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searching for The Cell 540 found (17319 total)

alternate case: the Cell

Cell (biology) (5,597 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article

The cell (from Latin cellula 'small room') is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Every cell consists of a cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane
Cell membrane (6,764 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane
Mitochondrion (15,490 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of insects. The mitochondrion is popularly nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell", a phrase first coined by Philip Siekevitz in a 1957 article of the same
Cell wall (4,734 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and
Cell cycle (7,088 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Play media The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell that cause it to divide into two daughter cells. These
Mitosis (7,064 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
In cell biology, mitosis (/maɪˈtoʊsɪs/) is a part of the cell cycle in which replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. Cell division gives
Cell biology (3,724 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
requires breaking up the cell using high temperature or sonification followed by centrifugation to separate the parts of the cell allowing for them to
Cytoplasm (1,846 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
all of the material within a eukaryotic cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. The material inside the nucleus and contained within
Cell nucleus (9,780 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for the small
Osmosis (2,454 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
moves out of the cell and the cell shrinks. In doing so, the cell becomes flaccid. In extreme cases, the cell becomes plasmolyzed – the cell membrane disengages
Apoptosis (10,357 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
bodies that phagocytes are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them. Because
Cell theory (3,636 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
reproduction. The three tenets to the cell theory are as described below: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of structure
Vacuole (2,277 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
basic shape or size; its structure varies according to the requirements of the cell. Contractile vacuoles ("stars") were first observed by Spallanzani (1776)
Chromosome (6,394 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form). Before this happens, each chromosome is duplicated
Cell division (3,140 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
gametes (meiosis). In cell biology, mitosis (/maɪˈtoʊsɪs/) is a part of the cell cycle, in which, replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
Cytoskeleton (4,371 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of all cells, including bacteria and archaea. It extends from the cell nucleus to the cell membrane and is composed of similar proteins in the various organisms
Hell in a Cell (1,799 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
damaging the Cell's structure is through an integrated door, which is part of the Cell- but this door is locked by thick chains and a padlock, so that the combatants
Cell signaling (5,870 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stimuli. Receptors are generally proteins located on the cell surface or within the interior of the cell such as the cytoplasm, organelles, and nucleus. Cell
Depolarization (2,059 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell compared to the outside
Lysosome (4,777 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
system of the cell by digesting in used materials in the cytoplasm, from both inside and outside the cell. Material from outside the cell is taken up
Protein (9,576 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
biochemical response in the cell. Many receptors have a binding site exposed on the cell surface and an effector domain within the cell, which may have enzymatic
Organelle (2,299 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
membrane-bounded structures. Also, the prokaryotic flagellum which protrudes outside the cell, and its motor, as well as the largely extracellular pilus, are often spoken
Vesicle (biology and chemistry) (3,439 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle released from the cell is known as an extracellular
Cardiac muscle (4,706 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
deep within the cell. They are continuous with the cell membrane, are composed of the same phospholipid bilayer, and are open at the cell surface to the
Bacteria (15,253 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients, proteins and other essential components of the cytoplasm within the cell. Unlike eukaryotic
Golgi apparatus (2,712 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cytoplasm, it packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination. It resides at the intersection
Tonicity (973 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of the cell. When plant cells are in a hypotonic solution, the central vacuole takes on extra water and pushes the cell membrane against the cell wall
Protein biosynthesis (4,124 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
mature mRNA. The mature mRNA is exported from the cell nucleus via nuclear pores to the cytoplasm of the cell for translation to occur. During translation
Axon (6,626 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
electrical impulse travels along these from the periphery to the cell body and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon
Exocytosis (1,741 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis). As an active transport mechanism, exocytosis requires
Nucleic acid (2,674 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living
Interphase (909 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of the cell cycle that is not accompanied by gross changes under the microscope, and includes the G1, S and G2 phases. During interphase, the cell grows
Endocytosis (2,387 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
are brought into the cell. The material to be internalized is surrounded by an area of cell membrane, which then buds off inside the cell to form a vesicle
Endoplasmic reticulum (3,375 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
different ratios of the two types of ER depending on the activities of the cell. The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded
Cell growth (4,561 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
or catabolism). Cell growth is not to be confused with cell division or the cell cycle, which are distinct processes that can occur alongside cell growth
Cytosol (4,693 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
many compartments. In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the mitochondria
Necrosis (2,873 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
living tissue by autolysis. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, or trauma which result in the unregulated
Integrin (3,670 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
such as regulation of the cell cycle, organization of the intracellular cytoskeleton, and movement of new receptors to the cell membrane. The presence
Dendrite (2,677 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. Electrical
Active transport (3,616 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
usually associated with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell needs, such as ions, glucose and amino acids. Examples of active transport
Flagellum (6,341 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(/fləˈdʒɛləm/; plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain cells termed as flagellates. A flagellate can have one
Paramecium (3,030 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
surface, in the posterior half of the cell. In all species, there is a deep oral groove running from the anterior of the cell to its midpoint. This is lined
Nucleotide (2,871 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(UTP)—throughout the cell for the many cellular functions that demand energy, including: amino acid, protein and cell membrane synthesis, moving the cell and cell
Sodium (6,722 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside
Endomembrane system (4,659 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. In eukaryotes
DNA replication (6,655 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
also ensures that each of the new cells receives its own copy of the DNA. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication
Cellular differentiation (5,933 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
process in which a cell changes from one cell type to another. Usually, the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times
S phase (1,679 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
S phase (Synthesis Phase) is the phase of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase. Since accurate duplication
Metabolic pathway (1,935 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the next. However, side products are considered waste and removed from the cell. These enzymes often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors
Turgor pressure (3,588 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall. It is also called hydrostatic pressure, and is defined
Cell surface receptor (2,423 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the extracellular space. The extracellular molecules may be hormones
Cyclin-dependent kinase (2,300 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
families of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. They are also involved in regulating transcription, mRNA processing
Hormone (3,644 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
plants, which despite being lipid soluble, still bind to their receptor at the cell surface. In vertebrates, endocrine glands are specialized organs that secrete
Neuron (7,839 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
potential across the cell membrane. Stimuli cause specific ion-channels within the cell membrane to open, leading to a flow of ions through the cell membrane
Microtubule (7,393 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cellular processes. They are involved in maintaining the structure of the cell and, together with microfilaments and intermediate filaments, they form
Peptidoglycan (1,337 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall. The sugar component consists of alternating residues of β-(1,4) linked
Electrophysiology (4,261 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
However, this invasive setup reduces the life of the cell and causes a leak of substances across the cell membrane. Intracellular activity may also be observed
Space-division multiple access (539 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio coverage. This method
Sex (8,189 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "The Benefits of Sex". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. Alberts B
Excretion (714 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell. Excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in
Action potential (16,064 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of the cell, called the membrane potential. A typical voltage across an animal cell membrane is −70 mV. This means that the interior of the cell has
Oncogene (2,122 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
growth are up-regulated (gain-of-function mutation), they will predispose the cell to cancer; thus, they are termed "oncogenes". Usually multiple oncogenes
Lipid bilayer (9,574 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cells. The cell membranes of almost all organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the nuclear membrane surrounding the cell nucleus
Cytokinesis (3,129 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Cytokinesis (/ˌsaɪtoʊkɪˈniːsɪs/) is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter
Ciliate (2,790 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
infraciliature is one of the main components of the cell cortex. Others are the alveoli, small vesicles under the cell membrane that are packed against it to form
MRNA vaccine (7,162 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cytoplasm and do not affect the body's genomic DNA, located separately in the cell nucleus. Once the viral antigens are produced by the host cell, the normal
DNA (16,804 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA
G1 phase (1,241 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division. In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins
Gram-positive bacteria (2,504 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
this stage degrades the outer membrane of gram-negative cells, making the cell wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal violet stain. Their
Virus (18,673 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell's nucleus. If the cell has the appropriate receptor on its surface, these viruses enter the cell either by direct fusion with the cell membrane (e.g.
Henrietta Lacks (5,677 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in 1951. These cells were then cultured by George Otto Gey who created the cell line known as HeLa, which is still used for medical research. As was then
Gram stain (2,416 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell walls. Gram-positive cells have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall that retains the primary stain, crystal violet. Gram-negative cells
MAPK/ERK pathway (3,094 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. The signal starts
G protein (2,604 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Heterotrimeric G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell membrane. Signaling molecules bind
Phosphorylation (1,763 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate and trapped within the cell as the cell membrane is negatively charged. This reaction occurs due to the enzyme
Enzyme activator (574 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
maintains a low glucose concentration to facilitate glucose diffusion into the cell. It has two catalytic domains (N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain)
HIV (14,133 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme
Membrane transport protein (1,779 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes
Cytotoxicity (1,141 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cytological and molecular events including a change in the refractive index of the cell, cytoplasmic shrinkage, nuclear condensation and cleavage of DNA into regularly
Na+/K+-ATPase (3,499 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
inside the cell. When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into the cell through osmosis. This can cause the cell to swell
Neurotransmitter receptor (1,555 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter. Chemicals on the outside of the cell, such as a neurotransmitter, can bump into the cell's membrane, in which
Anode (2,568 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
anode of a galvanic cell, into an outside or external circuit connected to the cell. In both a galvanic cell and an electrolytic cell, the anode is the electrode
Agar (2,781 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
is a jelly-like substance consisting of polysaccharides obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from ogonori (Gracilaria)
Cellular network (4,364 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell sites or base transceiver stations). These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice,
Autophagy (9,422 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, conserved degradation of the cell that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components through a lysosome-dependent
Electrode (912 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs (indicated by a minus symbol, "−"), and the cathode as the electrode at which electrons enter the cell and reduction
Patch clamp (3,533 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
performed using the voltage clamp technique. In this case, the voltage across the cell membrane is controlled by the experimenter and the resulting currents are
Ganglion (389 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
system there are both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia which contain the cell bodies of postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons respectively
Anaphase (716 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of the cell, interpolar microtubules and astral microtubules generate forces that stretch the cell into an oval. Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves
Cardiac action potential (5,240 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
across the cell membrane of heart cells. This is caused by the movement of charged atoms (called ions) between the inside and outside of the cell, through
Tumor suppressor gene (3,393 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a gene that regulates a cell during cell division and replication. If the cell grows uncontrollably, it will result in cancer. When a tumor suppressor
Biological membrane (2,182 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
lipid molecules bound tightly to surface of integral membrane proteins. The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of
Metaphase (574 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells. Metaphase accounts for approximately 4% of the cell cycle's duration
Translation (biology) (3,288 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary
Biochemistry (6,125 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends upon the reactions of small molecules and ions. These can
Cardiac action potential (5,240 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
across the cell membrane of heart cells. This is caused by the movement of charged atoms (called ions) between the inside and outside of the cell, through
Secretion (2,998 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes. Porosomes are permanent cup-shaped lipoprotein structure at the cell plasma membrane, where
Human leukocyte antigen (5,831 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell. For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can
Viral replication (1,429 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
infection process in the target host cells. Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. Through the generation of abundant
Cathode (2,887 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cathode to anode outside of the cell or device (with electrons moving in the opposite direction), regardless of the cell or device type and operating
Second messenger system (1,338 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers
Aquaporin (4,514 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells. The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells
Herpes simplex virus (6,264 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body by hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of neurons. After the initial or primary infection, some infected
Passive transport (1,601 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
overall system. The rate of passive transport depends on the permeability of the cell membrane, which, in turn, depends on the organization and characteristics
Kinase (3,800 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
other molecules. The addition and removal of phosphoryl groups provides the cell with a means of control because various kinases can respond to different
DNA repair (13,773 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. A cell that has accumulated
E2F (1,909 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
others act as suppressors: E2F3b, E2F4-8. All of them are involved in the cell cycle regulation and synthesis of DNA in mammalian cells. E2Fs as TFs bind
Autolysis (biology) (1,142 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
components of the cell that would not normally serve as substrates. These enzymes are released due to the cessation of active processes in the cell that provide
Meiosis (6,895 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
as meiosis I and meiosis II. Before meiosis begins, during S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA of each chromosome is replicated so that it consists of
Organism (4,777 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
within the cell; eukaryotic cells have nuclear membranes. All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have a membrane, which envelops the cell, separates
Retinoblastoma protein (9,472 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
until a cell is ready to divide. When the cell is ready to divide, pRb is phosphorylated, inactivating it, and the cell cycle is allowed to progress. It is
Symporter (660 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
molecules across the cell membrane in the same direction. The symporter works in the plasma membrane and molecules are transported across the cell membrane at
Amoeba (3,587 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the contents of the cell, water is transferred across the amoeba's cell membrane by osmosis. Without a contractile vacuole, the cell would fill with excess
Electrochemical cell (2,066 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
general, the electrochemical reaction occurring in the cell is not reversible, rendering the cell unrechargeable. As a primary cell is used, chemical
Polysaccharide (3,062 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms and is said to be the most abundant
West Nile virus (4,916 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
functions including receptor binding, viral attachment, and entry into the cell through membrane fusion. The outer protein shell is covered by a host-derived
Photoreceptor cell (4,515 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. There
Membrane potential (7,578 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the interior and the exterior of a biological cell. For the exterior of the cell, typical values of membrane potential, normally given in units of millivolts
Extracellular matrix (4,044 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Hyaluronic acid is found on the inner surface of the cell membrane and is translocated out of the cell during biosynthesis. Hyaluronic acid acts as an
Red blood cell (7,695 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell contains approximately 270 million of these hemoglobin molecules. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides
Intracellular receptor (111 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane. Classic hormones that use intracellular receptors include
Enzyme (9,687 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain
Sinoatrial node (2,716 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
within the cell then activates a sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX), which removes one Ca2+ from the cell, and exchanges it for 3 Na+ into the cell (therefore
Electro-galvanic oxygen sensor (3,462 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
when the cathode and anode are electrically connected through a resistor The cell reaction for a lead/oxygen cell is: 2Pb + O2 → 2PbO, made up of the cathode
Centrosome (2,541 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
regulator of cell-cycle progression. The centrosome provides structure for the cell. The centrosome is thought to have evolved only in the metazoan lineage
Chromatin (4,395 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
overall structure of the chromatin network further depends on the stage of the cell cycle. During interphase, the chromatin is structurally loose to allow
Voltage-gated calcium channel (3,065 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
higher outside the cell than inside. Activation of particular VGCCs allows a Ca2+ influx into the cell, which, depending on the cell type, results in
Growth factor receptor (581 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
are the initial step to activating the growth factor receptors and tells the cell to grow and/or divide. These receptors may use the JAK/STAT, MAP kinase
Taste (10,020 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
sodium cations to enter the cell. This on its own depolarizes the cell, and opens voltage-dependent calcium channels, flooding the cell with positive calcium
Signal transduction (7,544 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
signaling molecules, known as ligands, to receptors that trigger events inside the cell. The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in
NMDA receptor (11,273 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
opens and it allows positively charged ions (cations) to flow through the cell membrane. The NMDA receptor is thought to be very important for controlling
Lac operon (5,044 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
including lactose into the cell using a proton gradient in the same direction. Permease increases the permeability of the cell to β-galactosides. lacA
Antiporter (555 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions, one into the cell and one out of the cell. Na+/H+ antiporters have been reviewed. In secondary active
Bacterial cell structure (4,208 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical
Potassium (9,792 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
moves potassium across the cell membrane using two mechanisms. One is active and pumps sodium out of, and potassium into, the cell. The other is passive
Cell cycle checkpoint (4,567 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
point along the cell cycle, during which the conditions of the cell are assessed, with progression through the various phases of the cell cycle occurring
Epithelium (2,768 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
columnar epithelium, and both types of layering can be made up of any of the cell shapes. However, when taller simple columnar epithelial cells are viewed
Epstein–Barr virus (4,976 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glycoprotein gp42. Once EBV enters the cell, the viral capsid dissolves and the viral genome is transported to the cell nucleus. The lytic cycle, or productive
Parvoviridae (4,004 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
host cell by endocytosis, travelling to the nucleus where they wait until the cell enters its replication stage. At that point, the genome is uncoated and
T-tubule (3,214 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
T-tubules (transverse tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. With membranes
Ribosome (6,730 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
from the cell nucleus and other organelles. Proteins that are formed from free ribosomes are released into the cytosol and used within the cell. Since
Cell (novel) (2,673 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
and reset his son's brain. The book ends with Clay dialing and placing the cell phone to Johnny's ear. Clayton Riddell: a graphic artist separated from
Transformation (genetics) (6,783 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s). For transformation to take place, the recipient bacterium
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (1,811 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
concentration of calcium ions outside the cell. This means that small increases in calcium ions within the cell are easily detected and can bring about
Glycolipid (1,594 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of the cell membrane and to facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the
Glycolipid (1,594 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of the cell membrane and to facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the
Dynein (3,246 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chromosomes in the middle of the cell during the metaphase of mitosis. Dynein pulls the microtubules and chromosomes to one end of the cell. When the end of the
Cyclin (1,770 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
is a family of proteins that controls the progression of a cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes or group of enzymes
Cell (novel) (2,673 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
and reset his son's brain. The book ends with Clay dialing and placing the cell phone to Johnny's ear. Clayton Riddell: a graphic artist separated from
Viral entry (1,831 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
comes into contact with the host cell and introduces viral material into the cell. The major steps involved in viral entry are shown below. Despite the variation
Trastuzumab deruxtecan (1,146 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
during cell division, leading to DNA damage when the cell attempts to replicate itself, destroying the cell. It was approved for medical use in the United
Nervous tissue (1,362 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
neurons, all of which have an axon. An axon is the long stem-like part of the cell that sends action potentials to the next cell. Bundles of axons make up
Nucleolus (1,774 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. pp. 331–3. ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. Cooper GM, Hausman RE (2007). The Cell: A Molecular Approach
Gene regulatory network (5,953 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins which, in turn, determine the function of the cell. GRN also play a
Stimulus (physiology) (3,935 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
A local graded potential begins in the photoreceptor, where it excites the cell enough for the impulse to be passed along through a track of neurons to
Muscle cell (4,484 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The cell membrane of a cardiac muscle cell has several specialized regions, which may include the intercalated disc, and transverse tubules. The cell
Zooxanthellae (1,810 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
up the cell wall’s entire structure. Beneath the cell wall is the cell membrane, and beneath the cell membrane are thecal vesicles. DNA in the cell exists
Cell migration (2,727 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
generally accepted that the leading front is the main motor that pulls the cell forward. The processes underlying mammalian cell migration are believed
Penicillin (10,077 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
penicillin molecules. This causes the cell wall to weaken due to fewer cross-links and means water uncontrollably flows into the cell because it cannot maintain
Cluster of differentiation (1,332 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
receptors or ligands important to the cell. A signal cascade is usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell (see cell signaling). Some CD proteins
Calcium in biology (4,144 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
outside the cell and internal stores, reversing the concentration gradient so the K+ ions begin exiting the cell. The loss of solutes makes the cell flaccid
Molecular biology (3,218 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
efficiently target new drugs, diagnose disease, and understand the physiology of the cell. While molecular biology was established as an official branch of science
Extracellular fluid (3,553 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane, which pump sodium ions out of the cell, into the ECF, in return for potassium ions which enter the cell from the ECF.
