, and multimedia.
Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, Columbine, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Marc Andreessen, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize
Writing his .plan updates was becoming increasingly laborious because, as Carmack knew, everyone seemed to be hanging so much on what he said. “Some of you,” he finally typed, “are busy getting all bent out of shape about this.” Carmack was talking about the gaming community’s reaction to id’s announcement that the first test of their next game, Quake III Arena, would be released for Macintosh, not Windows. In the gaming world, this was usually as big as the controversies got. But while Carmack turned his attention to his plan, describing the pros and cons of the new Macintosh systems, he couldn’t avoid the other controversy. Finishing his update, he pushed himself away from his desk and walked down the hall to get a Diet Coke and a snack. “Hey,” he said, passing the police officers in his lobby, “do you guys want anything to eat?” The cops were the most obvious sign of Columbine’s impact on id.
A new one had begun. 176 THIRTEEN Deathmatch I n a dark room pulsing with blood red shadows, Stevie “Killcreek” Case sat at her computer, twitching her body as if she were repeatedly and intentionally sticking her toe in a light socket. “Doh!” she yelped, leaping her soldier on the screen through a static-filled teleporter gate, only to see him rematerialize in an unanticipated blizzard of nails. Or, as she described the style of this particular death, “Telefragged!” It was January 1997, minutes away from the online gaming underground’s unofficial Super Bowl. Like the few dozen others convulsing throughout this University of Kansas flophouse, Stevie–an ebullient twenty-year-old with a short brown hob–had been practicing two sleepless nights for the match between her team, Impulse 9, and their rivals, who had driven eight hours from Michigan, the Ruthless Bastards. Their contests were part of the burgeoning international subculture of clans: organized groups of gamers who played– and lived–Quake.
The one he liked best soon became his girlfriend, a popular, intelligent, and outgoing daughter of a respected officer. She had him buy button-down shirts, wear nice jeans and contacts. After years of being beaten down by his father and his stepfather, Romero was finally getting recognition. At sixteen, Romero was just as eager to have success with his games. After eight months of rejections, the good news came on March 5, 1984, from an Apple magazine called InCider. An editor, weary from a recent trip to Mardi Gras, wrote that the magazine had decided to publish the code for Romero’s Scout Search, a low-resolution maze game in which the player– represented by a single dot–had to gather all his scouts–more dots–before being attacked by a grizzly bear–another dot. It didn’t look great, but it was fun to play. Romero would be paid $100.
The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu
1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game
These were a far cry from the old, extremely irritating Anacin advertisements depicting hammers pounding the skull. Whether, in fact, they prevented zapping, however, is hard to know for sure. Fortunately for the advertising industry, it remained impossible to accurately measure whether people were watching commercials or not, saving the enterprise from a true and full accounting. It was also during this era that the Super Bowl became a showcase for advertising’s greatest talents, seeming to prove the point that there were, indeed, commercials that people truly wanted to see. A much lauded advertisement for Coca-Cola that ran during the 1979 Super Bowl featured an enormous African American football player, Mean Joe Greene, being offered a Coke by a young white boy.22 And in 1984, Apple Computer ran its “Big Brother” advertisement during the Super Bowl to great acclaim.
A much lauded advertisement for Coca-Cola that ran during the 1979 Super Bowl featured an enormous African American football player, Mean Joe Greene, being offered a Coke by a young white boy.22 And in 1984, Apple Computer ran its “Big Brother” advertisement during the Super Bowl to great acclaim. Directed by Blade Runner auteur Ridley Scott, it portrayed a young woman running and smashing a giant screen to save society from a totalitarian overlord. “On January 24th Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh,” the advertisement proclaimed. “And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’ ” The publicity created by its advertising, at least according to Apple, sold $3.5 million of its new Macintoshes.23 In retrospect, the word “remote control” was ultimately a misnomer. What it finally did was to empower the more impulsive circuits of the brain in their conflict with the executive faculties, the parts with which we think we control ourselves and act rationally. It did this by making it almost effortless, practically nonvolitional, to redirect our attention—the brain had only to send one simple command to the finger in response to a cascade of involuntary cues.
The radio has never had a more amusing feature, nor one that has created so much havoc.”15 The audiences, astounding at the time, are still impressive by today’s standards. While measurements were crude in those days, by 1931, Amos ’n’ Andy is believed to have attracted some 40 million listeners each and every evening—with some episodes reaching 50 million—this out of a population that was then 122 million. It was a result unprecedented for any entertainment product, the equivalent of having today’s Super Bowl audiences each and every evening—and with just one advertiser. Having seized their audience, the sponsor’s messages soon grew longer, and soon were indistinguishable from the old hard-sell advertising copy, albeit written to be heard, not read: As we have told you repeatedly, Pepsodent Tooth Paste today contains a new and different cleansing and polishing material. We want to emphasize the fact that this cleansing and polishing material used in Pepsodent Tooth Paste is contained in no other tooth paste.
Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Calibrating the right level of openness is undoubtedly one of the most complex as well as one of the most critical decisions that a platform business must make.4 The decision affects usage, developer participation, monetization, and regulation. It’s a challenge that Steve Jobs struggled with throughout his career. In the 1980s, he got it wrong by choosing to keep the Apple Macintosh a closed system. Competitor Microsoft opened its less elegant operating system to outside developers and licensed it to a host of computer manufacturers. The resulting flood of innovation enabled Windows to claim a share of the personal computer market that dwarfed Apple’s. In the 2000s, Jobs got the balance right: he opened the iPhone’s operating system, made iTunes available on Windows, and captured the lion’s share of the smartphone market from rivals like Nokia and Blackberry.5 Jobs liked to recast the open/closed dilemma as a choice between “fragmented” and “integrated,” terms that subtly skewed the debate in favor of a closed, controlled system.
In some cases, both the platform manager and the platform sponsor can be either a single company or a group of companies—with further implications for issues of control and openness.10 Figure 7.3 illustrates four models for managing and sponsoring platforms. In some cases, a single firm both manages and sponsors the platform. We call this the proprietary model. For example, the hardware, software, and underlying technical standards for the Macintosh operating system and mobile iOS are all controlled by Apple. Sometimes a group of firms manages the platform while one firm sponsors it. This is the licensing model. Google, for example, sponsors the “stock” Android operating system, but it encourages a number of hardware firms to supply devices that connect consumers to the platform. These device makers, including Samsung, Sony, LG, Motorola, Huawei, and Amazon, are licensed by Google to manage the interface between producers and consumers.
Sarah Needleman and Angus Loten, “When Freemium Fails,” Wall Street Journal, August 22, 2012. 7. Saul Hansell, “No More Giveaway Computers. Free-PC To Be Bought by eMachines,” New York Times, November 30, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/30/business/no-more-giveaway-computers-free-pc-to-be-bought-by-emachines.html. 8. Dashiell Bennett, “8 Dot-Coms That Spent Millions on Super Bowl Ads and No Longer Exist,” Business Insider, February 2, 2011, http://www.businessinsider.com/8-dot-com-super-bowl-advertisers-that-no-longer-exist-2011-2. 9. “The Greatest Defunct Web Sites and Dotcom Disasters,” Crave, cnet .co.uk, June 5, 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080607211840/http://crave.cnet.co.uk/0,39029477,49296926-6,00.htm. 10. Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Information Complements, Substitutes and Strategic Product Design,” Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Information Systems (Association for Information Systems, 2000), 13–15; Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Internetwork Externalities and Free Information Goods,” Proceedings of the Second ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce (Association for Computing Machinery, 2000), 107–16; Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design,” Management Science 51, no. 10 (2005): 1494–1504. 11.
The Clockwork Universe: Saac Newto, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern WorldI by Edward Dolnick
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Arthur Eddington, clockwork universe, complexity theory, double helix, Edmond Halley, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, lone genius, music of the spheres, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, scientific worldview, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
Even so, he knew how to charm and chat, and he could set his earnestness aside. “It’s so rare,” the Duchess of Orléans declared happily, “for intellectuals to be smartly dressed, and not to smell, and to understand jokes.” Leibniz was greatly impressed by a demonstration of “a Machine for walking on water,” which was apparently akin to this arrangement of inflatable pants and ankle paddles. Today we slap the word genius on every football coach who wins a Super Bowl, but both Newton and Leibniz commanded intellectual powers that dazzled even their enemies. If their talents were on a par, their styles were completely different. In his day-to-day life, as well as in his work, Leibniz was always riding off boldly in all directions at once. “To remain fixed in one place like a stake in the ground” was torture, he remarked, and he acknowledged that he “burned with the desire to win great fame in the sciences and to see the world.”
Some art historians believe that Vermeer’s Astronomer and his Geographer both depict Leeuwenhoek, but no one has been able to prove that Leeuwenhoek and Vermeer ever met. 26 The microscope that Leeuwenhoek used on that fateful night was put up for auction in April 2009. The winning bidder paid $480,000. 27 As one of Pythagoras’s followers told the tale, the story began when Pythagoras listened to the sound of hammering as he walked by a blacksmith’s shop. As the blacksmith struck the same piece of iron with different hammers, some sounds were harmonious, others not. The key, Pythagoras found, was whether the weights of the hammers happened to be in simple proportion. A twelve-pound hammer and a six-pound hammer, for instance, produced notes an octave apart. 28 Augustine did not explain why God did not make the world in 28 days (1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14) or 496 days or various other possibilities. 29 A prime number is one that can’t be broken down into smaller pieces.
JUST CRAZY ENOUGH 301 Molière long ago made fun: Thomas Kuhn famously cited Molière in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, p. 104. 302 “We are all agreed that your theory is crazy”: Bohr made the remark to Wolfgang Pauli and added, “My own feeling is that it is not crazy enough.” Dael Wolfle, ed., Symposium on Basic Research (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1959), p. 66. 302fn In time, this bewilderment: J. J. MacIntosh, “Locke and Boyle on Miracles and God’s Existence,” p. 196. 303 “He claims that a body attracts”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 273. 303 “Mysterious though it was”: John Henry, “Pray do not Ascribe that Notion to me: God and Newton’s Gravity,” in Force and Popkin, eds., The Books of Nature and Scripture, p. 141. 303 “even if an angel”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 291. 304 If the sun suddenly exploded: Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe (New York: Norton, 1999), p. 56. 305 “so great an absurdity”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 505. 305 “To tell us that every Species”: From the end of Opticks, quoted in Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, p. 259. 306 “as if it were a Crime”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 779. 306 “Ye cause of gravity”: Ibid., p. 505. 306 “I have not been able to discover”: Cohen’s translation of the Principia, p. 428.
Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell
1960s counterculture, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce
For example, in order to maintain its position as the Olympic network, the National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) invested $3.55 billion for television rights to the three Summer and two Winter Olympiads between 2000 and 2008.35 Broadcast rights for the Super Bowl also represent a signiﬁcant part of the shared $17.6 billion eight-year contract signed by the NFL and ABC/ESPN, CBS, and Fox in 1998. Having 137 David L. A n d r e w s effectively purchased the American population’s sporting attention, it is subsequently leased for exorbitant sums to corporate advertisers. Jon Mandel of Grey Advertising noted that “When you think that virtually half the country’s watching the Super Bowl . . . this makes a hell of a statement.”36 Mandel was referring to Super Bowl 22 in 1997, which tied for the thirdmost-watched television show in U.S. history. Hence, in 1999 the popular appeal of the Super Bowl spectacle enabled Fox to charge $1.6 million for each of the thirty-second advertisement spots (of which there were ﬁftyeight in total), a ﬁgure that is expected to rise to $1.9 million per spot for 2000.37 Similarly, NBC charges elevated advertising rates for its near three weeks of prime-time Olympic coverage, making its television rights a highly proﬁtable investment (see later discussion of the Olympic Games).
At its zenith, the “Wintel” monopoly so dominated that the two companies claimed half the proﬁts of the entire PC industry, reducing PC makers to what one journalist called “a value-added reseller for Intel and Microsoft.”28 Wintel’s dominance cannot be attributed simply to consumer choice or technological superiority. Both companies gained their footholds in the PC market when IBM chose them to supply the microprocessor and operating system for its PCs in the early 1980s. By undercutting prices for the rival Macintosh computer, IBM (and the low-cost PC clone makers that followed it) grabbed the bulk of the market for business PCs. Throughout the 1980s, Apple offered a more user-friendly graphical interface than Microsoft, and at several points Intel’s competitors offered faster chips.29 But the large installed base of Wintel users created growing network effects, whereby the greater the number of users of a communication technology, the more valuable it becomes to each of them, because users can share information with more people.
For TV and radio, sport gets consumers in front of their sets to hear and see commercials; in effect, TV and radio rent their viewers’ and listeners’ attention.”32 Despite recent declines in television ratings caused by an ever-fragmenting media culture, sporting “mega-events”33—such as the Super Bowl, the Olympic Games, the NBA Finals, the MLB World Series, and the FIFA World Cup Final—continue to represent some of a dwindling number of collective media experiences that provide a thread of commonality (regardless of how ephemeral) in the life of a nation. For instance, of the ten largest audiences for shows on American television, nine have been sport-related: seven involved Super Bowl programming, and two were of coverage of the 1994 Winter Olympics (the Nancy Kerrigan and Tonya Harding skate-off ). The remaining one, in ninth place overall, was the 1983 M*A*S*H special that concluded the long-running comedy series.34 The clamor for audience ratings has led to network television moguls’ perpetual engagement in a circus of spiraling bidding wars for the exclusive rights to these high-proﬁle events.
The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, centre right, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer
Is he telling the truth or pretending that he didn't do it, that he just knows of Rochester, the site revealed in Markoff's original article? Or is he revealing a more tantalizing possibility? That there may have been other people involved in the attack on Shimomura. ■ ■ ■ "Mr. Jon," Kevin Mitnick welcomes me hours later and we chat briefly about the Super Bowl. He enjoyed the commercials, particularly the one with the computerized frogs croaking "Bud-weis-er" in sequence. I can hear the first rumblings of a Mitnick belly laugh. "I was thinking of getting in the P link [one of AT&T's satellite phone links] and sending, "Hi, Shimomura, die with honor [broadcasting it worldwide to hundreds of millions of Super Bowl viewers]." Then, suddenly, Mitnick is pissed. "I read that shit [Markoff's Times profile of Shimomura]. He said now he considers it a matter of honor.... Remember I told you that Markoff has an [e-mail] account on Shimomura's system?
That's not what Kevin Mitnick and all the other hackers I talk to say. It's not what countless articles in newspapers and magazines say. It's not even what John Markoff used to say. Every cyberspace journalist worth his memory chips knows security on the Internet is an illusion, and always has been. The Internet is about as safe as a convenience store in East L.A. on Saturday night. January 29,1995 It's Super Bowl Sunday, a couple of hours before kickoff, and though I'm not a big football fan, I plan on watching the San Francisco 49ers demolish the San Diego Chargers. I pick up the phone, thinking it's my friend, the one who's supposed to bring the guacamole, but instead it's Kevin Mitnick. It's been six days since his last call. "I'm walking along the beach here relaxing," Mitnick bubbles, sounding euphoric.
