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alternate case: rNA

Gene expression (9,483 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

also some non-coding RNAs (e.g., snRNAs, snoRNAs or long non-coding RNAs). RNA polymerase III transcribes 5S rRNA, transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and some small
Riboviria (3,413 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
either RNA or DNA genomes) that encode an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also called RNA replicase, produces RNA (ribonucleic
Baltimore classification (5,677 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
viruses based on their manner of messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis. By organizing viruses based on their manner of mRNA production, it is possible to study viruses
RNA polymerase II (3,060 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex that transcribes DNA into precursors of messenger RNA (mRNA) and most small nuclear RNA
CRISPR (14,850 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
requiring only a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for successful targeting. By contrast, Cas9 requires both crRNA and a transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA). These differences
RNA splicing (4,228 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA splicing is a process in molecular biology where a newly-made precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript is transformed into a mature messenger
Intron (5,530 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
nucleotide sequence within a gene that is not expressed or operative in the final RNA product. The word intron is derived from the term intragenic region, i.e
Negative-strand RNA virus (3,035 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
complementary strands from which messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized by the viral enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). During replication of the
16S ribosomal RNA (3,416 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the RNA component of the 30S subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome (SSU rRNA). It binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence
Methylation (2,653 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cancer. Similarly, RNA methylation occurs in different RNA species viz. tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, and viral RNA. Different catalytic
C-terminus (528 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
free carboxyl group (-COOH). When the protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus. The convention for writing
RNA polymerase III (1,192 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
eukaryote cells, RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) is a protein that transcribes DNA to synthesize 5S ribosomal RNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. The genes
Sigma factor (2,038 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(PEP). The sigma factor, together with RNA polymerase, is known as the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Every molecule of RNA polymerase holoenzyme contains exactly
RNA polymerase I (1,695 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA polymerase 1 (also known as Pol I) is, in higher eukaryotes, the polymerase that only transcribes ribosomal RNA (but not 5S rRNA, which is synthesized
Paramyxoviridae (2,024 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
para- “by the side of” and myxa “mucus”) is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates serve as natural hosts
Transcription factor II B (2,446 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a general transcription factor that is involved in the formation of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) and aids in stimulating transcription
Rho factor (766 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transcription terminator pause site, an exposed region of single stranded RNA (a stretch of 72 nucleotides) after the open reading frame at C-rich/G-poor
Alternative splicing (8,611 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. This means the exons are joined in different combinations, leading to different (alternative) mRNA strands
Transfection (4,133 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
trans- and infection. Genetic material (such as supercoiled plasmid DNA or siRNA constructs), may be transfected. Transfection of animal cells typically involves
Pisuviricota (239 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Pisuviricota is a phylum of RNA viruses that includes all positive-strand and double-stranded RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and are not members of
Transcription factor II D (592 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited
Marnaviridae (567 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
positive-stranded RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales. The first species of this family that was isolated is Heterosigma akashiwo RNA virus (HaRNAV)
RNA polymerase IV (1,821 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA polymerase IV (RNAP IV) is an enzyme that synthesizes small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants, which silence gene expression. RNAP IV belongs to a
Alvernaviridae (160 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Alvernaviridae is a family of non-enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses. Dinoflagellates serve as natural hosts. There is one genus in this family, Dinornavirus
Transcription factor II D (592 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited
Kitrinoviricota (134 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Kitrinoviricota is a phylum of RNA viruses that includes all positive-strand RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and are not members of the phylum Pisuviricota
Alphamononivirus (168 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Alphamononivirus is a genus of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses in the order Nidovirales which infect planarian flatworms. Member virus planarian
Amalgaviridae (409 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Amalgaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Member viruses infect plants and are transmitted vertically via seeds. The name derives from
Protein isoform (2,010 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
generally not considered. (For that, see Proteoforms.) Through RNA splicing mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments
Mung bean nuclease (718 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
single-stranded DNA or RNA to nucleoside 5’-monophosphates, but does not digest double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, or DNA / RNA hybrids. Mung Bean
Bunyavirales (1,841 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Bunyavirales is an order of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses with mainly tripartite genomes. Member viruses infect arthropods, plants, protozoans
TATA-binding protein (3,215 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
during the formation of the transcription preinitiation complex of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). As one of the few proteins in the preinitiation complex
18S ribosomal RNA (530 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA. The S in 18S represents Svedberg units. 18S rRNA is an SSU rRNA, a component of
Spliceosome (2,604 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
spliceosome is assembled from small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and numerous proteins. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) molecules bind to specific proteins to form
