selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

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Drugs Without the Hot Air by David Nutt

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British Empire, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, offshore financial centre, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), War on Poverty

Whether it’s worth risking building up tolerance and possibly suffering withdrawal symptoms, depends on individual factors – especially how ill you are and how much the benzodiazepines help you. The decision requires the same sort of weighing up of the harms and benefits as with any drug. Antidepressants and SSRIs Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were first developed in the 1970s. They have become the most-commonly prescribed type of antidepressants worldwide in the last two decades. Common drugs of this type are citalopram (sold under the trade names Celexa and Cipramil), paroxetine (Seroxat), sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Prozac). SSRIs work in both depression and anxiety disorders. Depression was previously treated with tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and imipramine; although SSRIs are no more effective, 3they have fewer side effects and almost no abuse potential. They are almost impossible to overdose on, so they are unlikely to be used to commit suicide, unlike the tricyclic antidepressant drugs which used to kill many hundreds of people per year.

view=Binary 168. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar /05/korean-girl-starved-online-game 169. www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/ sciofaddiction.pdf 170. info.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/ groups/cr_common/@nre/@sta/documents/ generalcontent/crukmig_1000ast-2989.xls 171. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1119598109 172. www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/oct/ 31/race-bias-drug-arrests-claim 173. www.nytimes.com/2011/06/17/opinion/ 17carter.html 174. www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2007/feb/ 11/uk.drugsandalcohol1 175. www.ukcia.org/research/ ProjectionsOfImpactOfRiseInUse/ ProjectionsOfImpactOfRiseInUse.pdf 176. www.beckleyfoundation.org/2011/11/19/ public-letter-in-the-times-and-guardian-calling-for-a-new-approach 177. www.homeoffice.gov.uk/drugs/drug-law/ 178. www.time.com/time/world/article/ 0,8599,1887488,00.html 179. www.apa.org/science/programs/ conference/2011/harwood.ppt 180. www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35914759/ns/business-world _business/t/wachovia-settle-drug-money-laundering-case 181. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-435393/ Exclusive-Cameron-DID-smoke-cannabis.html 182. www.lawrencephillips.net/ Decision_conferencing.html Index Page numbers in bold indicate definitions. 12-step programme, 1, 2 5HT2A receptors and psychedelics, 1 acamprosate, 1 acetylcholine receptors, 1 ACMD, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 cannabis report, 1 drugs ranked, 1 expert panel for MCDA, 1 purpose, 1 ranking procedure, 1 ranking, limitations, 1 ranking, reaction to, 1 ranking, results, 1 ranking, weights, 1 sacked from, 1 website, 1 acquisitive crime, 1, 2, 3 Portugal, 1 UK statistics, 1 activate, 1 acute, 1 Adams, Tony, 1, 2 addiction, 1 alcohol, Tony Adams, 1 Amy Winehouse, 1, 2 benzodiazepines, 1 brain mechanisms, 1 curing, 1 diagnosing, 1 dynamics and, 1 gambling, 1 habits and, 1 history, 1 kinetics and, 1 memories in, 1, 2, 3 neurotransmitters and, 1 painkillers, to, avoiding, 1 Pete Doherty, 1 preventing, 1 protective factors against, 1 Ritalin and, 1 treatment difficult, 1 treatment with psychedelics, 1 treatment, Alcoholics Anonymous, 1 treatment, evaluating, 1 treatment, future, 1 treatment, pharmacological substitutes, see pharmacological substitutes treatment, Portuguese experiment, 1 treatment, psychological, 1 withdrawal and, 1 addictive personality, 1, 2 protective factors, 1 addictiveness crack, 1 routes of use, 1 smoking, 1 tolerance and, 1 withdrawal and, 1 adenosine coffee produces, 1 receptors, 1 ADHD, 1, 2, 3 Ritalin treatment for, 1 Advertising Standards Authority, 1 advice on drugs, 1 aerobatics, 1 aerosols, see solvents agonist, see also antagonist and pseudo-antagonist, see also full and partial agonists full, 1 partial, 1 agoraphobia and alcohol, 1 AIDS, see HIV/AIDS Ainsworth, Bob, and decriminalisation, 1 Al Qaeda drugs money, 1 alcohol, 1, 2 addiction, 1 addiction endorphins, 1 agoraphobia and, 1 ALDH2 enzyme, 1, 2 alternatives, 1 anxiety and, 1 availability, 1 binge drinking, 1 cirrhosis and, 1, 2 cocaethylene, 1, 2 cocaine combined with, 1 dependence treatment, 1 depressant, 1 endorphins and, 1 ethnic groups, ALDH2 and, 1 GHB treatment for, 1 harms reduction, 1 health priority, 1 inverse agonist, 1 mixing with drugs, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 price, 1 PTSD, and, 1 road safety, 1 smuggling, 1 sport, drugs in, 1 treatment in Italy and Austria, 1 treatment, LSD in, 1 withdrawal, 1, 2, 3 withdrawal, benzodiazepine treatment for, 1 withdrawal, ibogaine treatment for, 1 alcohol policy, drinks industry, 1 alcoholics anxiety disorders, 1, 2 dopamine receptor, 1 Alcoholics Anonymous, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ALDH2 enzyme and alcohol, 1, 2 allergic reaction, 1 Alpert, Richard, 1 Alpha receptors, 1 alternative approach, legislation, 1 licensed drug premises, 1 licensed drug sales, 1 alternatives for farmers, 1 alternatives to War on Drugs, 1 Portuguese approach, 1 Ameisen, Olivier, 1 amines, 1 amitriptyline, 1 amphetamines, 1 child soldiers given, 1 performance enhancers, 1 stimulant, 1 war, in, 1 amputation of limbs from smoking, 1 anabolic, 1 anabolic steroids, 1, 2, 3 corticosteroids, difference, 1 effects, 1 harms, 1 harms reduction, 1 HIV/AIDS, treatment in, 1 overdose, unlikely, 1 performance enhancers, 1 sex hormones, 1 suicide and, 1 uses, 1 anabolic-androgenic steroids, 1 anadenanthera peregrina, 1 analgesic-induced headaches, 1 analogues, synthetic, 1 ancient Greece Elysian Fields, 1 mushrooms, 1 Andes, cocaine in, 1 androgenic, 1 anhedonia, 1 antagonist, 1, 2, 3 vaccines, anti-drug, 1 anthrax, 1 anti-drug vaccines, 1 anti-inflammatory, corticosteroids, 1 anti-stress corticosteroids, 1 antibody for cocaine overdose, 1 antidepressants, 1 how they work, 1 tricyclic, 1 anxiety addiction and, 1 alcohol and, 1 benzodiazepines for, 1 cannabis and, 1 depressants for, 1 disorder in alcoholics, 1, 2 GABA receptors, low levels, 1 neurotransmitters and, 1 new drugs for, 1 panic attacks, 1 PTSD, in, 1 reduction in terminal illness, 1 treatment outcomes, 1 treatment, SSRIs, 1 archery, 1 ASA, 1 asphyxiation from solvents, 1 aspirin, 1 side effects, 1 aspirin, side effects, 1 Ativan, 1 atom bomb, spiritual antidote to, 1 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, see ADHD auditory effects, schizophrenia, 1 Australia, decriminalisation of drugs in, 1 ayuesca, psychedelic, 1 baby, starved by parents, 1 baclofen, 1 bagging, route of use, 1 ban, temporary order, 1 banisteriopsis caapi, 1 banks, money-laundering, 1 barbiturates, 1, 2, 3 PTSD, and, 1 suicide, 1 Barcelona, 1 battle fatigue, 1, see also PTSD BCS, see British Crime Survey benefits cannabis, 1 mephedrone, 1 psychedelics, 1 Benzedrine, 1, 2 benzodiazepines, 1, 2 addiction, 1 alcohol treatment, in, 1 benefits, 1 depressant, 1 endogenous, 1 GABA receptors, 1 harms, 1 how they work, 1 Librium, 1 overdose, safer, 1 physical dependence, 1 rebound less likely, 1 side effects, few, 1 suicide and, 1 withdrawal, 1 benzylpiperazine, 1 Bernays, Edward, 1 beta blockers in sport, 1 Betts, Leah, 1, 2 bhang, 1, 2 binge cocaine, 1 drinking, 1, 2, 3 LSD, impossible, 1 tolerance and, 1 treatment, 1 Bird, Sheila, Professor, 1 bladder, ketamine, 1 Blair, Tony, 1 blind trial, 1 Bolivia, 1, 2 coca, 1, 2 bong, 1 brain addiction mechanisms, 1 default mode, 1 brain chemicals, 1 receptors, 1 Brain Science, Addiction and Drugs programme, 1 dispense with care scenario, 1 high performance scenario, 1 neighbourhood watch scenario, 1 treated positively scenario, 1 Brake, Tom, MP, 1 Breakdown Britain, 1, 2 British Aerobatic Association, 1 British Crime Survey, 1 Brokenshire, James, 1 bromides, PTSD, and, 1 bubbles, see mephedrone buprenorphine, 1, 2 advantages, 1 blocks on-top heroin use, 1 early problems, 1 effects, 1 heroin susbstitute, 1 how it works, 1 morphine alternative, 1 opioid, 1 origin, 1 partial agonist for heroin, 1 pharmacological substitute, as, 1 bupropion, 1 burglary, 1, 2 Burrows, David, 1 butane, see also solvents, 1 Bwiti cult, 1 BZP, 1 caffeine Coca-Cola, 1 coffee, 1 stimulant, 1 withdrawal, 1, 2 calmness, drugs for, 1 Camden, 1 “Cameron approach”, 1 Cameron, David, MP, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Cameroon, 1 Campral, 1 cancer, see also terminal illness ecstasy in treating, 1 cannabis, 1, 2 ACMD report, 1 anxiety and, 1 as medicine, historical, 1 as medicine, present, 1 benefits, 1 cluster headache and, 1 decriminalisation of drugs, 1 different forms compared, 1 downgrading, 1, 2 farmers required to grow, 1 gateway to more harmful drugs, 1 harms, 1 harms, compared to prison, 1 hemp, 1 heroin instead of, 1 multiple sclerosis and, 1, 2, 3 munchies, the, 1 psychoactive ingredient, 1 re-upgraded, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3, 4 routes of use, 1 schizophrenia, 1, 2 terminal illness, for, 1 therapeutic drug, as, 1 tinctures, 1 upgrading, 1, 2 cannabis indica, 1 Carlin, Eric, 1, 2 Carnage UK, 1 Carter, Jimmy, 1 Case for Heroin, The, 1 catechol O methyl transferase, see COMT cathinones, 1 banned, 1 naphyrone, 1 synthetic, 1 CBD, 1, 2, 3 CBT, 1, 2 Celera Genomics and genetic sequencing, 1 Celexa, 1 Centre for Social Justice, 1 Champix, 1 Champs Elysees, 1 chemicals, brain, 1 chewing, routes of use, 1 Chief Medical Officer, 1 child soldiers given amphetamines, 1 children advice to, 1 age to advise at, 1 Chinese, alcohol and, 1 cholecystokinin, 1 chronic, 1 cigarettes advertising, 1 generic packaging, 1 invention, 1 labelling, 1 wars, in, 1 Cipramil, 1 cirrhosis, 1 cirrhosis and alcohol, 1, 2 cirrhosis and khat, 1 citalopram, 1 civil liberties, 1 Clarke, Ken, 1 Class of drug, see also downgrading, see also upgrading too high, perverse consequences, 1 kinetics affect, 1 prison sentences by, 1 purpose, 1 reviewing, 1 social context and, 1, 2 classification of harms, 1, 2 climate change, 1, 2 Clinton, Bill, 1 clonidine, 1 clostridium, 1 cluster headache cannabis and, 1 psychedelics for, 1, 2 CMO, see Chief Medical Officer CNN, 1 co-ingestants, 1, 2 coca, 1 Bolivia, 1, 2 Coca-Cola and caffeine, 1 Coca-Cola and cocaine, 1 cocaethylene, 1 cocaine, see also crack, 1, 2 addiction endorphins, 1 alcohol combined with, 1 binge, 1 Coca-Cola, 1 cocaethylene, 1, 2 crack compared, 1 crop destruction, 1, 2, 3 deaths in drugs war, 1 effects, 1 environmental damage, 1 farmers, 1 freebase is crack, 1 history, 1 how it works, 1 hydrochloride, 1 insecticide, as, 1 international damage, 1 manufacturing process, 1 nose, 1 overdose mechanism, 1 overdose, antibody for, 1 political damage, 1 powder, 1 rainforests affected, 1, 2 routes of use, 1, 2 stimulant, 1 vaccine, anti-, 1 wine, see Vin Mariani Cockburn, Joslyne, 1 codeine, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 cough medicine, removed, 1 headaches induced, 1 opioid, 1 coffee adenosine, produces, 1 caffeine, 1 cognition enhancer, as, 1 effects, 1 history, 1 how it works, 1 origin, 1 coffee shop model, Netherlands, 1, 2 cognition enhancer coffee as, 1 cognition enhancers, 1 common, scenario, 1 economic divide, 1 exams, in, 1 memory and, 1 modafinil, 1 uses, 1 cognitive behavioural therapy, see CBT Colombia, 1, 2 Columbus, Christopher, 1 compensating farmers, 1 COMT dopamine and, 1 noradrenaline and, 1 pain sensitivity, 1 types, 1 consent, see, informed consent contraceptive pill, 1 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1 corruption, 1 corticosteroids anabolic steroids, difference, 1 muscle wasting with, 1 cortisol, 1 cost crime, drug-related, 1 drug habits, of, 1 War on Drugs, 1 cot death, see Sudden Infant Death Syndrome cough medicine, codeine removed, 1 Counterblast to Tobacco, 1 crack, see also cocaine, 1 addictiveness, 1 cocaine compared, 1 dopamine receptors and, 1 harms, 1 kinetics, 1 origin, 1 purity, 1 routes of use, 1 vaporisation temperature, 1 craving, 1 creativity enhanced by psychedelics, 1 CRF, 1 crime, see also acquisitive crime drug-related, cost, 1 statistics, 1 Crimean War, cigarettes in, 1 criminalisation effects, 1 of sick end disabled, 1 smoking, 1 supply reduction, 1 criteria for harms, 1, 2 crop destruction, 1 cocaine, 1 crop destruction, cocaine, 1 cultural context, see social context curing addiction, 1 cycling, 1 D-cycloserine, 1, 2 Daily Mail, the, 1, 2, 3 DALY, 1 DARE programme, 1 costs, 1 does not work, 1 data set, minimum required, 1 day with drugs, 1 day without drugs, 1 decriminalisation of drugs Ainsworth, Bob, 1 Australia, 1 cannabis, 1 legalisation differs, 1 Mowlam, Mo, 1 Portugal, 1, 2, 3 UK independence party, 1 UN Conventions and, 1 default mode of brain, 1 Delgarno, Phil, 1 demand reduction statistics, 1 War on Drugs, 1 demographic imbalance, 1 demographic shifts, 1 dependence, see physical dependence, psychological dependence depressants, 1, 2 alcohol, 1 anxiety, for, 1 benzodiazepines, 1 “downers”, 1 GHB, 1 depression psilocybin, 1 vicious cycle, 1, 2 designer drugs mephedrone, 1 problems legislating for, 1 development of new drugs, 1 impediments, 1 social implications, 1 War on Drugs hinders, 1 diabetes, 1 diabetes, dietary treatment, 1 diabetes, insulin treatment, 1 diagnosing addiction, 1 dietary treatment, diabetes, 1 DIMS, Netherlands, 1, 2 disability-adjusted life year, 1 discriminatory policing, 1 disease, infectious, War on Drugs and, 1 disease-modifying agents, 1 dispense with care scenario, 1 disrepute, law into, 1 dissuasion board, 1 diverting prescription drugs, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Ritalin, 1 DMT, see also ayuesca, 1 psychedelic, 1 Doblin, Rick, 1 Doherty, Pete, 1, 2 Doll, Richard, 1, 2 Donaldson, Sir Liam, 1 Doors of Perception, The, 1 dopamine, 1 COMT and, 1 levels in withdrawal, 1 nicotine withdrawal, in, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 receptors in alcoholics, 1 receptors vicious cycle, 1 receptors, crack and, 1 receptors, methamphetamine and, 1 receptors, monkey, 1 receptors, stimulants and, 1 reuptake, 1 reuptake inhibitor, Ritalin, 1 reward chemical, 1 tobacco releases, 1 transporters, 1 double-blind trial, 1 down-regulating receptors, 1, 2 downgrading ecstasy recommendation, 1, 2 cannabis, 1, 2 purpose, 1 Drake, Sir Francis, 1 drinking, routes of use, 1 drinks industry alcohol policy, 1 misleading messages, 1 driving, drugs and, 1 Drone, see mephedrone drug, 1 defined, 1 efficacy, 1 Drug Abuse Resistance Education, see DARE Drug Information and Monitoring System, see DIMS, Netherlands drug ranking, Netherlands, 1 drug tourism, 1 drug trials informed consent, 1 drug trials, informed consent, 1 drug-related factors, 1 drugs, see also performance enhancer anti-insect defence, 1 Classes, see Class of drug daily cycle, 1, 2 different forms, why, 1 evolution, 1 future developments, 1 harms related to physical form, 1 history, 1 mixing, 1 mixing with alcohol, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mixing, dangers, 1, 2, 3 mixing, speedballs, 1 neurotransmitters, mimic, 1 performance enhancing, see performance enhancers plant origin, 1 prescription, see prescription drugs profit margin, 1 psychedelic, see psychedelics reasons for taking, 1 sport, in, see sport, drugs in why people take, 1 withdrawal, 1 drugs in war, 1 amphetamines, 1 morphine, 1 prevalent, 1 recovery from, 1 unsanctioned, 1 Drummond, Colin, 1 Duncan Smith, Iain, 1 Dutch, see Netherlands Dutch courage, 1 dynamics, 1 addiction and, 1 mephedrone, 1 dynorphins, 1 dyslexia, 1 early-onset Parkinson’s, 1 Easter Parade, 1 eating overdose, increases risk of, 1 routes of use, 1, 2 economic divide and cognition enhancers, 1 economic growth low, scenario, 1 slower, scenario, 1 strong, scenario, 1 ecstasy, 1, 2 cancer, and, 1 dangers of, 1 death from, 1 downgrade recommended, 1, 2 effects, 1 empathy, first called, 1 harms, 1, 2 media reaction, 1 Parkinson’s and, 1 precautions, water, 1 properties, 1 PTSD, and, 1, 2 serotonin and, 1 withdrawal, 1 education, immediate downsides, about, 1 efficacy of a drug, 1 Egypt, 1 electron, 1 Elysian Fields, 1 Elysian fields, 1 empathogenic, 1 empathogens, 1 empathy, see ecstasy emphysema, 1 endocannabinoid system, 1, 2 endocannabinoids, 1 endogenous benzodiazepines, 1 endorphins, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 alcohol addiction, 1 alcohol and, 1 cocaine addiction, 1 heroin addiction, 1 receptor and heroin, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3, 4 reward chemical, 1 endoscopies, 1 endozapines, 1 energisation effect, suicide, 1 enkephalins, 1 entheogenic, 1, 2, 3 environmental damage, cocaine, 1 Environmental Protection Agency, 1 enzymes, 1 ephedra, 1 ephedrine, 1 epidemic, mental-health, 1 epilepsy, 1, 2 equasy, 1 defined, 1 equine addiction syndrome, see equasy ergotamine and Salem witch trials, 1 ergotamine, LSD derived from, 1 Estimating Drug Harms: A Risky Business, 1 ether, 1 ethical issues, genetic sequencing, 1 ethnic groups, ALDH2 and alcohol, 1 Eton, David Cameron at, 1 evidence-based policy, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 evolution of drugs, 1 exams, cognition enhancers in, 1 experimentation, delay to reduce harms, 1 farmers alternatives for, 1 cannabis, required to grow, 1 coca, 1 compensating, 1 Pakistan, alternatives for, 1 supporting, 1 Thailand, alternatives for, 1 unequal trade terms, 1 flumazenil, 1 flumazenil as tracer, 1 fluoxetine, 1 fly agaric mushrooms, 1 flying, drugs and, 1, 2 fMRI, 1 Foresight programme, 1 pharmaceutical industry, 1 stakeholders, 1 Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers, 1 freebase, 1 freedom to choose addiction and, 1 impact on others, 1 objective information required, 1 Freud, Sigmund, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Freudian psychoanalysis, 1 Frischer, Martin, 1 full agonist, 1 heroin, for, 1 functional MRI, 1 future drugs, 1 issues, 1 GABA glutamate, blocked by, 1 memory formation, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 GABA receptors anxiety and, 1 benzodiazepines, 1 neuroimaging, 1 overdose, 1 tolerance and, 1 withdrawal and, 1 Gabon, 1 Gaedecke, Friedriche, 1 gambling addiction, 1 gangs, Vietnamese, 1 ganja, 1 gap between neurons, see synapse gateway to more harmful drugs cannabis, 1 prison, 1 GBL, 1, 2, 3, 4 generic packaging, cigarettes, 1 genetic sequencing, 1 Celera Genomics, 1 ethical issues, 1 risks, 1 Geneva International Convention on Narcotics Control, 1 genotyping, see genetic sequencing GHB, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 alcohol treatment, in, 1 dangers, 1 depressant, 1 tolerance to, 1 Gilmore, Sir Ian, 1 Gin Craze, 1, 2, 3 glue, see solvents glutamate GABA, blocks, 1 memory formation and, 1 receptors, 1 grey campaigners, 1 Guardian, the, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Gucci, profit margin, 1 Guinea Bissau, 1 Guinea-Bissau, 1 Guinea-Bissau, collapsing, 1 Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, 1 habits and addiction, 1 haemoglobin, 1 half-life, 1 hallucinations, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 schizophrenia, 1 Hargreaves, Patrick, 1 harms 16 types, 1 9 types, 1, 2 anabolic steroids, 1 cannabis, 1 classification, 1, 2 crack, 1 ecstasy, 1, 2 kinetics affect, 1 measuring, 1 measuring, political reaction, 1 measuring, purpose, 1 mephedrone, 1 others, to, 1 psychedelics, 1 related to form of drug, 1 routes of use, 1 users, to, 1 harms reduction alcohol, 1 alcohol alternatives, 1 alcohol availability, 1 alcohol binge drinking, 1 alcohol dependence, 1 alcohol price, 1 alcohol priority, 1 alcohol, road safety, 1 anabolic steroids, 1 delay experimenting, 1 smoking ban, 1 smoking restrictions, 1 War on Drugs, 1 Harrods sold cocaine and heroin, 1 Harvard, Leary Timothy at, 1 hash, skunk, compared, 1 headaches, see also cluster headache analgesic-induced, 1 codeine-induced, 1 Hearst, William Randolph, 1 hemp, 1 hepatitis, injecting, risk, 1, 2 heroin, 1, 2, 3, 4 £300/week, 1 £500/week, 1 addiction endorphins, 1 addiction, Pete Doherty, 1 buprenorphine blocks on-top use, 1 cannabis, instead of, 1 endorphin receptor targeted, 1 full agonist for, 1 methadone and withdrawal, 1 methadone blocks on-top use, 1 morphine alternative, 1 Netherlands, in, 1 opioid, 1 opium, from, 1 origin of name, 1 overdose, benzodiazepines and, 1 painkiller, as, 1 painkiller, is most effective, 1 partial agonist for, 1 pharmacological substitutes, 1 prisoners overdose on, 1 receptors