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searching for Zuckerkandl! 97 found (105 total)

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Organ of Zuckerkandl (580 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article

The organ of Zuckerkandl is a chromaffin body derived from neural crest located at the bifurcation of the aorta or at the origin of the inferior mesenteric
Journal of Molecular Evolution (471 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Science+Business Media and was established in 1971. The founding editor was Emile Zuckerkandl, who remained editor-in-chief until the late 1990s. In 1994, the journal
Renal fascia (519 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
fascia (after Dimitrie Gerota) The posterior renal fascia, also called Zuckerkandl's fascia or fascia retrorenalis The renal fascia separates the adipose
Emile Zuckerkandl (1,020 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Émile Zuckerkandl (July 4, 1922 – November 9, 2013) was an Austrian-born French biologist considered one of the founders of the field of molecular evolution
Berta Zuckerkandl (317 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Berta Zuckerkandl-Szeps (born Bertha Szeps; 13 April 1864 – 16 October 1945) was an Austrian writer, journalist, and art critic. Bertha Szeps was the
Otto Zuckerkandl (359 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Otto Zuckerkandl (28 December 1861, Raab – 1 July 1921, Vienna) was an Austro-Hungarian urologist and surgeon. He was a younger brother of anatomist Emil
Paraganglion (442 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
trigeminal nerve. The largest chromaffin paraganglion is the organ of Zuckerkandl, it is probably the largest source of circulating catecholamines in the
Viktor Zuckerkandl (265 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Viktor Zuckerkandl (2 July 1896, Vienna – 5 April 1965, Locarno) was a Jewish-Austrian musicologist. His doctorate was granted in 1927 from Vienna University
Salon of Berta Zuckerkandl (146 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The Salon of Berta Zuckerkandl-Szeps existed in Vienna from the end of the 19th century until 1938. It was located in her Viennese residence in the Palais
History of molecular evolution (4,103 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Zuckerkandl proposed using the number of differences between homologous protein sequences to estimate the time since divergence, an idea Zuckerkandl had
Emil Zuckerkandl (516 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Emil Zuckerkandl (1 September 1849 in Győr, Hungary – 28 May 1910 in Vienna, Austria) was a Hungarian anatomist. He was the brother of urologist Otto
Subcallosal area (212 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
parolfactory sulcus. The subcallosal area is also known as "Zuckerkandl's gyrus", for Emil Zuckerkandl. The parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, and cingulate
Zuckerkandl's tubercle (thyroid gland) (187 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Zuckerkandl's tubercle is a pyramidal extension of the thyroid gland, present at the most posterior side of each lobe. Emil Zuckerkandl described it in
Georg Lotheissen (224 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
doctorate in Vienna, and following graduation was an assistant to Emil Zuckerkandl (1849–1910), and a surgical apprentice under Theodor Billroth (1829–1894)
Molecular clock (3,447 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
existence of a so-called "molecular clock" was first attributed to Émile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling who, in 1962, noticed that the number of amino acid
Chromaffin cell (1,373 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
extra-adrenal cluster of chromaffin cells in mammals is the organ of Zuckerkandl. Tumors arising from these cell are called paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas
Paleogenetics (1,221 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms. Emile Zuckerkandl and the physical chemist Linus Carl Pauling introduced the term "paleogenetics"
Jerzy Jurka (509 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Linus Pauling, George Irving Bell, Roy Britten, Temple Smith, and Emile Zuckerkandl. His Erdős number is 3, using the path through Temple Smith and Stanislaw
1965 in science (1,223 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and Lysenkoist theories subjected to criticism as pseudoscience. Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling name their concept of the molecular clock. The Parma
Palais Lieben-Auspitz (131 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
neo-baroque style typical of its time. The palace housed the Salon of Berta Zuckerkandl, a meeting place for intellectuals and artists. Located on the street
Anton von Frisch (230 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
an organism that is the cause of rhinoscleroma. With urologist Otto Zuckerkandl (1861–1921), he was co-author of the three volume Handbuch der Urologie
1962 in science (1,581 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The "Hastings Rarities" are exposed as ornithological frauds. Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling publish a paper introducing what will become known
Sanatorium Purkersdorf (610 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the industrialist Victor Zuckerkandl and is an example of the style of the Viennese Secession in architecture. Zuckerkandl, the general director of the
Semantides (1,307 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
term semantide and related terms were coined by Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl. Although semantides are the major type of data used in modern phylogenetics
Allan Wilson (2,473 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Sarich), which was theoretically postulated by Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl, revolutionary insights into the nature of the molecular anthropology
1963 in science (1,228 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Geneticist J. B. S. Haldane coins the word "clone". Molecular biologist Emile Zuckerkandl and physical chemist Linus Pauling introduce the term paleogenetics.