Diphtheria toxin (1,465 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
corynephage β. The toxin causes the disease in humans by gaining entry into the cell cytoplasm and inhibiting protein synthesis. Diphtheria toxin is a single
MHC class I (2,382 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of vertebrates. They also
Soma (biology) (743 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus. The word 'soma' comes from the Greek 'σῶμα', meaning 'body'. Although
Terpenoid (562 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
terpenoids are added to proteins, e.g., to enhance their attachment to the cell membrane; this is known as isoprenylation. Terpenoids are modified terpenes
Histidine kinase (2,109 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
on the outside of the cell (extracellular domain) that bind to hormone- or growth factor-like molecules, portions that span the cell membrane (transmembrane
Osteoclast (2,774 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
osteoclast exhibits finger-like processes due to presence of deep infoldings of the cell membrane; this border is called ruffled border. The ruffled border lies
G2 phase (2,805 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Gap 2 phase, or Growth 2 phase, is the third subphase of interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding mitosis. It follows the successful completion
Electrochemistry (7,924 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
given as it is an important variable in determining the cell potential. To allow prediction of the cell potential, tabulations of standard electrode potential
Biology (29,186 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
importance of the cell. Then, in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that (1) the basic unit of organisms is the cell and (2)
Euglena (3,013 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. However, they can
Alpha secretase (950 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
domain') family, which are expressed on the surfaces of cells and anchored in the cell membrane. Several such proteins, notably ADAM10, have been identified as
Firmicutes (1,269 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have gram-positive cell wall
Cystic fibrosis (15,848 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the electrical potential inside and outside the cell that normally causes cations to cross into the cell. Sodium is the most common cation in the extracellular
Vorticella (1,507 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
substrates. The stalks have contractile myonemes, allowing them to pull the cell body against substrates. The formation of the stalk happens after the free-swimming
Genetics (9,651 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g. dominance), and within the context of a population
DNA damage (naturally occurring) (9,961 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
contribute to progression to cancer. Throughout the cell cycle there are various checkpoints to ensure the cell is in good condition to progress to mitosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (901 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell. Only the receptor-specific substances can enter the cell through this process. Although receptors and their ligands can be brought into the
Melanosome (1,081 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
especially tyrosinase, that synthesise the large polymers of melanin within the cell. Before it generates sufficient pigment to be seen on light microscopy
Spreadsheet (9,128 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
default to the cell format of date. Similarly adding a % sign after a numeric value would tag the cell as a percentage cell format. The cell contents are
Mitotic inhibitor (829 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cancerous growth. Microtubules are long, ropelike proteins that extend through the cell and move cellular components around. Microtubules are long polymers made
Major histocompatibility complex (6,686 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
self-proteins, or from pathogens, and bringing the antigen presentation to the cell surface for recognition by the appropriate T-cells. MHC molecules mediate
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (2,645 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells. They play several roles,
Evolution of cells (2,848 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the most important step in the evolution of life on Earth. The birth of the cell marked the passage from pre-biotic chemistry to partitioned units resembling
Bravais lattice (2,357 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell (sometimes called end-centered) Body-centered (I): lattice points on the cell corners, with one additional point at the center of the cell Face-centered
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (1,100 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
which usually result from the flow of negative ions into the cell or positive ions out of the cell. EPSPs can also result from a decrease in outgoing positive
Mumps virus (2,845 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
virions are formed adjacent to the cell membrane, where they then leave the cell by budding from its surface, using the cell membrane as the envelope. The
Transcription factor (7,658 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct
Transduction (genetics) (1,403 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Transduction does not require physical contact between the cell donating the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA (which occurs in conjugation), and it
Transfection (3,211 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
animal cells typically involves opening transient pores or "holes" in the cell membrane to allow the uptake of material. Transfection can be carried out
Viral envelope (312 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a capsid, another protein layer, between the envelope and the genome. The cell from which a virus buds often dies or is weakened, and sheds more viral
Transduction (genetics) (1,403 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
Transduction does not require physical contact between the cell donating the DNA and the cell receiving the DNA (which occurs in conjugation), and it
Catabolite activator protein (539 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
catabolic pathways. For example, when the amount of glucose transported into the cell is low, a cascade of events results in the increase of cytosolic cAMP levels
Enzyme-linked receptor (352 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
receptor on the outside of the cell and causes a conformational change on the catalytic function located on the receptor inside the cell. Examples of the enzymatic
Ischemic cell death (1,093 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
accidental cell death. The process is characterized by an ATP depletion within the cell leading to impairment of ionic pumps, cell swelling, clearing of the cytosol
Microfilament (2,677 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
actin, but are modified by and interact with numerous other proteins in the cell. Microfilaments are usually about 7 nm in diameter and made up of two strands
Herpesviridae (2,810 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the virus enters a cell, the cellular immune response is to protect the cell. The cell does so by wrapping the viral DNA around histones and condensing it
Protein targeting (3,000 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
proteins are transported to their appropriate destinations within or outside the cell. Proteins can be targeted to the inner space of an organelle, different
Carcinoma (3,137 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
embryogenesis. Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant. It is from the Greek:
Wnt signaling pathway (7,118 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
that is responsible for the shape of the cell. The noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. Wnt signaling was first identified
Colponema (1,147 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Colponema has two flagella which originate just below the anterior end of the cell. One extends forwards and the other runs through a deep groove in the surface
Spirochaete (1,755 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
outer membranes) where they project backwards to extend the length of the cell. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about
Membrane protein (1,818 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
monotopic). Peripheral membrane proteins are transiently associated with the cell membrane. Membrane proteins are common, and medically important—about a
Lysosomal storage disease (1,752 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
that digest large molecules and pass the fragments on to other parts of the cell for recycling. This process requires several critical enzymes. If one of
1829 braille (1,346 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
image at left or table below.) Like the first decade, only the top half of the cell was used. The digit 1 was a dash in the top row; 2 was dashes in the top
Jameson cell (8,597 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cell. In contrast to most types of flotation cell, the Cell introduces the feed and the air to the Cell in a combined stream via one or more cylindrical
Foreign Investment and NRI Cell, Government of Haryana (331 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
property, marital dispute, law and order, and other related social issues. The Cell would also create its Web Portal "Connect Haryana" to act as the single
Rod cell (1,748 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
have the same basic structure. Opsin-containing disks lie at the end of the cell adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium, which in turn is attached to
Bacteriophage (6,297 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
material into the cell. After contacting the appropriate receptor, the tail fibers flex to bring the base plate closer to the surface of the cell. This is
Nuclear envelope (2,081 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
also ruptures in migrating mammalian cells during the interphase stage of the cell cycle. This transient rupture is likely caused by nuclear deformation.