affected, 1 synthesised 1874, 1 therapeutic, as, 1 treatment for, 1 treatment with heroin itself, 1 treatment, British model, 1 treatment, Switzerland, 1 withdrawal, 1 heroin susbstitute buprenorphine, 1 methadone, 1 high performance scenario, 1 history cocaine, 1 coffee, 1 drugs, 1 LSD, 1 tobacco, 1 HIV/AIDS anabolic steroids treatment, 1 injecting, risk, 1, 2, 3 reduced, Portuguese experiment, 1 Russia, 1 TurBo-HIV, 1 Hofmann, Albert, 1 Holland, see Netherlands Holmes, Sherlock, 1 Home Secretary, see also Johnson, Alan, see also Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 horse tranquilliser, 1 horse-riding ecstasy, comparison, 1, 2 Parkinson’s and, 1 huffing, route of use, 1 Human Genome Project, 1 Human Rights Watch, 1 Huxley, Aldous, 1, 2 hydrochloride, cocaine, 1 hydrochlorides, vaporisation temperature, 1 hypertension, rebound and, 1 hyponatraemia, 1, 117 ibogaine, 1, 2 addiction treatment, in, 1 as wit hdrawal treatment, 1 psychedelic, 1 ibuprofen, 1 imipramine, 1 impotence, 1 India Kerala and opiates, 1 morphine as painkiller, 1 Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report, 1 informed consent NHS, 1 informed consent, drug trials, 1 inhaling routes of use, 1 inhaling, routes of use, 1 initial misery with SSRIs, 1 injecting dangers of, 1 hepatitis risk, 1, 2 HIV/AIDS risk, 1, 2, 3 other risks risk, 1 routes of use, 1 insecticide cocaine as, 1 mephedrone, 1 insects, drugs defend against, 1 insulin treatment, diabetes, 1 international damage from cocaine, 1 Inuit, alcohol and, 1 inverse agonist, 1 ISCD, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 foundation, 1 minimum dataset, 1 website, 1 isotope, see radioactive isotope Jackson, Toby, 1 jail, see prison Johnson, Alan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Johnson, Lyndon, 1 Just Say No, 1 Kerala opiates policy, 1 ketamine, 1, 2 bladder, 1 Class, 1 don’t mix, 1 side effects, 1 tolerance, 1 ulcerative cystitis, 1 Vietnam, in, 1 khat, 1, 2 cirrhosis and, 1 mules, 1 perverse consequences if banned, 1 stimulant, 1 kicking the habit, derivation, 1 kids, see children kinetics, 1 addiction and, 1 Class and, 1 crack, 1 harms and, 1 mephedrone, 1 routes of use, and, 1 King Charles II, 1 King James I, 1 King Philip II, 1 King, Les, 1 Kleps, Arthur, 1 knowledge nomads, 1 Koller, Karl, 1 Korea, 1 Korean couple starve baby, 1 Lansley, Andrew, 1 laudanum, 1, 2 law brought into disrepute, 1 law, patent, 1 League of Nations, 1 Leary, Timothy, 1 LSD, 1 mushrooms, magic, 1 psilocybin, 1 legal high, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 legalisation v decriminalisation, 1 legislation alternative approach, 1 designer drugs, 1 libertarians, 1, 2 Rand, Ayn, 1 liberty caps, 1 Librium alcohol withdrawal, for, 1 benzodiazepines, 1 licence to take psychedelics, 1 licensed drug premises, 1 licensed drug sales, 1 lifespan reduction, smoking, 1 lime, 1 London School of Economics, 1 LSD, 1 discovery, 1 ergotamine, derived from, 1 history, 1 psychedelic, 1 psychiatry and, 1 recreational drug, origins, 1 Saskatchewan hospital, 1 therapeutic, as, 1, 2 LSD – The Problem Solving Psychedelic, 1 LSE, 1 lung cancer Rand, Ayn, 1 smoking, causes, 1 tobacco industry response, 1 lymphocytes, 1 lysergic acid, 1 lysergic acid diethylamide, see LSD M-cat, see mephedrone magic mushrooms, see mushrooms magnetic resonance imaging, 1 Mail on Sunday, the, 1 Major, John, 1 MAPS, 1 Maria, Antonio Maria, 1 Mariani wine, see Vin Mariani Mariani, Angelo, 1, 2 Marsden, John, 1 MCDA, 1 ACMD expert panel, 1 defined, 1 MDMA, see ecstasy Measham, Fiona, 1, 2 measuring harms, see harms, measuring media, ecstasy, and, 1 Medicare, 1 Medicines Act, 1 Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, 1 memories addiction, in, 1, 2, 3 phobias and, 1 pleasure-seeking and, 1 PTSD, in, 1 stressful, benzodiazepines for, 1 memory and cognition enhancers, 1 memory formation cannabis impairs, 1 GABA, and, 1 glutamate and, 1 neurotransmitters and, 1 mental performance improvement, see cognition enhancers mental-health epidemic, 1 “meow meow”, see mephedrone mephedrone, 1, 2 banned, 1 banned, why, 1 benefits, 1 designer drugs, 1 dynamics, 1 harms, 1 insecticide, as, 1 kinetics, 1 nicknames, 1 origin, 1 plant food, 1 Scunthorpe Two, 1, 2 serotonin and, 1 stimulant, 1 suicide and, 1 mescaline, 1 Huxley, Aldous, 1 psychedelic, 1 met-met COMT type, 1 methadone, 1, 2 blocks on-top heroin use, 1 effects, 1 full agonist for heroin, 1 heroin susbstitute, 1 heroin withdrawal, avoids, 1 how it works, 1 opioid, 1 origin, 1 overdose risk with heroin, 1 pharmacological substitute, as, 1 problems, 1 withdrawal, 1 methamphetamine, 1 dopamine receptors and, 1 stimulant, 1 Mexico, 1, 2 violence in, 1 MHRA, 1 mind-manifesting, 1, 2 minimum data set required, 1 minimum data set, withdrawal and, 1 minimum dataset, 1 Minister for Crime Prevention, 1 Misuse of Drugs Act, 1, 2, 3 ACMD and, 1 cathinones ban, 1 correct operation, 1 mephedrone ban, 1 purpose, 1 suggested change, 1, 2 unfit for purpose, 1 mixing drugs or alcohol, see drugs, mixing Mixmag magazine, 1, 2 modafinil, 1, 2, 3 cognition enhancers, 1 exams, in, 1 Mogadon, 1 money-laundering, 1, 2 banks, 1 Panama, 1 monkeys, dopamine receptors, 1 Monroe, Marilyn, suicide, 1 Moore v Regents of the University of California, 1 moral issues, 1 morphine, 1, 2, 3 buprenorphine alternative for, 1 chronic pain for, 1, 2, 3 dose inadequate, Ukraine, 1 heroin alternative for, 1 not available, India, 1 opium, from, 1, 2 wars, in, 1 Mowlam, Mo, 1 MRI, 1 MS, see multiple sclerosis mules harm to, 1 imprisonment, 1 khat, 1 Mullis, Kary, 1 multi-criteria decision analysis, see MCDA Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, see MAPS multiple sclerosis cannabis and, 1, 2, 3 Sativex and, 1 munchies, the, 1 muscle tremor, 1 muscle wasting, corticosteroids, 1 muscle, drugs to increase, 1 mushrooms, 1, 2 ancient Greece, 1 effects, 1 fly agaric, 1 Netherlands, from, 1 psychedelic, 1 why banned in UK, 1 nalmefene, 1, 2 naltrexone, 1, 2 naphyrone, 1 narcostates, 1 National Addiction Centre, 1 National Health Service, see NHS National Union of Students, 1 Native American Church, 1, 2, 3 Native Americans, 1 alcohol and, 1 natural opiates, 1 needle exchange beneficial effects, 1, 2 none in Russia, 1 neighbourhood watch scenario, 1 Netherlands coffee shop model, 1, 2 little heroin use, 1 mushrooms, magic, 1 Netherlands drug ranking study, 1 neuroimaging, 1 GABA receptors, 1 neuron, 1, 2 neurotransmitters, see also endorphins, see also receptor, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 addiction and, 1 anxiety and, 1 drugs mimic, 1 memory formation and, 1 on/off switch, 1, 2, 3 new drugs, see development of new drugs New York Times, The, 1, 2 NHS, 1, 2 informed consent, 1 NIAAA website, 1 nicotiana tabacum, 1 nicotine dopamine and withdrawal, 1 schizophrenia and, 1 vaccine, anti-, 1 withdrawal, 1, 2 nicotinic acid diethylamide, 1 NIDA website, 1 Nixon, Richard, 1, 2, 3 No. 10 Downing Street Strategy Unit, 1, 2 Freedom of Information Act, 1, 2 noradrenaline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 COMT and, 1 norepinephrine, see noradrenaline North Battleford, see Saskatchewan hospital nose, cocaine, 1 Nutt, David Radio 1 interview, 2 sacked from ACMD, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2, 3 Observer, the, 1 oestrogen sex hormone, 1 Olympic Games, drugs in, 1 on-top use buprenorphine blocks heroin, 1 methadone blocks heroin, 1 on/off switch, neurotransmitters, 1, 2, 3 opiates, 1 natural, 1 overdose, 1 opioids, 1, 2 buprenorphine, 1 codeine, 1 heroin, 1 methadone, 1 synthetic, 1 opium heroin from, 1 morphine from, 1, 2 opium trade, 1 Orford, Jim, 1, 2, 3 overdose anabolic steroids, unlikely, 1 benzodiazepines, safer, 1 cocaine, mechanism, 1 death in Shetlands, 1 death rare in cannabis, LSD, 1 eating increases risk, 1 from chewing impossible, 1 GABA receptors, 1 heroin, benzodiazepines and, 1 low risk in heroin treatment, 1 methadone and heroin, risk, 1 opiates, harms, 1 prisoners on heroin, 1 psychedelics, impossible, 1 purity variation and, 1, 2 SSRIs, safer, 1, 2 tolerance as protection, 1 overshoot, 1 epilepsy, in, 1 oxycodone, 1 pain sensitivity and COMT, 1 painkillers, 1 addiction to, avoiding, 1 heroin, 1 heroin is most effective, 1 terminal illness, 1 under-prescribed, 1 paint, see solvents Pakistan, farmers, alternatives for, 1 palliative-care movement, 1 Panama, money-laundering, 1 panic attacks, 1 paracetamol, 1 paracetamol, side effects, 1, 2 Parkinson’s early onset, 1 ecstasy and, 1 horse-riding and, 1 smoking and, 1 paroxetine, 1 partial agonist, 1 buprenorphine, 1 heroin, for, 1 withdrawal, 1 patent law, 1 peer pressure, 1, 2 Pemberton, John, 1 pentathlon, 1 performance enhancers, see also cognition enhancers, 1 amphetamines, 1 anabolic steroids, 1 muscle/power, for, 1 personal and biological factors, 1 personal interactions, vicious cycle, 1 Peru, 1 perverse consequences Class, too high, 1 government policies, 1 international policies, 1 khat ban, 1 prohibition, 1 smoking ban, none, 1 War on Drugs, 1 Pervitin, 1, 2 PET, 1 PET camera, 1 PET scan, 1 peyote psychedelic, 1 pharmaceutical industry, 1 Foresight programme, 1 pharmacological substitutes, 1 agonists, full, 1 agonists, partial, 1 buprenorphine, 1 heroin, for, 1, 2 methadone, 1 treatment with, 1 pharmacological treatments antagonist, 1 disease-modifying agents, 1 pseudo-antagonist, 1 pharmacology, 1 phenylalanine and phenylketonuria, 1 phenylketonuria, 1, 2 phenylketonuria and phenylalanine, 1 phobias memories and, 1 treating, 1 physical dependence, benzodiazepines, 1 plant food, see mephedrone plant origin of drugs, 1 policing, discriminatory, 1 political damage from cocaine, 1 poly drug users, see also drugs, mixing, 1, 2, 3, 4 Pope Leo XIII, Vin Mariani, and, 1 Portman Group, 1, 2, 3 Portugal decriminalisation of drugs, 1, 2 Portuguese experiment addiction treatment, 1 HIV/AIDS reduced, 1 positron, 1 positron emission tomography, see PET post-traumatic stress disorder, see PTSD postsynaptic neuron, 1 power, drugs to enhance, 1 prednisolone, 1 Premier League, 1 prescription drugs, 1 diversion, see diverting prescription drugs presynaptic neuron, 1 preventing addiction, 1 Prime Minister, 1, 2, 3 prison annual cost, 1 drug free policy, 1 gateway to more harmful drugs, 1 harms, compared to cannabis, 1 heroin v cannabis, 1 reoffending rate, 1 statistics, 1 suicide in, 1 prison sentences by drug Class, 1 prisoners ex, unemployment rate, 1 overdose on heroin, 1 problem solving and psychedelics, 1 Proceeds of Crime legislation, 1 profit margin drugs, 1 Gucci, 1 prohibition, 1 perverse consequences, 1 repeal, 1 protective factors against addiction, 1 protein production, 1 Prozac, 1 pseudo-antagonist, 1 psilocybe semilanceata, 1 psilocybin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 addiction treatment, in, 1 depression, 1 Leary, Timothy, 1 psychedelics, see also LSD, 1, 2, 3 5HT2A receptors and, 1 ayuesca, 1 benefits, 1 cluster headache, for, 1, 2 creativity enhanced, 1 defined, 1 DMT, 1 harms, 1 how they work, 1 ibogaine, 1 licences for taking, 1 LSD, 1 mescaline, 1 mushrooms, 1 origin of name, 1 other, 1 other, effects, 1 overdose, impossible, 1 peyote, 1 problem solving, 1 PTSD, and, 1, 2 serotonin receptor, 1 therapeutics, as, 1 vasoconstrictor effect, 1 psychiatry and LSD, 1 psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, 1 psychonauts, 1 psychopharmacology, 1, 2 psychotria viridis, 1 PTSD, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 alcohol and, 1 barbiturates in treating, 1 bromides in treating, 1 ecstasy in treating, 1, 2 memory in, 1 psychedelics in treating, 1, 2 suicide, 1 treatment, 1 war, in, 1 purity variation and overdose, 1, 2 Purple Hearts, 1 Queen Victoria, 1 Vin Mariani, and, 1 quid, 1 Radio 4 interview, D Nutt, 1 radioactive isotope, 1 rainforests and cocaine, 1, 2 Ramsey, John, 1 Rand, Ayn, lung cancer, 1 ranking drugs, see ACMD, ranking RAVE act, 1, 2, 3 reasons for taking drugs, 1 rebound, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3 5HT2A, in psychedelics, 1 acetylcholine, 1 adenosine, 1 Alpha, 1 brain chemicals, 1 cannabis, 1, 2 dopamine, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 dopamine, stimulants and, 1 down-regulating, 1, 2 endorphin, 1, 2, 3, 4 GABA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 glutamate, 1 heroin and, 1 number of, 1, 2 serotonin, 1, 2, 3 targeted by drug, 1 tolerance and, 1 recreational drugs defined, 1 improved synthetic, 1 recurrence, 1 Reducing Americans’ Vulnerability to Ecstasy Act, see RAVE Act Reid, John, MP, 1 relapse, 1 rates of, 1 reducing risk of, 1 stress-induced, 1, 2 triggers, 1 reoffending rate of prisoners, 1 research new drugs, 1 War on Drugs hinders, 1 restless legs, 1 reuptake, see also SSRIs blocking, 1 dopamine, 1 dopamine, cocaine blocks, 1 ecstasy blocks, 1 serotonin, 1 serotonin, ecstasy blocks, 1 sites, 1, 2, 3 reward chemicals, 1 Reynolds, JR, Queen Victoria’s physician, 1 Ricaurte, George, 1 risks genetic sequencing, of, 1 higher for young people, 1 surgery, statistics, 1 Ritalin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 addiction and, 1 ADHD, in treating, 1 case study, 1 children and, 1 diversion, 1 dopamine reuptake inhibitor, 1 side effects, 1 rituals, 1 shamanic, 1 road traffic accidents, 1, 2, 3 Rohypnol, 1 rosewater, 1 routes of use, 1 addictiveness and, 1, 2 bagging, 1 cannabis, 1 chewing, 1 cocaine, 1, 2 crack, 1 drinking, 1 eating, 1, 2 harms, 1 huffing, 1 inhaling, 1, 2 injecting, 1 kinetics, 1 rubbing, 1 smoking, 1, 2 snorting, 1 speed of different, 1 spraying, 1 rubbing, routes of use, 1 Runciman report, 1, 2, 3 Runciman, Viscountess, 1 Russia, HIV/AIDS uncurbed, 1 safety ratio, 1 Salem witch trials, ergotamine and, 1 Sami, 1 Sandoz, 1 Sare, Jeremy, 1 Saskatchewan hospital and LSD, 1 Sativex, 1, 2, 3 multiple sclerosis and, 1 scenarios, future, 1 schizophrenia auditory effects, 1 cannabis, 1 cannabis, and, 1 hallucinations, 1 nicotine and, 1 skunk, 1 skunk, and, 1 voices, hearing, 1 Schofield, Penny, 1 school, drugs and, 1 Scunthorpe Two, 1, 2, 3 secondary smoking, 1 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, see SSRIs sentence, no effect on cannabis use, 1, 2 serotonin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 ecstasy and, 1 mephedrone and, 1 receptors, 1, 2, 3 receptors, psychedelics and, 1 reuptake, 1 Seroxat, 1 sertraline, 1 set, 1 set and setting, 1 setting, 1 setting, set and, 1 sex hormones anabolic steroids, 1 oestrogen, 1 testosterone, 1, 2, 3 shamanic rituals, 1 shell shock, 1, see also PTSD shooting, see injecting, 1 shoplifting, 1 Siberia, 1 side effects benzodiazepines, 1 ketamine, 1 Ritalin, 1 SSRIs, 1 stimulants, 1 Sierra Leone, child soldiers, 1 Simpson, Tommy, 1 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1, 2, 3 Bolivia and, 1 decriminalisation and, 1 Portugal and, 1 Singleton, Nicola, 1 skin infections, 1 skunk, 1 hash, compared, 1 schizophrenia, 1, 2 sleeping pills, 1, 2 insomnia research, 1 Smith, Jacqui, MP, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Smith, Nicholas, 1, 2, 3 smoking, see also nicotine, see also tobacco, 1 addictiveness, 1 amputation of limbs from, 1 ban, 1 ban, objections, 1 ban, results, 1 benefits, 1 criminalisation, 1 harms reduction, 1, 2 labelling, 1 lifespan reduction, 1 lung cancer, causes, 1 Parkinson’s and, 1 promoted as healthy, 1, 2 restrictions, 1 routes of use, 1, 2 secondary, 1 social context, 1 withdrawal, 1, 2 smoking ban no perverse consequences, 1 smuggling alcohol, 1 tobacco, 1, 2 snorting, routes of use, 1 social context and Class of drug, 1, 2 social context of smoking, 1 social factors, 1 social implications of new drugs, 1 soldiers, see drugs in war solvents asphyxiation, 1 dangers of, 1 speed of different routes of use, 1 speed of offset, 1 speed of onset, 1 speedballs in Vietnam, 1 spice, 1 Spiegelhalter, David, 1, 2 spiritual antidote to atom bomb, 1 sport, drugs in, see also performance enhancers, 1 alcohol, 1 beta blockers, 1 calmness, for, 1 non performance-enhancing, 1 Olympic Games, 1 withdrawal, 1 spraying, routes of use, 1 SSDS, see sudden sniffing death syndrome SSRIs, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 how they work, 1 miserable initially, 1 overdose, safer, 1, 2 rebound less likely, 1 side effects, few, 1 street value, none, 1 suicide and, 1, 2 suicide rate lowered, 1 withdrawal, 1 stereotypy, 1 steroids, see also anabolic steroids, corticosteroids stimulant, 1 Stevens, Alex, Professor, 1 Stewart, Hester, 1 stimulants, 1, 2, 3 amphetamine, 1 caffeine, 1 cocaine, 1 dopamine receptors and, 1 khat, 1 mephedrone, 1 methamphetamine, 1 side effects, 1 steroids, 1 tobacco, 1 “uppers”, 1 street value, SSRIs, none, 1 stress hormones, 1 substance P, 1 substitute prescribing, 1 substitutes, see pharmacological substitutes Subutex, 1 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 1 sudden sniffing death syndrome, 1 suicide anabolic steroids and, 1 barbiturates, 1 benzodiazepines and, 1 energisation effect, 1 Marilyn Monroe, 1 mephedrone contributed to, 1 prison, in, 1 PTSD, 1 SSRIs and, 1, 2 SSRIs lower rate, 1 Sun, the, 1 supply reduction, criminalisation and, 1 Surgeon General, US, 1 surgery, risk statistics, 1 Switzerland, heroin treatment, 1 synapse, 1 synthetic analogues, 1 synthetic opioids, 1 synthetic recreational drugs, 1 Taylor, Polly, Dr, 1 TB, see tuberculosis teeth, bad, 1 Temperance Movement, 1 temporary banning orders, 1 terminal illness anxiety reduction, 1 cannabis for, 1 heroin for, 1 morphine in, 1, 2, 3 painkillers, 1 painkillers not given, 1, 2, 3, 4 preparation for, with LSD, 1, 2 War on Drugs, 1 testosterone withdrawal, 1 testosterone sex hormone, 1, 2, 3 Thailand, farmers, alternatives for, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1 THC, 1, 2, 3, 4 content, cannabis forms, 1 therapeutic drug cannabis as, 1 heroin, as, 1 LSD as, 1 psychedelics as, 1, 2 thrombosis, 1 Times, The, and heroin, 1 tinctures, cannabis, 1 tobacco, see also smoking, 1 benefits, 1 dopamine, releases, 1 harms, 1 history, 1 ritual function, 1 routes of use, 1 smuggling, 1, 2 stimulant, 1 tobacco industry distorted evidence, 1 lung cancer, response to, 1 resistance to health measures, 1 tolerance addictiveness and, 1 bingeing and, 1 defined, 1 GABA receptors and, 1 GHB, to, 1 ketamine, 1 mechanism, 1 overdose protection, as, 1 receptors and, 1 Tour de France, 1 toxicology, 1 tracer, 1 flumazenil, 1 transporters, 1, 2 dopamine, 1 treated positively scenario, 1 treatment, see addiction treatment tricyclic antidepressants, 1 tuberculosis, 1 TurBo-HIV, 1 Turkey, 1 UK independence party, decriminalisation of drugs, 1 Ukraine, morphine dose inadequate, 1 ulcerative cystitis, ketamine-induced, 1 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, see UNODC unemployment rate, ex-prisoners, 1 unlearning and phobias, 1 UNODC, 1 upgrading cannabis, 1, 2 purpose, 1 uppers, 1 vaccines, anti-drug, 1 antagonist, 1 cocaine, 1 nicotine, 1 val-met COMT type, 1 val-val COMT type, 1 valeda, 1 Valium, 1, 2 vandalism, 1 vaporisation temperature crack, 1 hydrochlorides, 1 varenicline, 1 vasoconstriction, psychedelics, 1 veins, damaged, 1 vicious cycle depression, 1, 2 dopamine receptors, 1 personal interactions, 1 withdrawal, 1 Vietnam drug-taking prevalent, 1 ketamine used, 1 LSD and anti-war movement, 1 speedballs, 1 statistics for drugs, 1 Vietnamese gangs, 1 Vin Mariani, 1, 2, 3 Pope Leo XIII, 1 Queen Victoria, 1 visual distortions, 1, 2, 3 voices, hearing, schizophrenia, 1 Wachovia bank money-laundering investigation, 1 Wainwright, Louis, 1, 2, 3 war American Civil, 1 cigarettes in, 1 Crimean, 1 Franco-Prussian, 1 PTSD in, 1 War on Drugs, 1 aims, 1 alternatives, 1 cost, 1 crime, increases, 1 demand reduction, 1 disease, infectious, 1 diverts attention, 1 harms reduction, 1 ineffective, report on, 1 perverse consequences, 1 research, hinders, 1 terminal illness, 1 War on Poverty, 1 War on Terror, 1 war, drugs in, see drugs in war wash up, 1 water overdrinking, dangers of, 1 when taking ecstasy, 1 weed, 1 weights in ACMD ranking, 1 Wellbutrin, 1 West Africa, 1 White, Kelli, 1 WHO, 1, 2 International Classificn. of Diseases, 1 smoking statistics, 1 William of Orange, 1 Williams, Tim, 1 wine, cocaine, see Vin Mariani Winehouse, Amy, 1, 2 Winstock, Adam, 1 winter sports, 1 withdrawal, 1 addiction and, 1 addictiveness and, 1 alcohol, 1, 2, 3 alcohol, benzodiazepines for, 1 benzodiazepines, 1 caffeine, 1, 2 defined, 1 dopamine levels, 1 drugs, 1 ecstasy, 1 GABA receptors and, 1 heroin, 1 ibogaine treatment for, 1 methadone, 1 methadone avoids heroin, 1 minimum data set and, 1 nicotine, 1, 2 partial agonist, 1 physical, 1 psychological, 1 smoking, 1, 2 sport, drugs in, 1 SSRIs, 1 testosterone, 1 vicious cycle, 1 World Health Organization, see WHO Wynder, Ernst, 1 Xanax, 1 young people, risks higher for, 1 Zoloft, 1 Copyright Published by UIT Cambridge Ltd.