Eric may be a fugitive on the run, but when it comes to his story, he's in total control. He pauses a moment and then coolly orders, "Stand by. There's some movement here. . . ." Have they already trapped and traced the call? Is the FBI moving in for the bust? Should I hang up? "It was nothing," Eric deadpans a few seconds later. I've climbed the steep steps to my cluttered attic office, switched on the lamp, and booted up my Macintosh. I'm in my pajamas. "So how badly do the feds want you?" "I think they don't care. Schindler probably does, but I think he realizes he's got a can of worms on his hands if he finds me. I'm one of the few defendants that has ever had extensive personal phone calls with Schindler. We've been very much on a first-name basis for some time. It makes him very nervous now that I'm out here." ■ ■ ■ Eric makes his smooth, Hollywood sales pitch.
The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game
That was going to be my next stop in life. I had done Wall Street, and I was going to do the White House next.” 1984 On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.… BANK SECURITIES UNITS MAY UNDERWRITE BONDS … It’s morning again in America, and under the leadership of President Reagan, our country is prouder and stronger and better. Why would we ever want to return to where we were less than four short years ago?… I had a job, I had a girl / I had something going mister in this world / I got laid off down at the lumberyard / Our love went bad, times got hard … TAMPA SEES GAINS FOR ITS HARD WORK “But those kinds of things can’t do for us, long-term, what a Super Bowl can do. This is a real opportunity for us to show people what a great place this is, that they can come here and not expect to get taken advantage of.” … MISS AMERICA IS ORDERED TO QUIT FOR POSING NUDE … You’re judged by performance.
The words appeared on billboards, bumper stickers, and T-shirts, and who could doubt that they would prove true when Tampa had a new international airport, it had the 1984 Super Bowl, it had the NFL Buccaneers, it had the eleven million square feet of the Westshore business and shopping district, it had sunshine and beaches, and it was growing as fast as anywhere in the country? Fifty million new people came to Florida every year, and since the sunshine and beaches weren’t going anywhere, Tampa would continue to grow, and by growing, become great. It grew and grew. It grew in order to grow. It grew throughout the eighties, in good economic times and bad, when pro-growth conservatives ran the Hillsborough County Commission and when pro-planning progressives ran the county commission. It grew throughout the nineties, when Tampa Bay got the NHL Lightning and the major league Devil Rays, plus another Super Bowl. After the millennium it grew like gangbusters.
Between the midseventies and the early nineties, the personal computer had spawned countless hardware and software companies in Silicon Valley, and in other high-tech centers around the country; during the seventies and eighties the population of San Jose doubled, approaching a million, and by 1994 there were 315 public companies in the Valley. But none of the newer ones had been as important as Hewlett-Packard, Intel, or Apple. In the years since the Macintosh, the computer industry had seen more consolidation than innovation, and the undisputed winner was in Seattle. The most important Silicon Valley company to come along since Apple was originally called Mosaic, started in 1994 by Jim Clark, a former Stanford professor and founder of Silicon Graphics, and Marc Andreessen, a University of Illinois graduate who, at twenty-two, had just the year before developed the first graphical browser for the World Wide Web. In 1995, the year that the last restrictions on commercial use of the Internet were lifted, their company went public as Netscape, headquartered south of Stanford in Mountain View.
Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine
23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
Computers and hackers were countercultural rebels taking on power. They were cool. That same year, Apple Computer released its “1984” ad for the Macintosh. Directed by Ridley Scott, who had just wowed audiences with the dystopian hit Blade Runner, and aired during the Super Bowl, Apple’s message could not have been more clear: forget what you know about IBM or corporate mainframes or military computer systems. With Apple at the helm, personal computers are the opposite of what they used to be: they are not about domination and control but about individual rebellion and empowerment. “In a striking departure from the direct, buy-this-product approach of most American corporations, Apple Computer introduced its new line of personal computers with the provocative claim that Macintosh would help save the world from the lockstep society of George Orwell’s novel,” reported the New York Times.36 Interestingly, the paper pointed out that the “1984” ad had grown out of another campaign that the company had abandoned but that had explicitly talked about the ability to misuse computers.
In the mid-1980s, while Stephen Wolff was planning the NSFNET upgrade, the United States was in the grips of two closely related computer technology booms: the explosion of cheap personal computers and easy access to computer networking. First, IBM released a powerful personal computer and licensed the design so that any computer manufacturer could make compatible IBM computer components. A few years later, in 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, complete with a graphical user interface and mouse. Microsoft’s text-based DOS operating system for IBM computers was followed by a crude version of Windows. Computers were suddenly easy to use and affordable. It wasn’t just giant corporations, big universities, and government and military agencies anymore—smaller businesses and geeky middle-class early adopters could all get their own systems.
“In a striking departure from the direct, buy-this-product approach of most American corporations, Apple Computer introduced its new line of personal computers with the provocative claim that Macintosh would help save the world from the lockstep society of George Orwell’s novel,” reported the New York Times.36 Interestingly, the paper pointed out that the “1984” ad had grown out of another campaign that the company had abandoned but that had explicitly talked about the ability to misuse computers. A draft of that campaign read: “True enough, there are monster computers lurking in big business and big government that know everything from what motels you’ve stayed at to how much money you have in the bank. But at Apple we’re trying to balance the scales by giving individuals the kind of computer power once reserved for corporations.” Apple cofounder and CEO Steve Jobs was a huge Stewart Brand fan.37 He was just a kid in the late 1960s when the magazine and commune culture were at their peak of popularity and power, but he read the Whole Earth Catalog and absorbed its culture into his own worldview.
CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon
8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar
., 87 Arizona Public Service (APS) Company, 66, 211, 223 Arizona State University, 227 ARPANET, 19, 117, 135 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 AT&T, 191, 249 B Ballmer, Steve, 39 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 Bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 2, 249 BlackBerry, 60, 96, 116, 121, 171, 184, 246, 261, 296, 317 Blalock, Becky, 182, 191, 215 adaptability, 192 Air Force brat, 191, 192 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 banking industry, 203 Boucher, Marie, 196 brainstorm, 202 24/7 business, 199 business intelligence, 204 cloud computing, 205 cognitive surplus, 206 cognitive time, 206 Coker, Dave, 196 communication and education, 200 Community and Economic Development, 194 consumer market, 202 cybersecurity, 207, 209 data analytics, 204, 205 disaster recovery, 209 distributed generation, 204 distribution organization, 201 Egypt revolution, 198 farming technology, 206 finance backgrounds/marketing, 200, 209 Franklin, Alan, 193 Georgia Power, 191 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 global society, 206 Google, 198 incredible technology, 195 Industrial Age, 206 Information Age, 206 InformationWeek's, 196 infrastructure, 202 intellectual property, 196 intelligence and redundancy, 207 Internet, 198, 206 leapfrog innovations, 205 mainframe system, 207 marketing and customer service, 193, 200 MBA, finance, 192 microfiche, 207 microwave tower, 207 mobile devices, 203 mobility and business analytics, 205 Moore's Law, 205 new generation digital natives, 197 flexible and adaptable, 199 innovation and creativity, 199 superficial fashion, 198 Olympic sponsor, 193 out pushing technology, 202 reinforcement, 201 sense of integrity, 200 Southern Company, 194, 198, 201, 207 teamwork survey, 201 technology lab, 202 undergraduate degree, marketing, 192 virtualization, 205 VRU, 203 Ward, Eileen, 196 wire business, 201 world-class customer service, 203 Bohlen, Ken, 211 American Production Inventory Control Society, 211 Apple, 217 APS, 211, 223 ASU, 227 benchmarking company, 216 chief innovation officer, 229 Citrix, 217 cloud computing, 218, 219 cognitive surplus, 220 DECnet, 212 Department of Defense, 222 distributed computing, 217 energy industry, 214 gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 GoodLink, 217 hard-line manufacturing, 218 home computing, 219 home entertainment, 219 Honeywell, 219 HR generalists, 215 information technology department, 211 Intel machines, 217 John Deere, 213 just say yes program, 223 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Linux, 220 MBA program, 214 mentors, 213 national alerts, 224 North American universities, 228 paradigm shifts, 218, 220 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 prefigurative culture, 221 R&D companies, 218 Rhode Island, 226 role models, 213 San Diego Fire Department, 224 security/privacy issues, 217 skip levels, 223 smart home concepts, 219 smartphone, 217 social media, 225 Stead, Jerry, 214 Stevie Award, 211 Storefront engineering, 212 traditional management, 219, 226 Twitter, 224 vocabulary, 221 Waterloo operations, 213 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 wikipedia, 220 Y2K, 222 Botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Broadband networks, 241 Brown, 227 Bryant, 227 BT Global Services, 253 BT Innovate & Design (BTI&D), 253 Bumblebee tuna, 130 C Career writing technology, 67 CASE tools, 232 Cash, Jim, 50 Christensen, Clyde, 212 Chrome, 14, 18 Chrysler Corporation, 175 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313 Citrix, 217 Client-server-type applications, 59 Cloud computing, 218, 219, 239, 240, 261, 262, 310, 311, 313 Cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 COBOL, 250 Cognitive surplus, 20, 79, 206, 291 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 Columbia University, 1 Community and Economic Development, 194 Computer Sciences Corporation, 35 Computerworld magazine, 196 Consumer-oriented technology, 22 Content management system, 133 Corporate information management (CIM) program, 309 Corporate Management Information Systems, 87 Corvus disk drive, 36 Customer Advisory Boards of Oracle, 191 Customer-relationship management (CRM), 56 Cutter Business Technology Council, 173 D Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 DARPA, 19 DDoS attacks and security, 81 DECnet, 212 Dell Platinum Council, 113 DeMarco, Tom, 16, 226 Department of Defense, 222, 329, 332 Detroit Energy, 252 Digital books, 30 Digital Equipment, 48 Distributed computing, 217 Dodge, 189 Dogfooding, 11, 37, 38, 236 DTE Energy, 173 DuPont Dow Elastomers, 151 E Educational Testing Service (ETS), 151 E-government, 282, 285 Electrical distribution grid, 182 Elementary and Secondary Education Strategic Business Unit, 151 Elements of Programming Style, 2 Ellyn, Lynne, 173 advanced technology software planning, 175 Amazon, 184 artificial intelligence group, 175 Association for Women in Computing, 173 benchmark, 180, 181 BlackBerries, 184 Burns, Ursula, 175 Chrysler, 176 Cisco, 186 cloud computing, 183, 184 component-based architecture, 186 corporate communications customer service, 185 Crain's Detroit Business, 173 cyber security threats, 177 degree of competence, 187 diversity and sophistication, 182 DTE Energy, 173 energy trading, 176 engineering and science programs, 188 enterprise business systems policy, 186 executive MBA program, 176 Facebook, 185 fresh-out-of-the-university, 187 General Electric, 174 Google, 184 Grace Hopper, 174 grid re-automation, 182 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 internal social media, 185 International Coaching Federation, 178 iPads, 184 IP electrical grids, 182 iPod applications, 182 IT budgets, 186 IT responsibilities, 176 Java, 186 level of sophistication, 179 lobbying efforts, 181 medical computing, 175 Miller, Joan, 174 Mulcahey, Anne, 175 Netscape, 175 neuroscience leadership, 189 object-oriented programming, 186 Oracle, 186 peer-level people, 179 people system, 177 policies and strategies, 180 Radio Shack, 180 remote access capacity, 189 security tool and patch, 183 sense of community, 180 Shipley, Jim, 174 smart grid, 177, 182 smart meters, 182 smart phone applications, 183 swarming, 179 technical competence, 178, 179 Thomas, Marlo, 174 Twitter, 185 UNITE, 181 vendor community, 186 virtualization, 183, 184 Xerox, 175 E-mail, 9 Employee-relationship management (ERM), 56 Encyclopedia, 115 Encyclopedia Britannica, 292 ERP, 123 F Facebook, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Sridhara, Mittu, 73, 84 Temares, Lewis, 116, 121, 131 Wakeman, Dan, 169 Federal information technology investments, 299 Flex, 236 Ford, 102 Ford, Monte, 47 agile computing, 59 agile development, 62, 66 airplanes, 51 American Airlines, 47 Arizona Public Services, 66 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 BlackBerry, 60 board of Chubb, 51 board of Tandy, 51 business organizations, 63 business school, dean, 50 career writing technology, 67 client-server-type applications, 59 cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 common-sense functionality, 49 consumer-based technology, 60 CRM, 56 Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 Digital Equipment, 48 ERM, 56 financial expert, 69 frequent-flier program, 57 frontal lobotomy, 57 Harvard Business Review, 50 HR policies, 65 IBM, 48 information technology, 47, 52 Internet, 54 Internet-based protocol, 59 iPhone, 52 IT stuff, 58 Knight Ridder, 51 legacy apps, 59 mainframe-like applications, 59 management training program, 64 marketing and technical jobs, 48 Maynard, Massachusetts mill, 48 MBA program, 50 mentors, 49 Microsoft, 50 mobile computing, 62 New York Times, 53 operations center, 54 PDP-5, 49 PDP-6, 49 Radio Shack, 51 revenue management, 57 role models, 49 security paradigms, 62 self-service machine, 57 Silicon Valley companies, 68 smartphones, 54 social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 stateful applications, 59 techie department, 48 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 transmission and distribution companies, 47 wireless network, 59 YouTube, 65 Fort Worth, 226 Free software foundation, 19 Fried, Benjamin, 1, 241 agile development, 25 agile methodologies, 26 Apple Genius Bar, 8 ARPANET, 19 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Bell Labs, 2 books and records, accuracy, 25 botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 cash-like principles, 29 CFO, 4 check writers, 18 chrome, 14, 18 classic computer science text, 1 cognitive surplus, 20 Columbia University, 1 compensation management, 7 competitive advantage, 9, 18 computer science degree, 1 computer scientists, 6 consumer-driven computing, 12 consumer-driven software-as-a-service offerings, 12 consumer-driven technology, 12 consumer-oriented technology, 14, 22 corporate leadership, 25 cost centers, 4 DARPA, 19 decision makers, 17 decision making, 13 360-degree performance management, 7 detroit energy, 30 digital books, 30 document workbench, 2 dogfooding, 11 e-books, 29 Elements of Programming Style, 2 e-mail, 9 end-user support, 7 engineering executive group, 4 European vendors, 6 file servers and print servers, 17 Folger Library editions, 30 free software foundation, 19 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 Gmail, 15 Godot, 26 Google, 1 books, 29 products, 5, 10 software engineers, 6 hiring managers, 6 HR processes and technologies, 6 IBM model, 13 instant messaging, 9 Internet age, 6 interviewers, training, 6 iPad, 29 iPhone, 29 IPO, 3 IT, engineering and computer science parts, 4 Knuth's books, 2 Linux machine, 8 Linux software, 19 machine running Windows, 8 Macintosh, 8 Mac OS, 9 macro factors, 11 Managing Director, 1 mentors, 1 microcomputers, 18 Microsoft, 5 Minds for Sale, 20 Morgan Stanley, 1–3, 5, 16 nonacademic UNIX license, 2 nontechnical skills, 5 oil exploration office, 17 open-source phone operating system, 20 outlook, 15 PARC, 19 performance review cycles, 7 personal computer equipment, 15 post-Sarbanes-Oxley world, 25 project manager, 13 quants, 24 rapid-release cycle, 26 R&D cycle, 24 regression testing, 27 role models, 1 shrink-wrapped software, 14 signature-based anti-virus, 22 smartphone, 20, 27 social contract, 8 society trails technology, 21 software engineering tool, 13 software installation, 14 supply chain and inventory and asset management, 10 SVP, 4 telephony, 17 ten things, 13 TMRC, 19 TROFF, 2 typesetter workbench, 2 UI designer, 14 university computing center, 28 videoconferencing, 12 Visicalc, 24 Wall Street, 23 Walmart, 6 waterfall approach, 25 XYZ widget company, 5 YouTube video, 20 G Gates, Bill, 39, 50 General Electric, 134 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 33, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Georgia Power Company, 191–193, 196 