Plant cell (2,145 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
constructed outside the cell membrane and composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Their composition contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which
HeLa (5,445 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
African-American mother of five, who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific, which allows it to
Ion channel (5,012 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial
Endosome (2,396 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
example, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is taken into the cell by binding to the LDL receptor at the cell surface. Upon reaching early endosomes, the LDL dissociates
Catabolism (400 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions
Ground tissue (1,807 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
nor vascular. It can be divided into three types based on the nature of the cell walls. Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls and usually remain alive
RUNX2 (2,174 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
generally accepted that the varying activity and levels of Runx2 throughout the cell cycle contribute to cell cycle entry and exit, as well as cell cycle progression
Pinocytosis (809 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell. These
Discosea (693 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell (see lamelliopodium). In some discoseans, short "subpseudopodia" may be extended from this hyaloplasm, but the granular contents of the cell
Phagocytosis (1,950 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Fcγ receptor mediated phagocytosis includes formation of protrusions of the cell called a 'phagocytic cup' and activates an oxidative burst in neutrophils
Peptide hormone (503 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
according to mRNA transcripts, which are synthesized from DNA templates inside the cell nucleus. Preprohormones, peptide hormone precursors, are then processed
G protein-coupled receptor (9,225 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell and activate cellular responses. Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane
Mitogen (1,692 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cyclins which stimulate the cell sufficiently to allow cell division. While animals produce internal signals that can drive the cell cycle forward, external
Poxviridae (2,989 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
then fused to the cell plasma to form the cell-associated enveloped virion, which encounters the microtubules and prepares to exit the cell as an extracellular
G0 phase (3,754 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell cycle studies. When the first studies defined the four phases of the cell cycle using radioactive labeling techniques, it was discovered that not
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (5,918 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
RNAs. These cells maintain their shape by growing exclusively through the cell tips and divide by medial fission to produce two daughter cells of equal
B cell (3,496 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
proper development, both involving B cell receptors (BCR) on the surface of the cell. Positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving
Cell envelope antibiotic (33 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
primarily at the level of the cell envelope. Examples include cycloserine, penicillin, and polymyxin B. "Antibiotics that affect the cell envelope". v t e
Urokinase receptor (1,113 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
humans by the PLAUR gene. It is a multidomain glycoprotein tethered to the cell membrane with a glycosylphosphotidylinositol (GPI) anchor. uPAR was originally
Exotoxin (2,065 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. Gram negative pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing
Vertical launching system (1,948 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the command is given, the missile flies straight up long enough to clear the cell and the ship, and then turns on course. A VLS allows surface combatants
Anabolism (1,019 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
taken from catabolic pathways during periods of high energy charge in the cell. Anabolic processes build organs and tissues. These processes produce growth
ATP7A (2,811 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and the cell membrane to maintain proper Cu(I) concentrations (since there is no free Cu(I) in the cell, Cu(I) ions are all tightly bound) in the cell and
Fission (biology) (2,196 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
replicates, then attaches each copy to a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull apart, the replicated and original chromosomes
Protein kinase A (2,632 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.11). PKA has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism. Protein
Goblet cell (2,251 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
polarized with the nucleus and other organelles concentrated at the base of the cell and secretory granules containing mucin, at the apical surface. The apical
Gene expression (9,305 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
environment, external signals, damage to the cell, and other stimuli. More generally, gene regulation gives the cell control over all structure and function
Metabolism (11,949 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
maintains the cell shape. Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle
Stathmin (1,967 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
highly conserved 17 kDa protein that is crucial for the regulation of the cell cytoskeleton. Changes in the cytoskeleton are important because the cytoskeleton
Antigen presentation (1,541 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T-cell
Spindle apparatus (3,288 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
opposite cell poles couples opposing tension forces, aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. Once every
Metabolism (11,949 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
maintains the cell shape. Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle
Axon hillock (1,100 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. It can be identified using light microscopy from
Antigen presentation (1,541 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T-cell
Spindle apparatus (3,288 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
opposite cell poles couples opposing tension forces, aligning chromosomes at the cell equator and poising them for segregation to daughter cells. Once every
Ellobiopsis (627 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
tissue. The cell body constricts in the center and differentiate into trophomere and gonomere, proximal and distal to the host body. The cell forms a conical
Cellular respiration (3,198 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
allowing more stable products to form, thereby releasing energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis
GLUT4 (2,900 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in 1988. The gene that encodes GLUT4 was cloned and mapped in 1989. At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose
Telomere (5,941 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
they have the potential to unfold from their presumed closed structure. The cell may detect this uncapping as DNA damage and then either stop growing, enter
Paul Nurse (2,457 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
discoveries of protein molecules that control the division of cells in the cell cycle. Nurse's mother went from London to Norwich, Norfolk and lived with
Kinesin (4,108 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
transporting cargo such as protein and membrane components from the center of the cell towards the periphery. This form of transport is known as anterograde transport
Cadherin (3,472 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cadherin adhesome. The cadherin family is essential in maintaining the cell-cell contact and regulate cytoskeletal complexes. The cadherin superfamily
Antimetabolite (1,316 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
substances from becoming incorporated into DNA during the S phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and cell division. Anti-metabolites
Dynamin (929 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and their targeting to, and fusion with, another compartment, both at the cell surface (particularly caveolae internalization) as well as at the Golgi
Galvanic cell (3,257 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in the cell. Then one looks up the standard electrode potential, Eo, in volts, for each of the two half reactions. The standard potential of the cell is
Neuromuscular junction (4,300 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
proteins (synaptotagmin) on synaptic vesicles, triggering vesicle fusion with the cell membrane and subsequent neurotransmitter release from the motor neuron
Ion transporter (2,026 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
essential for proper cell function and thus they are highly regulated by the cell and studied by researchers using a variety of methods. Some examples of
Clandestine cell system (5,126 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
military units). In a cell structure, each of the small group of people in the cell know the identities of the people only in their own cell. Thus any cell
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase (215 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatases are regulated partly by their location within the cell and by specific inhibitor proteins. Serine and threonine are amino acids
Beta cell (3,546 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
difference across the cell surface membrane of -70mV. When the glucose concentration outside the cell is high, glucose molecules move into the cell by facilitated
Intramacronucleata (199 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
division of the macronucleus is accomplished during binary fission of the cell. In ciliates of this subphylum, division of the macronucleus is achieved
Voltage-gated ion channel (2,282 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
changing ion concentration, and hence charge gradient, between the sides of the cell membrane. Voltage-gated ion channels are generally composed of several
Hyaluronan synthase (983 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
UDP-α-D-glucuronate as substrates to produce the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan at the cell surface and extrude it through the membrane into the extracellular space
Post-transcriptional modification (1,485 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
leave the nucleus and perform any of a variety of different functions in the cell. There are many types of post-transcriptional modifications achieved through
Cholesterol (8,137 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cholesterol per day, and his body contains about 35 g, mostly contained within the cell membranes. Typical daily cholesterol dietary intake for a man in the United
Sleeper Cell (TV series) (753 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
material on the first season DVDs reveal, the show was originally named The Cell. Darwyn Al-Sayeed, a 30-year-old American undercover FBI agent who is a
Philadelphia chromosome (3,397 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
causing the cell to divide uncontrollably by interrupting the stability of the genome and impairing various signaling pathways governing the cell cycle
Cell adhesion (3,598 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface. This process can occur either through direct contact between cell
Gamete (1,335 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
small and motile due to the flagellum, a tail-shaped structure that allows the cell to propel and move. In contrast, each egg cell or ovum is relatively large
Retrovirus (4,487 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(SU) of the Env protein, while the ability of the retrovirus to enter the cell via membrane fusion is imparted by the membrane-anchored trans-membrane
Hypha (1,528 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
outside the cell by the process of exocytosis, where it can then be transported to where it is needed. Vesicle membranes contribute to growth of the cell membrane
GPR132 (2,724 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and TDAG8 (GPR65), G2A is a G protein coupled receptor that resides in the cell surface membrane, senses changes in extracellular pH, and can alter cellular