It even made the endlessly-repetitive beats of trance music sound good! Ecstasy creates these effects by releasing serotonin in the brain and central nervous system. Serotonin is a naturally-occurring neurotransmitter – a chemical that sends messages round the brain – which helps regulate sleep, appetite, muscle contractions, intestinal movements and mood. (When people have clinical depression, we give them Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), which help to increase the level of serotonin available to do its work.) Dopamine, a pleasure hormone, is also released, contributing to the sense of euphoria. Users start feeling the effects of the drug 30–60 minutes after taking a pill, and these effects peak after 1–2 hours. Some people prefer to buy the drug as a powder and snort it, which produces faster and more short-lived effects.


pages: 312 words: 89,728

The End of My Addiction by Olivier Ameisen

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Albert Einstein, epigenetics, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), statistical model

A daisy chain of referrals sent me to a number of highly regarded and credentialed specialists, none of whom ever proposed a comprehensive treatment plan, although some of them did not hesitate to criticize the way my referring psychiatrist treated me. By default, I was forced to coordinate my care as best I could on my own. From my psychopharmacologist I received prescriptions for tranquilizers, benzos like Valium and Xanax. Saying they were helpful for anxiety as well as depression, the psychopharmacologist also prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, like Prozac and Zoloft. We tried them at various dosages alone and in combination. None of the permutations were effective, and all of them had unpleasant side effects. The psychiatrist I was seeing for alcohol dependency knew I was taking these medications, and he also prescribed Antabuse (disulfiram). Antabuse, which stays active in the body for five days, blocks the liver from breaking down alcohol, so that if you drink on it you almost immediately experience the nastiest symptoms of severe intoxication: accelerated heart rate, flushed skin, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting.

My report is that he has experienced a satisfactory response to high-dose baclofen that has been sustained over ten months without significant side-effect. Tolerance has not developed, whereas it had with oral naltrexone. Tolerance to baclofen has uncommonly been reported only after years of intrathecal use for severe spasticity (Nielsen et al., 2002). In contrast with Dr. Ameisen’s experience, use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; paroxetine) did appear to be necessary as baclofen by itself did not satisfactorily reduce Mr. A’s anxiety or depression. Being a case study, this report is obviously limited. Placebo response is a possibility. If that is the case, however, there is no apparent explanation for why it did not appear in trials of either naltrexone or acamprosate, alone or in combination, or with topiramate.

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) preaddiction morbidity prescription painkillers, abuse of Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique (PHRC) Prozac, see fluoxetine psychotherapy; see also cognitive behavioral therapy; group therapy Rational Recovery (RR) Recognizing Addiction as a Disease Act (2007) rehab; “drunk dreams” in; life lessons taught in; relaxation training in; see also specific facilities relapse; anticipatory anxiety of; conventional addiction medications and; cycle of rehab and; “drunk dreams” and; rate of; reducing risk of relaxation exercises Revel, Michel Revia, see naltrexone reward mechanisms rhabdomyolysis ribs, fractured rimonabant (Acomplia) Roberts, David C. Rockefeller University Rosenthal, Moriz Rubinstein, Artur Rubinstein, Helena Rudrauf, David Sabril, see vigabatrin Saint-Cloud Hospital St. Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital Sanofi Schaefer, John Schanz family schizophrenia seizures selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) self-hypnosis serotonin sertraline (Zoloft) Smith, Charles R. smoking cessation, drugs for sonogram Sontag, Susan Southern California, University of Spielberg, Steven spirituality status epilepticus Steiner, Jeff stress test suicidal thoughts and behaviors, drugs associated with increased risk of Sungar, Murat Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation sympathetic nervous system talk therapy tardive dyskinesia Taylor, John Bellamy Texas, University of threshold response Titus, Edward William tolerance, drug Topamax, see topiramate topiramate (Topamax) transaminase Tranxene twelve-step programs; relapse rates of; see also Alcoholics Anonymous; Narcotics Anonymous urine monitoring Valium, see diazepam valproate varenicline (Chantix) ventricular tachycardia vigabatrin (Sabril) Vioxx Vivitrol, see naltrexone Weill Cornell Medical College; see also Cornell University Medical College Wernicke’s encephalopathy Wiesel, Elie withdrawal; baclofen and; GHB and; neurotransmitter release triggered by; preventing symptoms of World Health Organization (WHO) World War II Xanax yoga Zofran Zoloft Acknowledgments First of all, I thank my parents for their boundless love and for showing me by their example the power of dreams when everything appears to be lost.


pages: 402 words: 129,876

Bad Pharma: How Medicine Is Broken, and How We Can Fix It by Ben Goldacre

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data acquisition, framing effect, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income per capita, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, WikiLeaks

And finally, if you try to get all of the information that a drug company has provided – the long-form documents, where the bodies are often buried – then regulators present bizarre barriers, blocking and obfuscating for several years at a time, even on drugs that turn out to be ineffective and harmful. Nothing of what I am about to tell you is in any sense reassuring. One: Information is withheld from regulators Paroxetine is a commonly used antidepressant, from the class of drugs known as ‘selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’, or SSRIs. You will hear more about this class of drugs later in this book, but here we will use paroxetine to show how companies have exploited our longstanding permissiveness about missing trials, and found loopholes in our inadequate regulations on trial disclosure. We will see that GSK withheld data about whether paroxetine works as an antidepressant, and even withheld data about its harmful side effects, but most importantly, we will see that what it did was all entirely legal.

If you think back to the previous chapter, you will remember that developing a completely new molecule, with a completely new mechanism of action in the body, is a very risky and difficult business. Because of that, once a company has an established drug on the market, others will often try to produce their own version of that drug: so there are a great many antidepressants around from the class known as ‘selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’, or SSRIs, for example. Developing a drug like this is much more of a safe bet. Often these me-too drugs don’t represent a significant therapeutic benefit, so many people regard them as wasteful, an unnecessary use of development money, potentially exposing trial participants to unnecessary harm for individual companies’ commercial gain rather than medical advancement. I’m not entirely sure this is correct: among a class of drugs, one may be better than the others, or have fewer idiosyncratic side effects, so in that sense these copycats can be useful, sometimes.

More than molecules The idea that depression is caused by low serotonin levels in the brain is now deeply embedded in popular folklore, and people with no neuroscience background at all will routinely incorporate phrases about it into everyday discussion of their mood, just to keep their serotonin levels up. Many people also ‘know’ that this is how antidepressant drugs work: depression is caused by low serotonin, so you need drugs which raise the serotonin levels in your brain, like SSRI antidepressants, which are ‘selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’. But this theory is wrong. The ‘serotonin hypothesis’ for depression, as it is known, was always shaky, and the evidence now is hugely contradictory.19 I’m not giving that lecture here, but as one brief illustration, there’s a drug called tianeptine – it is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, not an inhibitor, that should reduce serotonin levels – and yet research shows that it is also a pretty effective treatment for depression.


pages: 61 words: 16,429

Just Keep Calm & Take Some Magnesium - Why a "Boring" Mineral Is Suddenly Hot Property for Soothing Bodies and Calming Minds by James Lee

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Albert Einstein, epigenetics, life extension, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell

For example, whilst many people have depression caused by a lack of serotonin (or impaired serotonergic functioning), many do not. Depression can be caused by faulty thinking, life stressors, low dopamine, low noradrenaline, too much glutamate, thyroid problems and sleep disorders, to name but a few. Considering this complexity, it is no surprise that there is no single treatment for all kinds of depression and anxiety. You have probably hear of SSRI drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac) which work by inhibiting the process by which your brain removes serotonin from the synapse (Don’t worry, I will explain what synapses are also) and therefore keeping levels higher than they would have been. Sounds simple right? Well, did you know that there is another antidepressant drug called Stablon (tianeptine) which is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer.

By blocking the action of SERT, more serotonin can build up in the synapse and hopefully, lead to improved mood or reduced anxiety. This is how the popular SSRIs (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors such as Prozac and Zoloft) work. The main advantage of SSRIs over older antidepressants is that SSRIs are more “selective” (which should come as no surprise considering the name…) and therefore cause less side-effects. Some of the older antidepressants are subject to side-effects which can range from mildly troubling to life-threatening. However SSRIs are not without their own troubling side-effects, which include a constellation of problems from sexual dysfunction to diarrhoea. The older class of antidepressants known as tricyclics also work in this way. This class, which includes drugs such as amitriptyline and clomipramine, is notorious for being un-selective (hence SSRIs are known as selective because they essentially target serotonin only) and therefore comes with a range of side-effects such as drowsiness.

If you are considering a natural alternative to a particular drug, you need to bear in mind that, in general, most supplements and herbs will work in the same basic ways mentioned above. And when you read about a particular supplement being “milder” with less side-effects, sometimes it can mean that there are no positive effects either. Essentially, natural antidepressants work as either mild SSRIs or mild MAOIs, with often conflicting research as to which. For example, researchers are currently divided as to whether St. John’s Wort is an SSRI or a MAOI. At the end of the day, this is relatively unimportant. More pertinent is whether sometime works or not. The only exception to this is when you are suffering from low dopamine. SSRIs tend to suppress dopaminergic function whereas MAOIs give all three mood-related monoamine neurotransmitters a boost. So if low dopamine is an issue, you would either need to focus on a supplement that purely works on dopamine (such as mucuna pruriens) or a MAOI like rhodiola rosea.


pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

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1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

This wasn’t just the discovery of a new drug, but of a whole new notion of personhood.18 In the decades since Kuhn and Kline first experimented with their new drugs, antidepressants have become celebrated for this alleged selectivity and their non-specificity. The supposed genius of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is to seek out the precise part of the self that requires energizing and give it a boost. In the years following the launch of Prozac in 1988, enthusiasm for the potential of SSRIs reached unprecedented heights. Claims were made by psychiatrists such as Peter Kramer that Prozac didn’t simply boost mood, but reconnected individuals with their real selves.19 The notion of illness, not to mention that of sadness, has been transformed in the process. It would take twenty-five years before Kuhn and Kline’s new ‘psychic energizers’ would attain mass market appeal; indeed they were initially marketed as anti-schizophrenia drugs.

See positive psychology promise of practical utility of, 91 reunion of with economics, 64, 182 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 theory of, as balancing act, 67 The Psychology of Advertising (Scott), 86 psychopharmacology, 162 psychophysical parallelism, 259 psychophysics, 29, 30, 31 psychosomatic interventions/management/programmes/theories, 122, 124, 128, 135 psychotherapy, 124, 127 pulse rate, 25, 26, 27, 37, 79 punishment, 16, 19, 22, 23, 179, 183, 239 PwC, 119 Qualia, 36 quality of life measures, 126 quantitative sociological research, 98 quantified community, 233, 234 quantified self apps, 221 quantified self movement, 221, 228 quants, 237 questionnaires, 165, 175, 176 random acts of managerial generosity, 184 randomized sampling methods, 97 Rapley, Mark, 250 Rayner, Rosalie, 93 Reagan, Ronald, 144, 149, 159 Realeyes, 72 real-time health data, 137 real-time social trends, 224 recessions, 67–8, 252 Recognizing the Depressed Patient (Ayd), 164 reductionism, 27, 264 research ethics, 91–2, 225 resilience training, 35, 273 Resor, Stanley, 93–4, 95, 96 retail culture, 58 Ricard, Matthieu, 2, 4 Robbins, Lionel, 154 Robins, Eli, 169 Rockefeller Foundation, 97, 99, 121 Rogers, Carl, 146 Roosevelt, Franklin, 101, 146 Rowntree, Joseph, 99 RunKeeper, 240 Ryanair, 185 Salter, Tim, 110 sampling methods, 97–8 Santa Monica, California, 4 São Paolo, Brazil, Clean City Law, 275 scales, 146, 165, 175, 176 scanning technology, 75–6 scent logos, 73 Schrader, Harald, 44 scientific advertising, 215 scientific management, 118–19, 120, 136–7, 235 scientific optimism, 242 scientific politics, 77, 88, 145 scientists, as source of authority, 147–8 Scott, Walter Dill, 83, 85 screen time, 207 second brain, 231 secular religions, 260 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 163, 166 self-anchored striving, 147, 166, 175 self-anchoring striving scale, 146 self-forming groups, 200 self-help gurus, 210 self-help literature, 247 self-improvement, 212 self-monitoring, 258 self-optimization, 213 self-reflection, 211 self-surveillance, 221, 230 Seligman, Martin, 165, 277n5 Selye, Hans, 128–31, 133, 264 The Senses and the Intellect (Bain), 48 sentiment analysis/tracking, 6, 221, 223, 261 sexual orientation disturbance, 172 sharing economy, 188 shopping, 58, 74, 93, 188, 239 sick notes, 112 Sing Sing prison, 201 Smail, David, 250 smart cities, 220, 224, 239 smart homes, 239 smart watches, 37 smartphones, 10, 207, 222, 230 smiles/smiling, 36–7, 38 Smith, Adam, 49, 50, 52, 55 social, 1, 36, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 203, 204, 205, 207, 208, 211–12 social analytics, 188, 191, 193, 196 social capitalism, 212 social contagion, science of, 257 social economy, 190 social epidemiology, 9, 250, 254 social media, 188, 189, 199, 203, 207, 208–9, 213, 224, 261, 274 social media addiction, 206, 207 social network analysis, 204, 208 social networks, 193, 194, 195, 196, 213, 225 social neuroscience, 193, 195, 213, 214 social obligation, 184 social optimization, 181–214 social prescribing, 194, 212, 246, 271 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 social research, 98, 202, 226 social science, as converging with physiology into new discipline, 195 sociology, 254 sociometric analysis, 199 sociometric maps, 202 Sociometric Solutions, 239 sociometry, 199, 201, 202, 203 Spengler, Oswald, 121 Spitzer, Robert, 171–3, 176, 271 sponsored conversations, 189 sport, as virtue for political leaders, 140 sporting metaphors, 141 SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 163, 166 St Louis school of psychiatry, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 176, 179 Stanton, Frank, 99 Stigler, George, 150, 152, 153, 156–7, 158, 160 stress, 37, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 175, 250, 262, 272, 273 Stuckler, David, 252 subjective affect, science of, 6, 7 subjective feelings, relationship with external circumstances, 254 subjective sensation, 30, 45, 55, 61 Suicide (Durkheim), 227 Sully, James, 59, 84 surveillance, 231, 237, 238, 240, 242.

See positive psychology promise of practical utility of, 91 reunion of with economics, 64, 182 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 theory of, as balancing act, 67 The Psychology of Advertising (Scott), 86 psychopharmacology, 162 psychophysical parallelism, 259 psychophysics, 29, 30, 31 psychosomatic interventions/management/programmes/theories, 122, 124, 128, 135 psychotherapy, 124, 127 pulse rate, 25, 26, 27, 37, 79 punishment, 16, 19, 22, 23, 179, 183, 239 PwC, 119 Qualia, 36 quality of life measures, 126 quantitative sociological research, 98 quantified community, 233, 234 quantified self apps, 221 quantified self movement, 221, 228 quants, 237 questionnaires, 165, 175, 176 random acts of managerial generosity, 184 randomized sampling methods, 97 Rapley, Mark, 250 Rayner, Rosalie, 93 Reagan, Ronald, 144, 149, 159 Realeyes, 72 real-time health data, 137 real-time social trends, 224 recessions, 67–8, 252 Recognizing the Depressed Patient (Ayd), 164 reductionism, 27, 264 research ethics, 91–2, 225 resilience training, 35, 273 Resor, Stanley, 93–4, 95, 96 retail culture, 58 Ricard, Matthieu, 2, 4 Robbins, Lionel, 154 Robins, Eli, 169 Rockefeller Foundation, 97, 99, 121 Rogers, Carl, 146 Roosevelt, Franklin, 101, 146 Rowntree, Joseph, 99 RunKeeper, 240 Ryanair, 185 Salter, Tim, 110 sampling methods, 97–8 Santa Monica, California, 4 São Paolo, Brazil, Clean City Law, 275 scales, 146, 165, 175, 176 scanning technology, 75–6 scent logos, 73 Schrader, Harald, 44 scientific advertising, 215 scientific management, 118–19, 120, 136–7, 235 scientific optimism, 242 scientific politics, 77, 88, 145 scientists, as source of authority, 147–8 Scott, Walter Dill, 83, 85 screen time, 207 second brain, 231 secular religions, 260 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 163, 166 self-anchored striving, 147, 166, 175 self-anchoring striving scale, 146 self-forming groups, 200 self-help gurus, 210 self-help literature, 247 self-improvement, 212 self-monitoring, 258 self-optimization, 213 self-reflection, 211 self-surveillance, 221, 230 Seligman, Martin, 165, 277n5 Selye, Hans, 128–31, 133, 264 The Senses and the Intellect (Bain), 48 sentiment analysis/tracking, 6, 221, 223, 261 sexual orientation disturbance, 172 sharing economy, 188 shopping, 58, 74, 93, 188, 239 sick notes, 112 Sing Sing prison, 201 Smail, David, 250 smart cities, 220, 224, 239 smart homes, 239 smart watches, 37 smartphones, 10, 207, 222, 230 smiles/smiling, 36–7, 38 Smith, Adam, 49, 50, 52, 55 social, 1, 36, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 203, 204, 205, 207, 208, 211–12 social analytics, 188, 191, 193, 196 social capitalism, 212 social contagion, science of, 257 social economy, 190 social epidemiology, 9, 250, 254 social media, 188, 189, 199, 203, 207, 208–9, 213, 224, 261, 274 social media addiction, 206, 207 social network analysis, 204, 208 social networks, 193, 194, 195, 196, 213, 225 social neuroscience, 193, 195, 213, 214 social obligation, 184 social optimization, 181–214 social prescribing, 194, 212, 246, 271 social psychology, 125, 189, 266 social research, 98, 202, 226 social science, as converging with physiology into new discipline, 195 sociology, 254 sociometric analysis, 199 sociometric maps, 202 Sociometric Solutions, 239 sociometry, 199, 201, 202, 203 Spengler, Oswald, 121 Spitzer, Robert, 171–3, 176, 271 sponsored conversations, 189 sport, as virtue for political leaders, 140 sporting metaphors, 141 SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 163, 166 St Louis school of psychiatry, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 176, 179 Stanton, Frank, 99 Stigler, George, 150, 152, 153, 156–7, 158, 160 stress, 37, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 175, 250, 262, 272, 273 Stuckler, David, 252 subjective affect, science of, 6, 7 subjective feelings, relationship with external circumstances, 254 subjective sensation, 30, 45, 55, 61 Suicide (Durkheim), 227 Sully, James, 59, 84 surveillance, 231, 237, 238, 240, 242.


pages: 564 words: 163,106

The Rise and Fall of Modern Medicine by M. D. James le Fanu M. D.

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Barry Marshall: ulcers, clean water, cuban missile crisis, discovery of penicillin, double helix, experimental subject, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, meta analysis, meta-analysis, rising living standards, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, telerobotics, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, V2 rocket

And just as the mode of action of chlorpromazine in blocking the dopamine receptors only became clear ten years after its introduction, so the mode of action of imipramine – that it blocked the receptors of the neurotransmitter 5HT – was not made till 1960, a full five years after Kuhn’s original observations.10 In the 1980s the popularity of the tricyclics was eclipsed by the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs such as Prozac (fluoxetine), which had fewer side-effects. Their manner of discovery was, however, exactly the same as that of the tricyclics, having been identified as part of a screening programme of the antihistamine-type drugs that gave rise to chlorpromazine.11 The tricyclics and SSRIs were an accidental spin-off from a programme where drugs were first synthesised and then tested for possible therapeutic efficacy. By contrast, the MAOIs arose – like chlorpromazine – from a chance felicitous clinical observation that a drug used in the treatment of one condition, in this case tuberculosis, had side-effects that might be put to good use in another.

Nonetheless, its phenomenal success poses something of a paradox given ‘the Revolution in Psychiatry’ of the 1950s (as described in Chapter 4 of the Prologue) with the discovery in a very short period of drugs for the full range of mental illness – psychosis, anxiety, depression, mania, and two types of antidepressants of undoubted efficacy, widely prescribed. Then came Prozac, the first of the SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), so called because of their ability to increase the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, launched in 1989 with the dual advantage of being both easy to take (just a single pill a day) and better tolerated than its predecessors. Prozac rapidly displaced the earlier anti-depressant drugs such as amitriptylene, and within a few years doctors in Britain were writing 14 million prescriptions annually.

A number of family members have been treated with lithium with signal effect [Schou himself was among them]; they might have been hospitalised or dead if lithium treatment had not come round.’ Lithium was finally given a licence for use in the United States in 1970, twenty years after Cade’s original description of its effect on Mr W. B.’s mania.8 Antidepressants: Tricyclics, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) The first antidepressant – imipramine – arose directly out of the research programme that had led to the discovery of chlorpromazine. Roland Kuhn – a 38-year-old psychiatrist (and a disillusioned psychoanalyst) at Munsterlingen Hospital, Switzerland – requested from the drug firm Geigy supplies of imipramine, one of the drugs that had been synthesised as part of the research programme that had led to the discovery of chlorpromazine, intending to see whether it might be similarly – or more – effective in patients with schizophrenia.


pages: 407 words: 100,512

The Menopause Thyroid Solution by Mary J. Shomon

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clean water, Gary Taubes, life extension, megacity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Antidepressant treatments—such as conventional medications, herbal formulations, therapy, exercise, and support—can help balance the brain chemistry and relieve the depression or anxiety. MEDICATIONS Antidepressants are frequently prescribed as a treatment for depression/anxiety. They include mirtazapine (brand name Remeron), venlafaxine (brand name Effexor), nefazodone (brand name Serzone), and bupropion (brand name Wellbutrin); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine (brand name Paxil), fluoxetine (brand name Prozac), and sertraline (brand name Zoloft); monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as phenelzine (brand name Nardil) and tranylcypromine (brand name Parnate); and tricyclic antidepressants, such as sinequan (Adapin), amitriptyline (brand name Elavil), desipramine (brand name Norpramin), and impramine (brand name Tofranil).

