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Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.Longer titles found: Inelastic mean free path (view)

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Thermopause
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describes the thinnest remainder of atmospheric particles with large mean free path, mostly hydrogen and helium. As a lower boundary for the exosphere thisUniversal conductance fluctuations (353 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

is the momentum relaxation due to phonon scattering events length or mean free path. For weakly localized samples fluctuation in conductance is equal toGurzhi effect (995 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

r y , l V } {\displaystyle l_{lost}=\min\{l_{boundary},l_{V}\}} — a mean free path corresponding to the momentum loss from the electrons+phonons systemOpacity (optics) (1,100 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article

}^{-1}u(\nu ,T)d\nu }{\int _{0}^{\infty }u(\nu ,T)d\nu }}} . The photon mean free path is λ ν = ( κ ν ρ ) − 1 {\displaystyle \lambda _{\nu }=(\kappa _{\nuNuclear collision length (67 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

Nuclear collision length is the mean free path of a particle before undergoing a nuclear reaction, for a given particle in a given medium. The collisionRecovery (metallurgy) (843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

dislocations. This creates defect-free channels, giving electrons an increased mean-free path. The physical processes that fall under the designations of recoveryPyrgeometer (693 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

100 μm, thus excluding the main shortwave (solar) spectrum. Since the mean free path of IR radiation in the atmosphere is ~25 meters, this device typicallyKlinkenberg correction (711 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

slippage effect. This takes place when the pore space approaches the mean free path of the gas Under steady state and laminar flow condition, KlinkenbergFluid conductance (586 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

enough that the gas inside them is rarefied, meaning here that the mean free path of constituent atoms and molecules is a non-negligible fraction of theMattis–Bardeen theory (997 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

depth (normal skin effect) fails because of the enhancement of the mean free path of the electrons in a good metal. Not only the normal metals, but superconductorsHomes's law (668 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(superconducting coherence length ξ0 is much greater than the normal-state mean-free path l, ξ0≫ l); however, a paper by Vladimir Kogan in Physical Review B inTWIP steel (772 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

strain-hardening is commonly attributed to the reduction of the dislocation mean free path with the increasing fraction of deformation twins as these are consideredBethe–Feynman formula (240 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

of the fuel, α is V_n (neutron velocity) / λ_mfp_tot (Total reaction mean free path), R_crit is the critical radius and 𝛿 is the excess supercritical radiusElectrical contacts (1,745 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

small area, the a-spot. For contact spots of radii smaller than the mean free path of electrons λ {\displaystyle \lambda } , ballistic conduction of electronsBen Lerner (1,502 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article

finalist for the National Book Award. His third poetry collection, Mean Free Path, was published in 2010. Lerner's first novel, Leaving the Atocha StationElectron energy loss spectroscopy (2,166 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

(I). The thickness t is calculated as mfp*ln(I/I0). Here mfp is the mean free path of electron inelastic scattering, which has been tabulated for mostElectron scattering (5,093 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

scattering is a probability function of the specimen thickness to the mean free path. The principle of the electron was first theorised in the period ofNanowire (6,386 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

mean free path of the bulk material. In copper, for example, the mean free path is 40 nm. Copper nanowires less than 40 nm wide will shorten the meanStarlight (1,689 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

that the optical depth ~ 1. An optical depth of 1 corresponds to a mean free path, which is the distance, on average that a photon travels before scatteringElectronic specific heat (3,061 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

thermal conductivity.[citation needed] In impure metals, the electron mean free path is reduced by collisions with impurities, and the phonon contributionHybrid theory for photon transport in tissue (1,293 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

equivalent isotropic point source at a depth that is equal to the transport mean free path, with a power equal to the transport albedo; The boundary effect ofDiffusing-wave spectroscopy (801 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

k_{0}={\frac {2\pi n}{\lambda }}} and l ∗ {\displaystyle l*} is the transport mean free path of scattered light. For simple cell geometries, it is thus possibleDrude model (6,101 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

few mean free paths of electrons. This is typically not the case: the mean free path is of the order of Angstroms corresponding to wavelengths typical ofWeak localization (1,014 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

spin-orbit interaction, and finally l e {\displaystyle l_{e}} is the mean free path. In the limit of strong spin-orbit coupling B SO ≫ B ϕ {\displaystyleGunn diode (1,764 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

either start out below the Fermi level and are given a sufficiently long mean free path to acquire the needed energy by applying a strong electric field, orHypersonic flight (6,654 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