18S ribosomal RNA (530 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA. The S in 18S represents Svedberg units. 18S rRNA is an SSU rRNA, a component of
Spliceosome (2,604 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
spliceosome is assembled from small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and numerous proteins. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) molecules bind to specific proteins to form
Remdesivir (9,890 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
been added to the growing RNA chain. For the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2, arrest of RNA synthesis occurs after incorporation
Monjiviricetes (199 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Monjiviricetes is a class of negative-strand RNA viruses which infect fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The name is a portmanteau of the
Lenarviricota (465 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Lenarviricota is a phylum of RNA viruses that includes all positive-strand RNA viruses that infect prokaryotes. Some members also infect eukaryotes. Most
GTF2F1 (1,487 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"A cDNA encoding RAP74, a general initiation factor for transcription by RNA polymerase II". Nature. 355 (6359): 464–7. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..464F. doi:10
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (4,617 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
identification. FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA)[citation needed] in cells, circulating tumor cells, and
POLRMT (822 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
POLRMT is a symbol of RNA polymerase mitochondrial It is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (4,617 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
identification. FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA)[citation needed] in cells, circulating tumor cells, and
Catabolite activator protein (539 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the DNA binding site of RNA Polymerase. CAP activates transcription through protein-protein interactions with the α-subunit of RNA Polymerase. This protein-protein
Pisoniviricetes (241 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Pisoniviricetes is a class of positive-strand RNA viruses which infect eukaryotes. A characteristic of the group is a conserved 3C-like protease from
Biopesticide (2,415 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
possible RNA drift across species boundaries. Monsanto invested in multiple companies for their RNA expertise, including Beeologics (for RNA that kills
GTF2F1 (1,487 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"A cDNA encoding RAP74, a general initiation factor for transcription by RNA polymerase II". Nature. 355 (6359): 464–7. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..464F. doi:10
Retrotransposon (3,205 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
non-coding RNAs termed as PIWI [P-element induced wimpy testis]-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNA is a recently discovered class of ncRNAs, which are in
Mymonaviridae (260 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mymonaviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales, which infect fungi. Fungi serve as natural hosts. The name is a
5-HT2C receptor (6,085 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
function. The type of RNA editing that occurs in the pre-mRNA of the 5HT2CR is Adenosine to Inosine (A to I) editing. A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by
POLRMT (822 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
POLRMT is a symbol of RNA polymerase mitochondrial It is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT
(RNA-polymerase)-subunit kinase (167 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
enzymology, an [RNA-polymerase]-subunit kinase (EC 2.7.11.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] ⇌ {\displaystyle
Retrotransposon (3,205 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
non-coding RNAs termed as PIWI [P-element induced wimpy testis]-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNA is a recently discovered class of ncRNAs, which are in
ZNF143 (680 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a novel zinc finger protein that activates the RNA polymerase III promoter of the selenocysteine tRNA gene". EMBO J. 14 (15): 3777–87. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075
IGFBP7 (2,499 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
pre-mRNA of this protein is subject to RNA editing. The two editing sites were previously recorded as single nucleotide polymorphisms in dbSNP. A to I RNA
(RNA-polymerase)-subunit kinase (167 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
enzymology, an [RNA-polymerase]-subunit kinase (EC 2.7.11.23) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] ⇌ {\displaystyle
TCF15 (253 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RNA expression pattern Bgee BioGPS
Birnaviridae (729 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Birnaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Salmonid fish, birds and insects serve as natural hosts. There are currently 11 species in this
GTF2F2 (1,045 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) and RNA polymerase subunit 5, which contributes to the association between TFIIF and RNA polymerase II". J. Biol. Chem. 276
Barnaviridae (217 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Barnaviridae is a family of non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses. Cultivated mushrooms serve as natural hosts. The family has one genus, Barnavirus
Mymonaviridae (260 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mymonaviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales, which infect fungi. Fungi serve as natural hosts. The name is a
Endornaviridae (393 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of the Endornaviridae is dsRNA. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method
Totiviridae (316 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Totiviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Giardia lamblia, leishmania, trichomonas vaginalis, and fungi serve as natural hosts. The name
Repressor (1,502 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA. An RNA-binding repressor binds to the mRNA and prevents
Cystovirus (867 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Cystovirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses which infects bacteria. It is the only genus in the family Cystoviridae. The name of the group cysto
PTX-COVID19-B (1,350 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
PTX-COVID19-B is a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccine, a vaccine for the prevention of the COVID-19 disease caused by an infection of the SARS-CoV-2
Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit (1,036 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 19 proteins. This complex is implicated in the binding of transfer RNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). The small subunit is
Birnaviridae (729 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Birnaviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Salmonid fish, birds and insects serve as natural hosts. There are currently 11 species in this
Totiviridae (316 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Totiviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses. Giardia lamblia, leishmania, trichomonas vaginalis, and fungi serve as natural hosts. The name
Transcription factor II F (320 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. TFIIF is encoded by the GTF2F1, GTF2F2, and GTF2F2L genes. TFIIF binds to RNA polymerase II when