., 348 Nuclear exposure, 33 Nuclear scans, 94–95 Nutrasweet, 37 Nutritional supplements, see Supplements Nystagmus, 48 Oak Ridge (Tennessee) nuclear facility, 33 Oleic acid, 179 Oligomenorrhea, 39 Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, 129–30, 195, 297–98 Onycholysis, 50, 87 Oophorectomy, 65 Ophthalmopathy, 48 Oreton Methyl, 149 Organ donation, 35 Organic foods, 221–22, 324 Ornish, Dean, 287, 352 Orthocept, 156 Ortho-Est, 150 Ortho Novum, 156 Ortho Tricyclen, 156 Osteopathy, 112, 211–12, 273, 281 Osteoporosis, 44, 79, 103, 119, 153, 327 drugs for, 35, 152 Ovaries, 5, 16, 17, 52–54, 59, 60, 76, 137, 180, 189, 214 at birth, 52, 60 cancer of, 154, 199 polycistic, 26, 38, 65, 327 premature decline or failure of, 26, 64 surgical removal of, 61, 65 Overactive thyroid, see Hyperthyroidism Overcoming Thyroid Disorders (Blanchard), 340 Ovrette, 144 Ovulation, 54, 55, 69 Oxcarbazepine, 35, 36 Oxybutynin, 316 Oxycise, 283 Oxytocin, 270 Oxytrol, 316 Pacewalk, 234 Pain during intercourse, 76 muscle and joint, 21, 44–45, 80, 147 Palmitic acid, 179 Palpitations, 11, 23, 38, 42, 46, 72, 81, 86, 142, 143, 188 Pamelor, 292 Pancreas, 16, 180 Pancreatic polypeptide, 16 Panic attacks, 39, 42 Para-aminosalicylic acid, 35, 36 Parathyroid gland, 16 Parathyroid hormone (PH), 16 Park, Steven, 294, 354 Parker, Dorothy, 83 Parker-Pope, Tara, 160, 162–63, 167, 329, 331–34 344 Parkinson’s disease, 189 Parnate, 303 Paroxetine, 121, 292, 303, 317 Partner, communicating with, 282–83 Passion flower, 205–6, 304 Paxil, 121, 178, 292, 296, 303, 306, 317 Pelvic inflammatory disease, 137 Perchlorate, 31–32, 132 Percutaneous ethanol injections, 107 Perimenopause/menopause, 2–9, 12, 13, 60–82, 103, 324 adrenal function and, 213–14 age at, 62, 64 blood tests for, 138–41 body aches during, 80 bone loss during, 79 breast changes in, 81 clinical examination for, 137–38 clinical test for, 62 cholesterol and, 79 complementary medicine for, 209–12 concentration and memory problems during, 81–82 decreasing fertility and infertility during, 70 depression and anxiety during, 302–5 diagnosing, 141–42 diet and, 216–18, 297 digestive disorders during, 80 early, risk factors for, 64–66 exercise and, 228–30, 234, 238 eye dryness during, 80 fatigue during, 79–80 finding right practitioner for, 326–33 hair loss during, 78, 311–14 heart-related problems during, 81 headaches and migraines during, 82 hormone therapy for, see Hormone therapy imaging and diagnostic tests for, 141 menstrual irregularities and, 39, 68–70, 143, 146, 308–11 mind-body connection in, 269–88 mineral imbalances and, 214–15 mood changes during, 74–75 mouth dryness during, 80–81 natural supplements for, 177–209 process of, 60–62 self-checks for, 135–36 sexual dysfunction during, 77, 305–8 skin changes during, 78 sleep problems during, 73, 289–94 smoking and, 322 terminology of, 66–67 thyroid dosage requirements and, 134 urinary problems during, 76–77, 315–16 vaginal dryness during, 75–76, 314–15 vasomotor symptoms of, see Hot flashes; Night sweats weight gain during, 73–74, 294–302 Pernicious anemia, 39 Pesticides, 32 Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 348 PharmaDerm, 347 Phenelzine, 303 Phenobarbital, 306 Phenytoin, 123 Phobias, 39 Photosensitivity, 48 Phytoestrogens, 133, 182, 193–201, 227, 316 PhytoPharmica/Enzymatic Therapies, 205 Pierpaoli, Walter, 186–92, 351, 357 Pilates, 235–37 Pineal gland, 15, 180, 184–85, 187–89, 311 Pituitary gland, 15–17, 19–20, 53, 60, 126, 180, 211, 311 failure of, 38 tumors of, 26, 138 Placenta, 17 Plantar fasciitis, 37, 43 Plummer’s nails, 50, 86 Polycistic ovary syndrome, 26, 38, 65, 327 Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, 38 Polymenorrhea, 39 Portion size, reducing, 218–19, 324 Positive attitude, benefits of, 270–72 Power-Surge, 175, 334, 335, 345 Pranayama, 283 Precursor hormones, see specific hormones Prednisone, 34, 36, 295 Prefest, 156 Pregnancy, 55, 60, 64 during perimenopause, 69, 70, 137 thyroid problems and, 27–28 Pregnenolone, 6, 59, 142, 182 Premarin, 3, 8, 150, 152, 164, 165, 168, 171, 217, 329, 346 Premenopause, see Perimenopause Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 55, 61, 68, 179, 206, 271 Premphase, 8, 156, 163, 346 Prempro, 3, 8, 147, 152, 156, 158, 163, 164, 168, 169, 171, 329, 346 Pretibial myxedema, 43–44, 86 Prevention magazine, 273, 334 Prior, Jerilynn, 61–62, 72–73, 308–9, 318, 357 Probiotics, 126–27 Processed foods, 220–21, 324 Prochieve, 145, 347 ProGest Cream, 146 Progesterone, 4–6, 14, 16, 59, 182, 185, 302 blood tests for, 139–41 in menstrual cycle, 54, 55 in perimenopause/menopause, 60–62, 75, 77, 80 therapy, 144–48, 152, 156–61, 165, 173, 295, 309, 312 Prolactin, 16 Prolapse, 76, 137 Promensil, 195, 197 Prometrium, 8, 145, 148, 164, 169, 348 Propecia, 313 Propranolol, 34, 36, 105, 303 Propylthiouracil (PTU), 21, 105, 113, 205 ProSom, 293 Protein, 297 low-fat sources of, 220, 296 Provera, 144, 165, 217, 348 Prozac, 121, 292, 295, 296, 303, 306, 317 Psoriasis, 27, 43 Psychotherapy, 304, 307 Puberty, 53, 60, 175, 271 Puffiness, 50 Pulmonary embolism, 154, 158 Pycnogenol, 207 Pygeum, 314 Pyridoxine, 125 Quazepam, 293 Questran, 122 Radiation therapy, 32, 65, 67, 107 Radioactive iodine (RAI), 21, 22, 25, 65, 105–8, 132, 227 Radioactive iodine uptake (RAI-U) scan, 94–95, 97, 98 Radium therapy, 32–33 Raloxifene, 35, 36, 153, 306 Ranitidine, 35, 306 Raynaud’s disease, 27 Red clover, 181–82, 194, 195 Red Hot Mamas, 305, 345 Red raspberry leaf tea, 310 Reflexes, 21, 85 Regelson, Walter, 351 Reglan, 36 Reiss, Uzzi, 144, 147, 172, 174, 178, 190, 344, 357 Religious beliefs, 286, 326 Remeron, 292, 303 Remifemin, 202, 203 Replens, 315 Reproductive hormone pathway, 58–60 Resmethrin, 32 Restoril, 293 Reversal of Aging (Pierpaoli), 351 Reverse T3 test, 92 Rheumatoid arthritis, 27 Riboflavin, 125 Rifampin, 123 Robert, Teri, 82, 357 Roberts, Bruce, 354 Roberts, Molly, 166, 190, 191, 198, 224, 277, 278, 280, 320–21, 354, 357 Rogaine, 313 Rotsaert, Stefanie, 272, 334–35 Royal Maca, 180–84, 308, 310, 351 Safe, 206 St. John’s wort, 207, 304 Sanctura, 316 Sarcoidosis, 27 Savard, Marie, 7, 333, 354, 357 Saw palmetto, 314 Scheer, James F., 340 Schizophrenia, 207 Scleroderma, 27 Scourge, 32 Seaman, Barbara, 175–76 Seasonal affective disorder, 208 Seavard, Marie, 290 Secretin, 17 Sedatives, 295 Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), 199 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 121, 303, 306 Selenium, 24, 127–28, 179, 192 Self-hypnosis, 272–76, 321–22, 326, 352 Self-Hypnosis Diet (Gurgevich), 302, 352 Self-Hypnosis for Perimenopause/Menopause (Gurgevich), 352 Sensitivities, 37 Serotonin, 74, 234, 292, 304 Sertraline, 121, 292, 303 Serzone, 303 Sex, Lies and Menopause (Wiley), 165–66 Sex hormone-blinding globulin (SHBG), 171, 307 Sexual dysfunction, 3, 10, 42, 77, 305–308 hormone therapy for, 148, 149 natural treatments for, 179, 207 see also Libido, low Sexually transmitted diseases, 137 Shames, Karilee, 341, 357 Shames, Richard, 9, 101, 111, 191, 341, 357 Sheehan, Daniel M., 200 Shepherd’s purse, 310 Shifren, Jan, 75, 168–69, 171, 172, 178, 229, 233, 278–79, 294, 357 Sinequan, 292, 303 Sjögren’s syndrome, 27, 45 Skeptic.com, 168 Skin changes, 10, 43–44, 78, 86, 150, 155 see also Acne Sleep, getting enough, 4, 289–90, 325 Sleep apnea, 40, 49, 290 Sleep Interrupted (Park), 294, 354 Sleep problems, 2, 40, 72, 73, 75, 147, 152, 165, 289–94 exercise and, 229 supplements for, 181, 184–86, 188, 191, 201, 202, 205–7, 209 see also Insomnia Slowness of movement and speech, 51, 87 Smoking, see Cigarette smoking Snakebite, 34 Snoring, 49 Solvay Pharmaceuticals, 348 Solved (Langer), 312, 341 Somatostatin, 16, 17 Somers, Suzanne, 165 Sonata, 293 South Beach Diet, 219, 299, 301, 353 Soy, 3, 178, 182, 194–201, 227, 316 overconsumption of, 30, 133, 199, 201 Spirituality, 286–87 Spironolactone, 306 Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 15 Stethoscope examination of thyroid, 85 Steroids, 34, 36, 295 Sticking Out Our Necks (newsletter), 338 Stomach, hormones released by, 17 Stress, 4, 6, 7, 210, 213, 214, 270, 281 menopausal symptoms and, 75, 174, 320–21 reducing, 275, 279, 284–87, 311, 318, 319, 325–26 selenium deficiency and, 127 supplements and, 186, 191, 205 thyroid dysfunction and, 11–13, 24, 25, 37, 92, 127 Stress incontinence, 77, 155, 165 Strokes, 3, 147, 152, 154, 158, 160, 176 Sugars, refined, 220–21, 324 Sulfonamides, 35, 36 Sulfonylureas, 35, 36 Sumithrin, 32 Supplements, 293, 301, 304, 307, 310, 314 for perimenopausal/menopausal symptoms, 178–209 for thyroid function, 13, 125–31 see also specific supplements Support groups, 334–35 Surgery scarring or adhesions from, 137 thyroid, 106–8 Surgical menopause, 61, 65, 66, 73, 75, 81, 134, 142, 310 Svec, Carol, 354 Swelling, 50 Switnicki, Kim, 315, 358 Sympathetic nervous system, 281 Synthroid, 21, 110, 112, 114, 227, 312, 343 Systemic lupus erythematosus, 27 Tagamet, 35, 306 Tai chi, 279, 281, 326 Tamoxifen, 183, 199, 306 Tapazole, 21, 105, 113, 342 Tapp, Teresa, 236–38, 358 Tarsal tunnel syndrome, 37, 45 Tegretol, 123, 295, 306 Teitelbaum, Jacob, 125, 166, 191, 198, 203, 205, 208, 233, 268, 291, 303, 330, 341, 358 Temazepam, 292–93 Temperature changes, 40 Tendinitis, 37 Tenormin, 306 Testim, 149 Testoderm, 149 Testosterone, 6, 14, 16, 59, 77, 139–41, 148–50, 166, 305, 311–12 Theophylline, 123 Thiamazole, 113 Thiocyanate, 27 Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 286 Thorazine, 36, 306 Thornton, Mark, 287, 353 Throat, 48–49 Thrombosis, 154, 158 Thymosins, 16 Thymus, 16 Thyrogen, 114, 343 Thyroglobulin, 18, 19, 91–93, 172 Thyroid cancer, 20, 25, 33, 65 diagnosis of, 91, 92, 95, 98 treatment of, 107–9, 112, 114 Thyroid Diet, The (Shomon), 339 Thyroid dysfunction, 3–13, 20–23, 191, 213, 214 biopsy for, 95 blood tests for, 88–94, 140 challenges to proper diagnosis of, 6–8, 98–105 Chinese medicine for, 210 clinical examination for, 85–88 diet and, 216–18, 224–26, 297 estrogen therapy and, 171–72 exercise and, 232–36 finding right practitioner for, 326–33 imaging tests for, 94–95 mind-body connection in, 270, 272, 282 perimenopausal/menopausal symptoms and, 162, 179 resolving, 323–24 risk factors for, 26–39 self-checks for, 83–85 smoking and, 322 supplements and, 197, 199–201 symptoms of, 39–52, 290, 311–14 treatment of, 105–34 see also Graves’ disease; Hashimoto’s disease; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Thyroiditis; Thyrotoxicosis Thyroid function, 16–20, 212 disorders of, see Thyroid dysfunction progesterone and, 147 supplements and, 180, 187–89 Thyroid Hormone Breakthrough, The (Shomon), 338 “Thyroid-Info” Web site, 337 Thyroiditis, 200 diagnosis of, 91–94 risk factors for, 27, 33–34, 36 treatment of, 107–8 see also Hashimoto’s disease Thyroid Manager Web site, 342 Thyroid medications, 13, 106–25, 327 estrogen and, 133–34 fluctuation in potency of, 118–19 interactions with, 121–23, 227 optimal dosage of, 117 remembering to take, 123–25 seasonal adjustment of, 117–18 supplements and, 304, 309 underdosage of, 119 weight management and, 299–301 see also specific medications Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, 92–93 Thyroid Power (Shames), 341 Thyroid Solution, The (Arem), 340 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 16, 19–20, 25, 26, 40, 107, 119, 120, 185, 188, 312 blood tests for, 88–90, 92, 96, 97, 99–104, 117, 327, 329 drug interactions with, 122, 123, 134 receptor antibodies, 93–94 recombinant, 114 Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs), 94 Thyroid Support, 342 Thyroid Top Doctors Directory, 328, 330, 350 Thyrolar, 110, 115, 118, 343, 349 Thyrotoxicosis, 21 risk factors for, 29, 36 symptoms of, 43 treatment of, 105–6 Thyrotropin, see Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyrotropin alfa, 114 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 17, 19–20, 92, 185 Thyroxine (T4), 16–19, 31, 109, 110, 112, 113, 116, 131, 185, 227, 312 blood tests for, 91, 96, 97, 100, 101 drug interactions with, 122, 134 estrogen therapy and, 171 supplements and, 126–28, 185, 188, 191, 200 synthetic, see Levothyroxine Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), see Thyroglobulin Tinnitus, 49 Tissue Mineral Analysis Testing, 346 Tofranil, 121, 303 Tolbutamide, 35, 36 Tolterodine, 316 Tomlin, Lily, 135 Toxins, 4, 31–32, 47, 132, 214–15 Tranquilizers, 11, 295, 305 Tranylcypromine, 303 Trazodone, 292 Tremors, 87 Triavil, 292 Triazolam, 292 Tricyclic antidepressants, 292, 303, 306 Tri-est, 151 Triiodothyronine (T3), 5, 16–20, 31, 131, 227 blood tests for, 91, 96, 97, 100, 101 drug interactions with, 122, 123, 134 medications containing, 110–13, 115, 116, 118, 120, 312 supplements and, 126, 127, 185, 188, 191, 200 Trospium, 316 T-Tapp program, 231, 235–40, 301, 325, 351–52 exercises, 240–66 Tums, 120, 226 Turner’s syndrome, 138 Tylenol PM, 291 Tyrosine, 17, 21, 24, 128, 304 Ultrasound, 95, 98, 107, 141 transvaginal, 157 Underactive thyroid, see Hypothyroidism Unisom for Sleep, 291 Unithroid, 21, 110, 343 Urinary Iodine Clearance Test, 346 Urinary problems, 76–77, 153, 164, 315–16 Urine tests, 140 for menopause, 136, 138 iodine clearance, 131 Urticaria, 38, 43, 86 Uterus, 54, 55, 137, 189 cancer of, 70, 137, 144, 146, 154, 198, 199, 201 fibroids in, 69, 155, 199 prolapse of, 76 Vagifem, 151, 348 Vagina, 6, 137, 75–77, 164, 189 cancer of, 70, 137 dryness of, 10, 76, 77, 153, 180, 207, 305, 314–15 Valerian, 205, 304 Valium, 205, 306 Valproate, 35, 36, 295 Varenicline, 311 Varicose veins, 82 Vascular toxicity, 147 Vasomotor symptoms, see Hot flashes; Night sweats Vegetables, 219, 225, 226, 324 goitrogenic, see Goitrogens Vegetarianism, 66, 219–20 Venlafaxine, 292, 303, 317 Ventricular tachycardia, 86 Vertigo, 50 Vesicare, 316 Viagra, 307 Vigorex, 307 Vision disturbances, 21, 48 Visualization, 274, 317 Vitamin A, 125 Vitamin B complex, 125–26, 293, 314 Vitamin C, 126 Vitamin D, 126, 208, 304 Vitamin E, 126, 207–8 Vitex, 208, 310 Vitiligo, 27, 38, 43 Vivelle, 151, 164, 347 Viviant, 152 Voice, changes in, 50, 88, 143, 150 Walking, 233–34, 282, 325 Warfarin, 122, 205, 207 Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals, 348 Warts, genital, 137 Water, 223, 226, 298, 324 toxins in, 132 Water retention, see Bloating Weight, 1, 3, 14, 294–302 hormone therapy and, 146, 155, 165 hot flashes and, 318 low, early menopause and, 64 during perimenopause and menopause, 73–74, 136, 216–17, 229, 230, 294–95 sexual dysfunction and, 307 in thyroid disorders, 9, 11, 21, 40–41 Weight Watchers, 299 Weil, Andrew, 273, 285–87, 334, 352 Wellbutrin, 296, 303, 306 Western Research Laboratories, 112, 343 WesThroid, 112–13, 115, 343 What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Hypothyroidism (Blanchard), 340 What Your Doctor May Not Tell You about Menopause (Lee and Kelly), 344 Whiplash, 36 Whole World Botanicals, 351 Why Am I Always So Tired?

Use of tricyclic antidepressants such as doxepin, amitriptyline, desipramine, and imipramine (brand names include Adapin, Elavil, Norpramin, and Tofranil) at the same time as thyroid hormone may increase the effects of both drugs and may accelerate the effects of the antidepressant. Be sure your doctor knows you are on one before prescribing the other. Also, researchers have found that taking thyroid hormone replacement while taking the popular antidepressant sertraline (brand name Zoloft) can cause a decrease in the effectiveness of the thyroid hormone replacement. This same effect has been seen in patients receiving other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as paroxetine (brand name Paxil) and fluoxetine (brand name Prozac). If you are taking an antidepressant and your doctor prescribes thyroid medication (or vice versa), be sure to get your thyroid retested six to eight weeks after starting the new medication to evaluate any possible interactions. A number of other drugs may interact with thyroid hormone or affect thyroid function: Insulin: thyroid hormone can reduce the effectiveness of insulin and similar drugs for diabetes.


pages: 291 words: 92,406

Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports From My Life With Autism by Temple Grandin

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, factory automation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, theory of mind

H. 1987 Investigation into the use of narcotic antagonists in the treatment of stereotypic behavior pattern (crib biting) in the horse. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 48: 311–319. Donovan S. J. Stewart J. W. Nunes E. W. 2000 Divalproex treatment of youth with explosive temper and mood liability. A double-blind placebocontrolled crossover design. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157: 818–820. Edwards J. G. Anderson L. 1999 Systematic review and guide to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Drugs, 57: 507–533. M. Fankhauser, Karumanchi V., M. German, A. Yates, Karumanchi S. D 1992 A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of transdermal clonidine in autism. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 53, 3:, 77–82. Fieve R. R. 1994 Prozac: Questions and answers for patients, family and physicians. New York., Avon A. Gedye 1989 Episodic rage and aggression attributed to frontal lobe seizures.

Advice Leaves Lots of Question, The Wall Street Journal, August 1,, pp. 1 and 5. A. Walters, R. Barrett, C. Feinstein, A. Mercurio, W Hole 1990 A case report of naltrexone treatment of self-injury and social withdrawal in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 2:, 169–176. Whittington C. J. T. Kendall, P. Fonagy, D. Cotrell, A. Cotgrove, E. Bod-dington 2004 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: Systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet, 363: 1341–1345. J. Wild 2005 Adult Suicide Linked to Popular Antidepressant (Paxil). Nature, 436: 1073. Chapter 7 Dating Data: Autism and Relationships REFERENCES H. Asperger 1944 Adult Suicide Linked to Popular Antidepressant (Paxil). Nature, 436: 1073. J. Barron, S. Barron 1992 Adult Suicide Linked to Popular Antidepressant (Paxil).

The principle of using lower than normal doses of SSRI (selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors), antidepressants such as Prozac (fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Paxil (paraxetine), and Celexa (citalopram) is still correct. Many parents keep telling me the same story. “He did really well on a low dose, but he became agitated and could not sleep on a higher dose.” The biggest mistake made with all types of antidepressants is that the dose gets raised when it should be lowered. Due to serotonin abnormalities in the brain, people on the spectrum often need lower doses of antidepressants. Sometimes one half to one third of the normal starter dose is all that is needed. Many people on the spectrum have told me that SSRIs are effective for reducing anxiety. There are many SSRIs on the market. Dr. Max Wiznitzer, Rainbow Children's Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, Dr.


pages: 350 words: 96,803

Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Albert Einstein, Asilomar, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test

Long before genetic engineering becomes a possibility, knowledge of brain chemistry and the ability to manipulate it will become an important source of behavior control that will have significant political implications. We are already in the midst of this revolution and do not have to spin out science fiction scenarios to see how it might unfold. Take the antidepressant Prozac, manufactured by Eli Lilly, and related drugs, such as Pfizer’s Zoloft and SmithKline Beecham’s Paxil. Prozac, or fluoxetine, is a so-called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), which, as its name implies, blocks the reabsorption of serotonin by the nerve synapses and effectively increases the levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter: low levels are associated, in both humans and other primates, with poor impulse control and uncontrolled aggression against inappropriate targets, and in humans, with depression, aggression, and suicide.3 It is unsurprising, then, that Prozac and its relatives have emerged as a major cultural phenomenon in the late twentieth century.

Ruse, Michael Russia, socialism in Sanger, Margaret Scandinavia schizophrenia Schultz, William F. science ends of, amoral and human rights vs. religion scientific rationalism scientific research, regulation of scientists materialistic views held by public trust in relying on advice from self-serving interests of Scientologists Searle, John Second Amendment Secord, Paul secularization selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) self-esteem Sen, Amartya senility September 11 attacks serotonin levels of sex ratios sex selection, abortion and sexual attractiveness sexual differentiation sexuality ageing and genes and sexualization of brain sexual orientation Sexual Revolution Shaw, George Bernard Shinto “shirtsleeves to shirtsleeves in three generations” siblings adopted, studies of individual differences in sickle-cell anemia side effects of medical treatments of pharmaceutical drugs of psychotropic drugs Silver, Lee Singapore Singer, Peter SIR2 gene skin color Skinner, B.