+ e−[citation needed] At standard sea-level condition for air, the mean free path of air molecules is about λ = 68 n m {\displaystyle \lambda =68\mathrmLaboratoire de Physique des Solides (399 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

becomes comparable to certain characteristic scales (coherence length, mean free path,...) Topic 3: studies of “soft matter” including biological systemsCyphochilus (beetle) (608 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article

artificial material produced so far. That is they have a scattering mean free path shorter than any natural material thanks to the anisotropy in the spatialTwo-dimensional electron gas (1,481 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

sometimes traveling several micrometers before colliding; this so-called mean free path ℓ {\displaystyle \ell } can be estimated in the parabolic band approximationConductance quantum (712 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

conductance occurs in wires that are ballistic conductors, when the elastic mean free path is much larger than the length of the wire: l e l ≫ L {\displaystyleStellar corona (7,135 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is optically-thin. The gas, in fact, is very rarefied and the photon mean free-path overcomes by far all the other length-scales, including the typicalRobert H. Dicke (2,134 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

was his prediction of the phenomenon called Dicke narrowing: When the mean free path of an atom is much smaller than the wavelength of one of its radiationBig Bear Solar Observatory (1,007 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

However, to resolve the fundamental scale in the Sun's atmosphere (photon mean free path of 100 km (62 mi) at the Solar surface) an aperture of at least 1.5 mWilliam V. Houston (1,350 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

course of study, Sommerfeld suggested to Houston that he investigate the mean free path of electrons and its relationship to resistance in metals as a functionHigh resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (2,731 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

significantly smaller than 102 eV. Considering that 102 eV electrons have a mean free path of around 1 nm (corresponds to a few monolayers), which decreases withParticle shower (1,440 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

electron loses all but 1/e of its energy by bremsstrahlung and 7/9 of the mean free path for pair production by a high energy photon. The length of the cascadeBeer–Lambert law (3,283 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

systems we can put 1 / λ {\displaystyle 1/\lambda } (1 over inelastic mean free path) in place of μ {\displaystyle \mu } . Assume that a beam of light entersShock wave (3,898 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

200 nm (about 10−5 in), which is on the same order of magnitude as the mean free path of gas molecules. In reference to the continuum, this implies the shockX-ray absorption fine structure (1,505 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

condensed matter, its wavelength is larger than interatomic distances, its mean free path could be smaller than one nanometer and finally the lifetime of theCharge transport mechanisms (1,947 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

potentials result in weak localization effects (traps), which reduce the mean free path, and hence the mobility, of mobile charges. Carrier recombination alsoThermoelectric materials (10,648 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

with a suggestion that systems with the phonon mean free path larger than the charge carrier mean free path can exhibit an enhanced thermoelectric efficiencyJohann Josef Loschmidt (1,066 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

vibrational molecular motions. In this same work he introduced the concept of mean free path of a particle. In 1859, after reading a paper by Clausius, James ClerkRegularization (physics) (2,844 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article

when the distance over which we are looking is large compared with the mean free path. If we looked more closely, we would see individual neutrons runningHot-carrier injection (1,784 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

electrons are accelerated in the channel, they gain energy along the mean free path. This energy is lost in two different ways: The carrier hits an atomLow-voltage electron microscope (1,024 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

exhibit sufficient contrast in classical TEMs. Further, a relatively low mean free path (15 nm) for organic samples at 5 kV means that for samples with constantPlasma (physics) (6,979 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article

"after about 20 successive sets of collisions", mainly due to a small mean free path (average distance travelled between collisions).[citation needed] [citationDiffusion current (1,402 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

semiconductor diode, the depletion layer must be large compared to the mean free path. One begins with the equation for the net current density J in a semiconductorDiode (7,641 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

and the Zener is that the channel length of the former exceeds the mean free path of the electrons, resulting in many collisions between them on the wayThermal conduction (5,334 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

the composition and pressure of this phase, and in particular, the mean free path of gas molecules relative to the size of the gas gap, as given by theElectron-beam physical vapor deposition (1,756 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

line-of-sight to scattered deposition is determined not only by pressure (or mean free path) but also by source-to-substrate distance. Certain materials are notJohn Sealy Townsend (785 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

the ionization of molecules by ion impact and the dependence of the mean free path on electrons (in gases) of the energy (and his independent studies concerningGrain boundary (3,650 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

increase the resistivity as the size of the grains relative to the mean free path of other scatters becomes significant. It is known that most materialsMeteorology (7,133 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

Atmospheric Motion Systems Type of motion Horizontal scale (meter) Molecular mean free path 10−7 Minute turbulent eddies 10−2 – 10−1 Small eddies 10−1 – 1 DustVoid (astronomy) (4,418 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

matter, will free-stream in and out of voids which are smaller than the mean-free path of neutrinos. This has an effect on the size and depth distributionNanometrology (2,294 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

observed. For example, when the crystal size is smaller than the electron mean free path the conductivity of the crystal changes. Another example is the discretizationFusor (4,336 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

method which increases ion density (within limits which preserve ion mean-free path), or ion energy, can be expected to enhance the fusion yield, typicallyAdsorption (6,795 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

dependent on the temperature, the diffusion rate of the solute (related to mean free path for pure gas), and the energy barrier between the molecule and the surfaceBig Bang (15,879 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