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 German manufacturing company, 232 Gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 Gmail, 15 GoodLink, 217 Google, 1, 84, 85, 117, 217, 219, 220, 222, 235, 241, 263, 302, 319 apps, 314 books, 29 commercial products, 10 model, 293 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 305 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 GTE, 231 Gupta, Ashish aspiration, organization, 256 bandwidth and network infrastructure, 267 BlackBerry, 261 business and customer outcomes, 274 capital investment forums, 269 career progression, 255 cloud-based shared infrastructure model, 263 cloud computing, 261, 262 collaboration, 272 communications infrastructure, 258 compute-utility-based model, 262 control and integrity, 268 core competency, 255 core network infrastructure, 267 core strengths, 256 cost per unit of bandwidth, 267 customer demands, 268 data protection, 261, 262 decision-making bodies, 269 demographics, 272, 273 device convergence, 263 dogfooding, 259 employee flexibility, 260, 264 engagement and governance, 269 enterprise market segment, 261 equipment management, 260 executive MBA, 256 fourth-generation LTE networks, 267 functional service departments, 270 Global Services, distributed organization, 257 Google, 263, 275 Google Apps, 266 handheld devices, 265 hastily formed networks, 258 IMF, 266 innovation and application development, 265 iPad, 257, 260, 261, 266,267 iPhone, 266 Japan, 257, 258 London Business School, 253 management functions, 257 management sales functions, 257 market segments, 259 MBA, General Management, 253 measurements, 271 messaging with voice capability, 264 mini-microcomputer model, 261 mobile communications network, 258 mobile-enabling voice, 259 mobile phone network, 260 mobile traffic explosion, 265 network infrastructures, 265 network IT services, 254 network quality, 257 new generation digital natives, 271 disadvantages, 273 Google, 273 opportunities, 273 Olympics, 263 opportunities, 275 organizational construct, 272 outsourced network IT services, 259 outsourcing, 271 per-use-based model, 262 portfolio and business alignment, 274 Portfolio & Service Design (P&SD), 253 primary marketing thrust, 264 product development thrust, 264 product management team, 259 project and program management, 255 resource balance, 270 scalability, 262 security, 262 Selley, Clive, 254, 255 service delivery organization, 254 single-device model, 264 smart devices, 267 smart phones, 266 telecommunications capability, 259 upward-based apps, 264 virtualization, 261 voice-over-IP connections, 258 Windows platform, 261 Gurnani, Roger, 231 accounting/finance department, 233 analog cellular networks, 250 AT&T, 249 bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 249 blogs, 244 broadband networks, 241 business benefits, 237 business device, 240 business executives, 238 business leaders, 248, 249 business relationship management, 248 buzzword, 239 CASE tools, 232 cloud computing, 239, 240 COBOL, 250 consumer and business products, 231 consumer electronics devices, 241 consumer telecom business, 233 customer-engagement channel, 244 customer forums, 244 customer support operations, 251 customer-touching channels, 236 degree of control, 246 distribution channel, 250 dogfooding, 236 ecosystem, 243, 249 enterprise business, 233 ERP systems, 236 face-to-face communications, 244 FiOS product, 235 flex, 236 "follow the sun" model, 239 German manufacturing company, 232 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 hardware/software vendors, 247 information assets, 245 information technology strategy, 231 intellectual property rights, 244 Internet, 235, 239 iPhone, 243 Ivan, 232 Lowell, 232 LTE technology-based smartphone, 235 marketing, 251 MIT, 246 mobile technology, 234 Moore's law, 242 MP3 file, 235 network-based services, 240 Nynex Mobile, 233 P&L responsibility, 251 PDA, 238 personal computing, 235 product development, 234, 251 role models, 232 sales channels, 251 smartphones, 238 state-level regulatory issues, 251 state-of-the-art networks, 243 telecom career, 232 telephone company, Phoenix, 234 Verizon Communication, 231, 232 virtual corporations, 241 Web 2.0, 244 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 wireless business, 233 H Hackers, 19 Harmon, Jay, 213 Harvard Business Review, 50 Harvard Business School, 331 Heller, Martha, 171 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 Home computing, 219 Honda, 102 Honeywell, 219 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 I IBM, 48, 250 manpower, 311 model, 13 Indian IT outsourcing company, 255 Information technology, 52 Intel machines, 217 International Coaching Federation, 178 Internet, 9, 44, 54, 117, 235, 239, 316, 322 Internet-based protocol, 59 Interoperability, 341 iPads, 2, 94, 97, 184, 257, 260, 264, 267, 288, 289, 295, 296 IP electrical grids, 182 iPhones, 43, 52, 96, 101, 170, 181, 260, 264,296 iPod, 101 IT lifecycle management process, 37 Ivan, 232 J John Deere, 213 K Kansas, 226 Kernigan, Brian, 2 Knight Ridder, 51 Knuth, Donald, 2, 29 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 Krist, Nicholas, 28 Kundra, Vivek Clever Commute, 305 cognitive surplus, 303 command and control systems, 301 consumerization, 302 consumption-based model, 300 cyber-warfare, 301 Darwinian pressure, 302 desktop core configuration, 306 digital-borne content, 301 digital oil, 300, 307 digital public square, 304 enterprise software, 303 entrepreneurial startup model, 306 frugal engineering, 306 Google, 302 government business, 302 innovator's dilemma, 307 iPad, 302 IT dashboard, 302 leapfrog technology, 306 massive consumerization, 301 megatrends, 301 parameter security, 302 Patent Office, 305 pharmaceutical industry, 304 phishing attacks, 301 policy and strategic planning, 299 security and privacy, 301 server utilization, 300 social media and technology, 300, 306 storage utilization, 300 Trademark Office, 305 Wikipedia, 303 L LAN, 259 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Levy, Steven (Hackers), 19 Linux, 220 machine, 8 open-source software, 19 Lister, Tim, 226 London Business School, 73, 253, 256 Long-term evolution (LTE), 235 Lowell, 232 M MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Macintosh, 8 Mainframe computers, 118 Mainframe-like applications, 59 Marriott's Great America, 35 McDade, 327 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147, 150 Mead, Margaret, 221 Mendel, 311 Microcomputers, 18 Microsoft Corporation, 5, 11, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46, 50, 156, 217, 223, 236, 250, 293 Microsoft Higher Education Advisory Group, 113 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 Middlesex University, 189 Miller, Joan Apple products, 295 authority and accuracy, 292 award-winning ICT programs and services, 277 back locked-down information, 289 big-scale text issues, 294 big-time computing, 279 BlackBerry, 296 business management training, 281 business skills, 281 central government, 283 cognitive surplus, 291 community care project, 278 community development programs, 277, 278 computers, constituency office, 294 confidential information, 284 data management, 281 decision making, 286 democratic process, 288 economics degree, 278 e-government, 282, 285 electronic communication, 289 electronic-enabled public voice, 286 electronic information, 288 electronic media, 286 electronic records, 280, 284 electronic services, 294 e-mail, 289, 290, 295 forgiving technology, 296 front-office service, 282, 283 Google, 292 Google's cloud service, 290 Government 2, 287 Health and Social Care, 284 House business, 294 House of Lords, 288 ICT strategy, 289, 290 information management, 278 insurance company, 278 Internet information, 285 iPad, 288, 289, 296 IT data management, 279 management principle, 280 local government, 283 mainframe environment, 289 member-led activity, 287 messages, 289 Microsoft, 293 Microsoft's cloud service, 290 mobile electronic information, 284 mobile technology, 289 national organization, 284 network perimeters, 290 official government information, 285 on-the-job training, 281 organizational planning, 278 Parliamentary ICT, 277 project management, 279 public sector, 282 public transportation, 285 quango-type organizations, 283 representational democracy, 286 security, 290, 291 social care organization, 279 social care services, Essex, 278 social care systems, 284 social networking, 285 sovereignty, 291 sustainability and growth, 293 technical language, 294 technology skills, 281 transactional services, 285 transferability, 291 Web-based services, 285 Wikipedia, 291, 292 X-factor, 286 Minds for Sale, 20 Mitchell & Co, 333 MIT Media Labs, 149 Mobile computing, 62 Mobile technology, 234 Mooney, Mark, 133 artificial intelligence, 134 back-office legacy, 136 balancing standpoint, 145 BBC, 140 Bermuda Triangle, 135 BlackBerry shop, 142 Bureau of National Standards, 136 business model, 140 career spectrum, 144 cloud computing, 148 competitive intelligence and knowledge, 143 Connect, 141 customer-facing and product development, 135 customer-facing product space, 137 customer space and product development, 136 digital products development, 144 digital space and product, 146 educational and reference content, 139 educational products, 141 entrepreneur, 150 General Electric, 134 GradeGuru, 140 handheld devices, 142 hard-core technical standpoint, 146 hardware servers, 142 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 HTML, 138 industrial-strength product, 141 intellectual content, 148 Internet, 148 iPad, 138, 139, 142 iPhone, 142, 143 iTunes, 138 Klein, Joel, 147 learning management systems, 137 long-term production system, 141 Marine Corps, 134 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147 media development, 144 media space, 138, 142 mobile computing, 139 MOUSE, 150 online technology, 138 open-source capabilities, 142 Oracle quota-management system, 143 people's roles and responsibilities, 137 Phoenix, 149 product development, 149 publishing companies, 142 publishing systems, 137 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136 Salesforce.com, 144, 149 scalability testing, 145 senior business leaders, 146 social network, 148 soft discipline guidelines, 141 solar energy, 149 Strassmann, Paul, 135 technical skill set, 143, 144 testing systems integration, 145 The Shallows, 139 transactional systems, 142 trust and integrity, 145 TTS, QuickPro, and ACL, 144 Vivendi Universal, 134 War and Peace today, 139 Moore's law, 242 Morgan Stanley, 2, 3, 16 N NASA, 309, 333, 334 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 173 Naval Postgraduate School, 134 Netscape, 175 New Brunswick model, 282 News Corp., 147 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 87, 116, 223, 278 New York Times, 53 North American universities, 228 NSA/CIA software, 134 Nynex Mobile, 233 O Oil exploration office, 17 Open-source phone operating system, 20 Outlook, 15 P Pacer Software, 135 Paradigm shifts, 218, 220 Parks and Recreation Department, 126 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 Personal computing, 235 Personal digital assistant (PDA), 238 Petri dish, 44 Phoenix, 211 Plauger, Bill, 2 Q Quants, 24 R Radio Shack, 51 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136 Reed, John, 335 Rubinow, Steve, 87 AdKnowledge, Inc., 87 agile development, 110 Agile Manifesto, 110 Archipelago Holdings Inc., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S.
I said, “We have large scale assessment programs that happen only once a year and I need a tremendous amount of computing power. You know what that computing power does the rest of the year?” Yourdon: Just gathers dust. Wakeman: Right, it does nothing but burn up electricity. Yourdon: Yeah. And it’s amazing how many situations there are like that. I think of the Oscars or the Olympics. Wakeman: Super Bowl. Yourdon: Super Bowl. Yeah. On and on and on. Christmas shopping season for most of the retail industry. Wakeman: Mm-hmm. Yourdon: Yeah, it is, it is amazing to think about it. In terms of futures, I’ve got a related kind of social question. This whole issue of the “digital nation,” the Gen X or Y or Z or whatever generation it is that’s grown up with computers, how do you see them impacting what you do here at ETS?
The sixteen CIOs interviewed in this book represent hundreds of years of experience. Read what they have to say and benefit from their experience! New York, NY Ed Yourdon June, 2011 Benjamin Fried CIO, Google Inc. Benjamin Fried is Chief Information Officer of Google Inc., overseeing the company’s global technology systems. His extensive hands-on experience in technology includes stints as a dBASE II programmer, front-line support manager, Macintosh developer, Windows 1.0 programmer, and UNIX systems programmer. Prior to joining Google, he spent more than 13 years in Morgan Stanley’s technology department, where he rose to the level of Managing Director. During his time there, he led teams responsible for software development technology, web and electronic commerce technologies and operations, and technologies for knowledge workers. Ben received his degree in Computer Science from Columbia University.
Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber
airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game
Indeed, distinctions of every kind are fudged: ABC places its news and sports departments under a single corporate division; television newsmagazines blend into entertainment programs, creating new teletabloids that (in the new parlance) are reality-challenged; films parade corporate logos (for a price), presidents play themselves in films (President Ford in a television special), while dethroned governors (Cuomo and Richards) do Super Bowl commercials for snack food in which they joke about their electoral defeat, Hollywood stars run for office (Sonny Bono, no Ronald Reagan, was elected to Congress in 1994), and television pundits become practicing politicians (David Gergen and Pat Buchanan have crossed and recrossed the street to only mild chastisement from peers). Politicians can do no right, celebrities can do no wrong—homocide included.
The first scenario rooted in race holds out the grim prospect of a retribalization of large swaths of humankind by war and bloodshed: a threatened balkanization of nation-states in which culture is pitted against culture, people against people, tribe against tribe, a Jihad in the name of a hundred narrowly conceived faiths against every kind of interdependence, every kind of artificial social cooperation and mutuality: against technology, against pop culture, and against integrated markets; against modernity itself as well as the future in which modernity issues. The second paints that future in shimmering pastels, a busy portrait of onrushing economic, technological, and ecological forces that demand integration and uniformity and that mesmerize peoples everywhere with fast music, fast computers, and fast food—MTV, Macintosh, and McDonald’s—pressing nations into one homogenous global theme park, one McWorld tied together by communications, information, entertainment, and commerce. Caught between Babel and Disneyland, the planet is falling precipitously apart and coming reluctantly together at the very same moment. Some stunned observers notice only Babel, complaining about the thousand newly sundered “peoples” who prefer to address their neighbors with sniper rifles and mortars; others—zealots in Disneyland—seize on futurological platitudes and the promise of virtuality, exclaiming “It’s a small world after all!”
The catch-all service category thus lumps badly paid, nonunion hospital workers and no-future fast-food employees together with computer programmers, airline pilots, and information technicians. It includes commercial banks where Japan has long since seized the advantage from America and Europe as well as entertainment companies where American global leadership is actually growing and seems secure well into the next century. Examining the service sector affords an opportunity to make good on my rhetorical amalgamation of McDonald’s, Macintosh, and MTV—fast food, computer software, and video—by showing how in this sector McWorld manufactures its own specially tailored twenty-first-century videology. When McDonald’s sells Dances with Wolves and Jurassic Park videos and sundry movie tie-ins in a vague celebration of multiculturalism or environmentalism or extinct reptile preservation, or hires Michael Jordan to link its products to celebrity sport, simple service to the body, I have suggested, is displaced by complex service to the soul.
Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans by Melanie Mitchell
Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dark matter, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, ImageNet competition, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Thus the idea for ImageNet was born. Li and her collaborators soon commenced collecting a deluge of images by using WordNet nouns as queries on image search engines such as Flickr and Google image search. However, if you’ve ever used an image search engine, you know that the results of a query are often far from perfect. For example, if you type “macintosh apple” into Google image search, you get photos not only of apples and Mac computers but also of apple-shaped candles, smartphones, bottles of apple wine, and any number of other nonrelevant items. Thus, Li and her colleagues had to have humans figure out which images were not actually illustrations of a given noun and get rid of them. At first, the humans who did this were mainly undergraduates. The work was agonizingly slow and taxing. Li soon figured out that at the rate they were going, it would take ninety years to complete the task.4 Li and her collaborators brainstormed about possible ways to automate this work, but of course the problem of deciding if a photo is an instance of a particular noun is the task of object recognition itself!