In the future, virtually everything that the popular imagination envisions genetic engineering accomplishing is much more likely to be accomplished sooner through neuropharmacology.31 A class of drugs known as benzodiazepines may be used to affect the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, to reduce anxiety, help maintain restful but active wakefulness, and produce adequate sleep in a shorter period, without the side effects of sedation. Acetylcholine system enhancers may be used to improve the ability to learn new facts, retain knowledge, and improve factual recall. Dopamine system enhancers may be used to increase stamina and motivation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in combination with drugs that affect the dopamine and norepinephrine systems may produce behavioral changes in areas in which the different neurotransmitter systems interact. Finally, it may be possible to manipulate the endogenous opiate system to decrease sensitivity to pain and increase the threshold of pleasure. We do not have to wait for genetic engineering and designer babies to have a foretaste of the kinds of political forces that will push forward new medical technologies; we can see all of them operating in the realm of neuropharmacology.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Then came a new generation of antidepressants that transformed the broader world and our understanding of mental health disorders. Prozac, the first of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), was pitched by pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly as an easy-to-prescribe “one pill fits all” for those with depression. Following FDA approval in 1987, nearly 2.5 million prescriptions were issued in its first year on the market. The drug largely worked and became Eli Lilly’s blockbuster. Fifteen years after it hit the market, 33 million Americans were taking Prozac and other SSRIs that followed: Zoloft in 1991 and Paxil in 1992. By 2008, antidepressants were one of the most common drugs taken by Americans and the most prescribed drugs for Americans under age 60. Today most medical treatments for depression involve a combination of SSRIs and cognitive therapy, an approach that works to some degree on about two-thirds of depressed patients.

See autonomous cars Shamoon, 121–23, 125–26, 131 Shapiro, Rob, 221 Shimba Technologies, 71 Silicon Valley Bank, 167, 169 Silk Road, 110 Singapore, 196–97, 216, 221 Singer, Peter, 147–48 Singulariteam, 26 Skolkovo Foundation, 204 Slaby, Michael, 156–57, 185 Smith, Adam, 111 Snowden, Edward, 145 Songhurst, Charlie, 94–95, 104, 114–15, 190–92, 245 Sony, 131, 138 South Korea, 3, 20, 22, 35, 40, 128, 131, 189, 221 Soviet Union, 4, 68, 140, 204–7, 209 spam, 105, 134 Square, 78–81, 83, 87, 113, 170–71, 182, 217 SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 54. See also antidepressants Standard Treasury, 167–69 Stanford University, 30, 48, 58, 60, 70, 172, 188, 243 Startup Weekend Kyiv, 213 Steinhafel, Gregg, 125 Stripe, 79, 87 suicide, 55, 165 Summers, Larry, 112–13, 195 Sutent, 46, 51 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 109 Syrian Electronic Army, 126–27. See also cyberattacks; hacking Taliban, 172, 199, 225 Tanzania, 88, 235 Target, 125, 133, 138 terrorism, 82, 85, 123, 131, 134, 137, 177, 208 Thiel, Peter, 119, 242 Thrun, Sebastian, 28–29 Tokai Rubber Industries, 17 Townsend, Zac, 167–72, 190 translation, machines and, 158–61, 182 trust: autonomous cars and, 30–32 big data and, 170, 174 Bitcoin and, 99–102, 110 blockchain and, 103, 115–17 Code War and, 145 coded money and, 88–97 future of coded trust, 117–20 innovation and, 248 technology and, 74, 98–99 Turkle, Sherry, 18 23andMe, 57–59 Twitter, 78–80, 126–27, 201, 218 Tyle, Sheel, 85, 241–44, 246 Tyle, Sujay, 241–42, 246 Uber, 30–31, 92–96, 136, 190–91, 196 Ukraine, 3, 34, 125, 139–41, 212–14 Umar, Maria, 199, 201, 225–26 Union Carbide Corporation, 7–9 UPS, 31 US National Economic Council, 112 Venter, Craig, 62–63, 67, 69 VGo, 34.

The people I know with depression are regularly adjusting drugs and doses at their doctor’s direction. There are a small number of drugs to work with, all variations on a formula that’s now over 20 years old, and the doctor prescribes these based on instinct and experience. It’s often guess-and-check work, not based on any knowledge about a specific patient’s history or how his or her genetics will respond to a specific therapy. The post-SSRI opportunity for innovation in mental illness is through genomics. My uncle, Ray DePaulo, chairs the psychiatry department at Johns Hopkins. Uncle Ray and the Broad Institute’s Eric Lander are developing a strategy and program to comprehensively map the genes relevant to the field of psychiatry. The challenge of mental illnesses is that unlike an ailment such as Huntington’s disease, which is caused by a single genetic mutation, most mental disorders are caused by many contributing factors.

The Psychopath Inside: A Neuroscientist's Personal Journey Into the Dark Side of the Brain by James Fallon

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Bernie Madoff, epigenetics, Everything should be made as simple as possible, meta analysis, meta-analysis, personalized medicine, phenotype, Rubik’s Cube, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, theory of mind

Glutamate and GABA form the basis of hardwired behaviors, but if they worked alone you’d have kind of a clunky machine. The monoamines, in particular serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, modulate synaptic signaling and help the machine work more smoothly. These are the transmitters most implicated in psychiatric disorders from schizophrenia to depression and bipolar disorder. For instance, the most popular antidepressants, including Prozac and Zoloft, are SSRIs, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. They prevent the reuptake of serotonin back into the signaling neuron, allowing it to continue doing its job. Less popular types of antidepressant are MAOIs, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which block the enzymes MAO-A and MAO-B. These enzymes break down monoamines, so blocking them increases serotonin transmission. There is a misconception in the popular literature that if one has a “low-serotonin system,” one can just ingest more serotonin or take nutraceuticals or foods that will directly increase the amount of serotonin in the brain.

., 187–88 genetic basis of, 206 Pesci, Joe, 14, 223 phenotype-genotype analysis, 175–76 planning, 54, 60 politics, author’s, 32, 40–41, 133, 163–65, 210 pop culture, psychopaths portrayed in, 13–15, 223 positron emission tomography (PET), 11, 19, 44–45, 57, 59, 63, 113, 114–15, 122, 146, 146, 182 posterior cortex, 50–51, 148 postpartum depression (PPD), 178 post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 46, 82, 222 prefrontal cortex, 52–54, 57, 60–62, 106, 113, 114, 123–24, 124, 209 disorders of, 74–76, 117, 121, 148 maturation of, 99–101, 118, 119, 120 premotor cortex, 52, 57 Preston, Richard, 157 promoters, 73–74, 82 protein, 73, 82, 96, 114 Prozac, 78 psychoanalysis, 124–25 psychometric testing, 11 Psychopath Lite, 15, 190, 199 psychopathy, psychopaths: author’s evolving theory of, 20, 61–62, 106 in author’s family history, 65–72, 86, 90, 92, 105, 108–13, 221 in business and finance, 218–20 casual use of term, 150 characteristics indicative of, 11–17, 60, 83–85, 102, 105, 125–26, 147, 153–54, 163, 194, 199–200, 206–7, 215–17, 225 comorbidity in, 17, 181, 185 evolutionary purpose of, 213–27 factors other than brain function in, 90–106 four factors of, 12–13, 16, 18, 190 genetics in, 11, 65–89, 90, 106, 109, 112, 206, 211, 215, 224–25 inadequate definition and diagnosis of, 9–12, 16–17, 105, 194, 207 limited understanding of, 5, 9–20, 76–77 mitigation of, 187–212, 225–26 pop culture portrayals of, 13–15, 223 “prosocial,” 161, 225 societal benefits of, 218–24 testing for, 11–16 Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R; Psychopath Test; Hare’s Checklist), 12–18, 161, 190, 214, 218, 225, 227 psychotic major depression (PMD), 178 rape, 154 recklessness, 16, 35–37, 122, 140, 177, 181, 194, 223–24 as danger to others, 154–58, 175, 199–200, 206 “regular guy”: author as, 30–32, 64, 190 psychopath’s appearance as, 14, 15, 16–17, 217 religion: author’s abandonment of, 40, 126, 134–35, 176, 207, 210 belief in, 53, 146, 184 see also Catholicism remorse, lack of, 12, 14, 17, 206, 225 retrotransposons, 95 revenge, 153, 200–201, 219–20 risk taking, 218–19 RNA, 76, 89, 94–95 Rockefeller, Nelson, 30 Rodrigues, Sarina, 84, 145 Roth, Eli, 126–29 “Rubik’s Cube” brain model, 49–57, 122–26 Sagman, Doron, 181 Saks, Elyn, 182 Saxe, Rebecca, 148 schizophrenia, 3, 10, 33, 73, 74–76, 78, 85, 86, 87, 93, 100, 101, 105, 148, 163, 169, 181, 184 Scoma, Giovannina Giuseppina Salvetrica Sylvia, see Fallon, Jennie Scoma, Tomas, 70–72 seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 178 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 78 self-assessment, 187, 194 self-confidence, 40, 114, 135 self-control, 1–2 self-testing, for psychopathy, 13 Senior Research Fulbright Fellowship, 142, 154 serial killers, 15, 19, 86, 149, 208 serotonin, 73, 75, 78–80, 82–84, 86, 99, 103, 113, 115, 123, 141, 145, 182, 183, 185 sex, 161, 168 author’s eschewing of, 29, 134 puberty and, 99 stimulation from, 83 sex chromosomes, 81–82 sexual hyperfunction, 61, 102 sexuality, 75, 162–63, 215, 217, 223 Silence of the Lambs, The, 15, 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 73–74, 88 sins, 28–29, 201, 207 Smith, Winnie, 24 sociability, 17, 26, 30, 114, 117 see also partying social phobia, 82 sociopathy, psychopathy vs., 17–18, 190 somatic cells, 72 “Song of Lewes, The,” 70 spectrum disorders: bipolar disorder as, 179 psychopathy as, 11–12, 227 Spellman, Cardinal, 30 “splitters,” 47, 49 “Squalid Truth Behind the Legacy of Mother Teresa, The” (MacIntyre), 165 stem cells, 4, 18, 45–46 stress: in epigenetic alterations, 95–96 response to, 83–84, 215–16 in young adults, 100–101 stroke, 4, 34, 46 subgenual cingulate gyrus, 175 suicide, 181, 220, 222 superficiality, 12, 16, 225 superior parietal cortex, 50–51 Susannah (author’s friend), 189, 197, 198 sympathy, 55, 141–42, 146, 148 Tarantino, Quentin, 127 taxation, 210 Technology, Entertainment, and Design (TED) conference, 107–9, 111, 113 temporal lobes, 1–2, 41, 57–58, 60–62, 106, 115, 140, 144, 148, 171, 182, 183–85 temporo-parietal junction, 148 Teresa, Mother, 165 testes, 72 testosterone, 82, 85, 145 thalamic structures, 56 theory of mind, 55, 148, 160 Three-Legged Stool theory, 105–6, 107, 169, 177, 214 thymine (T), 72–73 Tingley, Dustin, 81 Tohen, Mauricio, 181 Torp, Reidun, 170 transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 223 transcriptomics, 89 Turner, Ralph, 69 Ungerleider, Leslie, 53–54 valine-methionine polymorphism, 53 Valium, 34 vasopressin, 84, 127, 145 vehicular murder, 151 ventral stream, 53–55, 60, 99, 101, 113, 117–18, 118, 120, 121, 125, 148 ventromedial prefrontal cortex, 54, 57–58, 61, 84, 117, 123, 164 Vietnam War, 35, 38, 222 violence: in films, 127–29 global, 6, 108, 116–17 historical decline in, 221 predictors of, 13, 16, 90, 102 transgenerational, 108, 111, 115 warrior gene and, 73–74, 80–82, 90, 97–98 visual sensory system, 50, 54, 114–15 Wallinius, Märta, 16 Wall Street Journal, 109, 110, 112, 175, 202 war, warfare: effect on brain of, 4, 101 psychopathy in, 220–22 warrior culture, 108 warrior gene, 74, 77, 79–82, 97–98, 106, 108, 111, 214 in author, 86, 110, 153 benefits of, 218–24 testing for, 88, 115–16 weight, author’s swings of, 135–36, 139–41, 204, 205, 211–12 see also obesity welfare, 164, 166 “What’s on Jim Fallon’s Mind” (Naik), 110 Wheeler, John, 186 women: appeal of bad boys to, 6, 223 author’s relationships with, 26, 29, 134, 161, 168 as less aggressive than men, 81–82, 97 as psychopaths, 15 World Congress for Social Psychiatry, 115 World Science Festival, 182, 202 YouTube, 109 Zak, Paul, 84–85, 145 Zoloft, 78


pages: 427 words: 30,920

The Autoimmune Connection by Rita Baron-Faust, Jill Buyon

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Columbine, mouse model, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell

“While the major treatment of fibromyalgia is really physical exercise, for those patients who have sleep disturbances we often use a low dose of a tricyclic antidepressant, or the antiseizure medication gabapentin (Neurontin), which helps both chronic pain and sleep problems,” says Dr. Petri. “We also use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for patients who have clinical depression.” The tricyclic antidepressant used most often is amitriptyline (Elavil ). Low doses of tricyclics have also been shown to help women who suffer migraine and tension headaches, noncardiac chest pain, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia, and a variety of chronic pain syndromes. Women with insomnia who can’t tolerate tricyclics are often helped by trazodone (Desyrel ) or zolpidem (Ambien) taken at bedtime. The SSRIs and mixed antidepressants (which affect both serotonin and norepinephrine, neurotransmitters that modulate sleep and immune system function) most frequently prescribed for fibromyalgia patients include fluoxetine (Prozac), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil ).

Corticosteroids cause bone loss, but the ABC drugs do not. So bonebuilding drugs are needed if a woman is taking steroids for MS attacks. Throughout life, women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depression—and it’s also a more common symptom in people with MS. A small study from the University of California at San Francisco, reported in the Archives of Neurology in 2001, found that the antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) not only help relieve depression, but 262 The Autoimmune Connection also significantly reduce levels of gamma interferon. The researchers suggest that treating depression could also be an important factor in down-regulating autoreactive T-cells. Ana’s story continues: In a sense, MS has actually freed me . . . giving me a chance to do more things that I love. I decided to apply for disability since the fatigue had started to interfere with my work.

Learning how to manage fatigue and plan activities can help improve day-to-day functioning. The same kinds of treatments that help women with fibromyalgia also work with CFS. Cognitive behavioral therapy and graduated exercise programs can greatly help many women, and low-dose tricyclic antidepressants help with sleep 354 The Autoimmune Connection and pain. While other antidepressants, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, can also improve symptoms of CFS, they can cause fatigue in therapeutic doses, so your doctor may have to increase the dosage slowly. Some women with CFS benefit from benzodiazepines, used to treat anxiety and sleep problems. You may need to try more than one drug before finding one that works for you. from inactivity that can lead to disability, but can also help relieve pain by triggering production of the body’s own painkilling chemicals, endorphins.


pages: 204 words: 63,571

You're Not Doing It Right: Tales of Marriage, Sex, Death, and Other Humiliations by Michael Ian Black

Albert Einstein, fear of failure, life extension, placebo effect, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), upwardly mobile

Lexapro belongs to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which operate under the same principle as Kevin Costner’s urine recycling machine in the movie Waterworld. For those not as well versed in Waterworld as I, the way it worked is, he peed into a machine, which took out all the toxins, enabling him to drink his own pee. That’s what SSRIs do, only with moods. SSRIs are the most prescribed class of antidepressant in the country, generating tens of billions of dollars in annual global sales. But what’s fascinating about them is that doctors don’t know if they actually work. Actually “fascinating” might be the wrong word. “Hilarious” is better. A huge study came out in the Journal of the American Medical Association a while ago that basically said researchers could not determine if SSRIs actually do anything to relieve mild depression or not.

There is concern, however, that they may increase suicidal thoughts and behavior among young people, which is a curious side effect for an antidepressant. There are a host of other documented side effects including impotence, increased levels of aggression, nausea, urinary retention, weight loss/gain, renal impairment, tinnitus, photosensitivity, and something called “genital anesthesia.” (Another way to get genital anesthesia is to rub cocaine all over your dick. Or so I’ve heard.) Anyway, doctors know SSRIs do all of those things, but they have no idea if they actually treat some of the problems for which they are prescribed. But they work great for me. Question: how do I know it is actually the drug working and not simply the placebo effect? Answer: I don’t. Nor do I care. Whether the drug actually does something or my brain is just gullible does not matter to me at all. Interestingly, another study just came out in the journal PLoS ONE (bad name for a medical journal) showing that placebos are still effective even when the patient knows he is taking a placebo.


pages: 836 words: 158,284

The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman by Timothy Ferriss

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23andMe, airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, game design, Gary Taubes, index card, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, microbiome, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, placebo effect, Productivity paradox, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, Thorstein Veblen, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, William of Occam

I found one potential benefit particularly fascinating, given our focus on GLUT-4: both inulin and FOS improve calcium absorption, and calcium absorption promotes the contraction-dependent GLUT-4 translocation! If the anti-obesity effects weren’t enough, consider bacterial balance a crucial step in supporting your “second brain.” Most of us have heard of serotonin, a wide-acting neurotransmitter that, when deficient, is intimately linked to depression. Prozac and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act to increase the effects of serotonin. Despite the label “neurotransmitter,” which leads most people to visualize the brain, only 5% of serotonin is found in your head. The remaining 95% is produced in the gut, sometimes referred to as “the second brain” for this reason. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 39 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota was found to significantly decrease anxiety symptoms.

George Marathon S-allyl cysteine salmonella salsa San Diego Rock ’n’ Roll Marathon Sarcev, Milos, 25.1, 25.2 sarcoplasm sarcoplasmic hypertrophy sauerkraut, 9.1, 46.1 scale, 5.1, 5.2, 9.1 SCF (stem cell factor) Schaller, George Schilling, Curt Schotter, Eric Schwarzenegger, Arnold science, see research Scott, Dave, 34.1, 48.1 scurvy “Seabiscuit” seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seasonings Seeking Wisdom selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) selenium, 22.1, 46.1, 46.2 self-control, 8.1, 8.2 self-experimentation causality determined in goals of this book to improve your life minimal motivation in and placebo effect uses of, 42.1, 43.1 serotonin Sethi, Ramit, 6.1, 6.2 sex: buckwheat hull pillows for Cowgirl Position vs. Improved-Pressure Cowgirl dangers female orgasm, see orgasm Improved-Pressure Missionary information sources Missionary Position vs.

Improved-Angle pelvic grinding and pheromones protocols slow-sex movement Shamrock, Frank, 25.1, 47.1 Sharapova, Maria Sharpe, Richard SHBG (sex-hormone binding globulin) shin pain shoes: removing the heel of for running, 31.1, 31.2 Sietas, Tom Simmons, Louie Singh, Devendra sinus infections Sivers, Derek skepticism sleep and bedroom temperature and cold baths deep-wave dreaming early awakening and exercise gadgets for half military crawl position for and humidifier, 23.1, 23.2 insomnia light cues lucid dreaming minimalist monophasic, 24.1, 24.2 naps, 24.1, 24.2 NightWave pulse light polyphasic pre-bed snacks for and protein, 8.1, 23.1 REM, 23.1, 24.1 tools for Uberman schedule and wine sleep labs Slow-Carb Diet, 7.1, 8.1 breakfast, 8.1, 8.2 cheat days, 7.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 common mistakes and misunderstandings compromise in data don’t drink calories, 7.1, 8.1 no dairy no fruit, 7.1, 8.1 plateaus in results rules of rules of omission same few meals, 7.1, 8.1 seasonings simplicity in snacks supplements and traveling white carbohydrates smallest meaningful change Smith, Brooke Smolov squat cycle, 32.1, 32.2 snacks pre-bed recipe traveling Snowball Snyder, Stephen social comparison theory Socrates SOD (superoxide dismutase) sodium soy products SpectraCell blood tests speed skating sperm banks, 22.1, 22.2 sperm count sperm production, 37.1, 46.1, 46.2 spinach Splenda SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) Stack, Jack, 6.1 Stare, Fred, 3.1, 43.1 Starrett, Kelly statistics, manipulation of Steele, Lexington Steiner, Jeffrey stem cell factor (SCF) steroids, 13.1, 16.1, 46.1 stickK Still Tasty stimulants stir-frying Stockton, John stool analysis Strauss, Neil: eating habits of as food-processing machine food schedule of and Occam’s Protocol, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 18.1, 18.2 and vitamin D workout schedules of, 17.1, 17.2 Street, Picabo strength training adding weight avoiding collars barbell overhead press bench press, 17.1, 32.1, 33.1 and cardio competition conditioning conditioning vs.


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The Thyroid Diet by Mary J. Shomon

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Gary Taubes, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

If you have had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, you should also not take bupropion. Taking monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and bupropion is not recommended. The monthly cost ranges from $70 to $115 and may be covered by insurance in some cases. Stress-Reduction Drugs Sometimes anxiety is chronically debilitating. At this point, some physicians would recommend medication. The medications used most often to treat anxiety include Certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as paroxetine hydrochloride (Paxil CR) Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine hydrochloride (Tofranil), desipramine hydrochloride (Norpramin), and clomipramine hydrochloride (Anafranil) Benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin) Some of these medications can be addictive and have a variety of side effects, so be sure to thoroughly discuss with your practitioner any plans to take an antianxiety drug.

pain nadolol (Corgard) nails Naparstek, Belleruth naproxen sodium (Aleve) nasal radium therapy, Nastech PYY 3-36 spray natural thyroid (Armour, Naturethroid) neck trauma needle biopsy nefazodone (Serzone) negative thinking neuroendocrinology neuropeptide Y (NPY) niacin (Vitamin B3) nodules treatment of nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) nuclear accidents nutrition metabolism and nutritional consultation nuts nystatin obesity: apple-shaped distribution in following RAI therapy leptin and in metabolic syndrome pear-shaped distribution in stereotypes surrounding olive oil omega-3/alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) omega-6/linoleic acid/gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) omelets orlistat (Xenical) orthostatic hypotension oxygen pancakes, buckwheat pancreas panic attacks pantethine pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) papillary thyroid cancer parasites parathyroid glands paroxetine hydrochloride (Paxil CR) passionflower pasta salad with chicken or turkey Paxil peanuts peppers stuffed bell perchlorate perimenopause pesticides pesto phaseolus vulgaris phendimetrazine (Bontril, plegine, Prelu-2) phentermine (Adipex-P, Ionamin, Fastin) Physique Transformation Program Personal Food Analyst (PFA) of Pilates pineal gland Pistor, Michel pituitary disease pituitary gland pituitary tumors plantar fasciitis podell, Richard pork enchilada casserole (con salsa verde) pulled serving sizes for positive thinking postmenopause postpartum symptoms postpartum thyroiditis poultry serving sizes for pranayama pregnancy complications with thyroid nodules and pregnenolone probiotic Pearl probiotics progesterone propanolol (Inderal) propylthiouracil (PTU) protein lean Prozac psoriasis psyllium pulled pork pulse pumpkin seeds push-ups pyroxidine (vitamin B6) pyruvate qigong radiation for thyroid cancer radioactive iodine treatment (RAI) hypothyroidism as result of radioactive isotope thyroid scan ratatouille Reiki resistin reverse T3 test rheumatoid arthritis rhodiola Richards, Byron rimonabant Risks and Symptoms Checklist rocket fuel rofecoxib (Vioxx) Rooney, Ric royal maca saccharine S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) St. John’s wort salad: chicken pasta, with chicken or turkey tuna salt, iodized sauce: mushroom, chicken with pesto roasted garlic sun-dried tomato topping scallops seared schizandra Sears, Barry selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) selenium serving sizes 7-KETO (3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone) sex drive, low Shames, Richard and Karilee sheehan, Daniel shellfish seared scallops sibutramine (Meridia) skin sleep snacks sodas soup, roasted butternut squash soy burgers soy ginger vinaigrette soy products controversy over soy sauce spirulina starch blockers starches to avoid higher-glycemic low-glycemic serving sizes for stevia stimulants strength training, see exercise, weight-bearing stress chronic drugs for stuffed bell peppers sucralose sugar sugar alcohols sun-dried tomato topping supplements surgery: for goiter for hyperthyroidism, see thyroidectomy for nodules for thyroid cancer sweeteners syndrome X, see metabolic syndrome T1 T2 T3 (triiodothyronine) synthetic, see liothyronine time-released, compounded T4 (thyroxine) synthetic, see levothyroxine T7 tacos, fish taco salad taurine tea green herbal Teitelbaum, Jacob tendonitis terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) Thorpy, Michael thyroid: symptoms of dysfunction of treatment for thyroid cancer anaplastic diagnosis of follicular medullary (MTC) papillary symptoms of treatment of Thyroid Diet Success Guide (Shomon) thyroid disease causes and risk factors of prevalence of thyroidectomy weight gain and thyroid function, seasonal variance in thyroid gland enlarged see also goiter thyroid hormone conversion thyroid hormone replacement therapy guidelines for optimization of after RAI weight loss and thyroid hormone resistance thyroiditis thyroid nodules, see nodules thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TASb) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of, see TSH levels testing, see TSH tests thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Tonalin topiramate (Topamax) total T3 test total T4 (total thyroxine) test toxic exposures trace elements analysis (TEA) trans-fatty acids treats Treves, Silvia triglycerides medium-chain (MCTs) trimethyl glycine (TMG) TSH levels: borderline in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in hyperthyroidism normal after thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy TSH tests new guidelines for overreliance on tuna salad tuna tartare turkey meatloaf pasta salad with tyrosine ultrasound tests valerian valproate (Depakote) vegetable oils vegetables high-glycemic low-glycemic ratatouille roasted butternut squash soup serving sizes for venlafaxine (Effexor) vinaigrette, ginger soy vitamin B vitamin B3 (niacin) vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) vitamin B6 (pyroxidine) vitamin B12 vitamin C vitamin E Waehner, Paige walking water weight: consistency in maintenance of optimal thyroid and weight gain adrenal imbalances and drugs as cause of hyperthyroidism hypothyroidism and television and thyroid cancer and thyroid dysfunction and thyroidectomy and weight loss blood sugar and exercise and exercise needed for in hyperthyroidism support groups for thyroid drugs prescribed for thyroid hormone replacement and and TSH levels Weight Watchers Online Winkelman, John Winsor, Mari Wolcott, William women: BMR for calorie worksheet for exercise and fiber needs of nodules in optimal weight for thyroid cancer in thyroid disease in yeast yeast infections Yersinia enterocolitica yoga yogurt cheese (lebneh) zinc Zoloft Zone diet zonisamide Zyban ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I’d like to thank my agent and friend, Carol Mann, who in her calm and steady way always manages to keep me headed in just the right direction.