Cytokeratin (965 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
particular organs or tissues. Thus they are used clinically to identify the cell of origin of various human tumors. The term "cytokeratin" began to be used
Hyperpolarization (biology) (973 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
channel response is how the hyperpolarization state is achieved. In neurons, the cell enters a state of hyperpolarization immediately following the generation
Cardiac pacemaker (1,416 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
depolarize (make more positive) the inside membrane potential (voltage) of the cell, giving these cells their pacemaker potential. When the membrane potential
Hair cell (3,085 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stereocilia called hair bundles that protrude from the apical surface of the cell into the fluid-filled cochlear duct. The stereocilia number from 50-100
Downregulation and upregulation (1,770 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
effectively direct the cell to do something, such as dividing, dying, or allowing substances to be created, or to enter or exit the cell. A cell's ability
Unipolar neuron (347 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
is a neuron in which only one process, called a neurite, extends from the cell body. The neurite then branches to form dendritic and axonal processes
Mankind vs. The Undertaker (6,754 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Foley taking two dangerous and highly influential bumps from the top of the cell in an attempt to surpass the previous Hell in a Cell in 1997; planned beforehand
Phragmoplast (2,238 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the two daughter nuclei while nuclear envelopes reassemble around them. The cell plate initially forms as a disc between the two halves of the phragmoplast
Insulin (13,646 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
from leaving the cell by facilitated diffusion, leading to a buildup of intracellular potassium ions. As a result, the inside of the cell becomes less
Neuropilin (1,062 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Growth Factor beta (TGFβ). Although Neuropilins are commonly found at the cell surface, they have also been reported within the mitochondria and nucleus
Life (16,034 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
extreme environments that are detrimental to most other life on Earth. The cell is considered the structural and functional unit of life. There are two
Prophase (2,083 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
meiosis. Beginning after interphase, DNA has already been replicated when the cell enters prophase. The main occurrences in prophase are the condensation
Long short-term memory (4,802 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
forget gate. The cell remembers values over arbitrary time intervals and the three gates regulate the flow of information into and out of the cell. LSTM networks
Ligand-gated ion channel (3,636 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
conformational change opens the ion channels, which leads to a flow of ions across the cell membrane. This, in turn, results in either a depolarization, for an excitatory
Collagenase (750 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
collagenase once it has been secreted from the cell. This stops large structures from forming inside the cell itself. In addition to being produced by some
Pectinesterase (1,294 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
fungi. Pectinesterase functions primarily by altering the localised pH of the cell wall resulting in alterations in cell wall integrity. Pectinesterase catalyses
Osmotic pressure (1,512 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
environment, the cell interior accumulates water, water flows across the cell membrane into the cell, causing it to expand. In plant cells, the cell wall restricts
Viral shedding (901 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
all resources in making viral progeny, the viruses may begin to leave the cell by several methods. The term is variously used to refer to viral particles
Amyloid-beta precursor protein secretase (274 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
"snip" pieces off a longer protein that is embedded in the cell membrane. Among other roles in the cell, secretases act on the amyloid-beta precursor protein
Collagenase (750 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
collagenase once it has been secreted from the cell. This stops large structures from forming inside the cell itself. In addition to being produced by some
Lambda phage (5,053 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and new phage particles are produced within the cell. This is followed by cell lysis, releasing the cell contents, including virions that have been assembled
Autoschizis (789 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
without the formation of apoptotic bodies and destruction of the cell membrane. The cell death results from karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Autoschizis can
Coccus (551 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
from the Greek masculine noun κόκκος (cóccos) meaning 'berry'. Structure The cell wall structure for cocci may vary between gram-positive (thick peptidoglycan
KEGG (1,739 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
representing experimental knowledge on metabolism and various other functions of the cell and the organism. Each pathway map contains a network of molecular interactions
Amyloid-beta precursor protein secretase (274 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
"snip" pieces off a longer protein that is embedded in the cell membrane. Among other roles in the cell, secretases act on the amyloid-beta precursor protein
Erythropoiesis (1,479 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
normoblast. At this stage the nucleus is expelled before the cell becomes a reticulocyte. The cell is released from the bone marrow after Stage 7, and so
Mobile phone (8,275 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
will typically be covered by three towers placed at different locations. The cell towers are usually interconnected to each other and the phone network and
Lamellipodium (749 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
projection on the leading edge of the cell. It contains a quasi-two-dimensional actin mesh; the whole structure propels the cell across a substrate. Within the
Protoplasm (1,932 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the extra-nuclear portion of the protoplast [the entire cell, excluding the cell wall] was called "protoplasm," but the nucleus also is composed of protoplasm
T wave (1,753 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
negative of direction and charge is why the T wave is positive; although the cell becomes more negatively charged, the net effect is in the positive direction
Gastric chief cell (355 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants. The cell stains basophilic upon H&E staining due
Anatomical terms of microanatomy (816 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
thick (multi-layered), and both types of layering can be made up of any of the cell shapes. However, when taller simple columnar epithelial cells are viewed
Prokaryotic cytoskeleton (3,037 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cytoskeletal element, forms a filamentous ring structure located in the middle of the cell called the Z-ring that constricts during cell division, similar to the
Oxidative phosphorylation (9,470 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glycolysis. The energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose is released by the cell in the citric acid cycle producing carbon dioxide, and the energetic electron
Trypanosomatida (1,958 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
during their life cycles. The flagellum exits the cell anterior of nucleus and is connected to the cell body for part of its length by an undulating membrane
Neurotransmitter (7,607 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
secreted by a neuron or a glial cell to affect another cell across a synapse. The cell receiving the signal, or target cell, may be another neuron, but could
Tissue (biology) (2,749 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
inter-molecular space between them. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong, rigid and impermeable to water which is also known
Spectrin (1,098 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
spectrin-containing submembranous cytoskeleton preserved the shape of the cell in outline. This became known as a red blood cell "ghost" (spectre), and
Young Scooter (2,035 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
28, 2013. On August 29, 2013, Young Scooter released his mixtape From The Cell Block To Your Block, featuring guest appearances from Future, Gucci Mane
Nassula (676 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
strands of blue-green algae through the cytopharynx and into the body of the cell, where they are digested. As the algae are broken down, they can take on
Monomer (647 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. Nucleotide monomers are found in the cell nucleus. Four types of nucleotide monomers are precursors to DNA and four
Influenza (12,611 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
migrate to the cell membrane with the aid of recycled endosomes and are bundled into the segments of the genome. Progenic viruses leave the cell by budding
Prostaglandin (2,202 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
platelets, endothelium, uterine and mast cells. They are synthesized in the cell from the fatty acid arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is created from
Catecholamine (2,042 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
convert tyrosine serially to L-DOPA and then to dopamine. Depending on the cell type, dopamine may be further converted to norepinephrine or even further
Sodium–hydrogen antiporter (663 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
exchanger) is a membrane protein that transports Na+ into the cell, and H+ out of the cell (antiport). They are found in the membranes of many cells,
Lytic cycle (1,184 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
– the phage injects its DNA into the host cell by penetrating through the cell membrane Transcription – the host cell's DNA is degraded and the cell's
Steroid hormone (1,619 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
adrenal glands. These forms of hormones are lipids. They can pass through the cell membrane as they are fat-soluble, and then bind to steroid hormone receptors
Electroporation (5,059 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, electrode arrays or DNA to be introduced into the cell (also called electrotransfer)
Nernst equation (3,532 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
G=\Delta G^{\ominus }+RT\ln Q_{r}} where Qr is the reaction quotient. The cell potential E associated with the electrochemical reaction is defined as
Japanese Braille (1,342 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
beginning with w are indicated by dropping the vowel points to the bottom of the cell without additional consonant points. The chart below shows each braille
Plasmolysis (812 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into the cell. Through observation
Healing (1,299 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
resumption of (normal) functioning. Medicine includes the process by which the cell(s) in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (4,216 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
complex, important for the G1 phase progression and G1/S transition of the cell cycle and the complex is composed also by an activating sub-unit; the cyclin
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (634 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
within the hydrophobic phosphatidyl-inositol group anchor the protein to the cell membrane. Glycosylated (GPI-anchored) proteins contain a signal sequence
Cell group (2,470 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The cell group is a form of church organization that is used in many Christian churches. Cell groups are generally intended to teach the Bible and personalize
Mast cell stabilizer (219 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
certain allergic disorders. They block mast cell degranulation, stabilizing the cell and thereby preventing the release of histamine and related mediators.