The more than hundred thousand questions were created by Amazon Mechanical Turk workers.14 The SQuAD test is easier than typical reading-comprehension tests given to human readers: in the instructions for formulating the questions, the Stanford researchers specified that the answer must actually appear as a sentence or phrase in the text. Here is a sample item from the SQuAD test: PARAGRAPH: Peyton Manning became the first quarterback ever to lead two different teams to multiple Super Bowls. He is also the oldest quarterback ever to play in a Super Bowl at age 39. The past record was held by John Elway, who led the Broncos to victory in Super Bowl XXXIII at age 38 and is currently Denver’s Executive Vice President of Football Operations and General Manager. QUESTION: What is the name of the quarterback who was 38 in Super Bowl XXXIII? CORRECT ANSWER: John Elway. No reading between the lines or actual reasoning is necessary. Rather than reading comprehension, this task might be more accurately called answer extraction. Answer extraction is a useful skill for machines; indeed, answer extraction is precisely what Alexa, Siri, and other digital assistants need to do: turn your question into a search engine query, and then extract the answer from the results.
This addition causes a deep-learning question-answering system to give an incorrect answer:29 PARAGRAPH: Peyton Manning became the first quarterback ever to lead two different teams to multiple Super Bowls. He is also the oldest quarterback ever to play in a Super Bowl at age 39. The past record was held by John Elway, who led the Broncos to victory in Super Bowl XXXIII at age 38 and is currently Denver’s Executive Vice President of Football Operations and General Manager. Quarterback Jeff Dean had jersey number 37 in Champ Bowl XXXIV. QUESTION: What is the name of the quarterback who was 38 in Super Bowl XXXIII? PROGRAM’S ORIGINAL ANSWER: John Elway PROGRAM’S ANSWER TO MODIFIED PARAGRAPH: Jeff Dean It is important to note that all of these methods for fooling deep neural networks were developed by “white hat” practitioners—researchers who develop such potential attacks and publish them in the open literature for the purposes of making the research community aware of these vulnerabilities and pushing the community to develop defenses.
Think Like a Rocket Scientist by Ozan Varol
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Wiles, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Arthur Eddington, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, dark matter, delayed gratification, different worldview, discovery of DNA, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, functional fixedness, Gary Taubes, George Santayana, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Inbox Zero, index fund, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, late fees, lateral thinking, lone genius, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, obamacare, Occam's razor, out of africa, Peter Thiel, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra
The New England Patriots learned this lesson in the 2000 NFL draft.55 The draft is an annual spectacle where football teams pick new players for the upcoming season. Each team gets to select one player in each of the seven rounds. In the sixth round of the 2000 draft, the Patriots picked up a player who would go on to become one of the greatest quarterbacks of all time. Tom Brady would win six Super Bowls with the Patriots and pick up four Super Bowl Most Valuable Player awards—the most of any player in NFL history. Brady would be dubbed the “biggest steal” in the 2000 draft, and the Patriots leadership would be praised for its brilliant strategic maneuvering in scooping up a player of Brady’s caliber at the tail end of the draft.56 That’s one interpretation of the events. Another interpretation is far less forgiving of the Patriots leadership.
Cork Gaines, “How the Patriots Pulled Off the Biggest Steal in NFL Draft History and Landed Future Hall of Famer Tom Brady,” Business Insider, September 10, 2015, www.businessinsider.com/patriots-tom-brady-draft-steal-2015-1. 57. Josh St. Clair, “Why Tom Brady Is So Good, According to Former NFL Quarterbacks,” Men’s Health, January 30, 2019, www.menshealth.com/entertainment/a26078069/tom-brady-super-bowl-2019-talent. 58. Derek Thompson, “Google X and the Science of Radical Creativity,” Atlantic, November 2017, www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/11/x-google-moonshot-factory/540648. 59. Jack Brittain and Sim B. Sitkin, “Facts, Figures, and Organizational Decisions: Carter Racing and Quantitative Analysis in the Organizational Behavior Classroom,” Journal of Management Education 14, no. 1 (1990): 62–81, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/105256298901400108. 60.
These combinations would then serve as inspiration for song lyrics. Combinatory play has also produced many breakthrough technologies. Larry Page and Sergey Brin adopted an idea from academia—the frequency of citations to an academic paper indicates its popularity—and applied it to the search engine to create Google. Steve Jobs famously borrowed from calligraphy to create multiple typefaces and proportionally spaced fonts on the Macintosh. Netflix cofounder Reed Hastings was inspired by the subscription model used at his gym: “You could pay $30 or $40 a month and work out as little or as much as you wanted.”71 Frustrated by the big late fees he had incurred for renting Apollo 13, Hastings decided to apply the same model to video rentals. Nike’s first running shoes were modeled after a common household appliance.72 In the early 1970s, University of Oregon running coach Bill Bowerman was looking for shoes that would perform well on different surfaces.
The Thank You Economy by Gary Vaynerchuk
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, new economy, pre–internet, Skype, social software, Tony Hsieh
That’s a thought most corporate execs are going to meet with about as much enthusiasm as Dwyane Wade would if he were suddenly faced with undeniable proof that basketball was dead and ice hockey was the only game left.* Yet let’s remember it wasn’t so long ago that the few people who owned home computers used them almost exclusively for word processing and video games. In 1984, you’d get stuffed in your locker for gloating over your new Apple Macintosh; in 2007 you could score a hot date by showing off your new iPhone. Culture changes, and business has to change with it or die. * * * Why I Speak in Absolutes Because if I give you an inch, you’ll run a mile with it. When I said in 1998, “You’re dead if you don’t put your business on the Internet and get in on ecommerce,” was that true? No. But boy, can you imagine trying to be in business in 2010 with zero Web presence?
That was culturally unacceptable in my company. Leadership and Culture Bill Parcells is the best coach of all time. Screw Phil Jackson—I could have won a few championships with Jordan, Shaq, and Kobe on my teams. Parcells is the greatest coach in history because he went to a rotten New York Giants team and won two Super Bowls; went to the New York Jets, who had won four games in two years, and in two short years got them within one game of the Super Bowl; went to the Patriots, who were one in fifteen, and took them to the Super Bowl; went to Dallas and made them a consistent playoffs contender; and then to Miami, where he coached the biggest turnaround in one season in NFL history. He wins through building team morale, hiring the right people, and instilling the right culture. He brings his DNA. In this new world where people can communicate more freely with not just customers, but with employees too, the Bill Parcells style of leadership will become more and more necessary.
You might take a walk, duck into a bookstore, or stop in at the retro vinyl shop. If you’re on a fabulous date, you don’t want the night to end, and you’re going to try to find any way you can to keep the conversation and connection going. Combining traditional and social media can allow you to do the same thing when talking to people about your brand. Denny’s, for example, had a great TV date with its customers during the 2010 Super Bowl. It ran three commercials announcing that for a few hours on the following Tuesday, you could come in for a free Grand Slam breakfast. The ads were funny and creative—chickens freaking out over how many eggs they were going to have to lay for the event—but what a missed opportunity to leverage all the people watching the ads with their laptops open in front of them! All Denny’s had to do was say, “Go to Facebook.com/Denny’s right now, become a fan [an option that was supplanted by the “Like” button], and receive a coupon for an additional free large OJ.”
One Up on Wall Street by Peter Lynch
air freight, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, buy and hold, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, fixed income, index fund, Irwin Jacobs, Isaac Newton, large denomination, money market fund, prediction markets, random walk, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
I only wanted to look the place over, but he was so enthusiastic that I almost had four new tires shipped home with me on the airplane. He could have been an aberration, but I figured with personnel like that, Pep Boys could sell anything. Sure enough, they have. After Apple computer fell apart and the stock dropped from $60 to $15, I wondered if the company would ever recover from its difficulties, and whether I should consider it as a turnaround. Apple’s new Lisa, its entry into the lucrative business market, had been a total failure. But when my wife told me that she and the children needed a second Apple for the house, and when the Fidelity systems manager told me that Fidelity was buying 60 new Macintoshes for the office, then I just learned that (a) Apple still was popular in the home market, and (b) it was making new inroads in the business market. I bought a million shares and I haven’t regretted it. My faith in Chrysler was considerably strengthened after my conversation with Lee Iacocca, who made a very bullish case for an auto industry revival, for Chrysler’s successful cost-cutting, and for its improved lineup of cars.
Does it make sense to invest in a dot.com at prices that already reflect years of rapid earnings growth that may or may not occur? By the way I pose this, you’ve already figured out my answer is “no.” With many of these new issues, the stock price doubles, triples, or even quadruples on the first day of trading. Unless your broker can stake your claim to a meaningful allotment of shares at the initial offering price—an unlikely prospect since Internet offerings are more coveted, even, than Super Bowl tickets—you’ll miss a big percent of the gain. Perhaps you’ll miss the entire gain, since some dot.coms hit high prices on the first few trading sessions that they never reach again. If you feel left out of the dot.com jubilee, remind yourself that very few dot.com investors benefit from the full ride. It’s misleading to measure the progress of these stocks from the offering price that most buyers can’t get.
A lot of investors sit around and debate whether a stock is going up, as if the financial muse will give them the answer, instead of checking the company. In centuries past, people hearing the rooster crow as the sun came up decided that the crowing caused the sunrise. It sounds silly now, but every day the experts confuse cause and effect on Wall Street in offering some new explanation for why the market goes up: hemlines are up, a certain conference wins the Super Bowl, the Japanese are unhappy, a trendline has been broken, Republicans will win the election, stocks are “oversold,” etc. When I hear theories like these, I always remember the rooster. In 1963, my sophomore year in college, I bought my first stock—Flying Tiger Airlines for $7 a share. Between the caddying and a scholarship I’d covered my tuition, living at home reduced my other expenses, and I had already upgraded myself from an $85 car to a $150 car.
The Narcissist Next Door by Jeffrey Kluger
Albert Einstein, always be closing, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Columbine, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, impulse control, Jony Ive, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, twin studies, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game
And while neither Ford nor Edison died as publicly or as young as Jobs, it’s unlikely the passing of either one of them would ever have been met with the outpourings of grief or mounds of flowers with which Jobs’s death was met, with Apple stores becoming impromptu gathering places for the stricken masses. The reason—the thing that distinguished Jobs from the other greats—was that he understood something, and that something was the people around him. His very first Apple products may have followed the beige box model that was the computer standard at the time, but there was something primally appealing about them, too. There was the little rainbow apple that was the company’s logo—a tiny icon that didn’t invite you to work with the machine as much as play with it. The beige box soon gave way to a white box—a small, streamlined thing that you wanted to look at, to display, not just use. When the first little Macintosh came along—just a year before Jobs left the company—the central image in all of the ads was the computer itself with the loopy, cursive word “Hello” written on the screen.
You can be a National Football League flameout like Ryan Leaf, the number two player picked in the 1998 draft, who was out of the league entirely by 2002 after four years of indifference, poor play and multiple ugly public incidents including an infamous moment, caught on videotape, in which he stood over a frightened-looking sportswriter who had apparently asked the wrong question, screaming, “Just fucking don’t talk to me, all right? Knock it off!” Or you can be Super Bowl winner Peyton Manning, picked number one in the same year Leaf was drafted, who has spent the better part of two decades winning games and smashing records and whose only scandalous moment in his long career was . . . well, never mind. There never was one. So what makes the difference between a Palin and a Rubio, a Leaf and a Manning, a Sheen and, say, a Michael J. Fox—whose nice-guy image was established back in the days of his star turns on TV’s Family Ties and in the Back to the Future movies, and whose grace in battling Parkinson’s disease has simply confirmed the high opinion most of the world had of him?
He stood before the newsreel cameras and the cheering reporters and did what most people do in that situation, which was to begin handing out thanks—to the university, the foundation that funded his work, the drug companies that manufactured the test vaccine, the dozens of children who volunteered to take the earliest formulation of it, the hundreds of thousands who later stepped forward as guinea pigs for the final version, nearly anyone who had even brushed up against the enterprise in the long years that had preceded that day. And yet somehow—oversight, nerves, an overweening ego at last showing itself (his critics preferred that explanation)—he never mentioned a single member of his lab team, the people who had done more than anyone else to make the vaccine a reality. It would be like a Super Bowl–winning coach acknowledging everyone but the players, a victorious general thanking everyone but the foot soldiers. For the stunned lab workers sitting in the audience, the day turned instantly to ash. “Young man,” legendary CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow said to Salk when he buttonholed him in the back of the hall after the presentation, “a great tragedy has befallen you. You’ve lost your anonymity.”
Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone
agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
So at least in the sense of being aware of and responsive to its environment, I think we would have to conclude that Apple is indeed conscious. Self-Awareness Apple is certainly aware of many aspects of itself and its corporate identity. From financial statements to market-share data, it constantly monitors many measures of its own performance. Apple executives (especially the late Steve Jobs) have not been shy about sharing Apple’s self-image as a company that makes “insanely great” products, and Apple’s advertising and public relations efforts are remarkably sophisticated and effective in reporting to the world at least some aspects of how Apple sees itself. I will probably never forget, for instance, Apple’s iconic “1984” Super Bowl commercial, which I showed to the first class I ever taught at MIT, in February 1984. In this commercial, a young female athlete smashes a huge television screen on which a Big Brother–like figure is addressing a crowd of soulless drones.
In this commercial, a young female athlete smashes a huge television screen on which a Big Brother–like figure is addressing a crowd of soulless drones. The commercial ends by announcing the Apple Macintosh and saying that this new computer is why the year 1984 won’t be like the dystopian novel 1984. Most people interpreted the commercial as symbolizing how the countercultural ethos of Apple and its new computer would destroy IBM’s dominance of the computer industry, and that self-image—the one Apple portrayed to the world—helped propel its growth in the following decades. Perhaps one of the most sophisticated ways Apple is self-aware is exemplified by Apple University, led by Joel Podolny, former dean of the Yale School of Management. The goal of this secretive internal training facility is to teach Apple managers the company’s proprietary way of managing, which Steve Jobs felt was quite different from what is taught in traditional MBA programs.
To explore this question, let’s consider a very specific example of a human group: Apple, Inc. IS APPLE CONSCIOUS? First, let’s define the supermind called Apple as including all the employees of Apple, Inc., along with all the machines, buildings, and other resources the employees use to do their work. Is this group conscious according to the definitions above? Awareness Apple certainly reacts to stimuli in the outside world. If you buy a song on iTunes, Apple will make it available for you to download. If you walk into an Apple store, someone will greet you and try to help you buy an Apple product. In 2007, Apple responded to a variety of changes in the markets for mobile phones, computers, and their components by introducing a widely acclaimed new product called the iPhone. In 2011, after Samsung introduced products that Apple believed infringed on its iPhone patents, Apple sued Samsung in various countries around the world.
Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game
In secular Silicon Valley, after the crash, this sentiment was best expressed by the bumper sticker that asked, “Please God, Just One More Bubble.” Thirty-five MOBILE It was clear to almost all that Apple Computer’s time had passed. Microsoft dominated the personal computer. Upstarts dominated Internet services. Computer manufacturers like Dell made fortunes from machines that ran Windows, Microsoft’s ubiquitous operating system. In comparison, Apple’s world in 1997 was not just niche but a dying niche. Steve Jobs’s company had lost the war. Jobs himself had been a founder in absentia for twelve years, having been fired in 1985. His failure with the launch of the Macintosh, underwhelming in its initial sales, had been the final death knell. Apple’s story then became a classic tale of an enigmatic, iconoclastic founder making way for seasoned business leadership. Eccentricity and imagination produced the initial inspiration and momentum, perhaps, but once a company had achieved scale and hundreds of millions of dollars in sales, business building required devotion to the bottom line, and the founder’s capabilities were inadequate for the needs of shareholders.
Yet as the forces of capitalism spread further into mainland China, victory ironically proved to be a source of growing anxiety in the United States. • • • A FEW MONTHS short of his tenth anniversary back at Apple, Jobs took the stage at 2007 Macworld and announced, “We’re going to make some history today.” He had reason to feel confident. For the 2006 fiscal year, Apple’s revenues from the iPod had surpassed its entire sales of laptop and desktop computers combined—$7.7 billion versus $7.4 billion—making the company as much a handheld electronics maker as anything else. The $200 price of the average iPod had put the Apple brand in over eighty million hands—primarily those of younger consumers—in the six years since it was launched. The iPod was accessible in ways that the premium Macintosh products, retailing for over $1,000, had never been. “Every once in a while a revolutionary product comes along that changes everything,” said Jobs to wild applause before revealing the product.
The final measure of equality came the following year when Alabama star Joe Namath, regarded as the top prospect in the country, passed up the NFL to play for the AFL’s newly renamed New York Jets. Within a couple years, the upstart AFL was able to force the NFL to a merger of equals. Its championship game, which featured the winner of each league, became the Super Bowl, which then grew into a national television holiday, joining the Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, and Christmas in terms of faithful observance. It was uniquely American, with endless commercials for beer, cars, potato chips, and soft drinks becoming a much-anticipated event within the event, a metacelebration of capitalism as people embraced how businesses advertised their products to consumers. The Super Bowl also hinted at American exceptionalism: Its winners were proclaimed “world champions,” even though almost no other country played the sport. Twenty-nine ROADS As the summer of 1956 approached, Harland Sanders’s long career seemed to be on the brink of ruin.
Late Bloomers: The Power of Patience in a World Obsessed With Early Achievement by Rich Karlgaard
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, fear of failure, financial independence, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hiring and firing, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Sand Hill Road, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Toyota Production System, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor
Let’s question the basic premise that early blooming is necessary for lifelong success and fulfillment. Frankly, I don’t see the evidence. In fact, I see plenty of evidence going the other way. A recent sports story makes the point. In the 2018 Super Bowl, neither the Philadelphia Eagles nor the New England Patriots had many five-star recruits in their starting lineups. Translation: Only six of the forty-four starters were top-rated prospects in high school. Now look at the quarterbacks. New England’s Tom Brady didn’t merit even a humble two or one ranking in high school. His ranking was NR—“no ranking.” The victorious Eagles quarterback, Nick Foles, winner of the 2018 Super Bowl’s most valuable player award, had a three ranking in high school. But for most of the season, Foles was actually the Eagles backup. He got to play only after starting quarterback Carson Wentz hurt his knee toward the end of the season.
It sounds somewhat counterintuitive, I know. But it can be done. * * * In Chapter 4, I praised the insight of famous football coach and late bloomer Bill Walsh. Early in my career at Forbes magazine, I asked Walsh to write a column for Forbes ASAP. He had just returned to coaching football at Stanford. Prior to that, he’d taken the San Francisco 49ers from the worst record in the NFL to a Super Bowl win in just three years. He won two more Super Bowls and left the 49ers franchise in a position to win two more. He was arguably the most brilliant football coach of his era. Even his detractors had to concede that Walsh, creator of the West Coast offense, was a premier innovator in the field of football. I visited him at his Stanford office, where we would talk for an hour at a time, with me taking notes. Before meeting Bill Walsh for the first time, I would have expected a supremely self-confident man with a military general’s demeanor—the very picture of a successful big-time coach.
“full immersion”: For the annual tuition fees of the Atlanta International School and New York’s Columbia Grammar School, see Melissa Willets, “11 Unbelievably Expensive Preschools in the U.S.,” Parenting, n.d., http://bit.ly/2N7FVcq. “I’m contacted by a lot of parents”: Irena Smith quoted in Georgia Perry, “Silicon Valley’s College-Consultant Industry,” Atlantic, December 9, 2015. college tuition costs have risen: “Elite College Prices Now Exceed $70,000 Per Year,” Wealth Management, March 1, 2017, https://bit.ly/2MsdJMc. In the 2018 Super Bowl: “Super Bowl 2018: “How Eagles, Patriots Starters Rated as High School Recruits,” CBS Sports, February 1, 2018, https://bit.ly/2CTa0YB. Carson Wentz was five foot eight and 125 pounds as a high school freshman: “Carson Wentz Was 5-8 as High School Freshman and Other Things You Might Not Know About Him,” Morning Call, April 29, 2016, https://bit.ly/2NFmEic. “I sent my weird stories”: Janet Evanovich’s story derives from her Wikipedia entry; “Janet’s Bio,” Janet Evanovich, n.d., https://bit.ly/2Qnj9LE; and Debra Nussbaum, “In Person: Imagine Trenton.
Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler
"Robert Solow", 3Com Palm IPO, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, impulse control, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, late fees, law of one price, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market clearing, Mason jar, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, More Guns, Less Crime, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, New Journalism, nudge unit, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, presumed consent, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game
After online criticism, some Humans at Uber decided to offer free rides and to refund people who had paid (Sullivan, 2014). ‡ Notably, an even larger organization—the NFL—recognizes and ascribes to this same piece of advice. In an interview with economist Alan B. Krueger, the NFL’s VP for public relations, Greg Aiello, explained that his organization takes a “long-term strategic view” toward ticket pricing, at least for the Super Bowl. Even though the high demand for Super Bowl tickets might justify significantly higher prices (and short-term profits—he calculates the profit increase as on the same scale as all advertising revenues), the organization intentionally keeps these prices reasonable in order to foster its “ongoing relationship with fans and business associates” (Krueger, 2001). 15 Fairness Games One question was very much on the minds of Danny, Jack, and me while we were doing our fairness project.
Likewise in the draft, when a team falls in love with a certain player they are just sure that every other team shares their view. They try to jump to the head of the line before another team steals their guy. 5. Present bias. Team owners, coaches, and general managers all want to win now. For the players selected at the top of the draft, there is always the possibility, often illusory, as in the case of Ricky Williams, that the player will immediately turn a losing team into a winner or a winning team into a Super Bowl champion. Teams want to win now! So our basic hypothesis was that early picks were overvalued, meaning that the market for draft picks did not satisfy the efficient market hypothesis. Fortunately, we were able to get all the data we needed to rigorously test this hypothesis. The first step in our analysis was just to estimate the market value of picks. Since picks are often traded, we could use the historical trade data to estimate the relative value of picks.
The following year, he did not return to the top form he had showed as a rookie, and the Redskins had a terrible season, so bad that the 2014 first-round pick the Redskins had given the Rams turned out to be the second pick in that draft, so giving up that pick turned out to be very expensive. (Recall that it was a number two pick that the Redskins had originally traded up to get.) The 2014 season was also a disappointing one for RG3. In hindsight, another player named Russell Wilson, who was not picked until the third round, appears to be better and less injury-prone than RG3. During his three years in the NFL, Wilson has led his team to the Super Bowl twice, winning once. Of course, one should not judge a trade using hindsight, and the Redskins were certainly unlucky that Griffen suffered from injuries. But that is part of the point. When you give up a bunch of top picks to select one player, you are putting all your eggs in his basket, and football players, like eggs, can be fragile.§ Our relationship with the Redskins did not last very long, but we soon found that another team (whose identity shall remain confidential) was interested in talking to us about draft strategy.
How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper
3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
. ✽✽✽ Fame Get on a TV show (Startup U, The Naked Brothers Band) Get in a movie (Heartless) Get a speaking part in a movie (The Naked Brothers Band) Write a novel Write a non-fiction book (I guess this is it, but some would argue that this is my novel) Get on the cover of Upside or The Red Herring magazine Throw a party for 1000 guests (2001: A Cyberspace Odyssey) Be a guest on a talk show (Stephen Colbert) Fortune Buy an island (Lupita Island) Make an investment in Mongolia Buy some serious land on the water (DreamFarm Ranch) Seed five public companies (PTC, TSLA, DIGI, Overture, BIDU, many more) Collect Amazing Fantasy #15 and Willie Mays rookie baseball card (bought both) Get a patent (decided to give the ideas away so far) Buy art by Vincent van Gogh Family Have four children (Jesse, Adam, Billy, Eleanor) Get married (Melissa) Go backpacking with my kids Start a business with my kids See a baby being born (saw all four) Buy a sailboat (Flying Scot) Buy a motorboat (The 100 Feet) See all kids Graduate from College (UCLA x3 and USC) Fan Visit all 50 states – spend a night (46/50) Visit 100 Countries – spend a night (68/100) Go to a World Series game (Go Giants!!!) Go to a World Cup game (at Stanford) Got to a Super Bowl (Ravens over Giants) Play chess in Washington Square (lost 3 games) Play tennis at Wimbledon Drive across the country Go to Disney World (fun!) Go on a safari in Botswana Go to the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas (many times) Visit the New York Stock Exchange (BizWorld and MeVC) See the opening of a Broadway show (Crazy She Calls Me) See Steve Miller Band in concert (with the Doobie Brothers at Shoreline—met him later) Visit the pyramids (and Ramses II) Go to the Olympics games (Summer in Atlanta, Winter in Utah) Friends Play touch football with Joe Montana Meet each President since Richard Nixon (so far, so good) Meet Barry Bonds (he helped coach my kids’ T-ball team) Meet Charles Barkley Meet Michael Milken (Spoke at the Milken Institute) Meet Michael Jackson (I had backstage passes to his concert in London, but he died before the concert was scheduled to begin) Meet Phil Collins (at the Oscars) Freaks Attend a funeral (this has happened too many times) Be in a hurricane (swam during Hurricane Bob) Be in an earthquake (dove under my desk at work) Be in a flood (our dog had to swim through the house) See an active volcano (in Pucon, Chile, and Mt Saint Helens, both from the sky) Visit a prison (Sonora State Prison with Defy Ventures) Fulfillment Create a board game (Stanford: The Game, Voter’s Choice) Create a game for a class (BizWorld) Paint 10 good paintings (“good” is in the eyes of the painter) Plant a tree that lives Build a treehouse with my kids (at my parents’ house before they tore it down) Produce a movie (The Tic Code, The Naked Brothers Band, Stella’s Last Weekend) Produce a CD-ROM title (I think technology has moved past me here) Get 10 articles published (most are about supporting entrepreneurship and driving technology) Write a very long poem Make a success of a dropout (there have been many) Get jobs for 10 friends (very satisfying) Grow a vegetable garden (it attracted crows) Free a prisoner Get a law changed or eliminated (made school vouchers legal) Teach a class at Stanford Business School (with Bill Sahlman) Fascination Learn more Japanese Learn to play 3 songs on the piano well Read 1000 books (I am at 350) Learn to make one spectacular dessert Read the Bible (Old and New) Read the Koran (brilliant legal document) Read the book of Mao (he was awesome, then he was awful) Read The Book of Mormon Shoot below 85 in golf (best score 86; typical score 110) Foolishness Bareback ride an unknown horse (with my brother-in-law in Hawaii) Hang glide (crashed and cracked the mast) Pilot an airplane (bush plane in Alaska) Parasailing (in Mexico) Drink snake blood in Snake Alley (in Taiwan) Swim in the Crystal Springs Reservoir (so muddy!)
Every year we hold the BizWorld luncheon, an event where we invite people to come, donate, and interact with students who sell them bracelets. We also have a fireside chat where I interview top luminaries and successful entrepreneurs. The first interview was with Eric Schmidt of Google. I asked him whether he learned anything about business when he was in grade school. He said, “No.” He had to learn on the fly. During another interview with Ronnie Lott, famous 49er cornerback with Super Bowl rings on all his fingers (except the one), gamely asked the kids business questions, which they were able to answer adroitly because of their experience with BizWorld. The event has since been named “BizWorld’s Riskmaster Award Lunch,” and has attracted some real luminaries. Elon Musk of Tesla and SpaceX, Marc Benioff of Salesforce, Richard Rosenblatt of Myspace, Chad Hurley of YouTube, Tom Seibel of Seibel Systems, Jenny Johnson of Franklin Fund, Aaron Levie of Box, Eric Migicovsky of Pebble, Brian Armstrong of Coinbase, and Peter Gotcher of Digidesign and Dolby have all come to do fireside chats at the BizWorld luncheon.
, partial differential calculus, and human sexuality (Yes, they had a class in Human Sexuality at Stanford). But through all this training, I only worked alone. I had little idea of how it would be to do work in a group. Since HP encouraged teamwork, I was a little lost in my first job. Fortunately, I had played a lot of sports (I even played football for Stanford under Coach Bill Walsh, who went on to be the head coach for the San Francisco 49ers and led the team to the Super Bowl several times) or I would not have had any concept of the idea of teamwork. Even so, I was not a great team player and an even worse communicator. I think I may have been HP’s worst employee. The company kept me there and even tried to promote me when I left to go to business school, but I was terrible. After all, I had been taught to sit and concentrate on academics alone. There was no training for teamwork.
Samsung Rising: The Inside Story of the South Korean Giant That Set Out to Beat Apple and Conquer Tech by Geoffrey Cain
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double helix, Dynabook, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Internet of things, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, patent troll, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons
The stock has also dropped 37% since hitting an all-time high on Sept. 19, just two days before the iPhone 5 launched in stores.” The Wall Street Journal piece pointed to Pendleton’s “marketing onslaught” that had allowed Samsung to close the “coolness gap with Apple Inc.” The article riveted the tech industry. But the Super Bowl was fast approaching (six days away), and Pendleton wasn’t finished attacking Apple’s position in the marketplace. He had a new $15 million ad-libbed commercial set to air during the Super Bowl, made with 72andSunny, featuring comic banter among Paul Rudd and Seth Rogen and Breaking Bad’s Bob Odenkirk, plotting their own fictional ad spot for the Super Bowl. “We actually can’t say ‘Super Bo—’?” asked Seth Rogen. “No! It’s trademarked,” snapped back Bob Odenkirk. “You get sued!” “Can I say ‘San Francisco’?” “Sure.” “But I can’t say ‘the forty-nine—’?”
seventy million online views: Lev-Ram, “Samsung’s Road to Global Domination.” “Samsung, the market leader in smartphones”: Ian Sherr and Evan Ramstad, “Has Apple Lost Its Cool to Samsung?” The Wall Street Journal, January 28, 2013, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323854904578264090074879024. The article riveted the tech industry: Kovach, “How Samsung Won and Then Lost.” He had a new $15 million ad-libbed: Jason Evangelho, “With Hilarious 2-Minute Super Bowl Ad, Samsung Steals Cool Factor from Apple,” Forbes, February 3, 2013, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jasonevangelho/2013/02/03/with-hilarious-2-minute-super-bowl-ad-samsung-officially-steals-cool-factor-from-apple/#130b5461326a. “We actually can’t say”: “New Samsung Commercial Mocks Apple Lawsuits in SuperBowl Teaser Ad Feat. Odenkirk, Rudd & Rogen,” posted by YouTube user Zef Cat on February 1, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?
“a barrage of not-so-subtle jabs”: Evangelho, “With Hilarious 2-Minute Super Bowl Ad.” “We have a lot of work”: Daisuke Wakabayashi, “Apple Considered Firing Longtime Ad Agency TBWA,” The Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2014, https://www.wsj.com/articles/apple-considered-firing-longtime-ad-agency-1396647347. “We feel it too and it hurts”: Zac Hall, “Internal Emails Reveal Phil Schiller Shocked by Response from Apple’s Ad Agency over Marketing Direction,” 9to5Mac, April 7, 2014, https://9to5mac.com/2014/04/07/internal-emails-reveal-phil-schiller-shocked-by-response-from-apples-ad-agency-over-marketing-direction/. “To come back and suggest”: Ibid. “Consumers want what we don’t have”: “FY’14 Planning Offsite” (Defendant’s Exhibit No. 413.001), Apple vs. Samsung Electronics, case no. 12-CV-00630-LHK (U.S.
Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World by David Epstein
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Checklist Manifesto, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Exxon Valdez, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, functional fixedness, game design, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, precision agriculture, prediction markets, premature optimization, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, retrograde motion, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Walter Mischel, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, young professional
The professed necessity of hyperspecialization forms the core of a vast, successful, and sometimes well-meaning marketing machine, in sports and beyond. In reality, the Roger path to sports stardom is far more prevalent than the Tiger path, but those athletes’ stories are much more quietly told, if they are told at all. Some of their names you know, but their backgrounds you probably don’t. I started writing this introduction right after the 2018 Super Bowl, in which a quarterback who had been drafted into professional baseball before football (Tom Brady), faced off against one who participated in football, basketball, baseball, and karate and had chosen between college basketball and football (Nick Foles). Later that very same month, Czech athlete Ester Ledecká became the first woman ever to win gold in two different sports (skiing and snowboarding) at the same Winter Olympics.
., 25 Simon, Julian, 216–18 Simonton, Dean Keith, 33, 212, 221, 281n, 288 Sloboda, John, 65–67 Smith, Gregory White, 127, 167 Smith, Johnny, 70–71 Smithies, Oliver, 269–272, 281 soccer, 7–8 Socrates, 85 Southern, Edwin, 271–72 Soviet Union predictions/forecasts regarding, 220–21 premodern villagers of, 40–44, 46–47 spelling bee competitors, 133, 134, 135 The Sports Gene (Epstein), 9 standardization covenant, 155 StarCraft video games, 28–29 stents (coronary), 266 Storm King Mountain fire, 246 strategic thinking, 22–23, 28–29 struggling, benefits of, 88, 89 sunk cost fallacy, 143 Super Bowl, 2018, 8 superforecasters, 258 Superforecasting (Tetlock and Gardner), 220 surgeons and surgical teams, 6, 32, 210–11 Suzuki Method, 76 Swanson, Don, 179–180, 189, 206 Swanson, Judy, 180–81 Syed, Matthew, 6 Talent Is Overrated (Colvin), 18 Taylor, Alva, 208–10 teachers, 91–92, 132 teams innovation in, 209–10 of specialists in “kind” learning environments, 210–11 tech companies, founders of, 11 technological inventors, 9 tennis, 31 ten-thousand-hours rule of expertise, 5, 32 test-and-learn model for exploring options, 163–64 testing/self-testing, 87–88, 89, 96 Tetlock, Philip, 218–223, 225, 228, 230, 231, 256 Thrale, Hester, 56 Tiger parents, 64–65, 275 Tillman Foundation, 10, 13 Togelius, Julian, 28–29 tools and Air Force pararescue jumpers, 250–55, 258 and cultural congruence/incongruence, 255, 256–57 in medical world, 266–67 and NASA’s quantitative culture, 241–45, 247–48, 249, 254, 257, 258 and overlearned behavior, 248, 250 and reliance on trusted methods/beliefs, 246–47, 265–67 in wilderness firefighting, 245–47, 248 Toynbee, Arnold, 51, 267 Treffert, Darold, 27 Tucker, Ross, 9 Tu Youyou, 272 Tversky, Amos, 108 University of Chicago, 49 University of Washington, 50 Unusual (or Alternative) Uses Task, 198 U.S.
As psychologist and prominent creativity researcher Dean Keith Simonton observed, “rather than obsessively focus[ing] on a narrow topic,” creative achievers tend to have broad interests. “This breadth often supports insights that cannot be attributed to domain-specific expertise alone.” Those findings are reminiscent of a speech Steve Jobs gave, in which he famously recounted the importance of a calligraphy class to his design aesthetics. “When we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me,” he said. “If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.” Or electrical engineer Claude Shannon, who launched the Information Age thanks to a philosophy course he took to fulfill a requirement at the University of Michigan. In it, he was exposed to the work of self-taught nineteenth-century English logician George Boole, who assigned a value of 1 to true statements and 0 to false statements and showed that logic problems could be solved like math equations.
Mind in Motion: How Action Shapes Thought by Barbara Tversky
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, clean water, continuous integration, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, fundamental attribution error, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Snow's cholera map, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, neurotypical, patient HM, Richard Feynman, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, theory of mind, urban planning
Interestingly, these labels are typically shorter and more frequent than more general or more specific labels (Zipf’s law again: more frequent words are shorter). The default and neutral way of referring to things, the level first used by children, the level of apple and car, has been called the basic level. The more general level, the level of vehicle, fruit, and animal, has been called the superordinate level, and the more specific level, Tesla, Gala apple, and cocker spaniel, has been called the subordinate level. The basic level is special for many reasons. Objects at the basic level like apples and tables and hammers and belts generally have the same shapes, so it is easy to identify them. So do their subcategories, Gala and Delicious apples, leather and cloth belts, dining tables and coffee tables. Features other than shape, like color or material or size, distinguish one subordinate category member from another.
Jumping up a level, to superordinate categories, we see that different kinds of fruit, furniture, tools, and clothing do not share shapes. On the contrary, they come in a variety of shapes. Bananas have different shapes from apples and watermelons, airplanes from cars and trucks, shirts from pants and belts. A composite shape of a couple of apples or hammers is identifiable, but a composite of fruit or vehicles creates a blob. The basic level is privileged for behavior as well as perception. We behave the same way toward apples and bicycles and sweaters, but we behave differently to melons than to apples, to cars than to bicycles, to hats than to sweaters. What fruit and vehicles and tools share are not specific shape or action but something more general, function or use. Fruit are for eating, vehicles, for transporting, tools, for building or repairing.
Without an appreciation of causality, we would not reach for a glass or lift our legs one after another to climb stairs. We would not try to catch a falling object or turn a door handle. Understanding causality is crucial to understanding ourselves and others and everything else that happens or happened or might happen. ORDERS: WHO’S ON TOP? Quantity, preference, value—anything that can be ordered on a dimension The worst time to rob a house and the best time to go out to eat is during the Oscars, the Super Bowl, the World Cup finals. People are obsessed with ordering: who’s the best singer, actor, football player? Who’s the wealthiest? The strongest? What’s the best film, TV show, restaurant, wine, guacamole recipe, cell phone, car? Among chimps (and other species), who’s the alpha male? Orders have enormous implications and enormous power. The alpha male gets the best pickings, ensuring his continued dominance.
Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World by Adam Grant
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, George Santayana, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, women in the workforce
But given his disagreeable tendencies, Jobs was exactly the kind of person who could be confronted. Dubinsky knew that Jobs respected those who stood up to him and was open to new ways of doing things. And she wasn’t speaking up for herself; she was advocating for Apple. By virtue of her willingness to challenge an idea she viewed as wrong, Dubinsky landed a promotion. She was not alone. Starting in 1981, the Macintosh team had begun granting an annual award to one person who challenged Jobs—and Jobs promoted every one of them to run a major division of Apple. Comparing Carmen Medina’s and Donna Dubinsky’s experiences raises fundamental questions about the best way to handle dissatisfaction. In the quest for originality, neglect isn’t an option. Persistence is a temporary route to earning the right to speak up.
Although he was often exasperated by his procrastination, da Vinci realized that originality could not be rushed. He noted that people of “genius sometimes accomplish most when they work the least, for they are thinking out inventions and forming in their minds the perfect idea.”* The Discipline to Delay Procrastination turns out to be a common habit of creative thinkers and great problem solvers. Consider winners of the Science Talent Search, which is known as the “Super Bowl of Science” for high school seniors in the United States. A team led by psychologist Rena Subotnik interviewed these elite performers more than a decade after their victories, when they were in their early thirties, asking whether they procrastinated on routine and creative tasks, as well as in social life and health behavior. More than 68 percent admitted procrastinating in at least two of the four domains.
Thanks to globalization, social media, and rapid transportation and communication technologies, we have more mobility than ever before. Given these advantages, if you’re unhappy in your job and it’s easy to move, why pay the price of speaking up? In Hirschman’s view, exit is bad for originality. But Donna Dubinsky’s experience casts exit in a different light. After winning the distribution battle at Apple, she landed a senior position in international sales and marketing at Claris, one of Apple’s software subsidiaries. Within a few years, her group accounted for half of all of Claris’s sales. When Apple refused to spin Claris off as an independent company in 1991, Dubinsky was so frustrated with the lack of opportunity for impact that she quit. She jetted to Paris for a yearlong sabbatical and took up painting, contemplating ways to contribute to a bigger mission. When she met an entrepreneur named Jeff Hawkins, she decided that his startup, Palm Computing, was the next big wave of technology, and accepted a position as CEO.
Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
* * * The d-order Levison received was named for 18 United States Code § 2703(d), a portion of the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA), or Title II of the 1986 Electronic Privacy Communications Act (ECPA). In 1986, technology and online services were very different than they are today. The Internet largely existed as a fringe academic and corporate experiment. Most Americans didn’t have a computer, much less access to any kind of online service. The first Macintosh debuted in 1984, the first version of Microsoft Windows had been released in November 1985, and AOL’s predecessor, known as Quantum Link, had launched in 1985. In the 1980s, it wasn’t clear how the Fourth Amendment applied to data and online communications. In a traditional physical search of a home, law enforcement goes to a judge asking for permission to conduct a search. The judge then signs off on the warrant, at which point, the agents or officers can conduct the search.
Available at: https://arstechnica.com/business/2015/06/facebooks-facial-recognition-will-one-day-find-you-even-while-facing-away/. In October 2016, Georgetown researchers: “The Perpetual Line Up Center on Privacy and Technology at…,” Georgetown Law Center on Privacy & Technology, October 2016. Available at: https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/3896102-The-Perpetual-Line-Up-Center-on-Privacy-and.html. To take one example: Declan McCullagh, “Call It Super Bowl Face Scan I,” Wired, 2001. Available at: https://www.wired.com/2001/02/call-it-super-bowl-face-scan-i/. Georgetown professor Alvaro Bedoya: Committee to Review Law Enforcement’s Policies on Facial Recognition Technology, Full House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, March 22, 2017. Available at: https://oversight.house.gov/hearing/law-enforcements-use-facial-recognition-technology/. They found that such systems: Clare Frankle, “Facial-Recognition Software Might Have a Racial Bias Problem,” The Atlantic, April 7, 2016.
In October 2016, Georgetown researchers released a massive report titled “The Perpetual Lineup,” which found that half of all adults in the United States are already in a facial-recognition database. The report also found that in many cases, steps are not being taken to create meaningful policies and oversight for use of the technology. To take one example, there’s nothing stopping law enforcement from capturing faces at large gatherings like sporting events (which took place during the Super Bowl as early as 2001) and political protests. Georgetown professor Alvaro Bedoya, top FBI official Kimberly Del Greco, and a number of other activists and government officials were invited to speak before a House committee hearing in March 2017. Bedoya and others warned that facial-recognition technology had potential racial bias built in. They found that such systems often issue more false positives for African-Americans compared to other groups.
Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy
active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K
The other was making sixdegrees into an operating system, or platform, where third parties could create applications that would run on top of what Weinreich had dreamed would be a social network that encompassed the globe. What Weinreich did not know was the person who would build—and surpass—his vision was only twenty-five miles from the Puck Building. And he was twelve years old. * * * • • • MARK ELLIOT ZUCKERBERG was born to Karen and Ed Zuckerberg in 1984. The day was May 14, almost four months after the launch of the Apple Macintosh, which aspired to push into common use what was still seen as a device for trained experts and batty hobbyists. Not many people had personal computers then, and fewer still had modems, the noisy peripherals that connected PCs to telephone lines. The precursor to the Internet, ARPAnet, was around, but limited to government and some computer-science students.