scattered from free charged particles. Peaking at around 372±14 kyr, the mean free path for a photon becomes long enough to reach the present day and the universeElectron (14,203 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

charged gaseous molecules in a fourth state of matter in which the mean free path of the particles is so long that collisions may be ignored.: 394–395Mass spectral interpretation (2,833 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

molecule. Due to the high vacuum pressure in the ionization chamber, the mean free path of molecules are varying from 10 cm to 1 km and then the fragmentationsMagnetic reconnection (3,777 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

use of an anomalous resistivity is only appropriate when the particle mean free path is large compared to the reconnection layer, it is likely that otherBall lightning (8,225 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

found that the ball size is set by the second Townsend coefficient (the mean free path of conduction electrons) near breakdown. Wandering glow discharges areElectron-beam lithography (4,197 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

value at zero energy. On the other hand, it is already known that the mean free path at the lowest energies (few to several eV or less, where dissociativeKonstantin Petrzhak (2,446 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

methods for the radiochemical determination of plutonium, and found the mean free path of Pu-239 alpha particles. Petrzhak founded a laboratory of neutronAnomalous photovoltaic effect (2,299 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

of an electron, per photon absorbed, cannot be much larger than the mean free path. A consequence is that the quantum efficiency of a thick device is extremelyIon thruster (7,856 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

Helium backfill has also been suggested as a way to increase electron mean free path. Ion thrusters' low thrust requires continuous operation for a longGeiger–Müller tube (4,220 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

interaction with incident radiation is reduced. Too high a pressure, and the “mean free path” for collisions between accelerated electrons and the fill gas is tooVapor–liquid–solid method (2,440 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

MBE is carried out under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions where the mean-free-path (distance between collisions) of source atoms or molecules is on theSurface-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (1,807 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

the atomic concentration of the element α at depth z, λ(WαXY) is the mean free path for an WαXY Auger electron, θ is the angle that the escaping Auger electronTransparent conducting film (4,436 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

their neutral counterparts. Increasing the scattering decreases the mean-free path of the carriers in the oxide, which leads to low electron mobility andGas kinetics (1,747 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

fluid properties. The thickness of the shock wave is comparable to the mean free path of the gas molecules in the flow field. In other words, shock is a thinCoda Wave Interferometry (618 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

{\displaystyle \lambda \ll l_{e}} where l e {\displaystyle l_{e}} is the elastic mean free path, Snieder demonstrated that medium perturbations acted as a propagationPhotoemission electron microscopy (2,684 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

information from its surface there has to be a vacuum with an appropriate mean free path for the electrons. With In-situ PEEM techniques, water and aqueous solutionBruno Pontecorvo (5,408 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article

2016. Auger, P.; Mumm, A.M.; Pontecorvo, B. (1947). "The Transport Mean Free Path of Thermal Neutrons in Heavy Water". Canadian Journal of Research. 25aChapman–Enskog theory (3,325 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

transport over a molecular diameter during a collision, rather than over a mean free path (in between collisions). Including this mechanism predicts a densityOrganic solar cell (12,011 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

reducing the carrier gas pressure, which will increase the velocity and mean free path of the gas, and as a result boundary layer thickness decreases. CellsStatic secondary-ion mass spectrometry (1,735 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

requirement a pressure lower than 10−5 mbar is sufficient to ensure a mean free path that is long compared with the beam path. One monolayer of gas formsLiquid-Phase Electron Microscopy (1,709 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

thickness of the liquid t is kept sufficiently small with respect to the mean free path length of electron scattering in the materials, so that the electronDeblina Sarkar (1,796 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

model takes into account the effects of electric-field variation within mean free path and current dependency on the nonlocal electric-field, to accurately2010 in poetry (7,029 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article

Francisco Reb Livingston, God Damsel, No Tell Books, Reston VA Ben Lerner, Mean Free Path, Copper Canyon Press, Port Townsend, WA ISBN 978-1-55659-314-7 ShaneLangmuir probe (6,662 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

The electron energy distribution in the plasma is Maxwellian, 2.) The mean free path of the electrons is greater than the ion sheath about the tips and largerMiniature mass spectrometer (3,299 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

avoid intermolecular collision events, therefore, providing a long mean free path for the ions. The vacuum system, including the vacuum pumps and theClassical nucleation theory (4,444 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

hopping rate, the previous formula can be rewritten in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time λ 2 = 2 D τ {\displaystyle \lambda ^{2}=2D\tauPotential applications of carbon nanotubes (14,872 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

transistor on a flexible and transparent substrate. Since the electron mean free path in SWCNTs can exceed 1 micrometer, long channel CNTFETs exhibit near-ballisticCarbon nanotubes in interconnects (4,728 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

{\displaystyle L} is the CNT length and L m f p {\displaystyle L_{mfp}} is the mean free path of the electron. If N tubes are paralleled, this resistance is divided