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The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma by Bessel van Der Kolk M. D.

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anesthesia awareness, British Empire, conceptual framework, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, false memory syndrome, feminist movement, impulse control, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), theory of mind, Yogi Berra

Nonetheless, medications such as Prozac and related drugs like Zoloft, Celexa, Cymbalta, and Paxil, have made a substantial contribution to the treatment of trauma-related disorders. In our Prozac study we used the Rorschach test to measure how traumatized people perceive their surroundings. These data gave us an important clue to how this class of drugs (formally known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs) might work. Before taking Prozac these patients’ emotions controlled their reactions. I think of a Dutch patient, for example (not in the Prozac study) who came to see me for treatment for a childhood rape and who was convinced that I would rape her as soon as she heard my Dutch accent. Prozac made a radical difference: It gave PTSD patients a sense of perspective21 and helped them to gain considerable control over their impulses.

., 189 road rage, 83 role-playing, in psychomotor therapy, 298–300 Rorschach test, 15–17, 35 Roy, Alec, 154 Rozelle, Deborah, 214 Rumi, 277 Rwanda genocide, 244 safety: a fundamental to mental health, 351, 352 as lacking in childhood trauma survivors, 141, 213, 296, 301, 351 in trauma recovery, 204, 212, 270, 275, 300, 301, 349, 353 trauma survivors’ distorted perception of, 79–80, 85, 96–97, 164, 270 Salpêtrière, La, 177–78, 178, 194 Saul, Noam, 51–53, 52, 58, 261 Saxe, Glenn, 119 Scentific American, 149 Schacter, Dan, 93 Schilder, Paul, 100 schizophrenia, 15, 22–23, 27, 29 genetics and, 151–52 schools, see education system Schwartz, Richard, 281, 282, 283, 289, 290, 291, 418n Science, 94–95 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 35, 36 see also Prozac (fluoxetine) Self: disorganized attachment and, 120 in IFS therapy, 224, 283–85, 288, 289, 305 in infants, 113 multiple aspects of, 280–95; see also internal family systems (IFS) therapy reestablishing ownership of, 203–4, 318 in trauma survivors, 166, 233, 247 self-awareness: autobiographical self in, 236 sensory, 87–102, 206, 206, 208–9, 236, 237–38, 247, 273, 354, 376n, 382n, 408n, 418n self-blame, in childhood sexual abuse survivors, 131, 132 self-compassion, 292 self-confidence, 205, 350 self-deceit, as source of suffering, 11, 26–27 self-discovery, language and, 234–35 self-harming, 20, 25, 87, 138, 141, 158, 162, 172, 264, 266, 288–89, 316, 317 self-hatred, 134, 143, 158, 163, 279 self-leadership, 203, 280–95 self-nurture, 113 self-recognition, absence of, 105 self-regulation, 113, 158, 161, 207, 224, 300, 347–48, 354, 401 neurofeedback and, 313 yoga and, 271–72, 274, 275 Seligman, Martin, 29–30 Semrad, Elvin, 11, 26, 237 sensation seeking, 266, 272 sensorimotor therapy, 96, 214–15, 217–18 sensory self-awareness, 87–102, 206, 206, 208–9, 236, 237–38, 247, 273, 347, 354, 376n, 382n, 408n, 418n September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 51–53, 52 children as witnesses to, 119 therapies for trauma from, 230–31 Seroquel, 37, 101, 215, 226, 227 serotonin, 33, 153, 154, 262 serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 215, 225 Servan-Schreiber, David, 304 Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Lawrence), 232 sexual promiscuity, 120, 285, 286 Shadick, Nancy, 291 Shakespeare, William, 43, 230, 343–46, 355 Shakespeare & Company, 335, 343–46 Shakespeare in the Courts, 335, 336, 342–44 Shalev, Arieh, 30 shame, 13–14, 102, 132, 138, 174, 211, 300 Shanley, Paul, 171–74, 183, 191 Shapiro, Francine, 251 Shatan, Chaim, 19 shavasana, 271 shell-shock, 11, 184–85 Shell Shock in France (Myers), 187 singing and chanting, in trauma recovery, 86, 214 “Singing Revolution,” 334 Sketches of War, 331 Sky, Licia, 216–17 sleep disorders, 46, 95 EMDR and, 259–61 in PTSD, 409n REM sleep and, 260–61, 409n see also nightmares SMART (sensory motor arousal regulation treatment), 215 smoking, surgeon general’s report on, 148 Social Brain, The (Gazzaniga), 280–81 social engagement: as basic human trait, 110, 166 PTSD and, 102 as response to threat, 80–81, 82, 88 in rhesus monkeys, 153–54 in trauma recovery, 204 trauma survivors and, 3, 62, 78–80, 84, 86, 161, 349 social support, for childhood trauma survivors, 167–68, 350 socioeconomic stress, disorganized attachment and, 117–18 Solomon, Richard, 32 Solomon, Roger, 260 somatic experiencing, 217–18 Somme, Battle of the (1916), 185 soothing, arousal and, 113 Sophocles, 332 South Africa, 213–14, 333, 349 Southborough Report, shell-shock diagnosis rejected by, 185 Southwick, Steve, 30 Sowell, Nancy, 291 speech centers (brain), 42, 43 Sperry, Roger, 51 Spinazzola, Joseph, 156, 339, 351 Spitzer, Robert, 142 Sroufe, Alan, 160–61, 166 Steel, Kathy, 281 Sterman, Barry, 315 Stern, Jessica, 7 Stickgold, Robert, 260, 261 stimuli: adjustment to, 32 hypersensitivity to, see threat, hypersensitivity to Story of My Life, The (Keller), 234 Strange Situation, 115 stress: gene expression and, 152 immune function and, 240 see also trauma stress hormones, 30, 42, 46, 60, 61, 66–67, 158, 162, 217, 233 structural dissociation model, 281 structures, in psychomotor therapy, 298–308 subcortical brain structures, 95 submissiveness, 97, 218 subpersonalities, 280–95 substance abuse, 70, 120, 146, 151, 225, 266 neurofeedback and, 327–28 withdrawal and, 32, 327 suicidal behavior and thoughts, 24, 28, 88, 120, 138, 141, 146, 147, 150, 151, 154, 256, 287, 316, 332 suicide by cop, 182 Summit, Roland, 131, 136 Suomi, Stephen, 153–54, 160 superior temporal cortex, 386n sympathetic nervous system (SNS), 77, 82, 82, 209, 266–67 Szyf, Moshe, 152 tai chi, 207–8 talk therapy (talking cure), 22, 27, 36, 72, 181–82, 230–37, 253 experience vs. telling in, 235–36 TAQ, see Traumatic Antecedents Questionaire (TAQ) Tavistock Clinic, 109 Teicher, Martin, 140, 149, 416n temporal lobe abnormalities, 416n temporal parietal junction, 100 tension, in trauma survivors, 100–101, 265–66 terrorism: PTSD from, 348 see also September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks testosterone, 163 thalamocortical networks, 417n thalamus, 60, 70–71, 176, 324 theater, in trauma recovery, 214, 330–32, 334–46, 355 conflict and, 335 emotions and, 335, 344–45 feeling safe in, 336–37 Theater of War, 332 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), 106–7 therapists, in trauma recovery, 212–13, 244 theta waves, 321, 326, 417n Thorazine (chlorpromazine), 22–23 thoughts, physical sensations and, 209 threat: confusion of safety and, 85, 97, 119, 164 hypersensitivity to, 2, 11, 17, 33, 45–47, 68, 84, 95, 102, 143, 158, 161, 163, 196–97, 225, 265, 310, 327, 328, 408n social engagement as response to, 80–81, 82, 88 whole-body response to, 53–55, 53, 60–62, 61 see also fight/flight response; freeze response (immobilization) time, sense of, 273 Tourette, Gilles de la, 177 trance (hypnagogic) states, 117, 187, 238, 302, 305, 326 transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 417n trauma: articulation of, 232–34 brain changes from, 2–3, 21, 59, 347 growing awareness of, 347 as most urgent public health issue, 148, 149–50, 356 narratives of, 7, 43, 46, 70, 130, 135, 175, 176, 194, 219, 220, 231, 250, 252–53, 261–62; see also traumatic memory physiological changes from, 2–3, 21, 53, 53, 72 prevalence of, 1 reactivation of, 2 risk of, socioeconomic status and, 348 trauma, healing from, 203–29 animal therapy in, 80, 150–51, 213 ARC model in, 401n art and, 242–43 body therapies for, 3, 26, 72, 86, 89, 207–8, 215–17, 228–29, 245; see also specific therapies calming and relaxation techniques in, 131, 203–4; see also breathing; mindfulness; yoga CBT in, 182, 194, 220–21 community in, 213–14, 244, 331–34, 355 desensitization therapies in, 46–47, 73, 220, 222–23 EMDR therapy in, see eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) emotional self-regulation in, 203–4, 206–8, 212, 353, 401n feeling safe in, 204, 212, 270, 275, 300, 301, 349, 353 focus in, 203, 347–48, 355 giving up self-deceit in, 204 IFS therapy in, see internal family systems (IFS) therapy integrating traumatic memories in, 181, 219–20, 222, 228, 237, 279 language and, 230–47, 275–76 limbic system therapy in, 205–6 living in present as goal of, 204 mindfulness in, 207, 208–10, 224, 225, 269, 270 music in, 242–43, 349, 355 need to revisit trauma in, 204–5, 211 neurofeedback in, see neurofeedback professional therapists for, 212–13, 244 psychomotor therapy in, 296–308 reestablishing ownership of one’s self as goal of, 204–5 relationships in, 204, 210–13 rhythmic movement and, 85, 207, 208, 214, 242–43, 333–34, 349 schools as resources for, 351–56 search for meaning in, 233–34 self-awareness in, 208, 235–38, 273, 347 self-leadership in, 203, 280–95 sensorimotor therapy in, 96, 214–15 singing and chanting in, 86, 214 talk therapy in, 230–37, 253 theater in, see theater, in trauma recovery writing and, 238–42 yoga in, 63, 86, 207, 225, 228–29, 231, 263–76 Trauma and Recovery (Herman), 189 Trauma Center, 3–4, 72, 85, 86, 121, 122, 163–64, 166, 214–15, 228, 266, 269, 271, 340, 351 neurofeedback laboratory at, 318–20, 324 Trauma Drama program of, 335, 336–37, 339, 355 Urban Improv study of, 338–39 Trauma Clinic, 35, 251, 253 trauma survivors: alexithymia in, 98–99, 247, 272–73, 291, 319 blaming in, 45 brain scans of, 39–47, 42, 66, 68–70, 68, 71–72, 72, 82, 99–100, 319 brain-wave patterns in, 311–12, 311, 324 continued stress mobilization in, 53–55, 53 denial in, 46, 291 depersonalization in, 71–73, 71, 99–100, 132–33, 286, 291, 386n, 401n derealization in, 401n dissociation in, 66–68, 95, 172, 179, 180–81, 194, 211, 247, 281, 294, 316, 317–18 distorted perception of safety in, 79–80, 85, 96–97, 119, 164, 270 fear of emotions in, 335 fear of experimentation in, 305 flashbacks in, 40, 42, 45, 70, 176, 193–94, 219 freeze response (immobilization) in, 54, 54, 80, 82–83, 82, 85, 95, 217, 218 handwriting of, 241–42 helplessness of, 217, 341 hypersensitivity to threat in, 2, 61–62, 84 immune systems of, 126–27, 291 inner void in, 296–308 intimacy as difficult for, 99 irritability and rage in, 46, 95, 99 language failure in, 43–44, 243–45, 352–53 limbic system in, 59, 95, 265 living in present as difficult for, 67, 70, 73, 312 loss of imagination in, 17, 96 loss of purpose in, 92, 233 medication and, 3 memory and attention problems in, 46 nightmares in, 44 numbing in, 67, 84, 119, 205, 247, 272, 304–5, 306 panic attacks in, 97 polarization of self-system in, 281 reciprocity and, 79–80 reenacting in, 31–33, 179, 180, 181, 182 self-harming in, 266, 288–89 self-protective strategies of, 278–79 sensation seeking in, 266, 272 sense of self in, 166, 233, 247 sense of time in, 273 sensory overload in, 70–71 sensory self-awareness in, 89, 96, 247, 418n shame in, 102, 138, 211, 300 sleep disorders in, 46, 95 social engagement and, 3, 62, 78–80, 84, 86, 161, 349 somatic symptoms in, 97–98 stress hormone levels in, 30 substance abuse by, 70, 120, 146, 151, 225, 266 tension and defensiveness in, 100–101, 265–66 trust as difficult for, 18, 134, 141, 150, 158, 163, 253 see also childhood trauma survivors; PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) Traumatic Antecedents Questionaire (TAQ), 138–40, 141 traumatic memory, 171–83, 246–47, 278 as disorganized, 193 hysteria as, see hysteria integration of, 181, 219–20, 222, 228, 237, 255–56, 261–62, 279, 308 narrative memory vs., 176, 179, 194, 219, 231–32, 236 normal memory vs., 175–76, 180, 181, 189, 192–94, 219, 372n “railway spine” as, 177 see also repressed memory Traumatic Neuroses of War, The (Kardiner), 11, 187 Trevarthen, Colwyn, 111 Trickett, Penelope, 161–63 triggered responses, 66–68 Tronick, Ed, 84, 112 trust, difficulty of, 18, 134, 141, 150, 158, 163, 253 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 213–14, 333, 349 Tutu, Desmond, 333 Ubuntu, 349 United States Association for Body Psychotherapy, 297 Urban Improv, 334–35 Trauma Center study of, 337–39 vagus nerve, 76, 78, 80–82, 81, 207, 245 Valium, 225 valproate, 136, 225, 405n van der Hart, Onno, 281, 396n Van der Kolk Center, 213, 401n vasopressin, 223 ventral vagal complex (VVC), 81–82, 82, 83–84 development of, 84 Versailles, Treaty of (1919), 186 Veterans Administration (VA): Boston Clinic of, 7, 10, 11, 12, 187–88, 227, 331 PTSD and, 19, 222–23, 226–27, 244–45 Veterans Affairs Department, U.S, 156, 224, 255 Vietnam veterans, 7–8, 12, 15, 17–18, 33, 156, 182, 187–88, 190, 222–23, 227, 233–34 visual cortex, 42, 44 voice, responses to, 85–86 Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 322 War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning (Hedges), 31 Warner, Liz, 214, 418 Warren, Robert Penn, 22 Werner, Emily, 392n “What Is an Emotion?”

Just about every group of psychotropic agents has been used to treat some aspect of PTSD.52 The serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as Prozac, Zoloft, Effexor, and Paxil have been most thoroughly studied, and they can make feelings less intense and life more manageable. Patients on SSRIs often feel calmer and more in control; feeling less overwhelmed often makes it easier to engage in therapy. Other patients feel blunted by SSRIs—they feel they’re “losing their edge.” I approach it as an empirical question: Let’s see what works, and only the patient can be the judge of that. On the other hand, if one SSRI does not work, it’s worth trying another, because they all have slightly different effects. It’s interesting that the SSRIs are widely used to treat depression, but in a study in which we compared Prozac with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for patients with PTSD, many of whom were also depressed, EMDR proved to be a more effective antidepressant than Prozac.53 I’ll return to that subject in chapter 15.54 Medicines that target the autonomic nervous system, like propranolol or clonidine, can help to decrease hyperarousal and reactivity to stress.55 This family of drugs works by blocking the physical effects of adrenaline, the fuel of arousal, and thus reduces nightmares, insomnia, and reactivity to trauma triggers.56 Blocking adrenaline can help to keep the rational brain online and make choices possible: “Is this really what I want to do?”


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

(c) Stimulate the postsynaptic neuron to make more receptors. Fine in theory, but not easily done. (d) Inhibit degradative enzymes so that more of the neurotransmitter sticks around in the synapse. (e) Inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter, prolonging its effects in the synapse. The modern antidepressant of choice, Prozac, does exactly that in serotonin synapses. Thus it is often referred to as an “SSRI”—a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Meanwhile, a pharmacopeia of drugs are available to decrease signaling across synapses, and you can see what their underlying mechanisms are going to include—blocking the synthesis of a neurotransmitter, blocking its release, blocking its access to its receptor, and so on. Fun example: Acetylcholine stimulates your diaphragm to contract. Curare, the poison used in darts by Amazonian tribes, blocks acetylcholine receptors.

Glossary of Abbreviations ACC anterior cingulate cortex ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder AIS androgen insensitivity syndrome APA American Psychological Association ASD autism spectrum disorders BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor BLA basolateral amygdala BMI body mass index BNST bed nucleus of the stria terminalis CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia CBT cognitive behavioral therapy COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone DAT dopamine transporter DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone dlPFC dorsolateral PFC DZ dizygotic EEA equal environment assumption EEG electroencephalographic; EEGs electroencephalograms ERPS event-related potentials fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging FTD frontotemporal dementia GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone GSR galvanic skin resistance GWAS genomewide association studies HG hunter-gatherer HH high-warmth/high-competence HL high warmth/low competence IAT Implicit Association Test LH low warmth/high competence LH luteinizing hormone LL low warmth/low competence LTD long-term depression LTP long-term potentiation MAO-A monoamine oxidase-A MHC major histocompatibility complex MZ monozygotic NCAM neural cell adhesion molecule PAG periaqueductal gray PD Prisoner’s Dilemma PFC prefrontal cortex PMC premotor cortex PMDD premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMS premenstrual syndrome PNS parasympathetic nervous system PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder PVN paraventricular nucleus RNA ribonucleic acid RWA right-wing authoritarianism SDO social-dominance orientation SES socioeconomic status SHRP stress hyporesponsive period SNPs single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNS sympathetic nervous system SPE Stanford Prison Experiment SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor STG superior temporal gyrus TF transcription factor TH tryptophan hydroxylase ToM Theory of Mind TPJ temporoparietal juncture TRC truth and reconciliation commission vlPFC ventrolateral prefrontal cortex vmPFC ventromedial PFC 54 Abbreviations in the Notes In order to save forests’ worth of paper, references cite only the first one or two authors.

Simmons, 170–71, 589, 590, 592 Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel, 396 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 305, 309, 325, 616 Rozin, Paul, 399, 562 Rudolph, Wilma, 596 runaway trolley problem (killing one person to save five), 55, 56, 58–59, 117, 482, 488–91, 505–7 self-driving cars and, 612n Russell, Jeffrey, 606 Rwanda, 570 genocide in, 571–72, 573, 619 Hutu and Tutsi tribes in, 372, 469, 570–73 Sabah, Nayirah al-, and supposed atrocities during the Gulf War, 632–33 sacred values, in conflict resolution, 575–79, 643–44 Sahlins, Marshall, 318 Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 653 Samoans, 122 Sandusky, Jerry, 597 Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre, 561 San Francisco earthquake (1989), 301 Santayana, George, 669–70 Saud, King, 367 Saypol, Irving, 396 Scalia, Antonin, 590 scapegoating, 531 schadenfreude, 15, 413 Schiller, Friedrich, 443 schizophrenia, 234, 235, 239, 582, 586, 593, 607 Schultz, Wolfram, 68, 71 Science, 133, 246–47, 251, 266, 278, 300n, 313, 322, 495, 524, 546, 549, 574–75, 636 Scientific American, 298 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 694 self-confidence, 102–3, 237 Semai, 313, 502n Semang, 317, 318 sensorimotor contagion, 86, 395, 522 sensory stimuli, 6–7, 15, 81–98 amygdala and, 40–41 in animals, 83–84 auditory, 6, 83–84, 89 cultural differences in processing, 276 haptic (touch), 565–66 hormones and, see hormones interoceptive information, 90–92, 528, 529, 566 real vs. metaphorical sensation, 565–68 and sensitivity of sensory organs, 96–97 subliminal and unconscious, 84–90, 93–96 language, 92–93 temperature, 566 visual, 6, 84 Sepoy Mutiny, 391n September 11 attacks, 619 Seromba, Athanase, 572 serotonin, 134, 692 aggression and, 76–77, 250–55 genes and, 227, 246, 250–55, 264 psilocybin and, 693 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 694 SES, see socioeconomic status sex, 11, 39, 43, 65–66, 95 oxytocin and, 110 sex differences, 266 cultural, 272 dimorphic, 366 and hormones in prenatal environment, 211–19 math skills and, 266–67, 267, 406 obedience and, 474 in monkey behaviors, 213–14, 214 transgender individuals and, 215n sexual selection, 330–31 Seyfarth, Robert, 337–38 shame, 502–3 Shariff, Azim, 623 Shepher, Joseph, 371 Sherman, Marshall, 554 Shermer, Michael, 495 Shweder, Richard, 271, 494 Sigmund, Karl, 350 Silkwood, Karen, 652 Simpson, O.

