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searching for Thermal equilibrium 245 found (395 total)

alternate case: thermal equilibrium

Quasistatic process (503 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

friction is irreversible; although the system is always in internal thermal equilibrium, the friction ensures the generation of dissipative entropy, which
Black-body radiation (9,192 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
black-body radiation. A perfectly insulated enclosure that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through
Saha ionization equation (1,423 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
equation is an expression that relates the ionization state of a gas in thermal equilibrium to the temperature and pressure. The equation is a result of combining
SAE J1269 (139 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Engineers to measure the rolling resistance of tires under conditions of thermal equilibrium. SAE J2452 is an alternative procedure for measuring rolling resistance
Dynamic nuclear polarization (3,147 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
temperature is described by the Boltzmann distribution under the thermal equilibrium. It is also possible that those electrons are aligned to a higher
SAE J2452 (278 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
vehicle coastdown event. During the SAE J2452 test, the tire is not in thermal equilibrium, but the coastdown event is rapid enough that the tire operates at
Relaxation (NMR) (3,712 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
sample precess at the resonance (Larmor) frequency of the nuclei. At thermal equilibrium, nuclear spins precess randomly about the direction of the applied
Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer (1,478 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum system interacting with a macroscopic number of particles near thermal equilibrium (~mK to ~300 K). This has led the development of decoherence suppression
Lambda point (858 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"saturated vapor pressure" at that temperature (pure helium gas in thermal equilibrium over the liquid surface, in a hermetic container). The highest pressure
Vogt–Russell theorem (95 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
theorem states that the structure of a star, in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium with all energy derived from nuclear reactions, is uniquely determined
Gliese 176 b (314 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetosphere of its star. The quoted temperature of 450 K is a "thermal equilibrium" temperature. It is projected to be dominated by a rocky core, but
Active matter (1,088 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to exert mechanical forces. Such systems are intrinsically out of thermal equilibrium. Unlike thermal systems relaxing towards equilibrium and systems
Clothing insulation (1,655 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the amount of insulation that allows a person at rest to maintain thermal equilibrium in an environment at 21°C (70°F) in a normally ventilated room (0
Fundamental thermodynamic relation (1,965 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
microscopic changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following way. d U = T d S − P d V {\displaystyle \mathrm
KMS state (1,048 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
systems and quantum field theory, the properties of a system in thermal equilibrium can be described by a mathematical object called a Kubo–Martin–Schwinger
Joule expansion (2,601 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and some of this change will not appear as heat until and unless thermal equilibrium is reestablished. When heat is transferred into kinetic energy of
Thermal oscillator (70 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is a system where conduction along thermal gradients overshoots thermal equilibrium, resulting in thermal oscillations where parts of the system oscillate
Stimulated emission (2,920 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
from the lower level to a higher energy level. In normal media at thermal equilibrium, absorption exceeds stimulated emission because there are more electrons
Thermal oscillator (70 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is a system where conduction along thermal gradients overshoots thermal equilibrium, resulting in thermal oscillations where parts of the system oscillate
Phonon drag (269 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
only at low temperatures (<200 K). Phonons are not always in local thermal equilibrium; they move against the thermal gradient. They lose momentum by interacting
Thermodynamics (5,019 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This statement implies that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence
Langevin equation (4,464 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ensemble of stochastic oscillators to spread out, eventually reaching thermal equilibrium, for whom the distribution of velocity and position is given by the
Many body localization (3,036 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum systems. It is characterized by the system failing to reach thermal equilibrium, and retaining a memory of its initial condition in local observables
Dissipative particle dynamics (1,631 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reformulated and slightly modified by P. Español to ensure the proper thermal equilibrium state. A series of new DPD algorithms with reduced computational
Scale of temperature (2,233 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
convenient incremental unit. The zeroth law of thermodynamics describes thermal equilibrium between thermodynamic systems in form of an equivalence relation
Thermodynamic instruments (909 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This principle, as noted
Helmholtz free energy (4,218 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
undergoing reversible processes or processes that begin and end in thermal equilibrium, although irreversible quasistatic processes or spontaneous processes
Pulsational pair-instability supernova (980 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
will undergo a complete pair-instability supernova [2][1]. Light in thermal equilibrium has a black-body spectrum with an energy density proportional to
Wien's displacement law (2,587 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
principle of thermodynamics is that a thermal equilibrium state, when expanded very slowly, stays in thermal equilibrium. Wien himself deduced this law theoretically
Bolometer (1,796 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
most sensitive bolometers are very slow to reset (i.e., return to thermal equilibrium with the environment). On the other hand, compared to more conventional
Idealized greenhouse model (1,860 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as downwards back towards the Earth's surface. In the long-term, thermal equilibrium is reached when all the heat energy arriving on the planet is leaving
Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (488 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
amphibian populations), investigating scientific phenomena (e.g. thermal equilibrium in the classroom), or critiquing scientific claims found in web sites
Phase (matter) (1,785 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
While phases of matter are traditionally defined for systems in thermal equilibrium, work on quantum many-body localized (MBL) systems has provided a
Thermodynamic equations (3,559 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
systems such that A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C, then A is in thermal equilibrium with C. The zeroth law is
Monod-Wyman-Changeux model (1,055 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The ratio of the different conformational states is determined by thermal equilibrium. This model is defined by the following rules: An allosteric protein
John H. Malmberg (2,137 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reach states of global thermal equilibria. The possibility of using thermal equilibrium statistical mechanics to describe the plasma provides a large advantage
Inductively coupled plasma (944 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the outside by the cooling gas, so the hottest outer part is at thermal equilibrium. There temperature reaches 5 000–6 000 K. For more rigorous description
Total internal reflection microscopy (684 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dynamics of the probe or particle can then be obtained, either in thermal equilibrium or non-equilibrium conditions. For instance, by collecting the time-independent
Hidden states of matter (983 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distinguishing a genuine hidden state from one which is simply out of thermal equilibrium. Probably the first instance of a photoinduced state is described
Thermonuclear fusion (1,236 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Thesis, Dr. Timothy A Thorson, Wisconsin-Madison 1996. "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic
Project PACER (968 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Dropping about two bombs a day would cause the system to reach thermal equilibrium, allowing the continual extraction of about 2 GW of electrical power
P–n junction (2,953 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Figure A. A p–n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero-bias voltage applied. Electron and hole concentration are reported with blue and red lines,
Temperature control (515 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
same, the temperature stays constant—there is thermal balance, or thermal equilibrium. Heat exchanger Moving bed heat exchanger Thermal Control System
Opacity (optics) (1,094 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
comparable to or less than a radiation mean free path, such as in local thermal equilibrium. In practice, the mean opacity for Thomson electron scattering is:
Subgiant (3,454 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mass is below the Schönberg–Chandrasekhar limit and it remains in thermal equilibrium with the fusing hydrogen shell. Its mass continues to increase and
Nuclear magnetic resonance (9,543 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
number of nuclei in these two states will be essentially equal at thermal equilibrium. If a nucleus is placed in a magnetic field, however, the two states
Rotating wall technique (1,740 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rod. Such cold, single-component plasmas in PM traps can come to thermal equilibrium and rotate as a rigid body at frequency f E = e n 4 π ε 0 B {\displaystyle
Gary Horowitz (505 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(2000). "Quasinormal modes of AdS black holes and the approach to thermal equilibrium". Physical Review D. 62 (2): 024027. arXiv:hep-th/9909056. Bibcode:2000PhRvD
Distribution function (physics) (590 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
distribution functions may also be used, since plasmas are rarely in thermal equilibrium. The mathematical analogue of a distribution is a measure; the time
Hans R. Griem (443 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1103/PhysRev.165.258. Griem, Hans R. (1963). "Validity of Local Thermal Equilibrium in Plasma Spectroscopy". Physical Review. 131 (3): 1170–1176. Bibcode:1963PhRv
Density of states (5,695 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
occupied states per unit volume at a given energy for a system in thermal equilibrium. This value is widely used to investigate various physical properties
Pulsed laser deposition (2,645 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
condensation of particles. When the condensation rate is high enough, a thermal equilibrium can be reached and the film grows on the substrate surface at the
Turbulence (disambiguation) (272 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
through the air Wave turbulence, a set of waves deviated far from thermal equilibrium Turbulence (U.S. film series) Turbulence (1997 film), a 1997 action
McCumber relation (2,053 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and perhaps the only way to prohibit a spontaneous break of the thermal equilibrium in the thermal state of excitations and photons. For each site number
Khoshk-e Bijar (463 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rainfall per year and an average humidity of 89% and average 6.16c° thermal equilibrium. Absolute maximum temperature of 28.5 degrees and a minimum temperature
Nuclear Overhauser effect (4,593 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
two possible spin quantum states, +1⁄2 and -1⁄2, respectively. At thermal equilibrium, the population of the two energy levels is determined by the Boltzmann
Entropy (14,007 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dissipation. Any process that happens quickly enough to deviate from thermal equilibrium cannot be reversible, total entropy increases, and the potential
Semiconductor (6,255 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electric potential on a semiconducting material would cause it to leave thermal equilibrium and create a non-equilibrium situation. This introduces electrons
Fire piston (3,023 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
gas returns to thermal equilibrium with them. If the compression is done quickly enough, then there is no time for thermal equilibrium to be achieved
Second law of thermodynamics (12,630 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
short statement allows recognition that two bodies in a relation of thermal equilibrium have the same temperature, especially that a test body has the same
Neutron scattering (1,329 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
with each collision, the "fast" neutron is slowed until it reaches thermal equilibrium with the material in which it is scattered. Neutron moderators are
Molecules in stars (1,315 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