Tyrosine kinase (5,314 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
become mutated, stuck in the "on" position, and cause unregulated growth of the cell, which is a necessary step for the development of cancer. Therefore, kinase
Phototroph (782 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
utilized by ATP synthase, to provide the molecular energy currency for the cell. Phototrophs can be either autotrophs or heterotrophs. If their electron
Brining (895 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cells cannot diffuse through the cell membranes into the brine. The increased salinity of the cell fluid causes the cell to absorb water from the brine
Mitochondrial DNA (8,625 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts
Chemotaxis (6,827 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
directions of rotation are given for an observer outside the cell looking down the flagella toward the cell. The overall movement of a bacterium is the result
RHEB (2,652 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
protein is largely involved in the mTOR pathway and the regulation of the cell cycle. RHEB is a recently discovered member of the Ras superfamily. Being
Dorsal root ganglion (987 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve. The cell bodies of sensory neurons known as first-order neurons are located in the
Human iron metabolism (5,145 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
ultimately kill the cell. Iron bound to proteins or cofactors such as heme is safe. Also, there are virtually no truly free iron ions in the cell, since they
Glycosphingolipid (332 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a group of lipids (more specifically, sphingolipids) and are a part of the cell membrane. They consist of a hydrophobic ceramide part and a glycosidically
Bayezid I (3,694 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
about the cell, bars or violent death. Another contemporary, Jean II Le Maingre, who witnessed Bayezid's captivity, wrote nothing about the cell or poisoning
Epidermis (2,801 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
although the actin filaments are actually located inside the cell and run parallel to the cell membrane. Because of the proximity of the neighboring cells
Cell site (3,246 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
low power multichannel transceiver and antenna at a base station. All the cell phones within a cell communicate with the system through that cell's antenna
Glycosphingolipid (332 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
a group of lipids (more specifically, sphingolipids) and are a part of the cell membrane. They consist of a hydrophobic ceramide part and a glycosidically
Table (database) (715 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
model of vertical columns (identifiable by name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect. A table has a specified
Channel blocker (3,006 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
pores, which allow for the passage of electrical charge in and out of the cell. These ion channels are most often gated, meaning they require a specific
T cell (8,376 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
"killer" and CD4+ "helper" T cells. (These are named for the presence of the cell surface proteins CD8 or CD4.) CD8+ T cells, also known as "killer T cells"
Baculoviridae (1,972 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
columnar epithelial cell membrane of the host intestine and are taken into the cell in endosomes. Nucleocapsids escape from the endosomes and are transported
KLF9 (1,163 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
increases expression of Klf9 and overexpression of Klf9 gene sensitizes the cell to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a short hairpin
Orthomyxoviridae (3,882 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell membrane. The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the nucleus and enter this membrane protrusion (step 6). The mature virus buds off from the
Microvillus (987 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
increase surface area for absorption. Microvilli are also of importance on the cell surface of white blood cells, as they aid in the migration of white blood
Steatosis (1,532 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
particularly detrimental to the cell in mild cases, large accumulations can disrupt cell constituents, and in severe cases the cell may even burst. No single
Diatom (11,019 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
elevations; all of which can be used to delineate genera and species. The cell itself consists of two halves, each containing an essentially flat plate
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (3,486 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
break down larger peptides into smaller components, that can work outside the cell, limits the size of the molecules that yeast can use as a source for nitrogen
Sodium-calcium exchanger (2,209 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the systems by which the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions in the cell is kept low. The exchanger does not bind very tightly to Ca2+ (has a low
Kaleidoscope (2,495 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
opaque) materials to be reflected into the viewed pattern. Rotation of the cell causes motion of the materials, resulting in an ever-changing view being
Tyrothricin (127 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
tyrocidine. Both gramicidin and tyrocidine are short polypeptides which disrupt the cell membranes of some, primarily Gram-positive, bacteria. Tyrothricin and its
MUC1 (2,923 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
oligosaccharides in the extracellular domain, preventing the pathogen from reaching the cell surface. Overexpression of MUC1 is often associated with colon, breast
Cav1.4 (1,080 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta
Antigen-presenting cell (2,115 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen
HRAS (1,330 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and second messengers relay signals from outside the cell to the cell nucleus and instructs the cell to grow or divide. The HRAS protein is a GTPase and
Glucose 6-phosphate (976 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cellular chemistry, glucose 6-phosphate has many possible fates within the cell. It lies at the start of two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis and the
Inward-rectifier potassium channel (1,971 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). It is thought that this current may play an important
Bacterial capsule (1,637 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
common to many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial
Symbiogenesis (6,803 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of the protein products needed by the organelle but now manufactured by the cell. Cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria are the most closely related free-living
Ascomycota (6,341 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
This reinforces and stabilizes the cell wall. Enzymatic activity and turgor pressure act to weaken and extrude the cell wall. New cell wall material is
Phosphatase (1,458 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
outside the cell, creating nucleosides that can be transported into the cell and used to regenerate nucleotides via salvage pathways. Inside the cell, nucleotidases
Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773) (2,884 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion;
Zinc transporter protein (419 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(SLC30) family, which controls the efflux of zinc from the cytoplasm out of the cell and from the cytoplasm into vesicles; and (2) the zinc importer, Zrt- and
Glycocalyx (1,618 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells. In 1970, Martinez-Palomo discovered the cell coating in animal cells
GPR52 (272 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in signal transduction from the external environment to the inside of the cell.[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000203737 - Ensembl
Ceramide (2,703 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
sphingosine and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells, since they are component lipids that make
Glossary of biology (11,546 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
network of interlinking protein filaments that extends from the cell nucleus to the cell membrane and which is present in the cytoplasm of all cells,
DNA methylation (12,907 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
as thymine is a DNA base. If the mismatch is not repaired and the cell enters the cell cycle the strand carrying the T will be complemented by an A in
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (5,436 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chloride. When net chloride flows out of the cell, GABA is depolarising; when chloride flows into the cell, GABA is inhibitory or hyperpolarizing. When
Ingestion (430 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
single-celled organisms ingestion takes place by absorbing a substance through the cell membrane. Besides nutritional items, substances that may be ingested include
Meristem (4,150 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
body. The cells are small, with no or small vacuoles and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The plastids (chloroplasts or chromoplasts), are undifferentiated
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 (2,221 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
H+-coupled transport of divalent metal cations from the intestinal lumen into the cell. Iron is not only essential for the human body, it is required for all
Caudovirales (907 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
tail section of the virion binds to receptors on the cell surface and delivers the DNA into the cell by use of an injectisome-like mechanism (an injectisome
Primary transcript (2,989 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(mRNA) after processing. Pre-mRNA is synthesized from a DNA template in the cell nucleus by transcription. Pre-mRNA comprises the bulk of heterogeneous
Promoter (genetics) (5,433 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the
KvLQT1 (1,494 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
gene. Kv7.1 is a voltage and lipid-gated potassium channel present in the cell membranes of cardiac tissue and in inner ear neurons among other tissues
Pyruvic acid (1,192 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
CH3COCOO−, is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways throughout the cell. Pyruvic acid can be made from glucose through glycolysis, converted back
Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (1,743 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
encoded by the CDC7 gene. The Cdc7 kinase is involved in regulation of the cell cycle at the point of chromosomal DNA replication. The gene CDC7 appears
Pseudounipolar neuron (574 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
extends from the cell body to organs in the periphery including skin, joints and muscles, and the central branch extends from the cell body to the spinal
Receptor (biochemistry) (2,567 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
enzyme-linked hormone receptors. Intracellular receptors are those found inside the cell, and include cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors. A molecule that
Imperatoxin (643 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
reticulum into the cell. Imperatoxin I (inhibitor): a peptide toxin which decreases the influx of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmatic reticulum into the cell. The toxin
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (2,673 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
anemia caused by an acquired (rather than inherited) intrinsic defect in the cell membrane (deficiency of glycophosphatidylinositol or GPI) leading to the
Osteocyte (2,364 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
deposited around the cell. Osteocytes have a stellate shape, approximately 7 micrometers deep and wide by 15 micrometers in length. The cell body varies in
Papillomaviridae (7,083 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and sulfated sugars on the cell surface promote initial attachment of the virus. The virus is then able to get inside from the cell surface via interaction
Filopodia (894 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
fimbrin. Filopodia form focal adhesions with the substratum, linking them to the cell surface. Many types of migrating cells display filopodia, which are thought
Organic cation transport protein (51 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cation transport protein mediates the transport of organic cations across the cell membrane. These proteins are members of the solute carrier family, subfamily
Immunosuppressive drug (2,973 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and the humoral immunity. It is also efficient in the treatment of autoimmune
Adenylate kinase (2,793 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and AMP). By constantly monitoring phosphate nucleotide levels inside the cell, ADK plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. The reaction
Solar cell efficiency (4,591 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
that are converted to electric current (i.e., collected carriers) when the cell is operated under short circuit conditions. The "external" quantum efficiency
Inhibitor of apoptosis (1,521 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
programmed cell death, which can frequently lead to cancer or other effects for the cell if mutated or improperly regulated. Many of these inhibitors act to block
Osteocyte (2,364 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
deposited around the cell. Osteocytes have a stellate shape, approximately 7 micrometers deep and wide by 15 micrometers in length. The cell body varies in
Lentigo (596 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
its spread. This means the hyperplasia of melanocytes is restricted to the cell layer directly above the basement membrane of the epidermis where melanocytes
Outline of cell biology (4,280 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
taken inside the cell as endosymbionts. Cellular respiration – The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane
Biological system (1,082 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
determined by whether the cell is a eukaryote or prokaryote. Nucleus (eukaryotic only): storage of genetic material; control center of the cell. Cytosol: component
Chitinase (2,891 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin. As chitin is a component of the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletal elements of some animals (including mollusks
Mycolic acid (1,263 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Mycolic acids are long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the Mycolata taxon, a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative
Digitalis (3,607 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
into the cell in exchange for pumping calcium out of the cell, to pumping sodium out of the cell in exchange for pumping calcium into the cell. This
Molecular motor (1,856 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cilia and flagella and also transports cargo along microtubules towards the cell nucleus, in retrograde transport. Polymerisation motors Actin polymerization
Microbial cyst (1,622 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of suspended animation in which the metabolic processes of the cell are slowed and the cell ceases all activities like feeding and locomotion. Encystment
Ancyromonadida (939 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
be very thin or end in the cell membrane, while the posterior flagellum is long and is inserted ventrally or laterally. The cell membrane is supported
Transferase (6,215 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
important processes. Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA)
Anaphase-promoting complex (4,164 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
perceived as a system exclusively involved in removing damaged protein from the cell, ubiquitination and subsequent protein degradation by the proteasome is
FtsZ (2,969 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the Z ring that, along with additional proteins, constricts to divide the cell in two. In the 1960s scientists screened for temperature sensitive mutations
Chloride potassium symporter (222 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
equilibrium potential. The concentrations of K+ and Cl− ions are high inside the cell due to the activities of Na+-K+ pump and NKCC cotransporter, respectively
Reactive oxygen species (8,445 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chloroplasts. During the respiration process the mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable form, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The process of ATP production
Actin (20,869 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
chloroplasts in the cell; KAM1/MUR3 that define the morphology of the Golgi apparatus as well as the composition of xyloglucans in the cell wall; NtWLIM1
Sterol (723 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Ergosterol is a sterol present in the cell membrane of fungi, where it serves a role similar to cholesterol in animal
MXD3 (304 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
transcriptional repressor that is specifically expressed during S phase of the cell cycle. The protein is implicated in both normal neural development and
Adenocarcinoma (1,522 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
secreting the same substance, as long as there is an exocrine function to the cell, it is considered glandular and its malignant form is therefore named adenocarcinoma
Gene delivery (2,757 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
or weaken the cell surface structure, making it more permeable to DNA. The heat-pulse is thought to create a thermal imbalance across the cell membrane
Somatic cell (1,134 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell. The cell which takes part in composition of the body of an organism and divides
Heart (15,483 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
For this reason sodium moves into the cell from outside, and potassium moves from within the cell to outside the cell. Calcium also plays a critical role
Yeast in winemaking (5,905 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
produces not only large amounts of energy for the cell but also many different intermediates that the cell needs to function. In the absence of oxygen (and
Iridoviridae (475 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
presence or absence of an envelope depends on whether they budded from the cell membrane (enveloped viruses) or were arranged in paracrystalline arrays
Carbohydrate (4,926 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
such as jam, biscuits and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary
Filamin (286 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stops the regeneration of bladder carcinoma (BC) cells, by inhibiting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of BC cells. FLNA has also been shown to reduce
Cytotoxic T cell (2,427 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell are bound to class I MHC molecules, and brought to the surface of the cell by the class I MHC molecule, where they can be recognized by the T cell
Aquaporin 2 (1,466 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
duct principal cells and in intracellular vesicles located throughout the cell. It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin
Axolemma (485 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The axolemma is the cell membrane of an axon. The similar term axoplasm refers to the cytoplasm of an axon. The axolemma is responsible for maintaining
Cell Block Tango (865 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
"Cell Block Tango" is a song from the 1975 musical Chicago, with music composed by John Kander and lyrics written by Fred Ebb. At the Cook County Jail
Phosphatidylserine (1,745 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in
Parvocellular cell (256 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
for "small", and the name "parvocellular" refers to the small size of the cell compared to the larger magnocellular cells. Phylogenetically, parvocellular
Haustorium (626 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the host plant's cell wall and siphon nutrients from the space between the cell wall and plasma membrane but do not penetrate the membrane itself. Larger
Steroid hormone receptor (2,199 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the type of receptor, they are either located in the cytosol and move to the cell nucleus upon activation, or remain in the nucleus waiting for the steroid
Sphingomyelin (1,963 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
lenses. Sphingomyelin has significant structural and functional roles in the cell. It is a plasma membrane component and participates in many signaling pathways
MACF1 (2,144 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cytoskeletal elements. This protein facilitates actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and couples the microtubule network to cellular junctions. MACF1
Amoeba (genus) (1,660 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
into the cell body. An Amoeba may produce many pseudopodia at once, especially when freely floating. When crawling rapidly along a surface, the cell may
Acetazolamide (2,324 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in the cell to bicarbonate (HCO3−) and an H+ ion (a proton), as previously mentioned. The bicarbonate (HCO3−) exits at the basal portion of the cell via
Small GTPase (495 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
inactive state. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, cellular differentiation, cell movement and lipid vesicle
Catenin (3,570 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
inhibition signaling within the cell. For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin
Synaptic vesicle (3,904 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
propagating nerve impulses between neurons and are constantly recreated by the cell. The area in the axon that holds groups of vesicles is an axon terminal
Monocarboxylate transporter 6 (136 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the major facilitator superfamily. The encoded protein is localized to the cell membrane and acts as a proton-linked transporter of bumetanide. Transport
Necroptosis (1,568 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
system. Necroptosis is well defined as a viral defense mechanism, allowing the cell to undergo "cellular suicide" in a caspase-independent fashion in the presence
Common gamma chain (2,081 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
protein resides outside the cell where it binds to cytokines and the other end of the protein resides in the interior of the cell where it transmits signals
Geocode (3,093 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
center of the cell can be used as reference for cell ID conversion into geographical point. When a compact human-readable expression of the cell ID is standardized
Oncovirus (6,010 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stage of the cell cycle, enabling the virus genome to be replicated. Forcing the cell into the S phase of the cell cycle could cause the cell to become
Lipid metabolism (2,118 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cholesterol will again travel through the blood to the liver. In the cytosol of the cell (for example a muscle cell), the glycerol will be converted to glyceraldehyde
Necroptosis (1,568 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
system. Necroptosis is well defined as a viral defense mechanism, allowing the cell to undergo "cellular suicide" in a caspase-independent fashion in the presence
Oncovirus (6,010 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
stage of the cell cycle, enabling the virus genome to be replicated. Forcing the cell into the S phase of the cell cycle could cause the cell to become
Small nuclear RNA (2,317 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
molecules that are found within the splicing speckles and Cajal bodies of the cell nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The length of an average snRNA is approximately
Morphogenesis (2,455 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
tightly linked to the chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. During embryonic development, cells are restricted to different layers
Hypokalemia (3,388 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
on the apical/luminal surface of the cell. By definition, the H+-K+ATPase reabsorbs one potassium ion into the cell for every proton it secretes into
Subcellular localization (242 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell wall (which is usually thicker in Gram-positive bacteria) and the extracellular environment. The cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic membrane and the
P-glycoprotein (3,932 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells. More formally
DNA polymerase V (1,099 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
As Pol III stalls unable to add nucleotides to the nascent DNA strand, the cell becomes at risk of having the replication fork collapse and cell death
Molecular oncology (1,081 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
genes are major regulators of the cell cycle and other pathways involved in cellular and genomic integrity. By halting the cell cycle, these genes ensure
SLC45A4 (235 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
spermatozoa. Additionally, it has been identified as a necessary component in the cell death caused of the compound paraquat. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000022567
Ganymedidae (195 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
surface of the cell. The nucleus is central. The nucleus is off center. A spherical ball like structure may be present at the anterior end of the cell and connected
Myosin (3,801 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cargo (e.g. RNA, vesicles, organelles, mitochondria) from the center of the cell to the periphery, but has been furthermore shown to act like a dynamic
Lithium-ion battery (19,158 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
during discharge lower the chemical potential of the cell, so discharging transfers energy from the cell to wherever the electric current dissipates its
Plasmodesma (2,706 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication
Euplotes (572 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
thick tufts of cilia sparsely distributed on the cell. Strong cirri on the ventral surface of the cell enable Euplotes to walk or crawl on submerged
GPR45 (372 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
transmembrane domains and may mediate signaling processes to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. This protein may function
Radiolaria (1,913 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm. The elaborate
Pyknosis (254 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
neutrophil will condense its nucleus into several connected lobes that stay in the cell until the end of its cell life. Micrograph of an infarct in the biliary
Cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agents (116 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of pharmaceuticals that act as antitumor agents at all or any phases of the cell cycle. Alkylating antineoplastic agent and anthracyclins are two examples
Alfred G. Gilman (3,632 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
activation of receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) on the cell membrane and actions within the cell. Rodbell had shown in the 1960s that GTP was involved
Gohan (9,496 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
his hair is spiked up as seen in the final design. With the ending of the Cell arc, Gohan was meant to replace his father as the protagonist. However
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (4,267 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cyclin-dependent kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase of the cell cycle, where cells make proteins necessary for mitosis and replicate their
Hall–Héroult process (2,271 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
that the molten material in them will not solidify. Temperature within the cell is maintained via electrical resistance. Oxidation of the carbon anode
Andersen–Tawil syndrome (2,389 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and calcium enter the cell through ion channels, depolarising or reversing this polarity. After a contraction has taken place, the cell restores its polarity
Regulation of gene expression (4,901 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Although as early as 1951, Barbara McClintock
Estrogen (6,559 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
all steroid hormones, estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors (ERs) which
Battery nomenclature (2,321 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
terminals. The positive terminal shall be concentric with the cell overall. The total height of the cell is not necessarily the same as the total distance between
Thirst (1,676 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
interstitial fluid, the fluid outside the cell, at the same concentration as the intracellular fluid, the fluid inside the cell. This condition is called isotonic
Hepatitis B virus (5,260 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
replication of the virus. Capsid formation is the main factor for infection of the cell. HBcAg contributes to HBV clearance in vivo, but it is unknown whether
Lamin (2,196 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