Grain Brain: The Surprising Truth About Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar--Your Brain's Silent Killers by David Perlmutter, Kristin Loberg

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epigenetics, Gary Taubes, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, phenotype, publication bias, Ralph Waldo Emerson, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell

Women on antidepressants were 45 percent more likely to experience strokes and had a 32 percent higher risk of death from all causes.20 The findings, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, came out of the Women’s Health Initiative, a major public health investigation focusing on women in the United States. And it didn’t matter whether people were using newer forms of antidepressants, known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), or older forms known as tricyclic antidepressants, such as Elavil. SSRIs are typically used as antidepressants, but they can be prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and some personality disorders. They work by preventing the brain from reabsorbing the neurotransmitter serotonin. By changing the balance of serotonin in the brain, neurons send and receive chemical messages better, which in turn boosts mood. Unsettling studies have reached a tipping point, and some Big Pharma companies are backing away from antidepressant drug development (though they still make a lot of money in this department—to the tune of nearly 15 billion dollars a year).


pages: 405 words: 130,840

The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom by Jonathan Haidt

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crack epidemic, delayed gratification, feminist movement, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Singer: altruism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Waldo Emerson, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, the scientific method, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

T h e gut brain makes its independence known in many ways: It c a u s e s ir-ritable bowel syndrome when it "decides" to flush out the intestines. It triggers anxiety in the head brain when it detects infections in the gut, leading you to act in more cautious ways that are appropriate when you are sick.10 And it reacts in unexpected ways to anything that affects its main neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and serotonin. Hence, many of the initial side effects of Prozac and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors involve nausea and changes in bowel function. Trying to improve the workings of the head brain can directly interfere with those of the gut brain. The independence of the gut brain, c o m b i n e d with the autonomic nature of changes to the genitals, probably contributed to ancient Indian theories in which the abdomen contains the three lower chakras—energy centers corresponding to the colon/anus, sexual organs, and gut.

I would greet my students and colleagues, reach for a n a m e to put after "Hi," and he left with "Hi . . . there." I decided that as a professor I needed my memory more than I needed p e a c e of mind, so I stopped taking Paxil. Five weeks later, my memory c a m e back, along with my worries. What remained was a firsthand experience of wearing rose-colored glasses, of seeing the world with new eyes. Prozac was the first member of a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or S S R I s . In what follows, I use Prozac to stand for the whole group, the psychological effects of which are nearly identical, and which includes Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Lexapro, and others. Many things are not known about Prozac and its cousins—above all, how they work. T h e n a m e of the drug class tells part of the story: Prozac gets into the synapses (the gaps between neurons), but it is selective in affecting only synapses that use serotonin as their neurotransmitter.

S i n g e r ) , 1 6 5 Sartre, Jean-Paid, 1 34 Progress principle, 82—84 Science, 171, 218, 241 Promethean script, 10—11, 15 and divinity, 2 0 5 - 2 0 6 , 2 1 0 Pronin, Emily, 71 Schkade, David, 91 Proust, Marcel, 39, 1 52 Schooler, Carmi, 221 Prozac. See Selective serotonin Schrock, Ed, 5 9 - 6 0 reuptake inhibitors ( S S R l s ) Schwartz, Barry, 102 Psychoanalysis, 3, 20, 108, 1 12, 2 2 0 Seinfeld, Jerry, 195 Psychological Care of Infant and Child Selective serotonin reuptake (Watson), 108 inhibitors (SSRIs), 6, 3 9 - 4 3 , Purpose, 2 1 7 - 2 1 9 , 225, 227, 2 2 9 - 2 3 0 , 90, 148 2 3 4 - 2 3 5 , 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 Self, xi, 201, 204, 2 0 6 - 2 0 8 Purpose Driven Life, The ( W a r r e n ) , left brain/right brain division, 6—9 2 0 9 - 2 1 0 , 218 metaphors of, 1—5 mind/body division, 5—6 Reason and reasoning, 3—4, 1 1 — 13, reason/emotion division, 9—13 6 4 - 6 6 , 9 8 , 161-162, 165 self-control and automatic response, Reciprocity, xi, 4 5 - 5 8 , 172 1 3 - 2 2 and hypocrisy, 6 0 - 6 2 , 6 6 - 6 9 , 79, Self-control, 17-19 130-132 Seligman, Martin, 91, 9 6 - 9 7 , Relationships.


pages: 372 words: 101,174

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed by Ray Kurzweil

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, brain emulation, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer age, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, George Gilder, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, linear programming, Loebner Prize, mandelbrot fractal, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Even those who manage to avoid severely addictive behaviors struggle with balancing the rewards of dopamine release with the consequences of the behaviors that release them. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the regulation of mood. In higher levels it is associated with feelings of well-being and contentment. Serotonin has other functions, including modulating synaptic strength, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, and digestion. Antidepression drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (which tend to increase serotonin levels available to receptors) tend to have far-reaching effects, not all of them desirable (such as suppressing libido). Unlike actions in the neocortex, where recognition of patterns and activations of axons affect only a small number of neocortical circuits at a time, these substances affect large regions of the brain or even the entire nervous system.

., 117, 121 Roxy Music, 118 Russell, Bertrand, 104, 181, 220 Rutter, Brad, 165 saccades, 73 Salk Institute, 89 same-sex marriage, 278 Sandberg, Anders, 129–30, 318n Schopenhauer, Arthur, 235, 240 science: as based on objective measurement, 211 specialization in, 115 Science, 82–83 “scientist’s pessimism,” 272–73 Searle, John, 170, 201, 205, 206, 222 “Chinese room” thought experiment of, 170, 274–75 Seinfeld (TV show), 75 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 106 self-organizing systems, 144, 147, 149, 150, 154–55, 162, 168, 171–72, 175, 197, 270 sensorimotor area, 77 sensory cortex, 99 sensory nerves, 99 sensory organs, 58 sensory receptors, 99 sensory-touch pathway, 58, 60, 94–98, 95, 97–100, 97, 99 serotonin, 105, 106, 107, 118 Seung, Sebastian, 10 Sex and the City (TV show), 117 sexual reproduction, 118 simulated, 148 Shakespeare, William, 39, 114–15, 209 Shannon, Claude, 183–84, 190 Shashua, Amnon, 159 Shaw, J.


pages: 504 words: 147,660

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters With Addiction by Gabor Mate, Peter A. Levine

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Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, corporate governance, epigenetics, ghettoisation, impulse control, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, phenotype, placebo effect, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, Yogi Berra

Having carried its message to the target nerve cell, the molecule then falls back into the synaptic cleft, and from there it is taken back up into the originating neuron for later reuse; hence, the term reuptake. The greater the reuptake, the less neurotransmitter remains active between the neurons. Cocaine’s action may be likened to that of the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac). Prozac belongs to a family of drugs that increase the levels of the mood-regulating neurotransmitter serotonin between nerve cells by blocking its reuptake. They’re called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. Cocaine, one might say, is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It occupies the receptor on the cell surface normally used by the brain chemical that would transport dopamine back into its source neuron. In effect, cocaine is a temporary squatter in someone else’s home. The more of these sites occupied by cocaine, the more dopamine remains in the synaptic space and the greater the euphoria reported by the user.8 Unlike Prozac, cocaine is not selective: it also inhibits the reuptake of other messenger molecules, including serotonin.


pages: 509 words: 147,998

The Geeks Shall Inherit the Earth: Popularity, Quirk Theory, and Why Outsiders Thrive After High School by Alexandra Robbins

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Columbine, game design, hive mind, out of africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics

Based on the results of these studies, psychopharmacologists decided to test a similar hypothesis on humans. Teams of researchers administered to volunteers a drug to increase serotonin levels, then monitored them during a puzzle-based task with a partner. The treated individuals demonstrated an increase in “socially affiliative” behaviors, such as dominant eye contact and clear communication. more recent studies have also reported that administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) “can modify social status.” In 2009, Michigan State University professor S. Alexandra Burt discovered that a region of a particular gene was associated with popularity ratings of teenage boys (in experimental settings), leading her to conclude that genetics may play a part in popularity, at least when it comes to the serotonin link. The directions and findings of these experiments might lead a layperson to wonder whether scientists theoretically will have the capability to develop a popularity drug.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Structure and Change in Economic History (New York: Norton, 1981), pp. 46–47. 31 Trivers, “Reciprocal Altruism.” 32 On this general topic, see Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992), chap. 13–17. 33 Robert H. Frank, Choosing the Right Pond: Human Behavior and the Quest for Status (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 34 Ibid., pp. 21–25. Conversely, low-status human beings often suffer from chronic depression and have been successfully treated with Prozac, Zoloft, and other so-called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which increase levels of brain serotonin. See Roger D. Masters and Michael T. McGuire, The Neurotransmitter Revolution: Serotonin, Social Behavior, and the Law (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994), p. 10. 35 On this issue, see Francis Fukuyama, “Identity, Immigration, and Liberal Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 17, no. 2 (2006): 5–20. 36 See Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989). 37 Wade, Before the Dawn, pp. 16–17. 38 See R.

Rg Veda Richelieu, Cardinal Rights of Man Robertson, Graeme Rock Edicts Rodrik, Dani Romance of the Three Kingdoms, The (Luo Guanzhong) Romania Romanov dynasty Romans, ancient; in Britain; Christianity becomes state religion of; classical republicanism of; clientes of powerful leaders of; founding myths of; Indo-Aryan progenitors of; kinship system of; law of (see also Justinian Code); military forces of; overrun by Germanic tribes; patrimonialism of; urban tradition of; violence as driver of state formation by Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare) Romulus Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royal Council, French Royal Council, Spanish rule of law; autonomy and; Chinese lack of; in Denmark; economic growth and; in England (see also Common Law); in France; in India, ; in Latin America; in Middle East; origins of; in Ottoman Empire; religion and; Roman, see Justinian Code; in Russia; in Spain; in United States Rurik dynasty Rurzhen Russia; absolutism in; assembly of nobles in; Communist, see Soviet Union; democratization in; Enlightenment in; financial crisis in; Indo-Aryan tribes in; map of; military expenditures of; Mongol invasion of; noble rankings in; religion in, see Russian Orthodox church; representative institutions in; rule of law in; Rurik dynasty in; serfdom in; slave markets in; Varangian conquest of Russian Orthodox church Russo-Japanese War Rwanda Saberwal, Satish Sachs, Jeffrey Safavids Sahel Sahlins, Marshall Sahul, ancient continent of Saladin (Salah al-Din) Salic Law Saltykov family Samudra Gupta Sankoh, Foday Sanskrit Santo Domingo Saracens Sasanian Empire Satiyaputras Satvahanas Saudi Arabia Saxons Scandinavia; see also Denmark; Norway; Sweden Schick, Allen Schleswig Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SATs) Schurmann, Franz Science and Civilisation in China (Needham) Scotland Scott, James Scythians Second Dutch War Second Treatise on Government (Locke) Seeing Like a State (Scott) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Selim I (the Grim), Sultan Selim II, Sultan Selim III, Sultan Seljuk sultanate Sen, Amartya Serbia serfdom; Catholic church and; in China; in Denmark; in Hungary; in Russia; in tribal societies Service, Elman Shakas Shakers Shakespeare, William Shang Dynasty Shang Lu Shang Yang Shapiro, Martin sharia Shastras Shenzong, Emperor of China Sheremetov, Count D. N. Sheremetov, Count N.


pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

., 275–76. 39 See Gilles Saint-Paul (2010) on the authoritarianism of the utilitarian-based approach to “happiness.” 40 Layard (2005), Wilkinson (2007). 41 Including Mihaly Csikszentmilhalyi (1990), Ed Diener and Robert Biswas-Diener (2008), Jonathan Haidt (2006) and Martin Seligman (2002). 42 Csikszentmilhalyi (1990), 9. 43 Diner and Biswas-Diener (2008), 131. 44 Ibid., 154. 45 Haidt (2006), 96. 46 Haidt (2006), 91. 47 The drugs are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac. Haidt writes: “Prozac is a way to compensate for the unfairness of the cortical lottery” (ibid., 43). He does not condemn the use of this class of drugs to tackle depression, although he points out that there are side-effects. 48 Ibid., 91–93. 49 Csikszentmilhalyi (1990), 11. 50 Haidt (2006), 175–76. 51 Positive psychologists Chris Peterson and Martin Seligman have listed the character strengths whose cultivation promotes virtue in this sense on the website authentichappiness.org. 52 Diener and Biswas-Diener (2008), 224. 53 Csikszentmilhalyi, 160. 54 Haidt (2006), 177. 55 Barrington-Leigh et al. (2010). 56 Frey and Stutzer (2007) and Saint-Paul (2011). 57 See also Sen (1999a).


pages: 322 words: 107,576

Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

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Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, experimental subject, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, publication bias, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, urban planning

They registered fifty a year in the 1990s, but now it’s down to twenty a year, and a lot of those are just copies. They are in trouble. Because they cannot find new treatments for the diseases we already have, the pill companies instead invent new diseases for the treatments they already have. Recent favourites include Social Anxiety Disorder (a new use for SSRI drugs), Female Sexual Dysfunction (a new use for Viagra in women), night eating syndrome (SSRIs again) and so on: problems, in a real sense, but perhaps not necessarily the stuff of pills, and perhaps not best conceived of in reductionist biomedical terms. In fact, refraining intelligence, loss of libido, shyness and tiredness as medical pill problems could be considered crass, exploitative, and frankly disempowering. These crude biomedical mechanisms may well enhance the placebo benefits from pills, but they are also seductive precisely because of what they edit out.

We can go through them briefly, so you can see for yourself how relevant the biggest papers from the most important medical journal are to your needs. The top-scoring paper was a case-control study which showed that patients had a higher risk of heart attack if they were taking the drugs rofecoxib (Vioxx), diclofenac or ibuprofen. At number two was a large meta-analysis of drug company data, which showed no evidence that SSRI antidepressants increase the risk of suicide, but found weak evidence for an increased risk of deliberate self-harm. In third place was a systematic review which showed an association between suicide attempts and the use of SSRIs, and critically highlighted some of the inadequacies around the reporting of suicides in clinical trials. This is critical self-appraisal, and it is very healthy, but you will notice something else: all of those studies revolve around situations where drug companies withheld or distorted evidence.

If you follow the references in the back, you will find studies where patients were given really rather high doses of old–fashioned antipsychotic medication (which made the new-generation drugs look as if they were better in terms of side-effects), and studies with doses of SSRI antidepressants which some might consider unusual, to name just a couple of examples. I know. It’s slightly incredible. Of course, another trick you could pull with side-effects is simply not to ask about them; or rather—since you have to be sneaky in this field—you could be careful about how you ask. Here is an example. SSRI antidepressant drugs cause sexual side-effects fairly commonly, including anorgasmia. We should be clear (and I’m trying to phrase this as neutrally as possible): I really enjoy the sensation of orgasm. It’s important to me, and everything I experience in the world tells me that this sensation is important to other people too.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

If the reward network chases shiny fruit, the loss avoidance system worries about bad apples. The loss avoidance system, like the reward network, is a double-edged sword. It can make people anxious, unpleasantly anxious, so anxious that they sit out bull markets while everyone else gets rich. But it also causes them to take fewer stupid risks. This system is mediated in part by a neurotransmitter called serotonin—and when people are given drugs like Prozac (known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) that affect the loss avoidance system, they become more blasé about danger. They also become more gregarious. These features coincide uncannily, points out the neurofinance expert Dr. Richard Peterson, with the behavior of irrationally exuberant investors. “The characteristics of decreased threat perception and increased social affiliation [resulting from drugs like Prozac] mirror the decreased risk perception and herding of excessively bullish investors,” he writes.


pages: 357 words: 98,854

Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease and Inheritance by Nessa Carey

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, life extension, mouse model, phenotype, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Effective treatment for depression took a big step forwards in the early 1990s with the licensing by the US Food and Drug Administration of a class of drugs called SSRIs – selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter molecule – it conveys signals between neurons. Serotonin is released in the brain in response to pleasurable stimuli; it’s the feel-good molecule that we met in our happy rat babies. The levels of serotonin are low in the brains of people suffering from depression. SSRI drugs raise the levels of serotonin in the brain. It makes sense that drugs that cause an increase in serotonin levels would be useful in treating depression. But there’s something odd about their action. The serotonin levels in the brain rise quite quickly when patients are treated with the SSRI drugs. But it usually takes at least four to six weeks before the terrible symptoms of severe depression begin to lift.

This is presumed to be because of cross-talk between the histone acetylation and DNA methylation pathways17. In the social defeat model in mice, the susceptible animals were treated with an SSRI anti-depressant drug. After three weeks of treatment, their behaviour was much more like that of the resilient mice. But treatment with this anti-depressant drug didn’t just result in increased levels of serotonin in the brain. The anti-depressant treatment also led to increased DNA methylation at the promoter of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone. These studies are all very consistent with a model where there is cross-talk between the immediate signals from the neurotransmitters, and the longer-term effects on cell function mediated by epigenetic enzymes. When depressed patients are treated with SSRI drugs, the serotonin levels in the brain begin to rise, and signal more strongly to the neurons.

Normal happy mice love sugared water, but when they are depressed they aren’t so interested in it. This decreased response to a pleasant stimulus is called anhedonia. It seems to be one of the best surrogate markers in animals for human depression15. Most people who have been severely depressed talk about losing interest in all the things that used to make life joyful before they became ill. When the stressed mice were treated with SSRI anti-depressants, their interest in the sugared water gradually increased. But when they were treated with SAHA, the HDAC inhibitor, they regained their interest in their favourite drink much faster16. It’s not just in the jumpy or chilled mice that histone deacetylase inhibitors can change animal behaviour. It’s also relevant to the baby rats who don’t get much maternal licking and grooming. These are the ones that normally grow up to be chronically stressed, with over-activation of the cortisol production pathway.


pages: 237 words: 82,266

You Say Tomato, I Say Shut Up by Annabelle Gurwitch

Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Donald Trump, Donner party, Exxon Valdez, Mahatma Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Yogi Berra

Once I was outside a department store when a poop rolled out of my son’s pants and I kicked it under a decorative shrub. A woman who witnessed this act hissed, “I saw what you did!” Yeah, well, so what, that’s a woman who’s never changed a colostomy bag in an airplane bathroom! But I knew that Martha would never have done that. Meanwhile, I developed a twitch in my eye, I started taking Xanax and SSRIs,* my clothes were stained with bodily fluids and X-ray contrast dyes, and my coworkers’ patience was tested by my need to constantly reschedule shooting days to accommodate Ezra’s frequent surgeries. In fact, on our anniversary, during that first year of Ezra’s life, Jeff valiantly tried to instill some romance into our lives, but my work ran late and Jeff spent most of the romantic meal he had planned for us being pissed off at me and drinking alone.

No more do-it-with-the-sunrise-I-have-to-piss-hard-on-warm-and-cozy-from-spooning sex, because our kid is right there in bed with us every morning—sleeping in the middle, sweeter than honey on a Hershey bar, cuter than anyone has a right to be, and more demanding of attention than Madonna at a Madonna concert. But eleven years after our son’s birth, one would think that maybe, just maybe, my wife and I could resume our mutual desire to get her off. I mean, how long could she keep using that “I just had a baby” excuse anyway? The truth is, Annabelle’s high tide of horniness began to recede innocently enough just after Ezra was born when she began to take antidepressants. The SSRIs dovetailed nicely with all the recently acquired anxieties caused by Ezra’s health complications and created a perfect storm of lack of libido. The antidepressants had beneficial results for Annabelle, and sure, she might have been able to function better in her career, but was it really worth it? I saw the drugs as working for her the way the Hoover Dam operates. They stop up the flow of lust and then carefully funnel it to generate more stability for her to use effectively in her workplace, in better ways of dealing with her parents, in coping with the garden varieties of daily stress, and generally in not succumbing to bouts of low self-esteem that were once so fantastically channeled into sexual energy.

Richard Batista of Long Island, New York, donated his kidney while married to wife Downell. In their 2009 divorce petition, he is asking either to have the kidney returned or to receive a million dollars in compensation. my chemical romance Love produces chemical reactions in the brain, but what if you aren’t in love anymore? How can you produce the same results? Serotonin (falling in love): sunlight, SSRIs, warm milk, chocolate Oxytocin (trust and bonding): have baby and bond with it, eat more chocolate Endorphins (security of long-term love): go for a run or a swim, chocolate again Phenylethylamine (adrenaline rush of affair): climb Mount Kilimanjaro, meditation, caffeine, just give up and buy the chocolate already 70 percent of couples argue about money at least once a week. —Smart Money magazine O brave new world that has such people in it!


pages: 467 words: 116,094

I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

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call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

From 2006 to 2010 there was a 43 per cent increase in the number of prescriptions for the SSRI class of antidepressants. Does that mean more people are depressed in the recession? Firstly, this rise in scripts for antidepressants isn’t a new phenomenon. In 2009 the BMJ published a paper titled ‘Explaining the rise in antidepressant prescribing’, which looked at the period from 1993 to 2005. In the five years from 2000 to 2005 – the boom before the bust these journalists are writing about – antidepressant prescribing also increased, by 36 per cent. That isn’t very different from 43 per cent, so it feels unlikely that the present increase in prescriptions is due to the recession. That’s not the only problem here. It turns out that the number of prescriptions for an SSRI drug is a pretty unhelpful way of measuring how many people are being treated for depression: not just because people get prescribed SSRIs for all kinds of other things, like anxiety, PTSD, hot flushes, and more; and not just because doctors have moved away from older types of antidepressants, so they would be prescribing more of the newer SSRI drugs even if the number of people with depression had stayed the same.

It turns out that the number of prescriptions for an SSRI drug is a pretty unhelpful way of measuring how many people are being treated for depression: not just because people get prescribed SSRIs for all kinds of other things, like anxiety, PTSD, hot flushes, and more; and not just because doctors have moved away from older types of antidepressants, so they would be prescribing more of the newer SSRI drugs even if the number of people with depression had stayed the same. Excitingly, it’s a bit more complicated than that. A 2006 paper from the British Journal of General Practice looked at prescribing and diagnosis rates in Scotland. Overall, again, the number of prescriptions for antidepressants increased, from 1.5 million in 1996 to 2.8 million in 2001 (that is, it almost doubled). But the researchers of this paper also found a mystery: looking at the Scottish Health Survey, they found no increase in the prevalence of depression; and looking at the GP consultations dataset, they again found no evidence that people were presenting more frequently to their GP with depression, or that GPs were making more diagnoses of depression.

Instead they approached each hospital with a Freedom of Information Act request, asking the surgeons themselves for the figures on how many operations they performed, and how many people died. Many straightforward academic papers are built out of this kind of investigative journalism work, from early epidemiology research into occupational hazards, through to the famous recent study hunting down all the missing trials of SSRI antidepressants that companies had hidden away. It’s not clear whether this FOI data will be more reliable than the Hospital Episodes numbers – ‘Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the HES dataset’ is a standard public health exam question – and reliability will probably vary from hospital to hospital. One unit, for example, reported a single death after ninety-five emergency AAA operations on FOI request, when on average about one in three people in the UK die during this procedure, and that suggests to me that there may be problems in the data.


pages: 220 words: 66,518

The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles by Bruce H. Lipton

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Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Mars Rover, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell

(Segerstrom and Miller 2004; Kopp and Réthelyi 2004; McEwen and Lasky 2002; McEwen and Seeman 1999) In a revealing study published in 2003 in Science, researchers considered why patients on SSRI antidepressants, such as Prozac or Zoloft, don’t feel better right away. There is usually at least a two-week lag between starting the drugs and the time the patients feel they are getting better. The study found that depressed people exhibit a surprising lack of cell division in the region of the brain called the hippocampus, a part of the nervous system involved with memory. Hippocampal cells renewed cell division at the time patients first began to experience the mood-shifting effect of the SSRI drugs, weeks after the onset of the drug regimen. This study and others challenge the theory that depression is simply the result of a “chemical imbalance” affecting the brain’s production of monoamine signaling chemicals, specifically serotonin. If it were as simple as that, the SSRI drugs would likely restore that chemical balance right away.


pages: 147 words: 6,471

Asperger Syndrome and Alcohol: Drinking to Cope? by Matthew Tinsley, Sarah Hendrickx

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Asperger Syndrome, neurotypical, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), theory of mind

I was very interested to learn that anger is often part of Asperger Syndrome; I am aware that I have a ferocious temper, which I almost never let off the leash, for fear of not being able to control it. I alienated many people, including various partners, and I am a much more content person now I am sober. Coming out the other side I am still taking the anti-depressant fluoxetine, and other medication (beta-blockers) to prevent blood vessels in my stomach from haemorrhaging as a result of the cirrhosis I now have. I have since learnt that this combination of the group of drugs known as SSRIs, including fluoxetine, and beta-blockers is considered by many to be an ideal combination to deal with the obsessive behaviours and extreme anxiety endemic in many of those with AS. The noted autism expert Temple Grandin believes that the intense, all-pervading anxiety of those on the spectrum is helped immeasurably by this kind of medication. Having completed six months of rehab in the main house, I spent another ten months in supported housing nearby.