Seligmann Kantor (378 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
protests as well. In Vienna the press protested the appointment of Emil Zuckerkandl and Julius Tandler. ... Kantor, Seligmann (July 1880). "Wie viele cyclische
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (6,121 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Austrian civil law. The Portrait of Amalie Zuckerkandl moved from ownership by Ferdinand back to the Zuckerkandl family between 1938 and 1942, although details
Ancestral sequence reconstruction (3,353 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
idea of protein 'resurrection' was suggested in 1963 by Pauling and Zuckerkandl. Some early efforts were made in the eighties-nineties, led by the laboratory
Enzyme promiscuity (3,464 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
ancestral reconstruction. First proposed in 1963 by Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl, ancestral reconstruction is the inference and synthesis of a gene from
List of human anatomical parts named after people (1,324 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
bones – Ole Worm Zonule of Zinn – Johann Gottfried Zinn Organ of Zuckerkandl – Emil Zuckerkandl Human anatomy List of anatomical topics List of eponymous diseases
Journal of Theoretical Biology (396 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
PMID 5875340., a classic paper dealing with inclusive fitness Zuckerkandl, E.; Pauling, L. (1965). "Molecules as documents of evolutionary history"
Parody film (1,735 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Royale (1967) The Ambushers (1967) The Producers (1967) The Dove (1968) Zuckerkandl (1968) Carry On Up the Jungle (1970) Carry On Henry (1971) Beware! The
Gisela Falke von Lilienstein (383 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
which evoked traditional Austrian Folk art. Journalists, including Berta Zuckerkandl, praised their designs for ceramics, metalwork, textiles, furnishings
Molecular phylogenetics (2,157 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M. Fitch. Applications
List of Austrian women writers (1,000 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
writer, essayist, writings on Buddhist culture, mysticism, tourism Berta Zuckerkandl (1864–1945), journalist, critic, non-fiction writer List of Austrian
Deutscher Werkbund (1,044 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Alfred Wiener Karl With Dieter Witte Georg Wrba Christoph Zöpel Berta Zuckerkandl New Objectivity (architecture) Modern architecture WUWA (Breslau) http://www
Moritz Szeps (394 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
setback and Szep's finances dwindled accordingly. His daughter, Berta Zuckerkandl, became a well known writer, journalist and art critic. Buildings in
Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900 (3,584 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
unfinished Portrait of Amalie Zuckerkandl: Finally, and most poignantly, there is Klimt's 1918 portrait of Amalie Zuckerkandl, unfinished at his death. By
Paraganglioma (1,549 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a normal variant and can be mistaken with glomus jugulare. Organ of Zuckerkandl: A collection of paraganglia near the bifurcation of the aorta, comprising
Parapharyngeal space (744 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
divided into 2 parts by the fascial condensation called the aponeurosis of Zuckerkandl and Testut (stylopharyngeal fascia - see diagram), joining the styloid
Gustavo Caetano-Anolles (1,352 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. He received the Emile Zuckerkandl Prize in molecular evolution in 2002 and became University Scholar of
Conserved sequence (4,959 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
orthologous proteins, such as hemoglobin and cytochrome c. In 1965, Émile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling introduced the concept of the molecular clock, proposing
Deryck Cooke (833 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Late Romantic Masters: Bruckner, Brahms, Dvořák (London, 1985). Victor Zuckerkandl: Review of The Language of Music, in Journal of Music Theory, Vol.IV(1)
Neutral mutation (3,399 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
two species and for placing evolutionary events in time. Pauling and Zuckerkandl, proposed the idea of the molecular clock in 1962 based on the observation
Faith Hubley (844 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Urbanissimo (1966) The Cruise (1966) Windy Day (1967) Of Men and Demons (1968) Zuckerkandl (1969) Sesame Street ("Imagination E", 1969) Sesame Street ("O Song"
Klimt (film) (507 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Octave Annemarie Düringer as Anna Finster Klimt Irina Wanka as Berta Zuckerkandl Klaus Ofczarek as Old Waiter Philip French, in The Observer described
Ovary (3,260 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Pinealocyte Corpora arenacea Other Enteroendocrine cell Paraganglia Organ of Zuckerkandl Placenta Development List of human endocrine organs and actions
Neutral theory of molecular evolution (2,014 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1179-98. JSTOR 24965339. PMID 504979. Zuckerkandl, Emile; Pauling, Linus B. (1962). "Molecular disease, evolution, and
November 9 (4,432 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1936) 2013 – Steve Prescott, English rugby player (b. 1973) 2013 – Emile Zuckerkandl, Austrian-American biologist and academic (b. 1922) 2014 – Rubén Alvarez
Pheochromocytoma (15,800 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in the abdomen and pelvis, particularly concentrated at the organ of Zuckerkandl. The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those related to sympathetic
Győr (2,104 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Garcilaso de la Vega, poet Paul von Werner, Prussian Lieutenant General Emil Zuckerkandl The city is a national hub for rail and road traffic. The transport-geographical
John Hubley (1,337 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Day (1968) (Oscar nominee) Of Men and Demons (1969) (Oscar nominee) Zuckerkandl (1969) Eggs (1970) Dig (1972) Cockaboody (1973) Voyage to Next (1974)
Morris Goodman (666 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
two others using molecular approaches to evolutionary problems (Emile Zuckerkandl and Harold Klinger) were confronted by three of the "framers" of the
Sequence homology (4,008 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Pierre; McLachlan, Andrew D.; Margoliash, Emanuel; Jukes, Thomas H.; Zuckerkandl, Emile (1987-08-28). ""Homology" in proteins and nucleic acids: A terminology
Maximilian Lenz (1,397 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
274. "Liste der verkauften Werke". Ver Sacrum. 12: 209–210. 1901. B Zuckerkandl (1 April 1902). "Wiener Ausstellungen". Die Kunst für alle: Malerei,
Hope I (1,266 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
superior powers prevented it". Then during his interview with Berta Zuckerkandl, in April 1905,  he declared "Since the unfortunate State Commission
Fanny von Arnstein (257 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Judaica Itzig family Palais Arnstein Bernhard von Eskeles Salon of Berta Zuckerkandl Petra Wilhelmy-Dollinger, Fanny Baronin von Arnstein, Jewish Women Encyclopedia
Petty's Place in the History of Economic Theory (2,585 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
already been a subject of research by different scholars. Hull mentions Zuckerkandl and von Bergmann in the introduction, and Ingram, Roscher, Kautz, McCulloch
Döbling Cemetery (806 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Eduard Veith 1858–1925 Painter Eduard Volters 1904–1972 Actor Rudolf Weyr 1847–1914 Sculptor Emil Zuckerkandl 1849–1910 Anatomist and anthropologist
Archaea (15,372 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
walls, their shapes, and the substances they consume. In 1965, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling instead proposed using the sequences of the genes in
Bollingen Foundation (1,145 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and the External World Victor Zuckerkandl Willard R. Trask 1956 44:1 Sound and Symbol Man the Musician Victor Zuckerkandl Norbert Guterman 0-691-09925-1
Salon (gathering) (6,307 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
two prominent Jewish Patrons of the Arts: Adele Bloch-Bauer and Berta Zuckerkandl. Increasingly emancipated German-speaking Jews wanted to immerse themselves
Deaths in November 2013 (8,998 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stomach cancer. Vasile Suciu, 71, Romanian footballer, lung cancer. Emile Zuckerkandl, 91, Austrian-born American biologist. Kirpal Singh Bhardwaj, 78, Kenyan
Skin secretions (human) (186 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Pinealocyte Corpora arenacea Other Enteroendocrine cell Paraganglia Organ of Zuckerkandl Placenta Development List of human endocrine organs and actions
Gustav Nebehay (724 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the Wiener Werkstätte, Josef Hoffmann, the writer and salonnière Berta Zuckerkandl, the painter Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, and the politician Julius Tandler
List of European Jewish nobility (843 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Rosenberg-Redé Schey von Koromla Szitányi Ullmann von Wertheimstein Zuckerkandl Baron Lumbroso, said to be from Egyptian-Jewish origin Baron Mazza, Naples
Hans Tichy (503 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
30: 475. "Liste der verkauften Werke". Ver Sacrum. 6: 32. 1899. Bertha Zuckerkandl (1904). "Die 20. Ausstellung der Wiener Sezession". Die Kunst für alle:
William Stewart Halsted (4,165 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Max Schede, Adolph Stöhr, Richard von Volkmann, Anton Wölfler, Emil Zuckerkandl. He became especially close to Anton Woelfler among others which gave
Thyroid (8,044 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery, is called Zuckerkandl's tubercle. Other variants include a levator muscle of thyroid gland
Bill Littlejohn (2,768 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
worked with the Hubleys on "The Hat" (1963), "Of Stars and Men" (1964), "Zuckerkandl" (1969), "Voyage to Next" (1974), "People, People, People" (1975), "Everybody
Jena (6,191 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer in Bauhaus style in 1924. Near is the Haus Zuckerkandl, another mansion built by Gropius in 1929. The former Carl Zeiss Factory
Evolution (25,003 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Genetics. 129 (3): 897–907. PMC 1204756. PMID 1752426. Fryxell, Karl J.; Zuckerkandl, Emile (September 2000). "Cytosine Deamination Plays a Primary Role in
Archaeogenetics (5,614 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1007/s12041-008-0002-x. PMID 18560169. S2CID 21473349. Pauling, Linus; Zuckerkandl, Emile (1963). "Chemical Paleogenetics: Molecular Restoration Studies
Ava Helen Pauling (2,367 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Collections (2001) ISBN 0-87071-489-9. Paradowski, Robert J., Emile Zuckerkandl, Joseph Rotblat, Itaru Tanaka, Fumikazu Miyazaki, Z. S. Herman, & D.
Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (2,360 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
patterns in organisms was formalized in the published papers of Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling in 1962 and 1965. David Lipman, director of the National
Josef Hoffmann (4,289 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(1906) Cabaret "Fledermaus" (1907) Seilerstätte 24 (1908) Tomb for Emil Zuckerkandl (1908) Steinfeldgasse 2 (1911) Stoclet Palace (1911) Tomb for Gustav
Felician Myrbach (1,150 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für vervielfältigende Kunst: 69. 1903. B Zuckerkandl (1904). "Die 20. Ausstellung der Wiener Sezession". Die Kunst für alle:
List of St. John's College (Annapolis/Santa Fe) people (1,483 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Buchanan Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Annapolis campus Victor Zuckerkandl, tutor, music theorist Rogers Albritton, philosopher; served as the chairman
List of music theorists (1,425 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1895–1963 Joseph Schillinger 1895–1943 Howard Hanson 1896–1981 Victor Zuckerkandl 1896–1965 Roger Sessions 1896–1985 Henry Cowell 1897–1965 Erwin Ratz
Alma Problem (3,362 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
meeting' with Mahler (in November 1901, at a dinner party given by Berta Zuckerkandl and attended by other glittering personalities such as Gustav Klimt and
Timeline of intersex history (7,145 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
included surgery performed at the beginning of the 20th century by Emil Zuckerkandl in Vienna. The terms 'intersex' for the individual and 'intersexuality'
History of evolutionary thought (16,073 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of evolution. In the early 1960s, biochemists Linus Pauling and Emile Zuckerkandl proposed the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH): that sequence differences
Irreducible complexity (11,953 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
10615791C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908264106. PMC 2747197. PMID 19717453. Zuckerkandl, Emile (December 2006). "Intelligent design and biological complexity"
List of films: X–Z (5,113 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the Magic Mountain (1983) Zubaan (2016) Zubeidaa (2001) Zübük (1980) Zuckerkandl (1968) Züğürt Ağa (1985) Zugverkehr unregelmäßig (1951) Zula Hula (1937)
Amino acid replacement (1,436 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
doi:10.1007/BF02105805. ISSN 0022-2844. PMID 3932664. S2CID 23374899. Zuckerkandl; Pauling (1965). "Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins"
Ancestral reconstruction (13,205 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The concept of ancestral reconstruction is often credited to Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling. Motivated by the development of techniques for determining
List of participants in the Evolving Genes and Proteins symposium (112 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Evolution of Proteins III: "The Role of Mutations in Evolution" Emile Zuckerkandl Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Colloidale Part III, Evolution of Proteins
List of atheists in science and technology (27,839 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Inc. Retrieved 21 May 2013. The author is Emile Zuckerkandl of Stanford University. Prof. Zuckerkandl ferociously attacks ID and any belief in a designer
List of music students by teacher: R to S (12,120 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Rudolf Schwarz George Szell [pupils] Frederic Waldmann Vally Weigl Viktor Zuckerkandl Ruth Crawford Seeger [pupils] this teacher's teachers Rochberg (1918–2005)
Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (4,560 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Applied Soil Ecology. 61: 127–130. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.06.005. Zuckerkandl, E; Pauling, L (1965). "Molecules as documents of evolutionary history"
Mutation bias (3,001 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
827C. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.2.827. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 8290607. "The Zuckerkandl Prize". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 56 (4): 373–374. April 2003.
March 1965 (15,349 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
obliterated by... the passing whim or impulse of a voting registrar." Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling published their groundbreaking paper, "Molecules as
List of women writers (M–Z) (29,957 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
letter wr. Svetlana Žuchová (b. 1976, Yu/Slovenia), fiction wr. Berta Zuckerkandl (1864–1945, Austria/Austria-Hungary), critic & non-f. wr. Zuo Fen (左芬
List of American atheists (3,455 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
https://web.archive.org/web/20070901091425/http://www.idnet.com.au/files/pdf/zuckerkandl%20on%20ID.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2007.
Inferring horizontal gene transfer (8,895 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
e1002430. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430. PMC 3245306. PMID 22216014. Zuckerkandl, E. and Pauling, L.B. 1965. Evolutionary divergence and convergence in
List of atheists (surnames T to Z) (1,958 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
postmodern philosopher, and cultural critic. "I am a fighting atheist." Emile Zuckerkandl 1922–2013 Biologist Austrian-American biologist considered one of the