filaments, providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus. Nuclear lamins interact with inner nuclear membrane proteins to
Flow cytometry (6,118 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the inventor of the forerunner to today's flow cytometers - particularly the cell sorter. Fulwyler developed this in 1965 with his publication in Science
Rhysodidae (494 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
pieces of food. Adults do not make burrows, instead just squeezing between the cell layers of the decomposed wood, generally leaving no visible trace of their
Antifungal (1,781 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
principally ergosterol. This changes the transition temperature (Tg) of the cell membrane, thereby placing the membrane in a less fluid, more crystalline
Decay-accelerating factor (960 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
humans, is encoded by the CD55 gene. DAF regulates the complement system on the cell surface. It recognizes C4b and C3b fragments that are created during activation
Mathematical and theoretical biology (4,323 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Mathematical modelling of intracellular dynamics Mathematical modelling of the cell cycle Mathematical modelling of apoptosis Modelling physiological systems
Myelin (3,862 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
oligodendrocyte (CNS) or Schwann cell (PNS) process (a limb-like extension from the cell body) around the axon. Myelin reduces the capacitance of the axonal membrane
Latrotoxin (2,265 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the granules. The cytosolic α-LTX precursor molecule is released from the cell by means of holocrine secretion where it ends up in the venom gland of
Sensory neuron (2,857 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
potentials or graded potentials. This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the
Sarcolemma (412 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a muscle cell. It consists of a lipid bilayer and a thin outer
Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (1,661 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
multifunctional protein receptor that binds insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) at the cell surface and mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)-tagged proteins in the trans-Golgi
Dihydropteroate synthase inhibitor (158 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks
Jakobid (1,736 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
where it generates a current that the cell uses for food intake. The nucleus is generally in the anterior part of the cell and bears a nucleolus. Most known
Hypochromic anemia (1,747 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
(the pigment that imparts the red color) in proportion to the volume of the cell. Clinically the color can be evaluated by the mean corpuscular hemoglobin
Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (1,829 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell. PMCA function is vital for regulating the amount of Ca2+ within all eukaryotic
Clathrin (1,866 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. The endocytic pathway can be hijacked by viruses and other pathogens in order to gain entry to the cell during
Chloroplast (18,392 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and therefore topologically outside of the cell because to reach the chloroplast from the cytosol, the cell membrane must be crossed, which signifies
Upper motor neuron (539 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
surface of the cerebral cortex within layer V of the primary motor cortex. The cell bodies of Betz cell neurons are the largest in the brain, approaching nearly
Heparanase (1,793 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Heparanase, also known as HPSE, is an enzyme that acts both at the cell-surface and within the extracellular matrix to degrade polymeric heparan sulfate
Magnetosome (1,683 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
species-specific crystal morphologies and exhibit specific arrangements within the cell. These features indicate that the formation of magnetosomes is under precise
Sensory neuron (2,857 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
potentials or graded potentials. This process is called sensory transduction. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the
MHC class II (1,982 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
fragments are loaded onto MHC class II molecules prior to their migration to the cell surface. In humans, the MHC class II protein complex is encoded by the
Magnetosome (1,683 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
species-specific crystal morphologies and exhibit specific arrangements within the cell. These features indicate that the formation of magnetosomes is under precise
Arginine decarboxylase (1,311 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
necessary proton is consumed from the cell cytoplasm which helps to prevent the over-accumulation of protons inside the cell and serves to increase the intracellular
Acid-sensing ion channel (2,771 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
calcium into the cell. This causes depolarization of the neuron and an excitatory response released. In ASIC1a, Ca2+ increase inside the cell is a result
Fuel cell (12,951 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The same temperature must be maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through thermal loading. This is particularly challenging
Mobile Allocation Index Offset (251 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Allocation (CA) Table. This is the set of ARFCNs that are used within the Cell. The Mobile Allocation (MA) Table is a subset of this CA Table. This table
Cell damage (2,658 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
glucose, or impaired production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may deprive the cell of essential materials needed to survive. Metabolic: Hypoxia and Ischemia
Cdc25 (1,014 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
proteins control entry into and progression through various phases of the cell cycle, including mitosis and S ("Synthesis") phase. Cdc25 activates cyclin
PFP (enzyme) (399 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate In plants, the PFP is located in the cytosol of the cell and is strongly activated by the signal molecule fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
Coenzyme A (1,976 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
This pathways allows for 4′-phosphopantetheine to be replenished in the cell and allows for the conversion to coenzyme A through enzymes, PPAT and PPCK
Neobodo (2,018 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
just wraps around the anterior part of the cell. It is about the same length or slightly shorter than the cell. It is held forward with a single anterior
Organo anion transporter family (1,505 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
transport of mainly organic anions across the cell membrane. Therefore, OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers
Cell envelope (1,150 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium. In gram-negative bacteria an outer membrane is also included. This
Ernest Everett Just (3,425 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
writer. Just's primary legacy is his recognition of the fundamental role of the cell surface in the development of organisms. In his work within marine biology
Menkes disease (1,549 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
protein travels between the Golgi apparatus and the cell membrane to maintain copper concentrations in the cell. The protein is normally found in the Golgi
Gabazine (325 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
reduce GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition by inhibiting chloride flux across the cell membrane, and thus inhibiting neuronal hyperpolarization. While phasic
Protein complex (2,856 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
molecular machinery that perform a vast array of biological functions. The cell is seen to be composed of modular supramolecular complexes, each of which
CHEK1 (3,416 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
repair and cell death to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle. In 1993, Beach and associates initially identified Chk1 as a serine/threonine
IL-2 receptor (890 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
three IL-2 receptor chains span the cell membrane and extend into the cell, thereby delivering biochemical signals to the cell interior. The alpha chain does
Motility (1,451 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
materials which collect along the line of the equator of the spindle, known as the cell plate. Here, the vesicles coalesce forming the new plasma membranes and
Hershey–Chase experiment (1,813 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
amount of radioactive material remaining outside of the cell. Only 20% of the 32P remained outside the cell, demonstrating that it was incorporated with DNA
Ras GTPase (3,661 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Ras proteins, which can cause unintended and overactive signaling inside the cell, even in the absence of incoming signals. Because these signals result
Antiviral drug (6,749 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
surface of the host cell and ending with the virus "uncoating" inside the cell and releasing its contents. Viruses that have a lipid envelope must also
Protoplast (665 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall. Protoplasts can be generated by stripping the cell wall from plant, bacterial, or fungal cells
Solasonine (255 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
integrity which puts the cell at risk for apoptosis (cell death) due to the ability of any chemical coming into contact with the cell. Solasonine was one
Neurite (1,305 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or a dendrite. The term is
FGF1 (2,286 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
of proteins at the cell membrane (including S100A13 and Syt1) which then help flip it through the membrane to the exterior of the cell. Once in the reducing
Repolarization (2,411 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
gradient. This phase occurs after the cell reaches its highest voltage from depolarization. After repolarization, the cell hyperpolarizes as it reaches resting
Thymopoietin (1,431 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
consists of eight exons. TMPO alpha is present diffusely expressed with the cell nucleus while TMPO beta and gamma are localized to the nuclear membrane
Gland (botany) (429 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
The terminal cells have a thin, perforated cuticle which separates from the cell walls apically, leaving an enclosed cavity between them. The secreted salt
Nervous system (9,303 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
passive—the cell bodies serve only to provide metabolic support and do not participate in signalling. A protoplasmic fiber runs from the cell body and
Chemokine receptor (1,545 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
responses, including the onset of a process known as chemotaxis that traffics the cell to a desired location within the organism. Chemokine receptors are divided
Nassophorea (297 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
below the mouth to the left side of the body and sometimes almost circling the cell, called a frange or synhymenium. Other forms only have three oral membranelles
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (4,304 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
electrical signal from the cell membrane called an action potential, a small amount of calcium flows across the cell membrane into the cell through L-type calcium
Telophase (2,647 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
and nuclear membrane disintegrating) are reversed. As chromosomes reach the cell poles, a nuclear envelope is re-assembled around each set of chromatids
CAMK (884 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
regulation of expression of responding genes. CAMK also works to regulate the cell life cycle (i.e. programmed cell death), rearrangement of the cell's cytoskeletal
Sialic acid (3,556 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
become active to enter in the oligosaccharide biosynthesis process of the cell, a monophosphate nucleoside is added, which comes from a cytidine triphosphate
Messenger RNA (5,207 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
attack them as an invader; and they are impermeable to the cell membrane. Once within the cell, they must then leave the cell's transport mechanism to
Leukotriene (1,944 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
5-lipoxygenase. Leukotrienes use lipid signaling to convey information to either the cell producing them (autocrine signaling) or neighboring cells (paracrine signaling)
PTEN (gene) (3,441 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
phosphatase protein product. This phosphatase is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, preventing cells from growing and dividing too rapidly. It is a
Rabies (8,048 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
in a procession known as pinocytosis and allows entry of the virus into the cell by way of an endosome. The virus then uses the acidic environment, which
Ran (protein) (1,929 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article
is a small 25 kDa protein that is involved in transport into and out of the cell nucleus during interphase and also involved in mitosis. It is a member
Phosphatidylcholine (1,275 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
cell membrane. It is thought to be transported between membranes within the cell by phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP). Phosphatidylcholine also
Capsid (2,519 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
capsid subunits are synthesized using the protein biosynthesis mechanism of the cell. In some viruses, including those with helical capsids and especially those
Gas exchange (6,622 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
efficient system for gas exchange between, ultimately, the interior of the cell(s) and the external environment is required. Small, particularly unicellular
Ribonuclease III (1,382 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
which is labelled the RNase III domain. They are ubiquitous compounds in the cell and play a major role in pathways such as RNA precursor synthesis, RNA
Scaffold protein (2,052 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
localize pathway components (organized in complexes) to specific areas of the cell such as the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, the nucleus, the Golgi, endosomes
Ultrastructure (1,137 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
viewing ultrastructure. Such cellular structures as organelles, which allow the cell to function properly within its specified environment, can be examined