INDEX Abrams, K. 31, 32 abstinence 92–3 strategies for abstinence 119 activities 40–1 acupuncture 89, 90 Addaction 19 adolescence 27, 28, 39–40 and alcohol 42–4 friends 41 agencies 89, 90 aggression 39 alcohol 7–8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 123 adolescence 42–4 cognitive processing 30–1 environmental sensitivity 26 reasons for use 17–18 relationships 51–6, 111–12 social anxiety disorder 31–2, 33, 34, 87, 92 socializing 59–62 work 66–74 Alcohol Concern 66, 67, 90, 92 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) 89–90, 94, 97 alcoholism 15–17, 27, 32–4, 123, 124 abstinence 92–3 abstinence strategies 119 alternative treatments 90 day services 90 definition 18–20 detoxification 89 health effects 76–8, 85, 92 local services 89 professions 67 rehabilitation centres 90–2 self-help groups 89–90 symptoms 75–6 treatment 86–8 alternative treatments 90 American Psychiatric Association 28 anger 56, 82, 100, 106, 111, 115 anti-anxiety medication 93 anti-depressants 8, 80, 93, 106 anxiety 7, 8, 10, 21, 22, 26, 33, 59, 66, 77, 92 Asperger Syndrome (AS) 27–9, 46, 87, 88, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 120, 123 Asperger Syndrome (AS) 9, 10, 11, 12, 13–14, 60, 82, 97–8, 124 abstract thought 86 alcoholism 15–17, 32–4, 87 anxiety 27–9, 46, 87, 88, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 120, 123 applying for work 64 characteristics 20–4 cognitive processing 30 communication 23, 24–5 depression 46, 56, 87, 88 diagnosis 98–100, 107 embracing the autistic self 110–1 environmental sensitivity 26 friendships 45–6, 115 inflexibility 23, 25–6 interviews 64–5 language 23, 24–5, 91 narrow interests 37 partners 48–51 relationships 45–6, 47–8, 111–15 secondary alcoholism 19–20 social interaction 23, 24, 115 support 119–21 work 63, 117 workplace 65–6 Asperger, Hans 21, 97, 98 Aspire 63 140 INDEX / 141 Aston, M. 47, 101, 113 Attwood, T. 27, 35, 46, 49, 114 Atypical Asperger Syndrome 9 Atypical Autism 9 Autistic Spectrum Condition (ASC) 8, 9, 10, 11, 20–4, 27, 97–8, 101, 102, 103, 105, 110, 119, 123 Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD) 29 Balding, J. 42 Barnard, J. 63 Berney, T. 15, 27, 33 beta-blockers 106 blood pressure 77 brain damage 77 bullying 35–6, 45, 47, 66 cancer 76, 77 Carrigan, M.H. 32 Chadwick, A. 46 children 35–7 activities and friends 40–1, 46 interests 37–9 chlordiazepoxide 89 cirrhosis 77, 106 Classic Autism 12, 20, 97–8 clinics 89 clumsiness 13 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) 8, 88, 90, 94, 107 in rehabilitation 91 cognitive processing 30–1 common sense 13, 82, 101 communication 23, 24–5 Community Alcohol Teams 81, 94 Conger, J.J. 32 counselling 81–2, 89, 93 criminality 89 day services 90 Department of Health 42 depression 21, 22, 26, 27, 33, 39, 46, 56, 115 and alcohol 66, 92 clinical depression 73, 78, 82 detox 79 diabetes 77 diagnosis 98–100 benefits 99–100 Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) 28, 31 disabilities 63 drug abuse 8, 12, 14, 21, 84 eating disorders 27 emotions 18 empathy 47, 49 employment see work environmental sensitivity 26 epilepsy 77 exclusion 45, 47 exercise 7, 8 exhaustion 35, 115 fear 10 fluoxetine 8, 78–9, 106 Foisy, M. 30 Freud, Sigmund 91 friends 40–1, 45–6, 115 Ghaziuddin, M. 28 Goodwin, D.W. 19 GPs 98, 99, 101 Grandin, T. 22, 49, 106 Haddon, Mark The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time 13, 82 hangovers 76 Hay, D. 46 health 76–8, 85, 92, 93 Henault, I. 47 Hendrickx, S. 8, 47, 48, 49, 56, 113, 114 hepatitis 77 High Functioning Autism 12, 22 hopelessness 22, 115 hospital admissions 89, 92 housing 93 hypnosis 90 illegality 12, 17, 18 immipramine 8 inflexibility 23, 25–6 inhibition 17 142 / ASPERGER SYNDROME AND ALCOHOL Institute of Alcohol Studies 86 internet dating 47 isolation 22, 28 Kanner’s Autism 12, 98 Kanner, Leo 98 kidney problems 81 Knight, R.G. 33 language 23, 24–5, 91 learning disabilities 12, 20, 63, 98 liver cancer 76 liver damage 77, 81, 82, 86 loneliness 22 marijuana 12 medication 8, 12, 88, 89, 93, 106 memory 13, 82, 101, 103 Mental Health Foundation 31, 32, 33, 42, 59, 60, 92 mental health services 21, 81 National Autistic Society 63 Newton, K. 47, 113, 114 Northamptonshire Society for Autism 101, 103 nutrition 90 obesity 77 obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 27 Oei, T.P.S. 33 Office for National Statistics 92 Ostrander, G. 33 panic attacks 7, 8, 10, 27, 77 partners 48–51 Payne, A. 46 Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) 9, 12, 20, 102 Philipott, P. 30 Prozac see fluoxetine psychiatric treatment 79 psychoanalysis 7 psychotherapy 91–2 Randall, C.L. 32 reactive alcoholism 20 recovery 108–10, 122 strategies for abstinence 119 rehabilitation 13, 81, 84, 90, 102, 107 Alternatives to Drink/Drugs 95 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) 91 psychotherapy 91–2 support 105–6 Twelve Step programmes 90–1 relationships 45, 47–8, 111–15 and alcohol 51–6 relaxation 90, 93 religion 94 routine 11, 13, 47, 82, 94, 100 Royce, J.E. 19 Schneier, F.R, 27, 31, 32 Scratchley, D. 19 secondary alcoholism 19–20 self-diagnosis 99, 100 self-esteem 28, 29, 48, 87 self-knowledge 98, 110–11 self-medication 8, 21, 59, 87 Semantic Pragmatic Disorder 12 sexual problems 77 sexuality 11 Slater-Walker, C. 113 Slater-Walker, G. 113 social anxiety disorder (social phobia) 21, 27, 28–9 and alcohol 31–2, 33, 34, 87, 92 social avoidance 27 social interaction 23, 24, 115 social phobia see social anxiety socializing 17, 18, 21–2, 59–62, 115–16 and alcohol 59–62 solitude 56–9 space 56–9 SSRIs 106 Stanford, A. 47, 113 stress 10, 25, 26, 35, 67, 90, 102, 105, 115 stress management 93 structure 60–1, 95 substance misuse services 21, 89 INDEX / 143 suicide 92 support 105–6, 119–21 Tantam, D. 15, 33 The Information Centre 19 therapy 104, 106 Thomas, S.E. 32 Tinsley, Matt 7, 8, 9–11, 21, 34, 123–4 adolescence 39–40, 41, 42–3, 46 alcoholism 78–84, 86, 119 diagnosis 1002 girlfriend’s story 137–9 interests 37–9 marriage 47, 526 mother’s story 128–31 partners 49–51, 57–9 recovery 108–10 rehabilitation 93–7, 100, 103–4, 1056 sister’s story 131–7 work 61, 67–74, 117–18 Toframil see immipramine tranquillizers 10, 14 travel 105 Twelve Step programmes 89, 90–1, 94 Uekermann, J. 30, 31 van der Gaag, R.J. 33 van Wijngarden-Cremers, P.J.M. 33 Wired for Health 42 withdrawal symptoms 76, 80, 81, 89 work 8, 63, 117 and alcohol 66–74 applying for work 64 interviews 64–5 workplace 65–6 Young, R.M. 33 Youth Justice Board 42


pages: 436 words: 123,488

Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine by John Abramson

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germ theory of disease, Louis Pasteur, medical malpractice, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, p-value, placebo effect, profit maximization, profit motive, publication bias, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

“Sufferers” feel anxious about meeting new people, talking to their bosses, speaking before large crowds, or drawing attention to themselves. (Most of us can think of times when we have experienced these unpleasant feelings.) Pfizer’s website for Zoloft promises that these symptoms can be treated with drug therapy. According to the Pfizer website, depression is an even more common disorder, affecting 20 million Americans each year. Published studies show that treatment with the new SSRI (selective seratonin reuptake inhibitor) antidepressants provides significant benefit to people suffering from both of these conditions. An exquisitely designed study (sponsored—to give credit where credit is due—by Pfizer, the manufacturer of Zoloft) randomized people suffering from social anxiety disorder into four groups: two of the groups were treated with Zoloft for 24 weeks and two with a placebo.

For the three groups—new and old antidepressants and placebo—the differences in suicide rates were not statistically significant. 117 depressed adolescents were significantly more likely: M. D. Keller, N. D. Ryan, M. Strober, et al., “Efficacy of Paroxetine in the Treatment of Adolescent Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract),” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40:762–772, 2001. 117 British drug authorities reviewed all nine studies: “SSRIs: Suicide Risk and Withdrawal (Editorial),” The Lancet 361:1999, 2003. 117 antidepressants (almost exclusively the newer ones): “Prescription Drug Expenditures in 2000,” op. cit. See also “Prescription Drug Expenditures in 2001: Another Year of Escalating Costs,” a report by the National Institute for Health Care Management Research and Educational Foundation, May 6, 2002, p. 11. Viewed at http://nihcm.org/spending2001.pdf.

.: Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 117. 242 “well-ordered science”: Defined as “what inquiry is to aim at if it is to serve the collective good.” Philip Kitcher, Science, Truth, and Democracy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, p. xii. 242 “In a science-driven organization: Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Jeff Girth, “Drug Makers Design Studies with Eye to Competitive Edge,” New York Times, December 23, 2000. 242 the more important the consequences: Kitcher, op. cit., p. 96. 243 nine clinical studies: “SSRIs: Suicide Risk and Withdrawal (Editorial),” The Lancet 361:1999, 2003. See also Gardiner Harris, “Debate Resumes on the Safety of Depression’s Wonder Drugs,” New York Times, August 7, 2003. 243 task force of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology: Gardiner Harris, “Panel Says Zoloft and Cousins Don’t Increase Suicide Risk,” New York Times. January 22, 2004. 243 FDA epidemiologist: Gardiner Harris, “Expert Kept from Speaking at Antidepressant Hearing,” New York Times, April 16, 2004. 243 study of an expensive drug: B.


pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power

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air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

Remaining stock was then smuggled to the UK, where a seizure of 25,000 pills, each containing 100 mg of the compound, was found in 1998. Many more got through, with fatal consequences. Nichols explained on Erowid why he had originally made the compound: We had been looking for drugs that cause the release of neuronal serotonin, with the expectation that they might have therapeutic value similar to the SSRIs [anti-depressants similar to Prozac]. I am sad to see it being used on the streets. I can’t imagine what pleasure it might produce in users, because our tests with similar compounds in rats showed the substances to have aversive or unpleasant effects.3 A user of the drug confirmed that in an Erowid report: I was screaming inside my head but couldn’t talk properly. I ran desperately around to try and get the experience to end, my mind was ruined.

., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Niemoller, Mark, 1 nitrous oxide, 1 Nixon, Richard, 1, 2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), 1 nootropics, 1 norephrenine, 1 norketamine, 1, 2 Norris, Charles, 1 NRG-1 and NRG-2, 1 nuclear magnetic resonance, 1, 2, 3 nutmeg, 1 Nutt, David, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2, 3, 4 Operation Adam Bomb, 1 Operation Ismene, 1, 2, 3 Operation Kitley, 1 Operation Pipe Dream, 1 Operation Web Tryp, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 opium, 1 O’Reilly, Tim, 1 organized crime, 1, 2, 3 Orthopedics, 1 Osmond, Humphrey Fortescue, 1, 2, 3 Otwell, Clayton, 1 Oxycodone, 1 packet-switching, 1, 2 Panorama, 1 paracetamol, 1 Parkinson’s, 1 Parry, Simon, 1 party pills, 1 PayPal, 1, 2, 3, 4 Payza, 1 Pecunix, 1 pentylone, 1, 2 pesticides/herbicides, 1, 2 peyote, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 pharmacokinetics, 1 phenazepam, 1 phenethylamines, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Pillreports.com, 1 Pink Floyd, 1 piperazines, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 piperidines, 1 piperonal, 1 piracetam, 1 Platt, Lord, 1 PMA, 1, 2 PMK, 1 Poland, 1, 2 Poppo, Ronald, 1 Portugal, 1 potassium permanganate, 1 Preisler, Steve (Uncle Fester), 1, 2 Price, Gabrielle, 1 Princess Bride, The, 1 Project MKultra, 1 Prozac, 1, 2 psilocin, 1, 2 Psilocybe cubensis, 1 Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty caps), 1 psilocybin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 see also magic mushrooms psychiatric patients, treated with LSD, 1 Punch, 1 punks, 1 Pursat, 1 QR codes, 1 Quick Kill, 1 Rachmaninov, Sergei, 1, 2 Ramsey, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Reding, Viviane, 1 Register, The, 1 Reid, Brian, 1 Reid, Fergal, 1 Research Chemical Mailing List (RCML), 1 research chemicals, 1 arrival of legal highs, 1 custom syntheses, 1, 2 growth in availability, 1 and law enforcement, 1 new compounds statistics, 1 online sales, 1 overdoses and mislabelling, 1, 2, 3 and retail market, 1 and substance displacement, 1 users, 1 Reynolds, Simon, 1 ring substitution, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Ritalin, 1 Robbins, Joshua, 1 Robinson-Davis, Trevor, 1 Rolling Stone, 1 Russia, 1 Ryan, Mark, 1 Sabag, Doron, 1 Sabet, Kevin, 1 safrole, 1, 2, 3, 4 salmonella, 1 Saltoun, Lord, 1 Salvia divinorum, 1, 2 Sandison, Ronald, 1 sannyasin, 1 Santos, Juan Manuel, 1 sapo, 1 sarin, 1 Saunders, Nicholas, 1, 2 Saunders, Rene, 1 Schumer, Senator Charles, 1 sclerotia (truffles), 1 scopolamine, 1 Scroggins, Justin Steven, 1 Second World War, 1 Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), 1, 2, 3 serotonin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 serotonin syndrome, 1, 2 Shafer, Jack, 1 Shamen, the, 1 Shanghai, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Shen-Nung, Emperor, 1 Shepton Mallet, 1, 2 Shulgin, Alexander creation of MDMA, 1, 2, 3, 4 creation of methylone, 1 and drug legislation, 1 internet presence, 1 PIHKAL and TIHKAL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and sex, 1, 2 The Shulgin Index, 1 Shulgin, Ann, 1 Shultes, Richard Evans, 1 Silk Road, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 SKUNK!, 1 Skype, 1 Slocombe, Mike, 1 smartphones, 1 smartshops, 1, 2 Smith, Nicholas, 1 Smith, Sullivan, 1 Snowballs, 1, 2 Somalia, 1 SOS, 1, 2 Spath, Ernst, 1 speed, see amphetamines Spice, 1, 2, 3 spinal fluid, 1 Spirit Cave, 1 SSRIs, 1 Stanley, Owsley, 1 Starck, Phillipe, 1 Stewart, Maryon, 1 Steiner, Peter, 1 Stolaroff, Mylon, 1 Stonham, Lord, 1 street drugs, testing of, 1 SubCoca, 1, 2, 3 Sullivan, Brian, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3 drug laws, 1 Switzerland, 1 Symes, Trevor, 1 Synthetic Drug Control Act, 1 Syverson, Paul, 1 Taiwan, 1, 2, 3 Talk to Frank helpline, 1 Tandy, Karen P., 1 Tapsell, Paul, 1 Taylor, Polly, 1 Temple of the True Inner Light, 1 Temporary Class Drug Orders (TCDOs), 1, 2 Tettey, Justice, 1 Texas group, 1 TFM (The Farmer’s Market), 1 THC, 1, 2 TICTAC Communications, 1 tiletamine, 1 Time magazine, 1, 2 Timms, Dave, 1 tobacco, 1, 2 Tor network, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Transform, 1 truth serums, 1 tryptamines, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Twitter, 1, 2 UK Border Agency, 1. 2 UK Drug Policy Commission, 1 UK laws Dangerous Drugs Act (1920), 1 Defence of the Realm Act (DORA), 1 Medicines Act (1968), 1, 2 Misuse of Drugs Act (1971), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Pharmacy Act (1868), 1 Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act (2011), 1 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA), 1 Serious Crime Act (2007), 1 UKLegals, 1 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 1 United Nations treaties, 1, 2 United States of America drug testing, 1 illegal drug use, 1 incarceration rate, 1 internet speeds, 1 Prohibition era, 1 research chemicals manufacture, 1 US Department of Defense, 1 US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 US drug legislation, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 flaws in analogue laws, 1 and marijuana replacements, 1 see also American Analog Act US National Drug Control Strategy, 1 US Navy, 1, 2 Urban1, 2 urea, 1 Usenet, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 V Festival, 1 Valium, 1, 2, 3 Van den Berg, Paul, 1 van Dijk, Peter, 1 VICE, 1 Vietnam War, 1 Voice of America, 1 Voodoo Fest, 1 Wain, David John, 1 Wainwright, Louis, 1 Wainwright, Rob, 1 Wasson, R.


pages: 192 words: 72,822

Freedom Without Borders by Hoyt L. Barber

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, diversification, El Camino Real, estate planning, fiat currency, financial independence, fixed income, high net worth, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, money market fund, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive income, quantitative easing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), too big to fail

With a little imagination, there are clever ways to conceal them—and, at the same time, be sure to keep a low-key profile. Silver and Other Precious Metals Mining Stocks Here are some silver mining companies worth looking at: Apex (SIL-AMEX) Coeur D’Alene Mines (CDE-NYSE) ECU Silver (ECU.V-CDNX) Endeavour Silver (EDR.V-CDRNX) Gammon Lake (GRS-AMEX) Hecla (HL-NYSE) IMA Exploration (IMR-AMEX) Pan American Silver (PAAS-NASDAQNM) Silvercorp Metals (SVM.TO) Silver Standard (SSRI-NASDAQNM) Silver Wheaton (SLW.TO) Sterling (SLG.V-CNDX) Western Silver (WTZ) In Gold and Silver Bema (BGO-AMEX) Golden Star (GSS-AMEX) Miramar (MNG-AMEX) In Copper, Gold, Silver, and Zinc NovaGold (NG-AMEX) In Silver and Copper Phelps Dodge (PD) In Gold and Copper Northern Dynasty (NAK-AMEX) In Uranium Camico (CCO-TO) Cameco Corp. (CCJ-NYSE) 74 Freedom Without Borders Cogema, a division of Areva (ARVCF.PK-OTC) Denison Mines (DEN-TO) Energy Resources of Australia (EGRAF.PK-OTC) Western Mining Corp.


pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

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algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

The child armed with the remote control is no longer watching a television program, but watching television—moving away from anxiety states and into more pleasurable ones. Take note of yourself as you operate a remote control. You don’t click the channel button because you are bored, but because you are mad: Someone you don’t trust is attempting to make you anxious. You understand that it is an advertiser trying to make you feel bad about your hair (or lack of it), your relationship, or your current SSRI medication, and you click away in anger. Or you simply refuse to be dragged still further into a comedy or drama when the protagonist makes just too many poor decisions. Your tolerance for his complications goes down as your ability to escape becomes increasingly easy. And so today’s television viewer moves from show to show, capturing important moments on the fly. Surf away from the science fiction show’s long commercial break to catch the end of the basketball game’s second quarter, make it over to the first important murder on the cop show, and then back to the science fiction show before the aliens show up.


pages: 330 words: 88,445

The Rise of Superman: Decoding the Science of Ultimate Human Performance by Steven Kotler

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Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Clayton Christensen, data acquisition, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Google Earth, haute couture, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Maui Hawaii, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, risk tolerance, rolodex, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Walter Mischel, X Prize

Known to show up in exercise-induced flow states (and suspected in other kinds), this chemical elevates mood, relieves pain, dilates blood vessels and bronchial tubes (aiding respiration), and amplifies lateral thinking (our ability to link disparate ideas together). More critically, anandamide also inhibits our ability to feel fear, even, possibly, according to research done at Duke, facilitates the extinction of long-term fear memories. Lastly, at the tail end of a flow state, it also appears (more research needs to be done) that the brain releases serotonin, the neurochemical now associated with SSRIs like Prozac. “It’s a molecule involved in helping people cope with adversity,” Oxford University’s Philip Cowen told the New York Times, “to not lose it, to keep going and try to sort everything out.” In flow, serotonin is partly responsible for the afterglow effect, and thus the cause of some confusion. “A lot of people associate serotonin directly with flow,” says high performance psychologist Michael Gervais, “but that’s backward.


pages: 435 words: 95,864

Childhood Disrupted: How Your Biography Becomes Your Biology, and How You Can Heal by Donna Jackson Nakazawa

epigenetics, fear of failure, impulse control, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

When you breathe deeply and bring oxygen into your lungs, that oxygen travels throughout the body, into the cells, where it supports all life-giving biological pathways. As you breathe in and out with long, slow breaths through mindful breathing, you also strengthen and recharge the activity of your underactive parasympathetic nervous system. Although physicians can prescribe many medications that can dampen the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, including valium and SSRIs, there is no medication that can help to boost the parasympathetic nervous system. Your breath is the best calming treatment known. To establish a daily meditation practice, it’s important to start with an attitude of unconditional friendliness toward yourself, and give permission for the meditation experience to be whatever it is, says Tara Brach, PhD, meditation teacher and psychologist. Set a regular time and space for your daily sitting.


pages: 431 words: 129,071

Selfie: How We Became So Self-Obsessed and What It's Doing to Us by Will Storr

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, bitcoin, book scanning, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, gig economy, greed is good, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Lyft, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Mother of all demos, Nixon shock, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Chris Fraley, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (September 2015), 109(3), pp. 490–507. Just as this book was going to press, a new study (‘A Systematic Review of Personality Trait Change Through Intervention’, Brent Roberts et al., Psychological Bulletin, 5 January 2017) was published that found therapeutic interventions could have relatively large effects on neuroticism and much more moderate effects on other traits. Included in those therapeutic interventions were SSRIs and other drugs. Part of the effect seemed to be patients recovering from the crisis that sent them to seek help in the first place. One of the authors, Professor Brent Roberts, explained, ‘We’re not saying personality dramatically reorganizes itself. You’re not taking an introvert and making them into an extravert. But this [study] reveals that personality does develop and it can be developed.’ (Thanks to Dr Stuart Ritchie for his emergency assistance with this!)