Abrams, Jonathan, 41–43, 81, 87 Abrash, Michael, 327, 492 Accel venture capital firm, 102–3, 132 Acton, Brian, 317–25, 438, 500–506 advertising and Beacon, 182–83, 186–88, 206, 212 and Bosworth, 294–95 and business model of FB, 170, 178, 199–200 and Cabal group of Bosworth, 294–96 and Cambridge Analytica, 399, 420 Campus Flyers, 178 competition for, 476 and data brokers, 269–70, 475 and data collection on FB, 207 and fake news disseminated on FB, 359 and FTC investigation and sanctions, 274 Hammerbacher on, 217 on Instagram, 477, 490, 508 and Like button, 202 and Lookalike Audiences, 352 and Microsoft partnership, 179–80, 183–85, 198 in mobile apps, 295–98 and News Feed feature, 138 number of engineers working on, 199 and Pages, 182 and Pages You May Like campaign, 295 and Pandemic code name, 181, 185 and personally identifying information (PII), 474, 476 and privacy questions, 475 questionable categories in, 465–66 revenues from, 170, 178, 198, 275, 297, 477 and Russian election interference, 372–76, 377, 378–79 Sandberg’s policies for, 199–200 in sidebars, 181 social advertising, 180–81, 183, 185 success of, 198 targeted ads, 181, 351–53, 399, 465, 475 by Trump campaign, 351–54 and WhatsApp, 320–21, 324–25, 504 Zuckerberg’s perspectives on, 201–2, 295–96, 474–75 by Zynga, 167 African Americans, 343, 353, 374, 403, 469–70 Agarwal, Aditya, 105, 107 algorithms of Facebook amplifying effects of, 142 charges of political bias in, 458 engagement prioritized in, 385 and fake news/misinformation on FB, 9, 11, 361 privileging close relationships, 261, 391 and ranking of posts on News Feed, 127–28, 163, 172, 260–61, 385 and sharing of content, 401 Amazon, 293, 516 America Online (AOL), 28–29, 209 Analog Research Lab, 238, 368 Andreessen, Marc, 288, 327–28, 379 Andreessen Horowitz, 300, 327 Android platform, 172 Anker, Andrew, 357, 388–89 antitrust questions, 514–16 anti-vaccination movement, 346 Apple and antitrust investigations, 516 campus of, 148 and Cook’s criticisms of FB, 481–83 and Facebook app, 276–79 “full friend access” negotiated by, 175 and iPhones, 154, 276–79, 301 and Macintosh computers, 22 and Onavo Protect, 483–85 partnership with FB, 148 and platform for mobile phones, 172 application programming interface (API) Graph API V1 (“the Friend API”), 171–72, 175–76, 271, 409, 412 Graph API V2, 175 initial version, written by Fetterman, 150–51 See also Open Graph Applied Machine Learning (AML) team, 454 Aquila drone, 232–33 Arab Spring movement, 7, 434, 471 Arrington, Michael, 166 artificial intelligence (AI), 33, 452, 453–56 Backstrom, Lars, 223 Badros, Greg, 106, 201 Ballmer, Steve, 201, 239 Bannon, Steve, 411, 420 Barker, Brandee and Beacon, 187 on growth emphasis of company, 235 and News Feed feature, 141–42 and Pandemic launch, 185 on Sandberg critics, 356 and Schrage’s hire, 200 and Zuckerberg’s public speaking, 156 Barry, Ben, 237–39, 241–43, 337 Beacon, 182–83, 186–88, 206, 212 Beck, Glenn, 343 Beluga, 313 Benchmark venture capital firm, 102 Berteau, Stefan, 188 Bickert, Monika, 340, 343, 432–38, 443–44, 448–49, 457–58, 480 Black Lives Matter movement, 342–43 Bloomberg, Michael, 256 Book of Change, 119, 122, 127–28, 144, 205, 527 Bosworth, Andrew and ads engineering team, 294–95 background of, 126 and expectations Clinton would win, 350, 354 and fake news disseminated on FB, 349, 350 on FriendFeed, 203 and Like button, 204 management style of, 294 on “Napalm Girl” image, 457–58 and News Feed feature, 142, 391 recruitment of, 126–27 and solving FB’s problems, 481 on Trending Topics feature, 341–42 and “The Ugly” internal memo, 441–42 as VP of Hardware, 495 and Zuckerberg, 473 Bowles, Erskine, 288, 379, 471 boyd, danah, 67 breastfeeding, 252–53, 254 Breitbart News, 391, 411 Brexit, 422 Breyer, Jim, 102–3, 133 Brin, Sergey, 289 Brown, Campbell, 389–90 Brown, Nat, 159, 164–65, 269 Buchheit, Paul, 203 Buddy Zoo, 43–44, 61 “Building Global Community” (Zuckerberg), 371, 383 Burma (later Myanmar), 11, 435–39, 526 business plan of Facebook and advertising, 170, 178, 199–200 Callahan’s model, 177–78 and Cook’s criticisms of FB, 481, 482–83 and data collection on FB, 207, 524 and diversification, 198–99 and Kendall’s manifesto, 180 and Like button on external websites, 206 and Microsoft partnership, 179–80 and Sandberg, 198, 199–200 Buttigieg, Pete, 381 buyout offers, 131–37 BuzzFeed, 262, 387–88, 390, 440, 442 Cadwalladr, Carole, 422–24 Callahan, Ezra anticipation of FB’s success, 98 and business plan for FB, 177–78 on Cohler’s adult presence, 97 and Cox’s recruitment, 124 and customer support, 246, 247 at La Jennifer house, 96–97 and Open Registration, 144 on redesign, 139 on Sandberg’s management, 197 on status updates inspired by Twitter, 259 Callan, Aela, 436 Cambridge Analytica banned from FB, 425 congressional hearings following, 427–30 and data deletion demanded by FB, 419, 420–21, 422, 424–25 FB’s caution following, 464 and FB’s digital currency bid, 520 FB’s failure to alert users to issue, 421, 478 FB’s response to news of breach, 425–27 FB’s review of problem with, 418–19, 422 and Guardian article, 417–18 investigative journalism on, 422–24, 425 name of, 411 and political ads on FB, 11, 399, 411, 420 and SCL, 411, 415, 417 and Trump campaign, 399, 420, 421, 427 and user data supplied by Kogan, 399, 411–13, 414–19, 420–21, 422, 423–26 Wylie’s role in, 410–15, 420, 422–25 See also Kogan, Aleksandr Campus Flyers, 178 Carlyle Group equity fund, 113 Carmack, John, 326, 329, 491, 495 Casa Facebook (Palo Alto work space), 76–77, 82–84, 90–91, 95 Cathcart, Will, 170, 294, 507 Causes app, 155, 162, 164 Ceglia, Paul, 39 cell-phone numbers shared on FB, 71, 101 censorship, charges of, 457–59.
Classification: LCC HM743.F33 L48 2020 (print) | LCC HM743.F33 (ebook) | DDC 302.30285—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019047909 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019047910 International Edition ISBN: 9781524746834 While the author has made every effort to provide accurate telephone numbers, Internet addresses, and other contact information at the time of publication, neither the publisher nor the author assumes any responsibility for errors or for changes that occur after publication. Further, the publisher does not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-party websites or their content. pid_prh_5.5.0_c0_r1 In memory of Lester Levy, 1920–2017. Sorry you didn’t see that Super Bowl, Dad. Contents Also by Steven Levy Title Page Copyright Dedication Introduction PART ONE 1. ZuckNet 2. Ad-Boarded 3. Thefacebook 4. Casa Facebook 5. Moral Dilemma 6. The Book of Change PART TWO 7. Platform 8. Pandemic 9. Sheryl World 10. Growth! 11. Move Fast and Break Things 12. Paradigm Shift 13. Buying the Future PART THREE 14.
Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel
Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shai Danziger, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Davenport, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
It’s scary how few people actually get that.” As Black Swan author Nassim Taleb put it in his suitably titled book, Fooled by Randomness, “Nowhere is the problem of induction more relevant than in the world of trading—and nowhere has it been as ignored!” Thus the occasional overzealous yet earnest public claim of economic prediction based on factors like women’s hemlines, men’s necktie width, Super Bowl results, and Christmas day snowfall in Boston. The culprit that kills learning is overlearning (aka overfitting). Overlearning is the pitfall of mistaking noise for information, assuming too much about what has been shown within data. You’ve overlearned if you’ve read too much into the numbers, led astray from discovering the underlying truth. Decision trees can overlearn like nobody’s business.
—HAL, the intelligent computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Science fiction almost always endows AI with the capacity to understand human tongues. Hollywood glamorizes a future in which we chat freely with the computer like a well-informed friend. In Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986), our heroes travel back in time to a contemporary Earth and are confounded by its primitive technology. Our brilliant space engineer Scotty, attempting to make use of a Macintosh computer, is so accustomed to computers understanding the spoken word that he assumes its mouse must be a microphone. Patiently picking up the mouse as if it were a quaint artifact, he jovially beckons, “Hello, computer!” 2001: A Space Odyssey’s smart and talkative computer, HAL, bears a legendary, disputed connection in nomenclature to IBM (just take each letter back one position in the alphabet); however, author Arthur C.
See artificial intelligence (AI) airlines and aviation, predicting in Albee, Edward Albrecht, Katherine algorithmic trading. See black box trading Allen, Woody Allstate AlphaGenius Amazon.com employee security access needs machine learning and predictive models Mechanical Turk personalized recommendations sarcasm in reviews American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) American Public University System Ansari X Prize Anxiety Index calculating as ensemble model measuring in blogs Apollo 11 Apple, Inc. Apple Mac Apple Siri Argonne National Laboratory Arizona Petrified Forest National Park Arizona State University artificial intelligence (AI) about Amazon.com Mechanical Turk mind-reading technology possibility of, the Watson computer and Asimov, Isaac astronomy AT&T Research BellKor Netflix Prize teams Australia Austria automobile insurance crashes, predicting credit scores and accidents driver inatentiveness, predicting fraud predictions for Averitt aviation incidents Aviva Insurance (UK) AWK computer language B backtesting.
Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper
4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks
The morning after they arrived at the Valemont lodge, Wences, Briger, and the rest of the men climbed into a red-and-white Bell 212 helicopter sitting just outside the lodge and lifted off toward the high white peaks, for a day of heli-skiing. In the afternoon, the group returned to the lodge and sat around in the expansive common room, an enormous fire crackling away. This was not a crowd to chat about kids and the upcoming Super Bowl. The men had dedicated their lives to making money and Pete pressed them to present their best investment ideas. “Pete, I told you, I’m interested in Bitcoin,” Wences said when his turn came to talk. “It hasn’t changed.” Wences drew the group in with an explanation of the basic notion of a new kind of network that could allow people to move money anywhere in the world, instantaneously—something that these financiers, who were frequently moving millions between banks in different countries, could surely appreciate.
CHAPTER 4 April 2010 Laszlo Hanecz, a Hungarian-born twenty-eight-year-old software architect who lived in Florida, heard about Bitcoin from a programming friend he’d met on Internet relay chat, known as IRC. Assuming it was some scam, Laszlo poked around to figure out who was secretly making money. He soon realized there was an interesting and high-minded experiment going on and decided to explore further. He began by buying some coins from NewLibertyStandard and then building software so that the Bitcoin code could run on a Macintosh. But like many good coders, Laszlo approached a new project with a hacker’s mind-set, probing where he might break it, in order to test its robustness. The obvious vulnerability here was the system for creating, or mining, Bitcoins. If a user threw a lot of computing power onto the network, he or she could win a disproportionate amount of the new Bitcoins. Although Satoshi Nakamoto had designed the mining process so that the hash function contest would become harder if computers were winning the mining race more frequently than every ten minutes, those users with the most powerful computers still had a much better chance of winning a majority of the coins.* Until now, no one had an incentive to throw lots of computing power into mining, given that Bitcoins were worth essentially nothing.
See conferences (Bitcoin and others) Bitcoin mining about process vulnerability, 41–42 creating blocks and recording transactions, 359–361 creation of ASIC chip, 189–192, 259, 329–330 creation of Avalon chip, 190, 206 formation of mining companies, 294–295, 328–329 formation of mining pools, 192–194 GPU technology, 42, 56, 189–191 growth in China, 259–261, 329 Litecoin mining, 283 more users increased difficulty, 53 role in securing system, 100 Satoshi Nakamoto patterns, 324 specialized computers/computing power, 105, 170, 190, 233, 324, 330, 347 The Bitcoin Show (TV program), 102, 128 Bitcoin software about operation, 23, 357–362 beta testing, 25–26, 58 changes to code, 22–24, 35–39, 43–46, 55–58, 61–62, 141, 309, 346–347 creating/maintaining protocol, x, 5–6, 32, 99, 215–216 creation and launch, xiv, 30–31, 319, 346 downloads, 49–51, 80, 237, 261 Google interest, 100–102 hard fork, 193, 195 “1 RETURN” bug, 56 role of public-key cryptography, 9–10, 17–18 running on Macintosh, 41 transaction malleability problem, 309–314 updates and old versions, 37, 59, 193–195 version 0.2, 37 version 0.3, 47–48 version 0.319, 59 version 0.7, 194–195 version 0.8, 194–195 The Bitcoin Trader (blog), 195 Bitcoin White Paper, 21, 45, 339 Bitfury, 330 bit gold, 18, 338–339 BitInstant. See also Shrem, Charlie attracting investors, 130–135 creation and function, 128–130 dealing with problems and competitors, 201–207 hacker penetration, 150 investment by David Azar, 134, 150–151 investment by Roger Ver, 128 investment by Winklevoss twins, ix, 173–176, 211–215 involvement of Erik Voorhees, 135–137 management problems, 220–222 regulatory problems, 222–224 trading volume, 201, 205–207 BitLicense, 302, 317 Bitomat (Polish exchange), 97–98 BitPagos (Argentinian payment service), 278–279 BitPay, 134, 211, 219, 272 Bitstamp (Slovenian exchange) about founding, 203 attendance at 2014 Bitcoin Pacifica, 252–253, 337 regulation of virtual currencies, 271 response to Mt.
Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson
23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks
The Times was still in a fight for survival in the digital age, trying to attract enough paying subscribers to support its $200 million annual news budget and remain in the hands of the family that had owned it since a Tennessee newspaper baron, Adolph Ochs, Sulzberger Jr.’s great-grandfather, bought it in 1896. The Post, seemingly rescued by Bezos, was trying to restore its reputation, hurt by years of cost-cutting and staff reductions that the Graham family couldn’t prevent. As for the new digital competitors, the question was whether they were ready to step up to be our guardians of truth. They considered themselves disruptors, hammering the power structure as if it were the Big Brother screen in Apple’s legendary “1984” TV commercial. Some of them didn’t even believe that editors needed to be gatekeepers. They were sometimes hasty in putting news “out there” and letting readers decide whether something was true. Their headlines were hyped, although recently their desire to be serious news providers had improved quality. BuzzFeed and Vice depended on social media sharing, a broad metric called “engagement,” which included time spent reading, the number of likes, shares, and comments on social media, and a host of other factors.
“When Kenny weighed in, the click-o-meter didn’t matter,” Peretti recalled. “He had a good sense of what powerful people would be interested in.” To get a sense of what interested everyone else, the small paid staff had only to look to Google’s constantly updated log of the most popular searches. When February rolled around, for example, Google identified a surge of the query “What time is the Super Bowl?” The Huffington Post’s search-traffic analyst alerted the newsroom staff, who nimbly whipped up a post that answered the question on everyone’s mind. That post, in turn, appeared atop the list of results Google fetched, giving Huffington’s site a windfall of visitors, who represented advertising revenue in crude form. It was brilliant, and with time and diligent testing, it became only more so.
When this turned out to be a tough sell, the founders, Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, veterans of the online bill-paying service PayPal, broadened their approach. They knew the world of online video was wide open. When they searched the web for video clips of two highly publicized events, they found nothing. One was the tsunami that ravaged coastal communities along the Indian Ocean in 2004; the other was Janet Jackson’s infamous “wardrobe malfunction” during the Super Bowl halftime show earlier that year. Both were indelibly imprinted on the collective memory of anyone with a cable hookup, but online there was hardly a trace of either besides written accounts and some still photography. That spring the site opened itself to video uploading, this time without the stipulation that videos be romantic. They hoped it would catch on better than the dating site, but they were apprehensive as to whether anyone would take the bait.
The Winner-Take-All Society: Why the Few at the Top Get So Much More Than the Rest of Us by Robert H. Frank, Philip J. Cook
accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Alvin Roth, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business cycle, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, global village, haute couture, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, positional goods, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Shoshana Zuboff, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy
We might be tempted to object, however, that the winners' moment in the spotlight will surely be a little brighter the more competitors they have to defeat on their way to the top. To be sure, winning in a big arena confers greater prestige than winning in a small one. But suppose the number of contestants in every arena were suddenly to fall by half. Even if the absolute quality of play were to fall a bit, the World Cup, the Super Bowl, the Tour de France, the World Series, the U.S. Open, and the NBA finals would still be major media events. Al though the recognition that accompanies a winning perfonnance de pends on the importance of the arena in which it occurs, importance is measured in relative, not absolute, terms-hence our claim that the status component of the tournament is a zero-sum contest. How big a factor is the status motive?
What is clear, however, is that the manufacturer who comes up with the best technology will be a big financial winner. History is replete with similar winner-take-all battles between rival technologies. In electric power transmission, the contest was between alternating-current methods and direct-current methods. In video recording it was between Beta and VHS. With nuclear reactors, light water-, gas-, heavy-water-, and sodium-cooled designs were the main competitors. Unix, Macintosh, MS-DOS, Windows, and OS-2 have been the most important rival operating systems for personal comput ers. And digital technology battled analog technology in the race to bring high-definition television to market. Fashions, too, often compete in winner-take-all markets. In the world of haute couture, designers often stake their survival on con flicting hunches about hem lengths and lapel widths.
A successful college athletic program generates not only large revenues (see chapter 4) but also many indi rect benefits. One is that these programs seem to attract more and better students. After winning the NCAA basketball championship in 1983 , for example, North Carolina State University experienced a 40 percent rise in applications for admission.15 Boston College applica tions went up from 12,500 in 1984 to 1 6,200 in 1985 after Doug Flu tie won the Heisman llophy for the 1984 season. 16 With more applicants, a school can be more selective. One study has shown that the SAT scores of a school's entering freshmen rise when the school's within-conference winning percentage rises.17 But viewed from the perspective of higher education as a whole, the private incentive to invest in athletics in order to attract better stu dents is clearly too large.
Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game
The speaker was a senior leader of the US Department of Defense. The topic was why he thought cybersecurity and cyberwar was so important. And yet, when he could only describe the problem as “all this cyber stuff,” he unintentionally convinced us to write this book. Both of us are in our thirties and yet still remember the first computers we used. For a five-year-old Allan, it was an early Apple Macintosh in his home in Pittsburgh. Its disk space was so limited that it could not even fit this book into its memory. For a seven-year-old Peter, it was a Commodore on display at a science museum in North Carolina. He took a class on how to “program,” learning an entire new language for the sole purpose of making one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind print out a smiley face.
An attacker could do this either by depriving users of a system that they depend on (such as how the loss of GPS would hamper military units in a conflict) or by merely threatening the loss of a system, known as a “ransomware” attack. Examples of such ransoms range from small-scale hacks on individual bank accounts all the way to global blackmail attempts against gambling websites before major sporting events like the World Cup and Super Bowl. Beyond this classic CIA triangle of security, we believe it is important to add another property: resilience. Resilience is what allows a system to endure security threats instead of critically failing. A key to resilience is accepting the inevitability of threats and even limited failures in your defenses. It is about remaining operational with the understanding that attacks and incidents happen on a continuous basis.
This is the category that uses the type of ransomware attacks we read about earlier. The victim has to weigh the potential cost of fighting a well-organized attack versus paying off the potential attacker. Websites with time-dependent business models, such as seasonal sales, are particularly vulnerable. One study reported that, “In 2008, online casinos were threatened with just such an [extortion] attack, timed to disrupt their accepting wagers for the Super Bowl unless the attackers were paid 40,000 dollars.” Of course, gambling itself is illegal in many jurisdictions, making it just one of many illicit activities that have extended into cyberspace. What makes these activities relevant to cybersecurity is their virtualization challenges territorial definitions. Some activities, such as the distribution of pedophilic images, are widely condemned around the world whether in a physical magazine or a website.
The Billionaire and the Mechanic: How Larry Ellison and a Car Mechanic Teamed Up to Win Sailing's Greatest Race, the Americas Cup, Twice by Julian Guthrie
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, cloud computing, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, new economy, pets.com, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, white picket fence, Yogi Berra
Steve looked at Larry and said, “That’s why we’re taking the Mac OS and moving it over to the phone.” Steve explained that everything that had been developed at NeXT Computer, and everything learned about graphical user interface for the Macintosh, was being applied to the iPhone. Larry responded, “Good answer. That just might work.” More recently, Larry and Steve had talked about Steve’s yacht being completed in Holland. Her name was now Venus, not Aqua. The two had spent years working on her, having started the process by studying the clean lines of a Wally 50m sailboat. Venus was magnificent, with forty-foot-long glass walls, reminding Larry of a floating Apple store. Steve had been looking forward to finishing the boat and taking his family out on her maiden voyage. Back home, standing by the lake where he and Steve had debated things great and small, Larry was certain that decades from now there would be two guys walking somewhere, talking about their icons.
Increasingly, Norbert’s guys were installing radiators with plastic tanks made overseas for a fraction of the old price. Norbert gave one of his mechanics a pat on the back and asked about his family before talk gravitated to football. Norbert was a die-hard San Francisco 49ers fan, but he was impressed by the come-from-behind story of the St. Louis Rams, a team that had been losing for nearly a decade and was suddenly on fire. The mechanics talked about the chances of the Rams making it to the Super Bowl. Another mechanic, looking up from under the hood of a car, asked “Norbini” if he’d done any good fishing over the weekend. Norbert, known to love to fish though he hated to sail, said he planned to head out on the bay in coming weeks. During the early summer salmon were caught near the Golden Gate and off the coast of Marin, south of Bolinas. From May through the end of October halibut were to be had in the waters off Crissy Field and along the south side of Angel Island.
Oracle’s underlying business was strong—the company made over $800 million in operating profit and had a 35 percent operating margin in its second fiscal quarter—but the markets were crashing and Oracle’s stock price was crashing along with them. Nearly half of the Internet companies created since 1995 were gone, casualties of the dot-com bust, which wiped out an estimated $5 trillion in market capitalization. Pets.com began in February 1999 and closed in November 2000, after buying a $1.2 million Super Bowl ad and burning through $300 million in investment capital. Webvan, the Foster City–based grocery home-delivery service created by executives who had no experience in supermarkets—yet attracted funding from companies including Goldman Sachs, Benchmark Capital, Sequioa Capital, and Yahoo—filed for bankruptcy in 2001 after burning through hundreds of millions of dollars to buy a fleet of trucks, build automated warehouses, and expand aggressively nationwide.
Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise
I remember being in a Des Moines hotel room covering the Democratic caucuses for Time, feeling so state-of-the-art to be filing a story about Hart, a so-called Atari Democrat, through a twenty-eight-pound portable computer connected to a shoebox-size dial-up modem to which we’d docked a curly-corded desktop telephone handset. Just a few weeks earlier, in January 1984, Apple had introduced the Macintosh. Its famous Super Bowl ad, based on George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-four, featured a heroine smashing the tyrants’ huge telescreen, a lone nonconformist underdog spectacularly defying the oppressive Establishment. It suited the moment and digital early adopters who were politically aware but not actually, specifically political, in a stylish little allegory with which everyone from Ayn Rand fans to Hart fans to Deadheads might identify. Steve Jobs, not yet thirty, had just become the sort of emblematic generational avatar that Gary Hart pretended he wasn’t desperate to be. In a 1984 interview, Jobs bragged about his vast wealth—“at 23, I had a net worth of over a million…and at 25, it was over $100 million”—and about his indifference to it: “I’m the only person I know that’s lost a quarter of a billion dollars in one year.”
Millions of individual home loans were thrown together, ground up, nicely packaged, and sold to investors in bite-size pieces as financial sausages—nobody really knew what was in any given mortgage-backed security, but they were hot and tasted good. Their main promoter became vice-chairman of Salomon Brothers, the biggest bond-trading firm in the world, who by 1984 was claiming that just that one sausage-extruding part of his firm “made more money than all the rest of Wall Street combined.” No wonder he was giddy: a new federal law in 1984 declared by fiat that mortgage-backed securities were now as safe as U.S. government bonds, the ultimate low-risk guarantee, as long as one of those big private rating companies gave the particular sausage its seal of approval. In 1986 another federal law created a specific tax benefit that made mortgage-backed securities even more attractive to investors.
The don’t go left lesson was only reinforced during the 1980s, when three quite center-left presidential candidates in a row lost. In the 1984 Democratic primary, Gary Hart was still the neoliberal apostate, running against the supposed mustiness of the New Deal and the Great Society and government and the Establishment. “The fault line of the party,” he said then, “is now between those who have been in office for 20 or 25 years and those who have come into office in the last 10 years, and who are less tied to the arrangements dating to [Franklin] Roosevelt.” That was because “the solutions of the thirties will not solve the problems of the eighties.” In fact, as the political journalist and author Richard Reeves wrote in 1984 of “Democratic liberalism’s traumatic break with organized labor,” the party’s neoliberal cutting edge considered unions not just “the solution of the 1930’s” but “the problem of the 80’s,” an obsolete obstacle in the way of “a socially liberal, high-technology, high-growth America….We’re not going to go down with the crew.
Crash of the Titans: Greed, Hubris, the Fall of Merrill Lynch, and the Near-Collapse of Bank of America by Greg Farrell
Airbus A320, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, banking crisis, bonus culture, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, financial innovation, fixed income, glass ceiling, high net worth, Long Term Capital Management, mass affluent, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, yield curve
Lewis avoided explaining to his young daughter why her friend’s father, a commercial real estate developer, had a license plate on his car that consisted of six letters: FU NCNB. When Lewis tried to join the Young Presidents Organization in Dallas, he was sponsored by Roger Staubach, the beloved ex-quarterback of the Dallas Cowboys. It didn’t matter. The city’s love for Staubach, a star player who had led its team to Super Bowl victories, was outweighed by its leaders’ visceral hatred of Lewis and his Charlotte colleagues. After two years of such vehement rejection—at a time when the bank’s retail business in the Lone Star State was booming—Lewis came close to snapping. He and his wife, Donna, were having dinner one evening at a fashionable restaurant when Lewis overheard a remark from a neighboring table about NCNB.
ONE TEAM, SHARED VALUES, SHARED FUTURE 1 But on January 15, word started leaking out: “Bank of America to Get Billions in U.S. Aid; Sides Finalizing Terms for Fresh Bailout Cash,” by Dan Fitzpatrick, Damian Paletta, and Susanne Craig, The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 15, 2009. 2 On this morning, he got no further than the Financial Times: “Merrill Delivered Bonuses Before BofA Deal,” by the author and Julie MacIntosh, Financial Times, Jan. 22, 2009. CHAPTER 21. THE BOSTON MAFIA 1 not only had Lewis been consulting with the bank’s largest investors: “BofA Faces Pressure to Split Top Roles,” by Dan Fitzpatrick and Joann S. Lublin, The Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2009. 2 When Lewis returned from vacation after Labor Day: “In U.S. Regulators, Lewis Met His Match,” by Carrick Mollenkamp and Dan Fitzpatrick, The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 10, 2009. 3 But information started leaking to the media: “Bank of America Can’t Sign New CEO,” by Dan Fitzpatrick and Joanne S.
In an emergency situation such as the one involving Lehman, Paulson and Geithner had assumed that the British would be supportive and allow the Barclays acquisition of Lehman to proceed, since it would benefit capital markets around the world. But the British weren’t playing along. Around 10:30, Paulson and Geithner broke the news to the Wall Street executives on the first floor. The group had been in the process of hammering out a $30 billion pool to support the Barclays deal, but the update from the regulators changed the dynamic in the room. Paulson returned upstairs, while Geithner urged the bankers to keep at it, in case the Barclays deal did come off. But he made it clear that Lehman was not going to be bailed out with federal money. Kraus and Kelly kept running into executives from Goldman Sachs who wanted to know when the Merrill due diligence team was going to be ready to work.
Crashed: How a Decade of Financial Crises Changed the World by Adam Tooze
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, break the buck, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open economy, paradox of thrift, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, éminence grise
In December 2008 a truculent Congress voted down an emergency aid package, but neither Bush nor Obama thought they could let GM and Chrysler fail. These once great powerhouses of American industrialism were rescued by diverting funds originally allocated to the bank bailout. By 2013 both GM and Chrysler were back in profit. Like the rest of American big business, they weathered the storm and Chrysler celebrated its recovery in the way that corporate America does, by booking a slot to run a headline-grabbing commercial during the Super Bowl in February 2014. They wanted something that would make a splash and they commissioned the man to do it. The spot was written, directed and acted in person by Bob Dylan, the wizened bard of offbeat Americana. Against a backdrop of Hopperesque noir, Dylan delivered a striking piece of high-caliber nationalist kitsch: Is there anything more American than America? ’Cause you can’t import original.
“Acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of America,” June 5, 2009, https://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20090625a.htm. 3. “Citigroup Stock Sinks to an All-Time Low of 97 Cents,” May 4, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/05/citigroup-stock-sinks-to_n_172167.html. 4. P. Wintour and J. Treanor, “RBS Bonuses to Reach £775m Despite Treasury Tough Talk,” Guardian, February 17, 2009, 5. B. White, “What Red Ink? Wall Street Paid Hefty Bonuses,” New York Times, January 28, 2009. 6. G. Farrell and J. Macintosh, “Merrill Delivered Bonuses Before BofA Deal,” Financial Times, January 21, 2009. 7. “Obama’s Statement on AIG,” New York Times, March 16, 2009. 8. K. Guha and E. Luce, “Greenspan Backs Bank Nationalization,” Financial Times, February 17, 2009. 9. “Nationalization: Is It the Only Answer to Save Banks?,” February 15, 2009, http://abcnews.go.com/WN/Economy/story?id=6885587. 10. “Obama: Swedish Model Would Be Impossible Here,” February 11, 2009, http://www.businessinsider.com/obama-swedish-model-would-be-impossible-here-2009-2. 11.
After 2010 the same argument would cut no ice at the European level either. What the most influential voters and voices in German public opinion wanted was simple: discipline all around. In 2006 a commission was set up to devise a new federal fiscal settlement. The idea, following the Swiss example of 2001, was to adopt a “debt brake” to block any further expansion of debt at the Bund, Länder or Commune level. Hammering out the multilevel political deal was slow work. But Steinbrück and the Federal Ministry of Finance were sanguine. As the global economic horizon began to darken in 2007–2008, the German finance ministry was projecting a budget surplus by 2011.23 Of course, national politics and the drama of reunification gave a particular hue to the German discussions. But there is no need to construct a new narrative of the peculiarities of German history, or to search for some particular German trauma that will explain Berlin’s newfound preoccupation with fiscal rectitude.
Clear and Present Danger by Tom Clancy
"This is a Sony MFD-2DD microfloppy, double-sided, double-density, 135TPI, probably formatted for 800K. What's supposed to be on it?" "We're not sure, but probably an encipherment algorithm." "Ah! Russian communications systems? The Sovs getting sophisticated on us?" "You don't need to know that," O'Day pointed out. "You guys are no fun at all," the man said as he slid the disk into the drive. The computer to which it was attached was a new Apple Macintosh IIx, each of whose expander slots was occupied by a special circuit board, two of which the technician had personally designed. O'Day had heard that he'd work on an IBM only if someone put a gun to his head. The programs he used for this task had been designed by other hackers to recover data from damaged disks. The first one was called Rescuedata. The operation was a delicate one. First the read heads mapped each magnetic zone on the disk, copying the data over to the eight-megabyte memory of the IIx and making a permanent copy on the hard drive, plus a floppy-disk copy.
"Going on my experience, not his, I'd say it's real gray, Dan. Davidoff's good - I mean, he's really good in front of a jury - but so's the defense guy, Stuart. The local DEA hates his guts, but he's an effective son of a bitch. The law is pretty muddled. What'll the judge say? Depends on the judge. What'll the jury say - depends on what the judge says and does. It's like putting a bet down on the next Super Bowl right now, before the season starts, and that doesn't even take into account what'll happen in the U.S. Court of Appeals after the trial's over in District Court. Whatever happens, the Coasties are going to get raped. Too bad. No matter what, Davidoff is going to tear each of 'em a new asshole for getting him into this mess." "Warn 'em," Murray said. He told himself that it was an impulsive statement, but it wasn't.
Members of the senior executive service did not take vows of poverty and chastity, however - and obedience was also a sometime thing. "I promised the American people that we'd do something about this problem," the President observed crossly. "And we haven't accomplished shit." "Sir, you cannot deal with threats to national security through police agencies. Either our national security is threatened or it is not." Cutter had been hammering that point for years. Now, finally, he had a receptive audience. Another grunt: "Yeah, well, I said that, too, didn't I?" "Yes, Mr. President. It's time they learned a lesson about how the big boys play." That had been Cutter's position from the beginning, when he'd been Jeff Pelt's deputy, and with Pelt now gone it was his view that had finally prevailed. "Okay, James. It's your ball. Run with it.