because it is hard to achieve the temperatures, and also local thermal equilibrium, as found in stars, is unlikely. Accuracy of oscillator strengths
Convection zone (808 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
convection zone of these stars is overlaid by a radiation zone that is in thermal equilibrium and undergoes little or no mixing. In the most massive stars, the
David Sherrington (physicist) (549 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
shown, in work by Giorgio Parisi, to be exactly solvable for its thermal equilibrium properties. The solution, which was based on the replica method,
1,2-Diiodoethane (179 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
January 2014. Cutherbertson, G.R.; Kistiakowsky, G.B. (1935). "The thermal equilibrium between ethylene iodide, ethylene and iodine". J. Chem. Phys. 3 (10):
1,2-Diiodoethane (179 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
January 2014. Cutherbertson, G.R.; Kistiakowsky, G.B. (1935). "The thermal equilibrium between ethylene iodide, ethylene and iodine". J. Chem. Phys. 3 (10):
Cascaded Arc Plasma Source (276 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
collision frequency of the particles in the source, the plasma is in thermal equilibrium and reasonably homogeneous. The cascaded arc consists of a gas inlet
Thermal comfort (8,943 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
generated by human metabolism is allowed to dissipate, thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. The main factors that influence thermal comfort
Heat (10,268 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Carathéodory's 1909 paper, historically, heat, temperature, and thermal equilibrium were presented in thermodynamics textbooks as jointly primitive notions
Spectral line ratios (576 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
temperature. While for the temperature determination of plasma in thermal equilibrium Saha's equation and Boltzmann's formula might be used, the density
Isolated system (890 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the radiation, which would thereby be perfectly reflected. For the thermal equilibrium problem, however, he considers walls that contain charged particles
Fusion energy gain factor (3,616 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
heating to make up for these losses, where Ploss = Pheat to maintain thermal equilibrium. The most basic definition of breakeven is when Q = 1, that is, Pfus
Horizontal branch (1,710 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Schoenberg-Chandrasekhar mass at which they are no longer in hydrostatic or thermal equilibrium. They then contract and heat up, which triggers helium fusion before
Rudolf Haag (3,532 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
succeeded in generalizing the Gibbs–von Neumann characterization of thermal equilibrium states using the KMS condition (named after Ryogo Kubo, Paul C. Martin
Quantum thermodynamics (4,334 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
used to derive the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger stability criterion for thermal equilibrium i.e. KMS state. A unique and consistent approach is obtained by deriving
Boson (1,677 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of bosons. Another result is that the spectrum of a photon gas in thermal equilibrium is a Planck spectrum, one example of which is black-body radiation;
Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site (ANDES) (731 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
in our understanding of Nature (geoneutrinos are related to the thermal equilibrium of the Earth). Dark Matter: experiments in this field greatly benefit
PTC rubber (425 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
object it is attached to, and its surroundings. It is in constant thermal equilibrium with the environment, point by point. A measure of the power produced
Charge-coupled device (5,976 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
below the gate as in a MOSFET. However, it takes time to reach this thermal equilibrium: up to hours in high-end scientific cameras cooled at low temperature
Hoogsteen base pair (1,021 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Hoogsteen base pairs exist as transient entities that are present in thermal equilibrium with standard Watson–Crick base pairs. The detection of the transient
Glossary of mechanical engineering (8,737 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
If body A is in thermal equilibrium (no heat transfers between them when in contact) with body C, and body B is in thermal equilibrium with body C, then
Gas mantle (1,669 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
emission of light from the combustion products before they reach thermal equilibrium. The combination of these properties yields a mantle that, when heated
Ehrenfest model (502 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
observed. Nauenberg, M. (2004). "The evolution of radiation toward thermal equilibrium: A soluble model that illustrates the foundations of statistical
Lowest temperature recorded on Earth (1,160 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inefficiently absorbed by neighboring atoms, making it difficult to reach thermal equilibrium. Low Temperature Laboratory recorded a record low temperature of
Magnetic refrigeration (4,949 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
increased. The working material is the refrigerant, and starts in thermal equilibrium with the refrigerated environment. Adiabatic magnetization: A magnetocaloric
Pyranometer (2,070 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dome as an additional "radiation shield", resulting in a better thermal equilibrium between the sensor and inner dome, compared to some single dome models
Mooney viscometer (620 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sample is introduced, it takes a minute for the sample to reach the thermal equilibrium, and then the rotor is started. The value of Mooney viscosity decreases
Herbert Callen (750 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
are their differentials. The postulates concern the existence of thermal equilibrium, and the properties of entropy. From them, he derives the fundamentals
Pressurized heavy-water reactor (1,579 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
neutrons' kinetic energy, slowing them down to the point that they reach thermal equilibrium with surrounding material. It has been found beneficial to the neutron
Total dissolved solids (1,848 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Seidman, Harry (August 1973). "Statistical Prediction of Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using Standard Meteorological Data Bases". EPA. Retrieved
Plasma activation (2,948 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
frequencies of plasma species, atmospheric pressure arcs are in thermal equilibrium having temperatures of the order of 6.000 – 12.000 °C. Most of the
Dissipative system (2,034 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
oscillator – to a bath, i.e., an assembly of many oscillators in thermal equilibrium with a broad band spectrum, and trace (average) over the bath. This
Spin–lattice relaxation (1,588 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
amount of heat to the surroundings as the spins return to their thermal equilibrium. The magnetization of the proton ensemble goes back to its equilibrium
Shot noise (2,847 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
noise is distinct from voltage and current fluctuations expected in thermal equilibrium; this occurs without any applied DC voltage or current flowing. These
Intensive and extensive properties (2,312 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
which it is measured. For example, the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium is the same as the temperature of any part of it. If the system is
Ethynyl radical (1,342 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
envelopes of carbon-rich evolved stars, acetylene is created in the thermal equilibrium in the stellar photosphere. Ethynyl is created as a photodissociation
Transport phenomena (2,129 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
specific transport: heat transfer is the system's attempt to achieve thermal equilibrium with its environment, just as mass and momentum transport move the
Thermal pollution (2,656 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Seidman, Harry (August 1973). Statistical Prediction of Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using Standard Meteorological Data Bases (Report). Environmental
Veronika Hubeny (426 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(2000). "Quasinormal modes of AdS black holes and the approach to thermal equilibrium". Physical Review D. 62 (2): 024027. arXiv:hep-th/9909056. Bibcode:2000PhRvD
Syukuro Manabe (2,111 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
ISSN 0027-0644. Manabe, Syukuro; Wetherald, Richard T. (1967). "Thermal Equilibrium of the Atmosphere with a Given Distribution of Relative Humidity"
Rubber elasticity (7,255 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
their possible rotational conformations. Because the kinks are in thermal equilibrium, the probability that a kink resides in any rotational conformation
Concentration of measure (1,360 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
und des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik [Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and of the Second Law of Thermodynamics]" (PDF). Annalen der Physik
Timeline of heat engine technology (2,410 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamics' to summarise postulates made by earlier physicists that, thermal equilibrium between systems is a transitive relation. 1937 - Hans von Ohain builds
Gleb Wataghin (297 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1103/physrev.73.79. ISSN 0031-899X. Wataghin, Gleb (1943-02-01). "Thermal Equilibrium Between Elementary Particles". Physical Review. American Physical
Electric arc (3,231 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is gradually turned into a thermal plasma. A thermal plasma is in thermal equilibrium; the temperature is relatively homogeneous throughout the atoms,
Reduction potential (2,951 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electrons, rather than the absolute concentration of free electrons in thermal equilibrium, is how one usually thinks of redox potential. Theoretically, however
Heat death of the universe (3,050 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
known that gravity is important for keeping the universe out of thermal equilibrium. Gravitationally bound systems have negative specific heat—that is
Unruh effect (2,575 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inertial observer will look like a state containing many particles in thermal equilibrium—a warm gas. The Unruh effect would only appear to an accelerating
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (2,363 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
thin plasma composed of a single, neutral atomic species in local thermal equilibrium (LTE), the density of photons emitted by a transition from level
Depletion region (2,583 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
p–n junction. It is most easily described when the junction is in thermal equilibrium or in a steady state: in both of these cases the properties of the
Neutron moderator (3,313 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
In a system at thermal equilibrium, neutrons (red) are elastically scattered by a hypothetical moderator of free hydrogen nuclei (blue), undergoing thermally
Climate of Titan (2,803 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Titan at a much higher temperature than what would otherwise be the thermal equilibrium. Haze in Titan's atmosphere contributes to an anti-greenhouse effect
Sandu Popescu (1,601 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Winter, Andreas (4 June 2009). "Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium". Physical Review E. 79 (6): 061103. arXiv:0812.2385. Bibcode:2009PhRvE
Soft error (4,501 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
produced by cosmic rays may lose most of their kinetic energy and reach thermal equilibrium with their surroundings as they are scattered by materials. The resulting
Martin Harwit (924 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Medal (2007) Scientific career Thesis Measurement of Fluctuations in Radiation from a Source in Thermal Equilibrium (1960) Doctoral advisor William Allis
Piezoelectric direct discharge plasma (1,078 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
emission. Due to the intense currents, the volume of the arc reaches thermal equilibrium with temperatures of 6.000 – 12.000 C. While the arc discharge can
Gaseous fission reactor (1,047 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reactor provides a hotter-than-most fluid with potential for adequate thermal equilibrium conductivity and duct velocities. Considering the product v² × B²
History of climate change science (9,193 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that the CO2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a
Accretion disk (4,110 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
)} . The Shakura–Sunyaev model assumes that the disk is in local thermal equilibrium, and can radiate its heat efficiently. In this case, the disk radiates
Molecular chaos (597 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
English translation: Boltzmann, L. (2003). "Further Studies on the Thermal Equilibrium of Gas Molecules". The Kinetic Theory of Gases. History of Modern
Chemical potential (3,832 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the infinitesimal change of volume V for a thermodynamic system in thermal equilibrium, and dNi is the infinitesimal change of particle number Ni of species
Edith Kroupa (920 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and antisymmetrical hydrogen and the third law of thermodynamics. Thermal equilibrium and the triple point pressure. Journal of the American Chemical Society
Psychrometrics (3,093 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
represents a mixture of saturated moist air and liquid water, in thermal equilibrium. The protractor on the upper left of the chart has two scales. The
Trisulfur (1,317 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of Venus at heights of 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi), where it is in thermal equilibrium with S 2 and S 4.: 546  The reddish colour of Venus' atmosphere at
Isotope separation (3,363 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
also with liquids, the diffusion method relies on the fact that in thermal equilibrium, two isotopes with the same energy will have different average velocities
Trans-Neptunian object (3,638 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distance to the Sun), and one assumes that most of its surface is in thermal equilibrium (usually not a bad assumption for an airless body). For a known albedo
Entropy of entanglement (1,425 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle \omega \equiv {\sqrt {\omega _{+}\omega _{-}}}} at thermal equilibrium with temperature T {\displaystyle T} ( such that ω / k B T = cosh
Lindhard theory (3,280 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
k_{i}}}}{\frac {\hbar ^{2}{\vec {k}}\cdot {\vec {q}}}{m}}}} . Assuming a thermal equilibrium Fermi–Dirac carrier distribution, we get ∑ i q i ∂ f k ∂ k i = −
Recombination (cosmology) (2,549 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
p+e^{-}\longleftrightarrow H+\gamma } is fast enough that it proceeds near thermal equilibrium. The relative abundance of free electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen
Linear energy transfer (1,759 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
LET, generally increasing it to a Bragg peak just before achieving thermal equilibrium with the absorber, i.e., before the end of range. At equilibrium
Statistical energy analysis (1,317 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
energy' as the damping of the mode is reduced (suggesting a state of thermal equilibrium can exist in structural-acoustic systems). The extension of the two
Maxwell–Jüttner distribution (3,801 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle \epsilon ={\frac {1}{2}}m\mathbf {u} ^{2}} of the particles at thermal equilibrium, far from the limit of the speed of light, i.e: P MB ( p ; θ ) =
Entropy (classical thermodynamics) (2,571 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Thus, when the system of the room and ice water system has reached thermal equilibrium, the entropy change from the initial state is at its maximum. The
Magnetohydrodynamics (4,758 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the stars) and jets. Most astrophysical systems are not in local thermal equilibrium, and therefore require an additional kinematic treatment to describe
Fuse (electrical) (5,017 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
rise of its operating temperature until the fuse finally reaches thermal equilibrium. The voltage drop should be taken into account, particularly when
Raman scattering (4,064 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the material is vibrational in origin and if the material is in thermal equilibrium. For high-intensity continuous wave (CW) lasers, stimulated Raman
History of thermodynamics (3,491 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Looking at the radiation as coming from a cavity oscillator in thermal equilibrium, the formula suggested that energy in a cavity occurs only in multiples
Solar irradiance (6,341 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electrical heating to maintain an absorptive blackened cavity in thermal equilibrium while incident sunlight passes through a precision aperture of calibrated
List of Fusor examples (1,206 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Generator" V. Damideh, Journal of Fusion Energy, June 11, 2011 "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic
Glauber–Sudarshan P representation (2,026 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
classical. This is actually quite a remarkable result because for thermal equilibrium the density matrix is also diagonal in the Fock basis, but Fock states
Electromotive force (5,750 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
pre-existing electric field associated with the p-n junction in thermal equilibrium. (This electric field is created from a built-in potential, which
Logistic function (5,641 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
statistical distribution of fermions over the energy states of a system in thermal equilibrium. In particular, it is the distribution of the probabilities that
Breaking wave (1,262 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
structures. Wave turbulence – Set of nonlinear waves deviated far from thermal equilibrium "AGU - American Geophysical Union". AGU. https://crppwww.epfl.ch/~duval/P5_009
Emissivity (2,125 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
more rapidly with temperature. For example, an ideal blackbody in thermal equilibrium at 1,273 K, will emit 97% of its energy at wavelengths below 14 μm
Hawking radiation (6,300 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
horizon, turn around, and free-fall back in. The condition of local thermal equilibrium implies that the consistent extension of this local thermal bath
Stroud Water Research Center (1,815 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
concept played a major role in the study of river ecosystems. The thermal equilibrium concept also emerged from the Stroud Center as a project of Sweeney
Phonon (6,052 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Black-body radiation. Both gases obey the Bose–Einstein statistics: in thermal equilibrium and within the harmonic regime, the probability of finding phonons
Fluctuation theorem (3,002 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and reverse changes a system undergoes as it is driven away from thermal equilibrium by the action of an external perturbation, which is a result predicted
Spaceplane (4,768 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
panels and batteries or fuel cells, maneuvered in space, kept in thermal equilibrium, oriented, and communicated with. On-orbit thermal and radiological
Structure formation (3,740 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
photon-matter interactions of this epoch rather forcefully seeks thermal equilibrium, which creates a large amount of outward pressure. These counteracting
Crookes radiometer (2,804 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transfer heat to the outside before both sides of each vane reach thermal equilibrium by heat conduction through the vane material. High inside pressure
Cerium nitrate (2,637 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
S2CID 98479942. Abel, W.; A. Anderson; W. Black; J. Wheatley (1966). "Thermal Equilibrium Between Liquid He^{3} and Powdered Cerium Magnesium Nitrate at Very
Stellar evolution (6,294 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
core continues to grow on the red-giant branch. It is no longer in thermal equilibrium, either degenerate or above the Schönberg–Chandrasekhar limit, so
Oxygen sensor (4,257 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
started and when the components in the exhaust system come to a thermal equilibrium. The length of time required for the exhaust gases to bring the probe
Tuna (6,879 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
doi:10.1242/jeb.109.1.21. Oxygenated blood that has just reached thermal equilibrium with ambient sea water in the gills enters the rete on the arterial
Open quantum system (2,787 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
consistent with the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger stability criterion for thermal equilibrium i.e. the KMS state . An alternative approach to fix the Redfield
Antenna aperture (3,110 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
inserted which only passes some frequency components. Each cavity is in thermal equilibrium and thus filled with blackbody radiation due to temperature T. The
Thermal conductivity (8,430 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
its time variation increases. At steady state conditions and local thermal equilibrium are assumed we get the following equation ( ∂ ( n ) ∂ t ) diff. =
Fermi–Dirac statistics (4,746 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
identical fermions that have negligible mutual interaction and are in thermal equilibrium. Since there is negligible interaction between the fermions, the
Shape of the universe (4,353 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
For instance, one can imagine finding a gas cloud that is not in thermal equilibrium due to being so large that light speed cannot propagate the thermal
Balfour Stewart (2,163 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal
Stéphan Fauve (840 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
p. 061101 G. Michel, F. Pétrélis and S. Fauve, « Observation of thermal equilibrium in capillary wave turbulence », Phys. Rev. Lett., 118, (2017), p
Polymerase chain reaction (10,772 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reaction tubes permit favorable thermal conductivity to allow for rapid thermal equilibrium. Most thermal cyclers have heated lids to prevent condensation at
David Minard (951 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of Internal Body Temperatures During Transient Heat Loads and at Thermal Equilibrium (Vol. 1). NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INST BETHESDA MD. Minard, D. (1963)
Carrier lifetime (2,533 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a non-equilibrium state. Therefore, processes that tend towards thermal equilibrium, namely mechanisms of carrier recombination, always play a role.
Heat sink (5,912 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distribution of heat over a device or heat sink. It only models a system in thermal equilibrium and does not take into account the change in temperatures with time
Bose–Einstein condensation of polaritons (1,550 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(2017-01-05). "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Long-Lifetime Polaritons in Thermal Equilibrium". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society (APS). 118 (1):
Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (5,584 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
particles' states. Additionally, the particles are assumed to be in thermal equilibrium. This relation can be written as an equation by introducing a normalizing
Complex regional pain syndrome (6,819 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
arrives at a thermographic laboratory, he or she is allowed to reach thermal equilibrium in a 16–20 °C, draft-free, steady-state room wearing a loose fitting
Kundu equation (2,068 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
; Averin, D. V. (2008), "One-dimensional impenetrable anyons in thermal equilibrium. I. Anyonic generalizations of Lenard's formula", J. Phys. A, 41
Swendsen–Wang algorithm (2,314 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
disadvantage of requiring a far larger number of moves to reach thermal equilibrium. Indeed the correlation time τ {\displaystyle \tau } usually increases
Astrophysical fluid dynamics (1,481 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is cooled by radiative processes. The net result is that gas in a thermal equilibrium state in which heating balances cooling can exist in three different
H-theorem (4,233 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
English translation: Boltzmann, L. (2003). "Further Studies on the Thermal Equilibrium of Gas Molecules". The Kinetic Theory of Gases. History of Modern
Fresno, California (8,421 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
; Harry Seidman (August 1973). Statistical Prediction of Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using Standard Meteorological Data Bases (Report). EPA-660/2-73-003
Albert Einstein (18,304 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to
Supersymmetric theory of stochastic dynamics (8,498 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
with the increase of noise intensity. Symmetric phase can be called thermal equilibrium or T-phase because the ground state is the supersymmetric state of
Thought experiment (7,929 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
machine that does not violate the second law and does no work at thermal equilibrium) Bucket argument – argues that space is absolute, not relational
Bose–Einstein condensate (9,057 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
number of particles. So a collection of enough Bose particles in thermal equilibrium will mostly be in the ground state, with only a few in any excited
Big Bang (15,887 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
find out whether a process in the very early universe has reached thermal equilibrium is the ratio between the rate of the process (usually rate of collisions
Gaia (spacecraft) (6,620 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
produce through its solar panels, as well as disturb the spacecraft's thermal equilibrium. After launch, a 10-metre-diameter sunshade was deployed. The sunshade
Bogdanov affair (7,608 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
As of October 2018[update], the Bogdanovs' most recent paper was "Thermal Equilibrium and KMS Condition at the Planck Scale", which was submitted to the
Wigner crystal (2,319 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(1999). "Trapped nonneutral plasmas, liquids, and crystals (the thermal equilibrium states)". Reviews of Modern Physics. 71 (1): 87–172. Bibcode:1999RvMP
Orders of magnitude (temperature) (1,175 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
to relativistic effects 5.5 TK, highest man-made temperature in thermal equilibrium as of 2015 (quark–gluon plasma from LHC collisions) 10 TK, 100 microseconds
Glass transition (5,934 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of the molecular matrix when approaching Tg0, the setting of the thermal equilibrium is successively delayed, so that the usual measuring methods for
Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (2,568 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
spin-lattice relaxation results from the urge of the system to return to thermal equilibrium after it has been perturbed by the B1 pulse. Return of the magnetization
Magnetic semiconductor (2,102 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
100–200 K. The manufacturability of the materials depend on the thermal equilibrium solubility of the dopant in the base material. E.g., solubility of
Adiabatic invariant (3,309 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ignoring quantum mechanics, the energy of a classical field in thermal equilibrium is infinite, since equipartition demands that each field mode has
Quantum discord (2,332 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
shown that, at least for certain models of a qubit pair which is in thermal equilibrium and form an open quantum system in contact with a heat bath, the
Fred Hoyle (6,216 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
can become much more abundant than other heavy elements owing to thermal equilibrium among nuclear particles, explaining the high natural abundance of
Hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRI (1,974 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
denotes the rate at which the transverse magnetization decays to thermal equilibrium polarization, for the product species P. The unidirectional flux
Solar water heating (7,396 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of solar thermal collectors: Any hot object ultimately returns to thermal equilibrium with its environment, due to heat loss from conduction, convection
Bianconi–Barabási model (3,107 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
given an energy state ε, the number of non-interacting bosons in thermal equilibrium at temperature T = 1/β is given by the Bose occupation number n (
Theoretical astronomy (3,841 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
supernova graphites, the chemistry is kinetic rather than due to thermal equilibrium and is made possible by radiodeactivation of the CO trap for carbon
Redfield equation (1,989 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
_{\text{env,eq}})} in terms of the density operator of the environment in thermal equilibrium, ρ env,eq {\displaystyle \rho _{\text{env,eq}}} . This equation is
Xenon (11,108 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
surpass 50% of its maximum possible value, greatly exceeding the thermal equilibrium value dictated by paramagnetic statistics (typically 0.001% of the
Expansion of the universe (8,526 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
by measuring the temperature of a distant intergalactic cloud in thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background, that the radiation from the
Electrospinning (5,096 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electrospinning. The fiber uniformity upon achieving stable flow rates and thermal equilibrium, tends to be very good. The whipping instability which is the predominant
Negative temperature (3,742 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
two-dimensional systems of vortices confined to a finite area can form thermal equilibrium states at negative temperature states., and indeed negative temperature
Bremsstrahlung (9,084 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
}={j_{\nu } \over k_{\nu }}} If the matter and radiation are also in thermal equilibrium at some temperature, then I ν {\displaystyle I_{\nu }} must be the
Inertial electrostatic confinement (6,018 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
015003. PMID 16090625. Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A. (1998). "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic
Countercurrent exchange (5,137 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cold one, and the cold fluid cools down the warm one. The result is thermal equilibrium: Both fluids end up at around the same temperature: 40 °C, almost
David Snoke (2,420 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(2017). "Bose-Einstein Condensation of long-lifetime polaritons in thermal equilibrium". Physical Review Letters. 118 (1): 016602. arXiv:1601.02581. Bibcode:2017PhRvL
White dwarf (15,477 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
years, cool and become a non-radiating black dwarf in approximate thermal equilibrium with its surroundings and with the cosmic background radiation. No
Liquid crystal (10,752 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
used to derive the thermodynamic properties of the system assuming thermal equilibrium. It results in two self-consistency equations that must be solved
Enceladus (14,485 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
generated power is about 4.7 gigawatts, and suggest that it is in thermal equilibrium. The observed power output of 4.7 gigawatts is challenging to explain
Seebeck coefficient (4,283 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
generally occurs at high doping levels. Phonons are not always in local thermal equilibrium; they move against the thermal gradient. They lose momentum by interacting
List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein (4,103 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Kinetic Theory of Thermal Equilibrium and of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory (5,292 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
changing. Setting up a bit of information in a sub-system originally in thermal equilibrium results in a local entropy reduction. However, there is no violation
Crystal oscillator (9,936 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
oven-controlled OCXOs require usually 3–10 minutes for heating up to reach thermal equilibrium; the oven-less oscillators stabilize in several seconds as the few
Fusion power (16,722 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Wisconsin, Madison. Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A. (July 1998). "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic
Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory (5,292 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
changing. Setting up a bit of information in a sub-system originally in thermal equilibrium results in a local entropy reduction. However, there is no violation
Fusion power (16,722 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Wisconsin, Madison. Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A. (July 1998). "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic
Info-metrics (2,102 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
14 (91):108–127, 1857. Ludwig Boltzmann. "Further studies on the thermal equilibrium of gas molecules (weitere studien über das wärmegleichgewicht unter
Cybernetical physics (3,032 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
engine which operates by drawing heat from a source which is at thermal equilibrium at temperature T h o t {\displaystyle T_{hot}} , and delivering useful
Corium (nuclear reactor) (5,697 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
from above the corium layer, in sufficient quantity, may obtain a thermal equilibrium below the metal creep temperature, without reactor vessel failure
Buffer-gas trap (1,953 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
December 1998). "Trapped nonneutral plasmas, liquids, and crystals (the thermal equilibrium states)". Reviews of Modern Physics. American Physical Society (APS)
Climate sensitivity (10,039 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 22 February 2020. Manabe S, Wetherald RT (May 1967). "Thermal Equilibrium of the Atmosphere with a Given Distribution of Relative Humidity"
CANDU reactor (9,273 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
same energy as the fuel atoms themselves. As these neutrons are in thermal equilibrium with the fuel, they are referred to as thermal neutrons. During moderation
Andrei Sakharov (10,161 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
violation, C-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, and interactions out of thermal equilibrium. Sakharov was also interested in explaining why the curvature of
Glossary of power electronics (6,491 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1.  continuous duty; Operation time such that a capacitor is at thermal equilibrium for most of the time. 2.  intermittent duty ; Discontinuous working
Subir Sachdev (8,289 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rapidly the system loses quantum phase coherence, or reaches local thermal equilibrium in response to general external perturbations. If quasiparticles
20th century in science (9,743 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that the CO2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a
Electrokinematics theorem (5,938 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
g {\displaystyle S_{S}=4k_{B}Tg} , that is the thermal noise at thermal equilibrium given by the Nyquist theorem. If the carrier motions are correlated
Cooperative binding (5,524 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
interconvertible conformational states of an allosteric protein coexist in a thermal equilibrium. The states - often termed tense (T) and relaxed (R) - differ in
Penning–Malmberg trap (2,693 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(1999). "Trapped nonneutral plasmas, liquids, and crystals (the thermal equilibrium states)". Reviews of Modern Physics. 71 (1): 87–172. Bibcode:1999RvMP
Nucleoid (17,231 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
becomes substantially condensed without any additional factors; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil form. The random coil of E. coli chromosomal
Hyperuniformity (3,700 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
relation dictates that any compressible one-component fluid in thermal equilibrium cannot be strictly hyperuniform at finite temperature. Recently Chremos
De Broglie–Bohm theory (15,874 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
are emergent and form a "quantum equilibrium" that is analogous to thermal equilibrium in classical dynamics, such that other "quantum non-equilibrium"
Valve RF amplifier (4,462 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
means that all frequency-determining components may have to heat to thermal equilibrium before frequency stability is reached. While at AM broadcast (medium
Le Sage's theory of gravitation (11,116 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
small, because electrons and background radiation were nearly in thermal equilibrium. Hogan and White proposed in 1986 that mock gravity might have influenced
Single-photon avalanche diode (5,836 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
occupied to a degree that is much greater than that expected in a thermal-equilibrium distribution of charge carriers. After the SPAD has been quenched
Zero-point energy (26,928 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
chaos, as without such expansion the universe would have reached thermal equilibrium and no complexity could have existed. With the continued accelerated
Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (8,427 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
only 45 °F (7 °C), but it gradually warmed as the system reached a thermal equilibrium. After the initial startup, the pipeline was intended to run continuously
Strangeness and quark–gluon plasma (5,565 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
assume that under all conditions the yield of strange quarks is in thermal equilibrium. In general, the quark-flavor composition of the plasma varies during
Palash Baran Pal (1,428 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
particles (as electrons, positrons or charged weak gauge bosons) in thermal equilibrium. Pal has also ventured into calculations where the background for
Glossary of meteorology (21,292 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
windows is vital for the Earth–atmosphere system to be maintained near thermal equilibrium. autumn avalanche Aviation Area Forecast (FA or ARFOR) A former message
Cavity optomechanics (7,084 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
position sits somewhere on the rising slope of the resonance. In thermal equilibrium, there will be oscillations around this position that do not follow
Aza-Cope rearrangement (5,689 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1021/jo00238a039. Vogel, E.; Grimme, W.; Dinne, E. (December 1963). "Thermal Equilibrium between cis-1,2-Divinylcyclo-pentane and cis,cis-1,5-Cyclononadiene"
Dicke model (4,326 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
different two-level system, which can be diagonalized independently. At thermal equilibrium (see above), one finds that the free energy per two-level system
Stochastic thermodynamics (3,582 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
series of novel behaviours that are not attainable by matter at thermal equilibrium, including, for example, swarming and the emergence of other collective
Outline of oceanography (32,558 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
waves Wave turbulence – A set of nonlinear waves deviated far from thermal equilibrium. Wave–current interaction – The interaction between surface gravity
Thermometric titration (4,516 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
observed. This can be due to insensitivity of the sensor or where thermal equilibrium at the endpoint is slow to occur. It can also occur where the reaction
Heat transfer physics (9,865 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
electron is small except at very high temperature when they are in thermal equilibrium with phonons (lattice). Electrons contribute to heat conduction (in
Algorithmic cooling (7,126 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy transfer. For example, if two gas containers that are both in thermal equilibrium with two different temperatures are put in contact, entropy will
Path integrals in polymer science (7,087 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{3}{2l^{2}}}k_{b}T\sum _{n=1}^{N}({\vec {R}}_{n}-{\vec {R}}_{n-1})} At thermal equilibrium one can expect the Boltzmann distribution, which indeed recovers