GTF2H1 (1,530 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Greenblatt J, Tsui LC (May 1994). "Genes encoding general initiation factors for RNA polymerase II transcription are dispersed in the human genome". Hum. Mol
Zaire ebolavirus (5,202 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). Because of its high fatality rate (up to 83 to 90
Quadriviridae (275 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Quadriviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses with a single genus Quadrivirus. The fungi Rosellinia necatrix serves as a natural host. The
Sanofi–Translate Bio COVID-19 vaccine (291 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Covid vaccine based on mRNA technology". Financial Times. "Sanofi and Translate Bio initiate Phase 1/2 clinical trial of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate"
Stemirna COVID-19 vaccine (95 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Stemirna COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine description Target SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine type mRNA Clinical data Routes of administration Intramuscular
CureVac COVID-19 vaccine (1,573 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
unmodified RNA, unlike the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, which both use nucleoside-modified RNA. Manufacturing of mRNA vaccines
Metaviridae (480 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
positive strand RNAs. In addition to the RNA genome, some cellular RNAs can be randomly associated with particles, including specific tRNAs, in case of virus
Non-coding DNA (6,414 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
transcribed into functional non-coding RNA molecules (e.g. transfer RNA, microRNA, piRNA, ribosomal RNA, and regulatory RNAs). Other functional regions of the
Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit (1,036 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 19 proteins. This complex is implicated in the binding of transfer RNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). The small subunit is
Heterochromatin (2,118 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through a mechanism such as histone deacetylation or Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) through RNAi. It is not repetitive and shares the compact structure of
RNASEH2A (582 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
endonucleolytically cleaves ribonucleotides. It is predicted to remove Okazaki fragment RNA primers during lagging strand DNA synthesis and to excise single ribonucleotides
Quadriviridae (275 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Quadriviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses with a single genus Quadrivirus. The fungi Rosellinia necatrix serves as a natural host. The
Heterochromatin (2,118 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through a mechanism such as histone deacetylation or Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) through RNAi. It is not repetitive and shares the compact structure of
GTF2H1 (1,530 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Greenblatt J, Tsui LC (May 1994). "Genes encoding general initiation factors for RNA polymerase II transcription are dispersed in the human genome". Hum. Mol
RNASEH2A (582 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
endonucleolytically cleaves ribonucleotides. It is predicted to remove Okazaki fragment RNA primers during lagging strand DNA synthesis and to excise single ribonucleotides
Methyltransferase (2,909 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in different types of RNA species viz.mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, snoRNA, snRNA, miRNA, tmRNA as well as viral RNA species. Specific RNA methyltransferases are
Shine–Dalgarno sequence (1,237 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG. The RNA sequence helps recruit the ribosome to the messenger RNA (mRNA) to
SARS-related coronavirus (6,042 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and certain other mammals. These enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme
Articulavirales (239 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Articulavirales is an order of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses which infect invertebrates and vertebrates. It includes the family of influenza viruses
28S ribosomal RNA (855 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
28S ribosomal RNA is the structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for the large subunit (LSU) of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components
Carmotetraviridae (157 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Carmotetraviridae is a family of positive-strand RNA viruses. There is only one genus in this family, Alphacarmotetravirus, which has one species: Providence
Durnavirales (115 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
double-stranded RNA viruses which infect eukaryotes. The name of the group derives from Italian duplo which means double (a reference to double-stranded), rna for
Tolivirales (159 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Tolivirales is an order of RNA viruses which infect insects and plants. Member viruses have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The virions are
Transcription factor II E (367 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(TFIIE) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. It is a tetramer of two alpha and two
Potyviridae (753 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Potyviridae is a family of positive-strand RNA viruses that encompasses more than 30% of known plant viruses, many of which are of great agricultural
Semotivirus (235 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Semotivirus is the only genus of viruses in the family Belpaoviridae (formerly included in the family Metaviridae). Species exist as retrotransposons in
Transcription factor (7,838 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. The function of TFs is to regulate—turn
Cruliviridae (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Cruliviridae is a family of virus in the order of Bunyavirales. Unlike other families in the order, this family is unique in the sense that it is only
Polynucleotide phosphorylase (855 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
3'-terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity. That is, it dismantles the RNA chain starting at the 3' end and working toward the 5' end. It also synthesizes
MRNA-1283 (191 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mRNA-1283 is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Moderna. An expectation, or hope seems to be that this "next generation" vaccine can be stored
Sobelivirales (120 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Sobelivirales is an order of RNA viruses which infect eukaryotes. Member viruses have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The name of the group
Obazoa (563 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is usually inferred to be the most basal of the three lineages. Ribosomal RNA phylogenies do not usually recover Obazoa as a clade (see for example:),
Copy number variation (5,541 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
invasion of the ends. If for any reason, such as activation of ribosomal RNA, cohesin activity is affected then there may be local increase in double
GTF3C2 (1,108 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
TFIIIC2 subunit (TFIIIC beta) whose presence correlates with activation of RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by adenovirus E1A expression and serum
Phenuiviridae (439 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Phenuiviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Bunyavirales. Ruminants, camels, humans, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts.