cleantech

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pages: 185 words: 43,609

Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future by Peter Thiel, Blake Masters

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Andy Kessler, Berlin Wall, cleantech, cloud computing, crony capitalism, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, life extension, lone genius, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Ted Kaczynski, Tesla Model S, uber lyft, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor

People got busy: entrepreneurs started thousands of cleantech companies, and investors poured more than $50 billion into them. So began the quest to cleanse the world. It didn’t work. Instead of a healthier planet, we got a massive cleantech bubble. Solyndra is the most famous green ghost, but most cleantech companies met similarly disastrous ends—more than 40 solar manufacturers went out of business or filed for bankruptcy in 2012 alone. The leading index of alternative energy companies shows the bubble’s dramatic deflation: Why did cleantech fail? Conservatives think they already know the answer: as soon as green energy became a priority for the government, it was poisoned. But there really were (and there still are) good reasons for making energy a priority. And the truth about cleantech is more complex and more important than government failure.

If you nail all seven, you’ll master fortune and succeed. Even getting five or six correct might work. But the striking thing about the cleantech bubble was that people were starting companies with zero good answers—and that meant hoping for a miracle. It’s hard to know exactly why any particular cleantech company failed, since almost all of them made several serious mistakes. But since any one of those mistakes is enough to doom your company, it’s worth reviewing cleantech’s losing scorecard in more detail. THE ENGINEERING QUESTION A great technology company should have proprietary technology an order of magnitude better than its nearest substitute. But cleantech companies rarely produced 2x, let alone 10x, improvements. Sometimes their offerings were actually worse than the products they sought to replace.

By 2013, shale gas accounted for 34% of America’s natural gas, and gas prices had fallen more than 70% since 2008, devastating most renewable energy business models. Fracking may not be a durable energy solution, either, but it was enough to doom cleantech companies that didn’t see it coming. THE SECRET QUESTION Every cleantech company justified itself with conventional truths about the need for a cleaner world. They deluded themselves into believing that an overwhelming social need for alternative energy solutions implied an overwhelming business opportunity for cleantech companies of all kinds. Consider how conventional it had become by 2006 to be bullish on solar. That year, President George W. Bush heralded a future of “solar roofs that will enable the American family to be able to generate their own electricity.” Investor and cleantech executive Bill Gross declared that the “potential for solar is enormous.” Suvi Sharma, then-CEO of solar manufacturer Solaria, admitted that while “there is a gold rush feeling” to solar, “there’s also real gold here—or, in our case, sunshine.”


pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, endogenous growth, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, G4S, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, Philip Mirowski, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 1 April. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/methane/ (accessed 8 October 2012). EPIA (European Photovoltaic Industry Association). 2012. Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2016. Brussels: European Photovoltaic Industry Association, May. Ernst & Young. 2011. ‘Cleantech Matters: Seizing Transformational Opportunities’. Global Cleantech and Trends Report 2011. Ey.com. Available online at http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Cleantech-matters_FW0009/$FILE/Cleantech-matters_FW0009.pdf (accessed 29 January 2013). Evans, P. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Evans, P. and J. Rauch. 1999. ‘Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of “Weberian” State Structures on Economic Growth’.

Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR)’. Small Business Economics 20: 129–35. Auerswald, P. E. and L. M. Branscomb. 2003. ‘Valleys of Death and Darwinian Seas: Financing the Invention of Innovation Transition in the United States’. Journal of Technology Transfer 28, nos. 3–4: 227–39. Baker, D. R. 2010. ‘Funding for Clean-Tech Firms Plunges 33% in ’09’. SfGate.com. Available online at http://articles.sfgate.com/2010-01-07/business/17470394_1_venture-funding-cleantech-group-venture-capitalists (accessed 6 June 2011). Bakewell, S. 2011. ‘Chinese Renewable Companies Slow to Tap $47 Billion Credit’. Bloomberg Business Week, 16 November. Available online at http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-11-16/chinese-renewable-companies-slow-to-tap-47-billion-credit.html (accessed 26 January 2012).

. _____. 2002. Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Washington, DC: Beard Books. Kocieniewski, D. 2011. ‘G.E.’s Strategies Let It Avoid Taxes Altogether’. New York Times, 24 March. Available online at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/business/economy/25tax.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=g.e.&st=cse (accessed 25 July 2012). Korosec, K. 2011. ‘Cleantech Saviour: US Military to Spend $10B Annually by 2030’. Smartplanet.com, 13 October. Available online at http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/intelligent-energy/cleantech-savior-us-military-tospend-10b-annually-by-2030/9593 (accessed 28 January 2013). Kraemer, K. L., G. Linden and J. Dedrick. 2011. Capturing Value in Global Networks: Apple’s iPad and iPhone’. Personal Computer Industry Center, University of California–Irvine. Available online at http://pcic.merage.uci.edu/papers/2007/CapturingValue.pdf (accessed 19 June 2012).


pages: 403 words: 87,035

The New Geography of Jobs by Enrico Moretti

assortative mating, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business climate, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate raider, creative destruction, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, global village, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Wall-E, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

As we will soon discover, there are solid economic (and environmental) reasons for the government to subsidize basic research and applied R&D of green technologies, since this research generates large spillovers. But in light of the experience of Germany and Spain, there seems to be little justification for subsidizing the actual physical production of solar panels. Where does all this leave Fremont? The city is still courting clean-tech employers and has exempted clean-tech companies from payroll taxes. Although the closing of Solyndra was a major setback, local growth is still driven by R&D-intensive clean-tech companies, along with new biotech and high-tech firms that have also cropped up in recent years. There are now twenty-five clean-tech firms in Fremont, up from six in 2006. While some of them depend at least in part on federal subsidies, others are operating purely on private venture capital. It is still too early to tell whether Fremont’s strategy will turn out to be sustainable in the long run.

When NUMMI finally closed its factory and five thousand jobs disappeared, most residents braced for the worst. But unlike Detroit, Fremont has been able to attract a number of clean-tech companies, some of which have opened in old manufacturing plants. In fact, the old NUMMI factory is now occupied by Tesla Motors, best known for its Roadster, the first serially produced highway-capable electric car available in the United States. For a while the future did not look grim. “You can’t throw a Frisbee in Fremont without hitting another solar company,” Dan Shugar, the chief executive of the solar power company Solaria, told the press in 2010. At the time, Lori Taylor, Fremont’s economic development director, was optimistic that clean-tech companies would eventually become the city’s new growth engine. But in 2011 the city experienced a serious setback when one of its largest employers, a solar panel company called Solyndra, filed for bankruptcy.

Advantage 3: The (Almost) Magical Economics of Knowledge Spillover ECOtality is a company at the forefront of clean transportation and power storage technology, which in 2010 moved its headquarters from Arizona to the Bay Area. It is not the only one. The German company Q-Cells, the Chinese companies Trina Solar, Suntech, and Yingli Green Energy, and the Spanish company FRV have all recently opened shop in the Bay Area. Clean-tech companies are increasingly locating their headquarters and/or their R&D labs in the region. In a recent interview with the CEO of ECOtality, NPR reported that the reason for his move was “to be close to the action.” On some level, this makes intuitive sense. After all, who wants to be away from the action? But on a deeper level, it raises the question of what “being close to the action” really means.


pages: 269 words: 77,876

Brilliant, Crazy, Cocky: How the Top 1% of Entrepreneurs Profit From Global Chaos by Sarah Lacy

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, BRICs, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, income per capita, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, megacity, Network effects, paypal mafia, QWERTY keyboard, risk tolerance, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

Many people hoped that cleantech could be the new computer, and indeed Barack Obama talked this up in his 2008 Presidential debates as a way to fix the economy. There were plenty of opportunities to change the way we use and generate electricity, and done correctly it could be a huge market. But cleantech represented two things venture capitalists hate: investing in so-cal ed science fair projects where hundreds of mil ions could be spent before you’d even know if you had a product, and having to be dependent on the government. There was inevitably going to be a few decades where the costs of remaking our electrical lives would be prohibitive for most consumers, and hence would have to be subsidized by something like tax incentives. A lot of VCs talked a good game about cleantech, but most of the investments were lower-capital plays that only nibbled at the core problems, like a software system for better routing electricity around large retail chains.

He can even get big-name stars to be in his films, because they can do the voices back in studios in Los Angeles. And, of course, cutting-edge animation needs cutting-edge technology. In one swoop, Margalit is trying to create a new industry and give the old one a new reason to exist. How’s that for profitable patriotism? Other Israelis, like Agassi, are turning to cleantech as the new hope. After al, it plays to Israel’s uniquely endemic strengths. The country is replete with the main ingredients for solar power—sun, sand, and a knack for solving difficult technical problems. Israel has another edge when it comes to cleantech: It’s difficult to find a place much more determined to reduce its dependence on Arab oil. There’s something poetic about Israel creating the next wave of innovation that could erode its enemies’ revenues. As these examples show, audacious ideas aren’t dead in Israel; they’re just out of fashion.

“They were wil ing to bank on intuition and trust, combining patience with an understanding that it might take five to seven years for them to see a return,” writes ex-Val ey entrepreneur Judy Estrin.1 This went hand-in-hand with government spending on long-term, high-risk research—the kind of research that helped create the Internet. The government funded the development of the Internet for a stunning 24 years. If the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) network and government research was as robust now as it was in earlier decades, the United States would be a leader in cleantech, and private and public market returns would have fol owed.2 This is a direct trickle down from Wal Street and the result of large pension funds, fund-of-funds, and endowments becoming the backers of VCs, not wealthy individuals and believers in the long-term benefits of true innovation. Wal Street lives its life quarter to quarter, and the ability to closely track stocks and funds online, on CNBC, and even on your smart phone encourages this.


pages: 197 words: 60,477

So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love by Cal Newport

Apple II, bounce rate, business cycle, Byte Shop, Cal Newport, capital controls, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, deliberate practice, financial independence, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, job-hopping, knowledge worker, Mason jar, medical residency, new economy, passive income, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, renewable energy credits, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Bolles, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, winner-take-all economy

What this story lacks in pizazz, it makes up in repeatability: There’s nothing mysterious about how Alex Berger broke into Hollywood—he simply understood the value, and difficulty, of becoming good. The Most Desirable Job in Silicon Valley Mike Jackson is a director at the Westly Group, a cleantech venture capital firm on Silicon Valley’s famous Sand Hill Road. To say that Mike has a desirable job is an understatement. “I have a friend who recently had dinner with the dean in charge of a top-tier business school,” he told me. “And at this dinner, the dean said that everyone in their graduating class right now wants to be a cleantech VC.” Mike has experienced this firsthand: He receives dozens of e-mails from business school students asking him about his path. He used to try to answer them, but now, due to time constraints, he mostly ignores them. “Everyone wants my job,” he explained.

Now that I’ve made my pitch for the craftsman mindset, and moderated it with the exceptions listed above, it’s time to see it in action. Chapter Six The Career Capitalists In which I demonstrate the power of career capital in action with two profiles of people who leveraged the craftsman mindset to construct careers they love. Two Career Capitalists Alex Berger is thirty-one: He’s a successful television writer and he loves his work. Mike Jackson is twenty-nine: He’s a cleantech venture capitalist and he also loves his work. This chapter is dedicated to telling their stories, as they both highlight the somewhat messy reality of using the craftsman mindset to generate fantastic livelihoods. Alex and Mike both focused on getting good—not finding their passion—and then used the career capital this generated to acquire the traits that made their careers compelling. The Closed-Off World of Television Kabillionaires Let’s assume for the moment that you want to be hired as a television writer on a network series.

What interests me about Mike is that, like Alex Berger, he didn’t arrive at his outstanding job by following a clear passion. Instead he carefully and persistently gathered career capital, confident that valuable skills would translate into valuable opportunities. Unlike Alex, however, Mike started gathering capital before he knew what he wanted to do with it. In fact, he had never given a moment’s thought to cleantech venture capital until a couple weeks before his first interview. How Mike Jackson Became a Venture Capitalist Mike majored in biology and earth systems at Stanford. After earning his bachelor’s degree, Mike elected to stay for a fifth year to earn a master’s. The professor who supervised his master’s was trying to decide whether or not to launch a major research project studying the natural-gas sector in India, so he arranged Mike’s thesis to act as an exploration of the project’s viability.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

Department of Transport, “Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future,” July 2009 (www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/ sustainable/carbonreduction/). 40. Glaeser, The Triumph of the City, p. 222. 41. See Mark Muro, Jonathan Rothwell, and Devashree Saha, “Sizing the Clean Economy: A National and Regional Green Jobs Assessment” (Brookings, 2011), p. 11. See also “Global Cleantech 100,” The Guardian, 2010 (www.guardian.co.uk/ globalcleantech100/cleantech-100-2010-list?CMP=twt_gu); Jonathan Rothwell and Mark Muro, “Where the Cleantech Companies Are,” New Republic: The Avenue, February 23, 2011; Jonathan Rothwell and Mark Muro, “Top of the Class: The Role of Leading Academic Programs in Cleantech Innovation,’’ New Republic: The Avenue, February 24, 2011. 42. Ibid. 43. Applied Sciences NYC, “Investing in Innovation for a Stronger Economy,” September 13, 2011 (http://nycedc.tumblr.com/post/10165992406/check-out-ourinfographic-that-illustrates-how).

The largest 100 metros 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 30 5/20/13 6:48 PM NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY 31 in the United States are home to 78 percent of the jobs in solar energy, 80 percent in wind energy, and 83 percent of the jobs in energy research, engineering, and consulting services. They are also the site of fifty-four of the fifty-eight top-ranked high-impact U.S. clean technology firms on the 2010 Global Cleantech 100 list.41 Three-quarters of clean economy jobs created from 2003 to 2010 are located in large metros. Moreover, the clean economy is innovation intensive and thus plays to metropolitan area strengths.42 The city and the NYCEDC believe that the Applied Sciences initiative is already paying off. According to Seth Pinsky, “If you look at the talented individuals and companies moving to the city, the evolving start-up ecosystem, and the number of construction jobs being created—it’s already been a huge success.

In its first round in 2010, with 111 companies participating, the effort raised more than $90 million dollars and created 500 jobs.45 With the help of city leadership and through private funding, a $5.5 million, 12,000 square-foot Innovation Center has been built to provide incubator space outfitted with the latest technology, where new firms can exchange ideas and grow.46 The district has become a hub for innovation on sustainability. The Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy, a U.S. subsidiary of the German research institution, and GreenTown Labs both have a presence in the district and are dedicating a portion of their facilities to incubate clean-tech companies. Second, the city has encouraged a range of flexible housing options that would appeal to a unique class of workers, thinkers, and others that 06-2151-2 ch6.indd 124 5/20/13 6:53 PM THE RISE OF INNOVATION DISTRICTS 125 are drawn to the area. The Boston Redevelopment Authority, for example, is testing market acceptance of micro apartment units that exist in housing developments with shared amenities and public spaces.


pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

They also provide the mechanism for folding higher-cost renewable energy into the overall power portfolio, although some foresee a reaction to rate shock on the part of consumers owing to the higher costs of renewables.22 CLEANTECH The rising prices for energy, beginning around 2003 and 2004, helped propel accelerated growth of, and support for, renewables in the United States. It also, at least for a time, narrowed the cost gap between renewable and conventional energy. Climate change became a much more explicit part of energy policy. As a result of all these factors, investment in renewables increased dramatically. As venture capital began investing in the sector, renewables gained yet another new name—“cleantech.” And providing confirmation that renewables were moving into the mainstream, investment banks established “clean energy” teams and began to distribute cleantech research.23 But as the Great Recession of 2008 broke, it hit renewables hard.

For around 2003 and 2004, the VC community discovered energy and cleantech. Rising energy prices was one reason. But there were others. “It was a combination of energy independence for the United States, the priority to address global warming, and the fact that we had technology that we just didn’t have in 1979,” is how Ray Lane, a partner at Kleiner Perkins, explained his firm’s move into the industry. The sheer scale of the opportunity was very compelling. In its analysis, Kleiner Perkins estimated that the total annual information technology market was $1 trillion a year, while that for energy was $6 trillion. The entry of venture capital into cleantech has gone from the trickle to the veritable flood. Investment in the U.S. cleantech industry went from $286 million in 2001 to $3.7 billion in 2010—a rise of more than ten times.

“NO AREA’S MORE RIPE” With the Obama administration, the push for renewable energy became the top energy priority. The administration responded to the financial crisis and ensuing recession with a massive economic stimulus program, a significant part of which was aimed at renewables and cleantech. Other countries rushed to support their own faltering economies through fiscal stimulus—or government spending—and that also included building up their renewable energy sectors. In the United States, the energy stimulus was sometimes described as the largest energy bill ever passed. Renewable energy became a significant theme of the recovery. The promise of green jobs and cleantech jobs was a major component in the promotion of the stimulus package. Even more than Jimmy Carter, Obama focused on transforming America’s energy system. “We need to encourage American innovation,” Obama told Congress in his 2010 State of the Union Address.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

In tackling both financial and energy crises simultaneously, the Obama administration is planning everything from a “green bank” to a clean energy development agency to provide more than $100 billion to fund clean-tech research and create jobs in solar cell installation (which takes more hands than running a power plant), to build commuter railways and smart grids, to expand the country’s natural gas infrastructure, and to reinsulate houses and buildings. The United States has at least 250,000 square miles of land in the Southwest alone that are suitable for solar plants. America’s high-tech and clean-tech communities are now coming together to design green infrastructures for the common man. Shai Agassi’s company Better Place has been designing an electric car infrastructure since well before Obama was elected, while local entrepreneurs and utilities are combining to make a thirty-foot-tall windmill with seven-foot blades the new must-have backyard accessory in as many as fifteen million homes.

No issue has greater potential for dot-gov, dot-com, and dot-org collaboration to tip the balance back in favor of sustainability. Getting on the right path isn’t about bashing Mideast despots but making the most efficient use of the resources we already have. The eclectic experiments under way from Brazil to India in alternative energy, water sharing, and emissions reductions hold the greatest promise for sustainable living, and the new partnerships emerging among clean-tech companies, mayors, and conservation groups are the real story of climate diplomacy today. Diplomats often aspire to save the world—this is your chance to actually do it. All Politics Are Ecological The following headlines are coming to a newspaper near you: “Indonesian Rain Forest Dwindles to Few Million Hectares,” “Nile River Flow Reduced to Silt Sludge,” and “OPEC Pushes Pedal, but Oil Gushers Gone.”

The World Bank’s Clean Development Mechanism, which approves projects after third-party vetting, has given $200 million to Indian companies to upgrade their power plants, while the International Finance Corporation has boosted funding for gas refinery projects that are compliant with its eco-friendly Equator Principles. Progress in climate negotiations actually depends on emerging markets confidently adopting the technologies that will allow them to even bother showing up at summits. Until then, climate conference should be put on ice, and all the money put into clean-tech transfer funds. Were it not for the scientific community housed at major universities, diplomats would be pushing their target dates back for centuries to come. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has global credibility most of all because it has among its members scientists and scholars, not diplomats defending national interests. And its strength lies in being able to recommend strategies and investments that can be made by nations and companies individually without the need for an overarching bureaucracy that wastes valuable funds.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, G4S, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Participants in the CU New Venture Challenge didn’t have to attend these discussions, but this provided a platform for those who needed help. The classes were high impact for many students as well as for entrepreneurs in the community who attended these lectures. In recent years, we further tailored the courses to the subject matter of the companies and have introduced separate tracks for information technology, cleantech, music, and social entrepreneurship. Finally, the CU New Venture Challenge created a community pipeline through a mentorship program. Each participating team is offered a mentor with relevant background in the team’s area. Mentors agree to take at least two meetings with their assigned team. This allows great relationships to go forward by choice, but gives unproductive relationships a stop date.

Several key local service providers, including KPMG, Trinet, Square 1 Bank, SVB, Cooley, and the Rocky Mountain Venture Capital Association, have helped us host and sponsor our events over the years. Initially we added about 10 companies a year. With our increased resources, we now plan to add 30 companies a year. We have expanded our program to include a 1 percent of profit model for non-VC backed companies; our geography to include Fort Collins, Denver, and Colorado Springs; and our industries to include bio, cleantech, and LOHAS. The power in the Entrepreneurs Foundation model is to connect startup efforts to the community right now, when it is easy. The result of this will be stronger communities, stronger businesses, stronger leaders, and more success at creating an entrepreneurial and empathetic society. That is the kind of place I want to live and work. —Ryan Martens, Rally Software, @RallyOn The activities and events listed here are by no means comprehensive.

In this chapter, we’ll explore some of these weaknesses along with what some of the leaders in the Boulder startup community are doing to address them over the next 20 years. PARALLEL UNIVERSES Although Boulder has an incredible entrepreneurial density, it actually has five startup communities. I’m involved in the tech community, which I often refer to as software/Internet for clarity. The other four are biotech, cleantech, natural foods, and lifestyles of health and sustainability (LOHAS). Let’s focus on the natural-foods startup community. Celestial Seasonings, started in the 1960s, is one of Boulder’s favorite natural foods companies, but did you know that two companies—Alfalfa’s and Wild Oats—which make up about a third of Whole Foods, were started in Boulder? Or Izze? Or White Wave? Or Horizon Dairy? The list is long, and it keeps going since there is a robust contemporary natural-foods startup community spawning new companies every year like Justin’s Nut Butter.


pages: 431 words: 107,868

The Great Race: The Global Quest for the Car of the Future by Levi Tillemann

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, car-free, carbon footprint, cleantech, creative destruction, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, factory automation, global value chain, hydrogen economy, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, market design, megacity, Nixon shock, obamacare, oil shock, Ralph Nader, RFID, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, zero-sum game, Zipcar

By cross-investing, Fisker and A123 were multiplying their technology risk—if one risky startup failed, both could fail. The Fisker investment was a harbinger of things to come. On August 5, 2009, A123 was awarded its grant from the DOE. The next month the stock made its initial public offering, raising almost $400 million, and by October the company’s market capitalization had climbed to $2.3 billion—trading at $25 per share.29 For a time, A123 looked like the ultimate clean-tech success story. But by the end of 2010, A123 stock had plunged more than 90 percent to about two dollars.30 And things were about to get worse. In early 2012 it announced the recall of $55 million worth of faulty battery packs sold in Fiskers and other vehicles.31 And by the summer of 2012, A123 was headed for bankruptcy. The company announced that it had executed an agreement under which a Chinese auto parts company called the Wanxiang Group would buy 80 percent of A123 for $450 million—a small fraction of its earlier valuation.32 In the end, the Wanxiang Group got an even better deal than that.

The Obama administration was lumping GM’s survival together with bin Laden’s demise within its pantheon of achievements. So it clearly meant to sustain its focus on America’s auto sector. On the other hand, if Romney won the presidency, there was little doubt that he would seek to withdraw government support for EV innovation and deployment. Romney embraced the Republican narrative of a bankrupt clean-tech sector. He even called Tesla a “loser”—lumping it together with the failed solar company Solyndra and a struggling, soon to be defunct, Fisker. The businessman candidate was rooting, very publicly, against one of America’s most innovative and promising companies. So for EV enthusiasts all over the world, Mitt Romney’s wistful late-night admission on November 6 that his wife, Ann, “would have been a wonderful first lady” came as an intense relief.

CNOOC’s notional solution to this question came from another one of its investments: Keyi Power. As CNOOC had surveyed the technology landscape in 2008, something called “battery swapping” had caught its fancy. Battery swapping allowed an EV driver to change a used battery for a new battery—like you would change the battery in a flashlight. In the West, battery swapping was almost exclusively the province of the luminary clean-tech startup Better Place, which was founded by former SAP executive Shai Agassi. The history of Better Place, as told by Agassi, is that since the mid-2000s he had been wrestling with the problem of “how do you run a whole country without oil.” Then “on a random visit to Tesla . . . . [he] suddenly found out that the answer comes in separating between car ownership and battery ownership.”14 Agassi’s big idea was that by creating a system where electric vehicles could swap out spent batteries easily, he could surmount many of the cost and range issues inherent to EV technology.


pages: 370 words: 129,096

Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future by Ashlee Vance

addicted to oil, Burning Man, cleantech, digital map, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, global supply chain, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, money market fund, multiplanetary species, optical character recognition, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, paypal mafia, performance metric, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

With SolarCity, Musk has funded the largest installer and financer of solar panels for consumers and businesses. Musk helped come up with the idea for SolarCity and serves as its chairman, while his cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive run the company. SolarCity has managed to undercut dozens of utilities and become a large utility in its own right. During a time in which clean-tech businesses have gone bankrupt with alarming regularity, Musk has built two of the most successful clean-tech companies in the world. The Musk Co. empire of factories, tens of thousands of workers, and industrial might has incumbents on the run and has turned Musk into one of the richest men in the world, with a net worth around $10 billion. The visit to Musk Land started to make a few things clear about how Musk had pulled all this off. While the “putting man on Mars” talk can strike some people as loopy, it gave Musk a unique rallying cry for his companies.

From new kinds of energy storage systems to electric cars and solar panels, the technology never quite lived up to its billing and required too much government funding and too many incentives to create a viable market. Much of this criticism was fair. It’s just that there was this Elon Musk guy hanging around who seemed to have figured something out that everyone else had missed. “We had a blanket rule against investing in clean-tech companies for about a decade,” said Peter Thiel, the PayPal cofounder and venture capitalist at Founders Fund. “On the macro level, we were right because clean tech as a sector was quite bad. But on the micro level, it looks like Elon has the two most successful clean-tech companies in the U.S. We would rather explain his success as being a fluke. There’s the whole Iron Man thing in which he’s presented as a cartoonish businessman—this very unusual animal at the zoo. But there is now a degree to which you have to ask whether his success is an indictment on the rest of us who have been working on much more incremental things.

Tesla had its car factory in Silicon Valley, the design center in Los Angeles, and had started construction on a battery factory in Nevada. (Politicians from Nevada, Texas, California, New Mexico, and Arizona threw themselves at Musk over the battery factory, with Nevada ultimately winning the business by offering Tesla $1.4 billion in incentives. This event confirmed not only Musk’s soaring celebrity but also his unmatched ability to raise funds.) SolarCity has created thousands of white- and blue-collar clean-tech jobs, and it will create manufacturing jobs at the solar panel factory that’s being built in Buffalo, New York. All together, Musk Co. employed about fifteen thousand people at the end of 2014. Far from stopping there, the plan for Musk Co. calls for tens of thousands of more jobs to be created on the back of ever more ambitious products. Tesla’s primary focus throughout 2015 will be bringing the Model X to market.


pages: 469 words: 132,438

Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet by Varun Sivaram

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, demand response, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, financial innovation, fixed income, global supply chain, global village, Google Earth, hive mind, hydrogen economy, index fund, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, M-Pesa, market clearing, market design, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Negawatt, off grid, oil shock, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, renewable energy transition, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, time value of money, undersea cable, wikimedia commons

Stuck with a product that cost $6.29 per watt to manufacture but only earned $3.42 per watt in the marketplace, Solyndra filed for bankruptcy in 2011, leaving taxpayers on the hook to cover a half-billion dollars of debt.34 In 2012, Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney assailed President Obama’s bet on Solyndra as “a symbol of gross waste.”35 Over the next two years, both Twin Creeks Technologies and Nanosolar also ran out of money, as did nearly every other American solar start-up. Bruised venture capitalists slashed their cleantech portfolios, and solar became a dirty word in Silicon Valley. As for my father, he left solar behind to rejoin the semiconductor industry, where innovation was alive and well. External shocks like falling silicon prices weren’t the only reasons that the solar start-up bubble burst. As I’ve written with my colleagues Ben Gaddy and Frank O’Sullivan, investor expectations for these companies were likely unrealistic from the beginning.

Tim Worstall, “Solyndra: Yes, It Was Possible to See This Failure Coming,” Forbes, September 17, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2011/09/17/solyndra-yes-it-was-possible-to-see-this-failure-coming. 35.  Ashley Parker, “Romney Campaigns at Failed Solyndra Factory,” The New York Times, May 21, 2012, http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/31/romney-to-campaign-at-failed-solyndra-factory. 36.  Benjamin Gaddy, Varun Sivaram, and Francis O’Sullivan, “Venture Capital and Cleantech: The Wrong Model for Clean Energy Innovation,” July 2016, https://energy.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/MITEI-WP-2016-06.pdf. 37.  Kevin Desmond, Innovators in Battery Technology Profiles of 95 Influential Electrochemists (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2016). 38.  Martin A. Green, “Silicon Solar Cells: The Ultimate Photovoltaic Solution?” Progress in Photovoltaics 2, no. 2 (April 1994): 87–94. 39.  

Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Scientific and Technical Information, 2008, https://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17952.pdf. 9.  Daniel M. Kammen and Gregory F. Netmet, “The Incredible Shrinking Energy R&D Budget,” The Access Almanac, Spring 2007, 38-40, http://www.accessmagazine.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2016/07/Access-30-06-Almanac-R-D-Budget.pdf. 10.  Benjamin Gaddy, Varun Sivaram, Timothy Jones, and Libby Wayman, “Venture Capital and Cleantech: The Wrong Model for Energy Innovation,” Energy Policy 102 (2017): 385–395, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.12.035. 11.  Jeff Brady, “After Solyndra Loss, U.S. Energy Loan Program Turning a Profit,” NPR, November 13, 2014, http://www.npr.org/2014/11/13/363572151/after-solyndra-loss-u-s-energy-loan-program-turning-a-profit. 12.  Charlie Wilson and Arnulf Grübler, Energy Technology Innovation: Learning from Historical Successes and Failures (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014). 13.  


pages: 193 words: 47,808

The Flat White Economy by Douglas McWilliams

"Robert Solow", access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, correlation coefficient, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, George Gilder, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, smart cities, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, working-age population, zero-sum game

The Singaporean government is very aware of the need to build on the economy’s spectacular success by taking its innovative and creative sectors “to the next level”. Committed to research and development Singapore has a range of research centres, such as A*Star’s Fusionopolis and Biopolis, the National Research Foundation (NRF) Create (Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise), the CleanTech Park, the Tuas Biomedical Park, and Singapore Science Park. Government data points out that these are “home to over 1,000 research collaborations with leading players such as Hewlett-Packard, Fujitsu, BASF, Mitsui Chemicals and Nitto Denko”.33 Multinational corporations like Procter & Gamble and Danone have also established knowledge-intensive regional R&D centres in Singapore to develop Asia-specific products.

article=1021&context=confpapers INDEX Accenture Fintech Innovation Lab ref1 accommodation ref1, ref2, ref3 cheap ref1, ref2, ref3 cramped ref1 displacement of ref1 proximity to amenities ref1 Advanced Card Systems ref1 advertising/marketing ref1, ref2 campaigns ref1 digital ref1 investment in ref1 online ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 role of creativity in ref1 Aerob ref1 AirWatch ref1 Alibaba ref1, ref2 floated on NYSE ref1 Allegra Strategies ref1 Allford, Simon ref1 Allford Hall Monaghan Morris ref1 Amazon.com, Inc. ref1, ref2, ref3 Apple, Inc. ref1, ref2, ref3 development kits ref1 facilities of ref1 product lines of ref1 Argentina Buenos Aires share of GDP ref1 Association of London Councils ref1 AT&T Inc. ref1 Australia ref1 Sydney ref1 Austria Vienna share of GDP ref1 Bangladesh economy of ref1 Dhaka ref1 Bank of England investment guidelines ref1 BASF SE ref1 Bell Telephones personnel of ref1 Bennet, Natalie leader of Green Party ref1 bicycles ref1 fatalities associated with ref1 sales of ref1 use in commuting ref1 big data ref1 Birmingham Science Park Aston Innovation Birmingham Complex ref1 Bold Rocket ref1 bonuses ref1 use in property market ref1 Boston Consulting Group ref1, ref2 British Bars and Pubs Association ref1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) BBC Scotland ref1 Brough, Graham ref1 Brown, Gordon ref1, ref2 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou ref1 Burt, Prof Ronald ref1, ref2 Cable and Wireless assets of ref1 Cameron, David economic policies of ref1, ref2 immigration policies of ref1 Canada ref1 Montreal ref1 Toronto ref1, ref2 Vancouver ref1 capital rate of return ref1, ref2 capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3 profits ref1 Catholicism ref1 Centre for Cities ref1, ref2 Centre for Economics and Business Research (Cebr) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 estimates of UK economic growth ref1 offices of ref1 personnel of ref1, ref2 Centre for Retail Research ref1, ref2 champagne sales figures ref1, ref2 Channel 4 ref1 China Beijing ref1, ref2, ref3 Haidian district ref1 economy of ref1 Golden Shield firewall (Great Firewall of China) ref1 government of ref1, ref2, ref3 Hong Kong ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Cyberport ref1 Hong Kong Stock Exchange ref1 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) ref1, ref2 special economic zones Hangzhou ref1 Shenzhen ref1 Zhongguancun Innovation Way (Z-innoway) ref1 China Mobile ref1 China Telecom ref1 China Unicom ref1 Cisco Systems facilities of ref1 cloud computing ref1, ref2 Coalition Government immigration policy of ref1, ref2 coffee shops culture of ref1 cyber cafes ref1 growth of market ref1 Commonwealth migration from ref1 Companies House ref1 Confederation of British Industry (CBI) ref1, ref2 personnel of ref1 Confucianism ref1 Conservative Party ref1 Cooper, Wayne ref1 Corporation of London ref1, ref2, ref3 Crafts, Nick ref1 creative economy ref1 Cridland, John leader of CBI ref1 Cromwell, Oliver ref1 Crow, Bob ref1 Daily Mail ref1 Danone ref1 Danticat, Edwidge ref1 Davis, Charles ref1 Decoded ref1 Deloitte ref1 deregulation of financial markets (1986) ref1 digital economy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 emergence of ref1, ref2 role of creativity in ref1 Dorling, Danny ref1 Dunne, Ronan CEO of O2 (UK) ref1 Durden, Tyler ref1 Economic Journal, The ref1, ref2 Economist, The ref1, ref2, ref3 Edinburgh University ref1 Eggers, Dave Circle, The (2013) ref1 Egypt Cairo ref1 share of GDP ref1 employment ref1 growth ref1 immigrant labour ref1 in FWE ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 job creation ref1 low-skilled jobs ref1 public sector 1112 science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) ref1 growth of ref1 shortages ref1 end user demand ref1 Engels, Friedrich ref1 Entrepreneurs for the Future (E4F) ref1 entrepreneurship ref1, ref2, ref3 e.Republic Center for Digital Government and Digital Communities Digital Cities award programme ref1, ref2 Esquire (magazine) ref1 European Economic Area (EEA) ref1 migrants from ref1 contribution to fiscal system ref1 migrants from outside ref1 contribution to fiscal system ref1 European Union (EU) free movement of labour in ref1 member states of ref1, ref2, ref3 taxation regulations ref1 Eurostar ref1 Eurozone ref1, ref2 Crisis (2009–) ref1, ref2, ref3 economy ref1 Facebook ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 IPO of ref1 Falmouth University ref1 Fan, Donald Senior Director for Office for Diversity of Walmart ref1 FanDuel ref1 Farage, Nigel leader of UKIP ref1 feudalism ref1 financial services ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 lifestyles associated with ref1, ref2 Financial Times (FT) ref1 FT Global Top 500 Companies ref1 Fintech ref1 First World War (1914–18) ref1 fiscal transfer ref1, ref2, ref3 net ref1 potential use to cover local deficits ref1 Flat White Economy (FWE) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17 advantages of immigration for ref1, ref2, ref3 business model for ref1 development and growth of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 employment in ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 shortages ref1 impact on UK economy ref1, ref2 model of ref1, ref2, ref3 replicating ref1-ref2 role of creativity in ref1 startups in ref1 business model ref1 Flat Whiters ref1 accommodation data for ref1 social culture of ref1 fashion ref1 nightlife ref1 transport ref1 technology used by ref1 Forbes (magazine) ref1 France ref1 education system of ref1 Paris ref1, ref2, ref3 share of GDP ref1 Paris-Sarclay ref1 creation of (2006) ref1 potential limitations of ref1 promotion of ICT in ref1 Forst and Sullivan ref1 France ref1, ref2 Freeman, Prof Christopher ref1 Fujitsu Ltd. ref1 Funding Circle ref1 Gates, Bill ref1 Germany ref1, ref2, ref3 Berlin ref1 economy of ref1 Glaeser, Edward ref1 Triumph of the City, The ref1 Global Financial Crisis (2007–9) ref1, ref2 Banking Crises (2008) ref1 impact on migration ref1 UK recession (2008–9) ref1 Global Innovation Index ref1 globalisation ref1, ref2, ref3 Glyn, Andrew ref1 Goodison, Sir Nicholas Chairman of the Stock Exchange ref1 Google, Inc. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 acquisitions made by ref1 development kits ref1 offices of ref1, ref2 Greater London Authority (GLA) ref1, ref2 Green Party members of ref1 Gröningen Growth and Development Centre ref1 Guardian, The ref1, ref2, ref3 Harbron, Rob ref1, ref2 Harrison, Andy Chief Executive of Whitbread ref1 Harvard Business School ref1 Harvard University Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis ref1 HCL Technologies ref1 Heisnberg, Werner uncertainty principle ref1 Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) ref1 Huawei Technologies ref1 immigration ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 advantages for FWE ref1, ref2, ref3 economic impact of ref1, ref2 impact on social cohesion ref1 impact on wages ref1 legislation ref1 access to state benefits ref1 quota systems ref1 non-EEA ref1, ref2 restrictions on ref1, ref2, ref3 Imperial College, London facilities of ref1 India ref1, ref2 Calcutta ref1 IT sector of ref1 Karnataka ref1 Bangalore ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Electronics City ref1 Mumbai ref1 inequality ref1 potential role of London in ref1, ref2 sources of wealth ref1 Infosys Ltd ref1 initial public offering (IPOs) ref1 innovation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 hubs ref1, ref2 independent ref1 investments in ref1 projects ref1 Institute for Public Policy Research ref1 intellectual property protection of ref1, ref2 Intel Corporation ref1, ref2, ref3 facilities of ref1 personnel of ref1 International Business Machines (IBM) ref1, ref2 facilities of ref1, ref2, ref3 personnel of ref1, ref2, ref3 internet usage ref1 investment ref1, ref2, ref3 advertising and marketing ref1 capitalising of ref1 in innovation ref1 process of ref1 Israel ref1, ref2 Defence Ministry ref1 Haifa ref1 tech sector of ref1 IT spending ref1, ref2 accounting for ref1 software ref1 Italy ref1 Frascati ref1 Rome ref1 ITC Infotech India Ltd ref1 Japan ref1 economy of ref1 Tokyo ref1 share of GDP ref1 Johnson, Boris Mayor of London ref1, ref2, ref3 Johnson Press plc ref1 Judaism ref1 Kaldor, Nicholas ref1 Keynes, John Maynard ref1 Economic Consequences of the Peace, The ref1 KPMG ref1 labour ref1 division of ref1 immigrant ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 market ref1 shocks ref1 share of income ref1, ref2 supply of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Labour Party ref1 immigration policies of ref1 Lai, Ian ref1 Laserfiche ref1 Lawson, Nigel ref1 Leeds Beckett University ref1 Level 39 ref1 Liberal Democrats immigration policies of ref1 lifestyles ref1 associated with financial services ref1 Livingstone, Ken ref1 Lloyds ref1 London School of Economics (LSE) ref1 MadRat games ref1 MagnetWorks Engineering ref1 Mahindra Satyam ref1 Mainelli, Michael Gresham Professor of Commerce ref1 Malaysia ref1 Kuala Lumpur ref1 Manchester Science Parks (MSP) ref1 market capitalisation ref1, ref2 market economy ref1 Marx, Karl ref1, ref2 Labour Theory of Value ref1 Marxism ref1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) ref1 campuses of ref1 Technology Review ref1, ref2 MasterCard ref1 McAfee, Inc. ref1 McKinsey Global Institute ref1 McQueen, Alexander ref1 McWilliams, Sir Francis ref1 Pray Silence for Jock Whittington (2002) ref1 Medvedev, Dmitry ref1 technology policies of ref1 Metcalfe, Robert ref1 Metcalfe’s Law concept of ref1 Mexico ref1 Mexico City ref1 share of GDP ref1 Microsoft Corporation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 facilities of ref1 Future Decoded conference ref1 personnel of ref1 Windows (operating system) ref1 Migration Advisory Committee ref1 Miliband, Ed immigration policies of ref1 MindCandy ref1 Moshi Monsters ref1 offices of ref1 Mitsui Chemicals ref1 Mohan, Mukund CEO of Microsoft Ventures in India ref1 Mongolia Ulan Bator ref1 Moore, Gordon Earle Moore’s Law ref1 MphasiS ref1 National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) ref1, ref2 Netherlands Amsterdam ref1 network effects ref1 relationship with supereconomies of scale ref1 Network Rail offices of ref1 New Scientist ref1 New Statesman ref1 Nitto Denko ref1 Nokia Oyj ref1 O2 (Telefónica UK Limited) ref1 offices of ref1 personnel of ref1 Office of Communications (Ofcom) ref1 Olympic Games (2012) ref1, ref2 online shopping ref1, ref2 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Osborne, George ref1 Outblaze ref1 Pareto Principle concept of ref1 Passenger Demand Forecasting Council ref1 PayPal ref1 PCCW ref1 Poland accession to EU (2004) ref1 Pollock, Erskine ref1 Procter & Gamble Co. ref1 property markets ref1, ref2 commercial ref1, ref2 housebuilding ref1, ref2 house/property prices ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 property crisis (2007) ref1 residential ref1 use of bonuses in ref1 public spending ref1, ref2, ref3 Barnett formula ref1 relationship with taxation ref1 Qualcomm facilities of ref1 Reinartz, Werner ref1 Republic of Ireland ref1 research and development (R&D) ref1, ref2, ref3 definitions of ref1, ref2 expenditure ref1, ref2 hubs ref1, ref2 industrial ref1 Research Council for the Arts and Humanities ‘Diasporas, Migration and Identities’ ref1 Rogers, Everett Diffusion of Innovations (1962) ref1 Russian Federation ref1 economy of ref1 Defence Ministry ref1 Moscow ref1, ref2 Skolkovo Innovation Centre ref1, ref2 Saffert, Peter ref1 sales and advertising ref1 Sarkozy, Nicolas technology policies of ref1 Scottish Media Group (STV) ref1 Second World War (1939–45) Blitz, The (1940–1) ref1 shared accommodation ref1 Silicon Canal ref1 Silicon Roundabout ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Silicon Valley ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 role of US government defence spending in development of ref1 social culture of ref1 Silva, Rohan Senior Policy Advisor to David Cameron ref1 Singapore ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 government of ref1 Research, Innovation and Enterprise Plan (RIE 2015) ref1 research centres of ref1 A*Star Biopolis ref1 Fusionopolis ref1 Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (Create) ref1 CleanTech Park ref1 Singapore Science Park ref1 Tuas Biomedical Park ref1 skills drain ref1 Skyscanner ref1 small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) ref1 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) ref1 Small Business Service Household Survey of Entrepreneurship ref1 Smith, Adam Wealth of Nations, The ref1 Smith, Michael Acton founder of MindCandy ref1 Social Democratic Party (SDP) formation of (1981) ref1 social media ref1 restrictions on ref1 Solow, Robert ref1 South Africa Johannesburg share of GDP ref1 South East Regional Assembly ref1 South Korea Seoul ref1 share of GDP ref1 Spain Barcelona ref1 Ibiza ref1 Sprint Corporation ref1 startups ref1 business models of ref1 in FWE ref1 Stigler, George ref1 supereconomies of scale concept of ref1 relationship with network effects ref1 Sweden Stockholm share of GDP ref1 Tata Consultancy Services ref1 taxation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 allowance ref1 corporation ref1 EU regulations ref1 National Insurance ref1, ref2, ref3 regional variation of ref1 relationship with public spending ref1 Tech City ref1, ref2, ref3 technology clusters ref1, ref2, ref3 identification of ref1 Techstars/Barclays ref1 telecommunications ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1, ref2 Thile, Peter ref1 trade unions ref1 Transport for London (TfL) ref1, ref2 UK Independence Party (UKIP) members of ref1, ref2 United Kingdom (UK) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Bath ref1 Birmingham ref1, ref2 Bristol ref1 Cambridge ref1 Cheshire ref1 Civil Service ref1 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills ref1, ref2 Department for Transport ref1 economy of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 contribution of creative industries to ref1 growth of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Edinburgh ref1 GDP per capita ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Glasgow ref1, ref2 media clusters in ref1 government of ref1, ref2, ref3 Index of Multiple Deprivation ref1 ‘Innovation Report 2014’ ref1 Hounslow ref1 labour market of ref1 Leeds ref1, ref2, ref3 London ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23 business sector of ref1 Camden ref1, ref2 City Fringes ref1, ref2 City of London ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 cultural presence of ref1 economy of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 migrant labour in ref1 expansion of ref1, ref2, ref3 GDP per capita ref1, ref2 GVA of ref1, ref2, ref3 Hackney ref1, ref2, ref3 Haringey ref1, ref2 Islington ref1, ref2 Old Street ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 share of national GDP ref1 Shoreditch ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Tower Hamlets ref1 transport infrastructure of ref1 Crossrail ref1 Westminster ref1, ref2, ref3 Manchester ref1, ref2, ref3 Midlands ref1 Milton Keynes ref1, ref2 Newbury ref1 Newcastle ref1 Northern Ireland ref1 Northampton ref1 Office for National Statistics (ONS) ref1 Oxford ref1 Parliament House of Commons ref1 House of Lords ref1 pub industry of ref1 Reading ref1 Salford ref1 Slough ref1 United States of America (USA) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Baltimore, MD ref1 Boston, MA ref1, ref2 Buffalo, NY ref1 Cambridge, MA ref1 Chicago, IL ref1 Columbus, OH ref1 Detroit, MI ref1 economy of ref1 government of ref1, ref2 Irving, TX ref1 Jacksonville, FL ref1 Los Angeles, CA ref1 Minneapolis, MN ref1 Nashville, TN ref1 New York City, NY ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) ref1 Palo Alto, CA ref1 Portland, OR ref1, ref2 Raleigh, NC ref1 Salt Lake City, UT ref1 San Diego, CA ref1 San Francisco, CA ref1 Seattle, WA ref1, ref2 Washington DC ref1 Winston-Salem, NC ref1 University of Chicago faculty of ref1, ref2 University of London ref1 University of Sussex faculty of ref1 venture capital ref1, ref2 Visa facilities of ref1 Vodafone offices of ref1 wages ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 depression of ref1, ref2 growth of ref1 impact of immigration on ref1 low ref1, ref2 Walmart personnel of ref1, ref2 Waze acquired by Google ref1 We Are Apps ref1 Whitbread Costa Coffee ref1 personnel of ref1 Wikipedia ref1 Wilson, Harold ref1 administration of ref1 Wipro Technologies ref1 Wired (magazine) ref1 Woolfe, Steven UKIP spokesman on migration and financial affairs ref1 World Bank ref1 Xiaomi ref1 Yorkshire Post, The ref1 ZopNow ref1


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Democracy and Prosperity: Reinventing Capitalism Through a Turbulent Century by Torben Iversen, David Soskice

Andrei Shleifer, assortative mating, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, implied volatility, income inequality, industrial cluster, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, means of production, mittelstand, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, passive investing, precariat, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, speech recognition, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban decay, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

The high level of technology literacy is coupled in Denmark and other Scandinavian countries with high-speed internet access, itself a result of public infrastructure investments, to create a propitious environment for innovation and knowledge-intensive technology and helping to grow firms in biotech, ICT, and cleantech industries. A particularly vibrant metropolitan area for the new economy is the Øresund Region, which has a population of nearly four million (including Copenhagen and Malmö) and accounts for more than a quarter of the combined Danish and Swedish GDP (equivalent to about half of the Danish GDP). With twelve universities and about a hundred and fifty thousand students, this high-tech corridor supports thousands of leading-edge companies in ICT, cleantech, and life sciences—mostly small and medium-sized enterprises, but also such established names as Haldor Topsøe, Coloplast, Novo Nor-disk, and Lundbeck (not to mention global giants like Google and IBM with a strong local presence).

Home to some of Ger-many’s heavy industry after the war—chemicals, steel, and shipbuilding—it suffered greatly from deindustrialization in the 1980s, with high levels of unemployment and population decline, but since the 1990s it has made a remarkable comeback and now has the highest GDP per capita of any German city with The Economist rating it the most livable city in 2017. The revival has been centered around a diverse set of innovative service industries in finance, life sciences, ICT, cleantech, media and creative industries, as well as trade (it is home to the second largest container harbor in Europe). In many ways Hamburg resembles the Øresund Region and is built on the same raw material: an expansive cluster of high-educated workers supplied by more than a dozen universities and technical universities in the region as well as from around Europe. Both the Danish and German models have thus undergone major changes designed to accommodate and facilitate the transition to the knowledge economy.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Indeed, military historian Edward Luttwak estimates that many postarmy Israelis have visited over a dozen countries by age thirty-five.8 Israelis thrive in new economies and uncharted territory in part because they have been out in the world, often in pursuit of the Book. One example of this avid internationalism is Netafim, an Israeli company that has become the largest provider of drip irrigation systems in the world. Founded in 1965, Netafim is a rare example of a company that bridges Israel’s low-tech, agricultural past to the current boom in cleantech. Netafim was created by Simcha Blass, the architect of one of the largest infrastructure projects undertaken in the early years of the state. Born in Poland, he was active in the Jewish self-defense units organized in Warsaw during World War I. Soon after arriving in Israel in the 1930s, he became chief engineer for Mekorot, the national water company, and planned the pipeline and canal that would bring water from the Jordan River and Sea of Galilee to the arid Negev.

Further, the sale was a source of national pride, like winning a gold medal in the world’s technology Olympics. One local headline declared that Israel had become an Internet “superpower.”5 Vardi invests in Internet start-ups because he believes in them. But his dogged focus on the Internet when almost everyone else was in either classic “Israeli” sectors, such as communications and security, or hot new areas, like cleantech and biotech, is not attributable just to profit calculation. For one, Israel is his cluster, and he is conscious of his status as an “insider” in this community—a community that he wants to succeed. And with that commitment, he is also conscious of his role in sustaining this sector through a dry spell. Investing with a personal as well as a national purpose has been called “profitable patriotism,” and has been getting renewed attention of late.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Emily Badger is a staff writer for the Atlantic Cities. She has also written for Fast Company, Pacific Standard Magazine, Spin, Good Magazine, the New York Times, the Christian Science Monitor, and other print and Web outlets. She is based in Washington, D.C., and is particularly interested in cities, public policy, and strange ideas. Roman Gaus is the founder and CEO of UrbanFarmers, a pioneering clean-tech company that develops sustainable agriculture systems for urban applications. In his previous life, he was a corporate maverick in the food and health space in Europe and North America. He is married to Martina Gaus and has two young boys who keep him busy. Diana Lind is Next City’s executive director and editor-in-chief. Diana was a 2011 Van Alen Institute High Speed Rail Fellow and is the author of Brooklyn Modern: Architecture, Interiors & Design (Rizzoli, 2008).


pages: 307 words: 90,634

Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar

CARB was inspired in part by GM, which had produced an all-electric concept car called the Impact. In 1996, GM started leasing a production version of that car in California and Arizona under the name EV1. The EV1 was a sporty two-door model that could accelerate from zero to sixty miles per hour in 6.3 seconds. Drivers gained entry to the car with a keypad instead of a key. It quickly found a cult following among clean-tech enthusiasts and was driven by film stars such as Tom Hanks and Mel Gibson. However, no one could own the vehicle. Just 1,117 EV1s were ever made, and they were offered by lease only, ostensibly so GM could ensure quality repairs. The automaker soon found reason to end even that meager offering. In 1999, citing lack of public demand and high production costs, GM stopped manufacturing the EV1. Three years later, it discontinued the lease program and sent all but a few cars to the demolition yard.

Walker tweeted that Musk’s apparent disdain for public transport was a “luxury (or pathology) that only the rich can afford.” Musk responded on Twitter by calling Walker an “idiot.” But then he apologized and corrected himself, clarifying that he meant to say “sanctimonious idiot.” Mitt Romney: In a debate with President Obama, the Republican Party’s 2012 presidential nominee named Tesla among a group of clean-tech companies that had received government funding, labeling them “losers.” Romney “was right about the object of that statement,” Musk would later say, “but not the subject.” Since his teenage years, Musk has known what it’s like to be the victim of bullies. His responses to critics, fair or not, suggest he has no intention of ever again putting himself in such a position of submission. At the same time, he also seems to have paid heed to the lessons of history.


pages: 412 words: 113,782

Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, business cycle, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K

The market share for carbon-rich fuels will diminish as the demand for other forms of energy grows. Energy companies have a choice: to embrace the future … or ignore reality, and slowly—but surely—be left behind. MIKE BOWLIN, former chairman and CEO, ARCO, and chairman, American Petroleum Institute Embracing the future certainly sounds good. Who could be against something like that? And yet, many have resisted the invitation for one very good reason: Clean-tech energy sources from solar, wind, and biomass just have been too expensive. Pull out the rug of government subsidies and they’d collapse overnight, wouldn’t they? There is more than a kernel of truth to that, though I’m pretty sure that if all the perverse subsidies for oil, coal, gas, and nuclear energy sources were removed and the externalities incorporated into prices, we might see much the same thing happen to them.

It amazes me how the United States can lead the world in patents, technical innovation, and basic science and yet fail so miserably when it comes to transforming that edge into good American jobs. A nineteenth-century American inventor, Charles F. Brush, designed the first wind turbine to generate electricity. His company, Brush Electric in Cleveland, Ohio, grew up to become part of General Electric. And Charles Fritts was the American inventor who created the first working solar cell in 1884. Yet today American industry takes a backseat to German, Japanese, Chinese, even Danish, clean-tech companies. Why have we allowed it? Could all the perverse incentives that make nineteenth-century energy and technology appear cheaper have something to do with our failure to grasp the greatest business opportunity of the twenty-first? This must change, and putting all our faith in the blind-as-a-bat market won’t get it done. It can’t. Despite their different focus, on one thing the PCSD and PCAP agreed completely: We’ve got to get the prices right, and only then can a sighted, informed, and honest market play its proper role.


World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

National policymakers find that these cities fundamentally alter the migration patterns of workers, set new business and service standards and have a major impact on the number and kind of international firms, capital and visitors that a nation attracts. The previous cycles, in which world cities such as London, New York and Tokyo thrived, hinged on cities playing hub roles in finance, business, media, leisure tourism and commodities. In the current cycle, science, medicine, ICT, cleantech, traded urban services, higher education, design and real estate are now prominent activities for globalising cities. World cities have also become complex visitor economies – not just attracting holidaymakers but also students, researchers, events and congresses. Established and emerging world cities all compete for investors, entrepreneurs and start‐ups by focusing on liveability, culture and urban regeneration.

One key disadvantage for London compared to other peer cities is the very limited national dialogue or perspective on how the wider city-region of London and the Greater South East of England should be organised and optimised. The conversation about London as a world city still tends to refer to its built-up area within the M25, and ignores the functional commuter region, even though it houses four of the region’s six airports, two of the region’s four leading global universities and significant parts of the region’s growth clusters in life sciences, digital media, ICT and cleantech. These new growth sectors have a more complex regional geography than do finance and business services, and require their own opportunity framework. As part of the ongoing adjustment to London as a world city region, national policy will also need to undertake a full review of the future of the Green Belt, regional infrastructure and institutions in order to manage London’s real economy and quality of life in an integrated way.


pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Green, June 7, 2007, http://green.yahoo.com/blog/amorylovins/1/saving-the-climate-for-fun-and-profit.html. 2 Michael Mechanic, “Power Q&A: Amory Lovins,” Mother Jones, May/June 2008, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2008/05/power-qa-amory-lovins. 3 Stone Phillips, “A Simple Solution to Pain at the Pump?” Dateline NBC, May 7, 2006, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12676374/. 4 Dana Childs, “Cellulosic Ethanol to Be Cost-Competitive by 2009, Says Khosla,” Cleantech.com, March 23, 2007, http://cleantech.com/news/928/cellulosic-ethanol-to-be-cost-competiti. 5 National Public Radio, “Al Gore’s Speech on Renewable Energy,” July 17, 2008, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=92638501. 6 Al Gore, “The Climate for Change,” New York Times, November 9, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/opinion/09gore.html. 7 Ted McKenna, “New Al Gore Campaign Applies Ads, Media for Grassroots Effort,” PR Week, April 4, 2008. 8 Wecansolveit.org, “Grassroots Partners,” http://www.wecansolveit.org/pages/partners/. 9 Jennifer Alsever, “Pickens’ Natural Gas Idea Picking Up Steam,” MSNBC, October 21, 2008, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27052462/. 10 Pickens Plan, http://media.pickensplan.com/pdf/pickensplan.pdf. 11 WorldPublicOpinion.org, “World Publics Strongly Favor Requiring More Wind and Solar Energy, More Efficiency, Even If It Increases Costs,” November 19, 2008, http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/570.php. 12 League of Conservation Voters, “Board of Directors,” http://www.lcv.org/about-lcv/board-of-directors/ (accessed December 29, 2008). 13 League of Conservation Voters, “Repower, Refuel, and Rebuild America,” http://action.lcv.org/campaign/repower_d (accessed December 29, 2008). 14 NBC Universal, “Company Overview,” http://www.nbcuni.com/About_NBC_Universal/Company_Overview/. 15 The Daily Beast, “Top 9 Moments from Miss USA,” April 20, 2009, http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2009-04-20/the-best-and-worst-of-the-miss-usa-pageant/. 16 U.S.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Hill, “New Challenges Demand New Solutions: IBEW Leader Charts Energy Future,” EnergyBiz, September/October 2007, http://energycentral.fileburst.com/EnergyBizOnline/2007-5-sep-oct/Financial_Front_New_Challenges.pdf. 43Martin Rosenberg, “Continental Grid Vision Needed,” RenewableEnergyWorld.com blog, last modified December 11, 2007, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2007/12/continental-grid-vision-needed-50777. 44“Company development 1847–1865,” Siemens, n.d., http://www.siemens.com/history/en/history/1847_1865_beginnings_and_initial _expansion.htm. 45Jeff St. John, “How Siemens is Tackling the Smart Grid,” GigaOM, last modified June 24, 2010, http://gigaom.com/cleantech/how-siemens-is-tackling-the-smart-grid/. 46“Siemens CEO Peter Löscher: We’re on the threshold of a new electric age,” Siemens press release, December 15, 2010, http://www.siemens.com/press/en/pressrelease/?press=/en/pressrelease/2010/corporate_communication/axx20101227.htm. 47“75% of US Electric Meters to be Smart Meters by 2016,” In-Stat press release, March 5, 2012, http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press-releases/75-us-electric-meters-will-be-smart-meters-2016. 48Chris Nelder, “Why baseload power is doomed,” SmartPlanet, blog, last modified March 28, 2012, http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/energy-futurist/why-baseload-power-is-doomed/445. 49Massoud Amin, “North American Electricity Infrastructure: System Security, Quality, Reliability, Availability, and Efficiency Challenges and their Societal Impacts,” in Continuing Crises in National Transmission Infrastructure: Impacts and Options for Modernization, National Science Foundation (NSF), June 2004. 50Fitze, “No Longer A One-Way Street,” 23. 51Tim Schröder, “Automation’s Ground Floor Opportunity,” Pictures of the Future, Spring 2011, 19, http://www.siemens.com/innovation/apps/pof_microsite/_pof-spring-2011/_pdf/pof_0111_strom_buildings_en.pdf. 52Eric Paulos, lecture, “Forum on Future Cities,” MIT SENSEable City Lab and the Rockefeller Foundation, Cambridge, MA, April 13, 2011, http://techtv.mit.edu/collections/senseable/videos/12305-changing-research; For a thorough treatment see Eric Paulos and James Pierce, “Citizen Energy: Towards Populist Interactive Micro-Energy Production,” n.d., http://www.paulos.net/papers/2011/Citizen_Energy_HICSS2011.pdf. 53James R.

Ratti, “Real Time Rome,” Networks and Communications Studies 20, no. 3–4 (2006): 247–58. 28J. Borge-Holthoefer et al., “Structural and Dynamical Patterns on Online Social Networks: The Spanish May 15th Movement as a Case Study,” PLoS ONE, (2011); doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023883. 29April Kilcrease, “A Conversation with Zipcar’s CEO Scott Griffith,” GigaOM, last modified December 5, 2011, http://gigaom.com/cleantech/a-conversation-with-zipcars-ceo-scott-griffith/. 30Ron Lieber, “Share Your Car, Risk Your Insurance,” New York Times, last modified March 16, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/17/your-money/auto-insurance/enthusiastic-about-car-sharing-your-insurer-isnt.html?pagewanted=all. 31“Our Carbon Footprint,” Corporate Responsibility Report, InterContinental Hotel Groups, 2011, http://www.ihgplc.com/index.asp?


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

The next step is to jettison the ineffective, corporate boondoggle that is the ETS and replace it with a tax on carbon consumption. A carbon tax that rose steadily over time would provide some predictability for businesses, enable them to better plan long-term investments and encourage them to try to develop new low-carbon technologies. It would also give clean-tech companies a good idea of the price target they need to achieve to be competitive, allowing them to raise funds and have a go at developing promising technologies. Importantly, governments wouldn’t be trying to second-guess the best technologies or pick winners among the many clean-tech companies. A carbon tax would be flexible: it could be raised or lowered at will, depending on how conditions evolve. It would be transparent and impartial, imposing the same price on all firms, with no opaque special favours for politically connected companies.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

But most, although not all, of the principles of plenitude and the economics underlying it are also relevant for lower-income households in poor countries. In its general outlines, if not specifics, it’s a widely applicable vision of economic life. Plenitude is also about transition. Change doesn’t happen overnight. Creating a sustainable economy will take decades, and this is a strategy for prospering during that shift. The beauty of the approach is that it is available right now. It does not require waiting for the clean-tech paradigm to triumph. It doesn’t require getting government on board immediately. Anyone can get started, and many are. It was the right way to go before the economic collapse, in part because it predicted a worsening landscape. It makes even more sense in a period of slow growth or stagnation. As individuals take up the principles of plenitude, they are not merely adopting a private response to what is perforce a collective problem.


pages: 300 words: 77,787

Investing Demystified: How to Invest Without Speculation and Sleepless Nights by Lars Kroijer

Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, BRICs, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, compound rate of return, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, equity premium, estate planning, fixed income, high net worth, implied volatility, index fund, intangible asset, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, market bubble, money market fund, passive investing, pattern recognition, prediction markets, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, selection bias, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

If you are able to take advantage of such tax relief these bonds may be a more tax-efficient way to gain the virtual equivalent of the minimal risk asset. In other words, in this case you may not be holding US government bonds in the way you would be if there were no tax issues, but the municipal bonds are fairly similar and the tax advantage renders this compromise well worthwhile. Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS) or equivalent In the UK there are certain tax advantages or government subsidies in making start-up and certain types of clean-tech investments. Depending on your tax rate these are well worth knowing about. Your tax adviser should know all about them (these are outside the scope of this book). Gifts Instead of realising a capital gain it may be advantageous to gift securities to your spouse and have him or her make the sale (thus utilising your spouse’s CGT allowance). Likewise, think about gifting relatives instead of them incurring inheritance tax.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

Constantz built a laboratory in Los Gatos, where they began “growing” carbonate cement in transport trailers filled with seawater. He soon discovered that the system generated eight times as much cement if you pumped the water full of carbon dioxide, like some oversized, salty club soda. One day, when Khosla came to inspect the lab, Constantz turned to his investor and asked, “Where can we get large quantities of carbon dioxide?” Khosla looked at him in disbelief. As one of the world’s most prominent clean-tech investors, Khosla was well aware that the planet was teeming with industrial plants who were desperately trying to find a place to put their carbon dioxide. Entire markets were emerging around technologies of carbon sequestration, locking up CO2 by injecting it into oil and gas reserves, or burying it deep in the ocean. But Constantz had stumbled across a much more powerful idea. You didn’t have to bury all that CO2.


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

She finds that she can fit easily into virtually any discussion and hold her own, even if she has had little exposure to the topic. She has found that the key is to listen carefully, probe beneath the idea by trying to discover its root, and then finding ways to make connections with arenas with which she’s more familiar. Ellen doesn’t know that much about the technologies underlying clean tech, for example. But she sits on a number of clean-tech advisory boards. Why? Because her colleagues value her ability to recognize patterns and connect the dots. Who knew what the big-box retailer could learn from electric car making? In the process, Ellen has discovered that framing the right question is often the best way to add value. Often, diverse groups have a hard time engaging with each other because they all have a different question in mind or simply are not clear about the question at hand.


pages: 284 words: 92,688

Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, disruptive innovation, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, uber lyft, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Most, however, at least try to play the game with a certain amount of subtlety. Not so Andreessen and Doerr. Doerr joined Kleiner Perkins in 1980 and has been called “the Michael Jordan of venture capital,” a hall-of-fame moneyman, one of the best ever to play the game. Doerr’s big hits include Sun Microsystems, Amazon, Netscape, and Google. But somewhere in the 2000s he seemed to lose his touch, making bad bets on so-called cleantech (renewable energy) start-ups while missing out on big hits like Facebook, LinkedIn, and Tesla. “Doerr made (Kleiner) the gold standard of venture firms” but he “is also largely responsible for the firm’s fall,” tech blog Pando wrote in 2013. Doerr has a degree in electrical engineering from Rice University and an MBA from Harvard. My theory is that when investing in start-ups required the ability to understand technology, he was without peer, but when the Valley turned its attention to social networks, photo filters, and games for teenagers, Doerr was out of his element, and so he started chasing fads.


pages: 372 words: 94,153

More From Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources – and What Happens Next by Andrew McAfee

back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, humanitarian revolution, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Landlord’s Game, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, World Values Survey

So a well-constructed “carbon reducing” certification might well have two positive effects: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing sales for certified companies. Another way households can harness the power of the market is by buying clean-energy products. It’s difficult for a family to buy its own nuclear reactor (as it probably should be), but easy to buy solar panels and batteries. Even if this purchase is more of an experiment than a complete home-energy makeover, it serves an important purpose: it signals demand for clean-tech products. As we’ve seen over and over, markets respond to this demand signal by increasing supply and boosting investment and R&D. Increased demand also causes more competition, which drives down prices. The prices of battery and solar energy products have been dropping rapidly. The surest way to sustain and accelerate these huge price declines is to keep increasing demand for clean-energy products.


pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

Available online at http://www.ren21.net/. See also UNEP, “Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010 Report,” available at http://sefi.unep.org/english/globaltrends2010.html. 6. United States Energy Information Administration, statistics available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=electricity _home#tab2. 7. See summary article at http://www.businessspectator.com.au/bs.nsf/Article /IEA-cleantech-low-carbon-energy-technology-emissio-pd20100705 -73F5M. 8. http://www.climatespectator.com.au/commentary/sizing-low-carbon-economy. CHAPTER 13: SHIFTING SANDS 1. See http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/05/opinion/05friedman.html. 2. See http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/feb/18/worlds-top-firms-environmental-damage. CHAPTER 14: THE ELEPHANT IN THE ROOM 1. A Steady-State Economy, commissioned by the Sustainable Development Commission, April 24, 2008, http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications.php?


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

And as Barack Obama noted in his call to arms for America’s green economy, some of the key technologies developed in the United States have been refined and advanced by innovative and/or low-cost producers in China, India, Japan, Germany, Denmark, South Korea, and Taiwan. Today’s market leaders in solar cells, wind turbines, biomass, compact hydro, geothermal, and wave-generating energy include companies such as Voith Hydro in Germany, Vestas in Denmark, Suzlon Energy in India, and Sinovel, LDK Solar, Suntech, and DP CleanTech in China. About 10 km (6 miles) west of the Nevada border in southern California’s Mojave Desert, the beginnings of Obama’s sought-after technological energy fightback are taking shape. Here, in a hot and dry part of the world where the sun shines 340 days a year, BrightSource Energy’s Ivanpah concentrated solar thermal power plant is being built, with a goal of full operation by mid-2013. The utility-scale 392 MW facility, the world’s largest of its type, carries $1.6 billion of U.S. government loan guarantees, a $300 million investment from NRG Solar (part of New Jersey-based NRG Energy), $168 million from equity investor Google, and long-term power contracts with Pacific Gas & Electric and Southern California Edison.


pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham

3D printing, Airbus A320, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, commoditize, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Y2K

As Alstom notes in December 2013 when putting in the largest wind farm offshore, “Thanks to a permanent-magnet generator, there are less mechanical parts inside the device, making it more reliable and thus helping to reduce operating and maintenance costs.” Alstom, “Alstom Installing World’s Largest Offshore Wind Turbine off the Belgian Coast,” November 2013, http://www.alstom.com/press-centre/2013/11/alstom-installing-worlds-largest-offshore-wind-turbine; Margaret Schleifer, “The Giant Wind Gamble,” Cleantech Investor, 2014, http://www.cleantechinvestor.com/portal/wind-energy/9552-the-giant-wind-gamble.html. 8. The gearboxes convert the 15–20 rpms into higher speeds of 1,800 rpms, which generates electricity. April Nowicki and Peter Bronski, “Are Direct-Drive Turbines the Future of Wind Energy?” Earthtechling, February 2013, http://earthtechling.com/2013/02/are-direct-drive-turbines-the-future-of-wind-energy/; Frank J.


pages: 335 words: 96,002

WEconomy: You Can Find Meaning, Make a Living, and Change the World by Craig Kielburger, Holly Branson, Marc Kielburger, Sir Richard Branson, Sheryl Sandberg

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, energy transition, family office, future of work, global village, inventory management, James Dyson, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, pre–internet, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, working poor, Y Combinator

And naturally, we're pleased. Low-Carbon Jet Fuels: Pipe Dream or Reality? We're not stopping there. The next biggest change for airlines is likely to come in the form of low carbon fuels. Unlike ground energy and ground transport, it's pretty clear that airlines have no alternatives and are going to need liquid fuels for a long time yet. Which is why, in 2011, we partnered with exciting new cleantech company LanzaTech. Their ground-breaking approach makes fuels out of waste industrial gases. Did you know, for example, that many steel mills around the world produce carbon monoxide (CO) as a waste gas—and this is often flared (burned) off as CO2, directly into the atmosphere? LanzaTech captures and recycles the carbon in the waste CO, converting it into fuels via fermentation and other processes.


pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

” — Chellis Glendinning Author, Off the Map and Chiva “ Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring was, in terms of both content and timing, one of the most important books ever.The very idea that we had this power was mind-bending.To the Earth’s everlasting sorrow, though, what should have been a wakeup call and the inspiration for a completely different course of action is in danger of becoming no more than an ‘I told you so!’” — Ingrid Witvoet Managing Editor, New Society Publishers “ Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring woke up many of us 50-somethings and 60-somethings who went on to create Earth Day, the EPA, and the green companies that are leading a clean-tech revolution in the marketplace.” — Kevin Danaher Cofounder, Global Exchange Co-Executive Producer, Green Festivals Executive Director, Global Citizen Center 50 chapter 2 : Silent Spring Silent Spring: The New Village Library Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson. Penguin Books, 1970. The Sea Around Us, by Rachel Carson. Signet, 1954. The Edge of the Sea, by Rachel Carson. Signet, 1955. The Sense of Wonder, by Rachel Carson.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

But it’s also true that broadband speeds have increased since 2017, and there doesn’t yet seem to be any sort of two-speed Internet, or rich-poor divide in terms of how quickly you can download those cat videos.34 The point here is that this fight isn’t really so much about public interest as it is relative corporate welfare. Net neutrality is one area in which the public debate over an issue that is central to our economy and civic society has been captured. Patents, as I covered extensively in chapter 5, is another. Over the past few years, I’ve heard disparate complaints from a variety of quarters—from start-up biotech firms, semiconductor and electronics firms, clean-tech companies, data analysis groups, universities, and innovators working on the Internet of things, as well as some of the venture capitalists that invest in these areas—that the patent system and the debate about how to structure it has been hijacked by the interests of the largest tech firms in the country. Indeed, the only ones who seem not to be complaining about the current system are Google, Apple, Intel, Cisco, and other Silicon Valley giants.


pages: 401 words: 115,959

Philanthrocapitalism by Matthew Bishop, Michael Green, Bill Clinton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, business process outsourcing, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, don't be evil, family office, financial innovation, full employment, global pandemic, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Live Aid, lone genius, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass affluent, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Singer: altruism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, working poor, World Values Survey, X Prize

As the Wall Street Journal reported, “Some oilmen fume that Prop 87’s supporters have invested large sums in alternative fuels and stand to benefit from any public policy that fosters their growth. This conflict of interest, rather than an altruistic concern about global warming, explains venture-capitalist support for the measure, oil companies say.” The proposition was defeated. Khosla had dismissed claims that he was conflicted by promising that if the proposition passed, he would donate every penny he made on his clean-tech investments to charity. “It would have cost me a lot of money. I had no conflict of interest. I had a negative incentive to support the proposition. But I care about where the world is going.” But he found that his pledge to give away any money he would make on clean energy seldom got reported. Other philanthrocapitalists who pursue for-profit investments as part of their philanthropic strategy should take note: they may find themselves similarly misunderstood.


pages: 457 words: 125,329

Value of Everything: An Antidote to Chaos The by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cleantech, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, European colonialism, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, Google Hangouts, Growth in a Time of Debt, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, rent control, rent-seeking, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software patent, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

By the early 1980s it persuaded Congress to halve capital gains tax rates, arguing that it would be an incentive to greater VC investment. Warren Buffett became a lead critic of this policy, admitting that he and most investors don't look at tax, they look at opportunities.12 Indeed, the VC industry, from when it began, followed the opportunities created by direct ‘mission-oriented' government investments in areas like the Internet, biotech, nanotech and cleantech. As we saw in Chapter 5, another crucial success for the NVCA came when it persuaded the US government to relax the interpretation of the ‘prudent man' investment rule (keeping pensions funds out of high-risk investments) to allow pension fund managers to invest up to 5 per cent of pension funds in riskier investments like VC ones. It meant that, from 1979 onwards, large sums of workers' pensions savings flowed into VC funds - funds on which venture capitalists typically received a management fee of 2 per cent of total volume, as well as 20 per cent ‘carried interest' of profits (i.e. the share of the profits that go to those managing the funds), like private equity.13 In 1984, during a tour of Silicon Valley by the then French President, Frangois Mitterrand, the discrepancy between the venture capitalists' newfound bullishness and their actual achievements was picked up in an exchange between Paul Berg, one of the winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry that year, and Tom Perkins (the co-founder of Kleiner-Perkins) boasting about his sector's role in biotech.


Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler

Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar

It can be summoned using a mobile device, and passengers select their destination using an on-board touchscreen display. It does not require rails, overhead lines or other road modifications. Following comprehensive tests in Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Singapore, it is planned to use it for transporting passengers between Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University and JTC Corporation’s CleanTech Park. The joint venture partners United Technical Services and 2getthere have developed various versions of an automated people mover in recent years. Each version is designed as an on-demand non-stop transportation system between two points on a network with a maximum speed of 40 kilometres per hour (25 miles per hour) and a range of 60 kilometres (37 miles). The personal vehicle transports up to six passengers and the group vehicle up to 20.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Dave Karpinski, “Making the ‘Smart Grid’ Smarter with Broadband Wireless Networks and the Internet,” Crain’s Cleveland Business, September 11, 2012, http://www.crainscleveland.com /article/20120911/BLOGS05/309119999 (accessed July 7, 2013). 27. Ibid. 28. Sunil Paul and Nick Allen, “Inventing the Cleanweb,” MIT Technology Review, April 2, 2012, http://www.technologyreview.com/news/427382/inventing-the-cleanweb/ (accessed August 17, 2013). 29. Paul Boutin, “The Law of Online Sharing,” MIT Technology Review, January/February 2012. 30. Yuliya Chernova, “New York’s Cleanweb Hackathon Sparks Green Ideas Where Cleantech and IT Intersect,” Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2012, http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/2012/10/02 /new-yorks-cleanweb-hackathon-sparks-green-ideas-where-clean-tech-and-it-intersect/ (accessed September 3, 2013); Martin LaMonica, “Cleanweb Hackers Get Busy with Energy Data,” CNET, January 23, 2012, http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-57363873-54/cleanweb-hackers -get-busy-with-energy-data/ (accessed September 3, 2013). 31.


pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

In a decade, Israel went from being a crippled laggard in the industrial world, with inflation spiking as high as 1000 percent in 1984, to becoming a luminous first in per capita accomplishment with a tenable claim to being the world’s leader in a variety of technologies. Between 1991 and 2000 venture capital outlays in Israel rose sixtyfold, as private-sector investments overwhelmed an initial government subsidy program. A 2008 survey of the world’s venture capitalists by Deloitte & Touche showed that in six key fields—telecom, microchips, software, biotech, medical devices, and cleantech—Israel ranked second only to the United States in absolute terms. In the vital area of innovation in water use and conservation, it decisively led the world. Gaining half its water from desalinization plants, adopting inventive forms of drip irrigation, and recycling 95 percent of its sewage, Israel actually managed to reduce its net water usage by 10 percent since 1948. Meanwhile, with other Mid-Eastern countries facing acute water shortages, Israel’s agricultural production rose sixteenfold, its industrial output surged fiftyfold, and its population increased tenfold.


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

At five he had been solving simple algebra problems; at eleven he and his brother cofounded a nonprofit group, the World Children’s Organization, that provided schoolbooks and vaccinations for kids in Asian countries; at twelve he entered the University of Washington; at nineteen, as a fourth-year Ph.D. candidate in neurosciences at Stanford, he decided to leave his education behind to start a company that made educational video games based on the latest neuroscientific research. “My core goal is to disrupt both the education and the game sectors,” he said, sounding like Peter Thiel. Thiel expressed concern that the company would attract people with a nonprofit attitude, who felt that “it’s not about making money, we’re doing something good, so we don’t have to work as hard. And I think this has been an endemic problem, parenthetically, in the clean-tech space, which has attracted a lot of very talented people who believe they’re making the world a better place.” “They don’t work as hard?” Hsu asked. “Have you thought about how to mitigate that problem?” “So you’re saying that might be a problem just because the company has an educational slant?” “Yes,” Thiel said. “Our main bias against investing in these sorts of companies is that you end up attracting people who just don’t want to work that hard.


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Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Envisioned as a test bed for every type of renewable energy under the sun—picture solar cells powering personal monorails instead of cars—Masdar is a retort to the unsustainable sprawl of Dubai. “One day, all cities will be built like this,” its backers promised, hinting at a multitrillion-dollar industry to follow. MIT faculty consulted on the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, while the emirate is trying to coax clean-tech companies to move here with the carrot of $250 million in seed money and the usual lures—no taxes, no oversight, and the great basin of two billion customers within a few hours’ flight. So far, there have been few takers; the opening has been pushed ahead until 2020 and plans for the city are under review. Abu Dhabi’s niche may turn out to be neither culture nor carbon, but college. Its stable of blue-chip brands includes branches of both the Sorbonne and London’s Imperial College to go along with a complete New York University campus on Saadiyat Island—the first time a major U.S. research institution has cloned its entire curriculum offshore.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

John Doerr, “Salvation (and profit) in Greentech,” TED2007, March 2007; Marc Gunther and Adam Lashinsky, “Cleanup Crew,” Fortune 156, no. 11 (November 26, 2007). 18. Jon Gertner, “Capitalism to the Rescue,” The New York Times, October 3, 2008. 19. Jerry Hirsch, “Elon Musk’s growing empire is fueled by $4.9 billion in government subsidies,” The Los Angeles Times, May 30, 2015; Sarah McBride and Nichola Groom, “Insight: How cleantech tarnished Kleiner and VC star John Doerr,” Reuters Business News, January 15, 2013. 20. David Streitfeld, “Kleiner Perkins Denies Sex Bias in Response to a Lawsuit,” The New York Times, June 14, 2012; Ellen Huet, “Kleiner Perkins’ John Doerr and Ellen Pao: A Mentorship Sours,” Forbes, March 4, 2015. 21. Gené Teare and Ned Desmond, “The first comprehensive study on women in venture capital and their impact on female founders,” TechCrunch, April 19, 2016; “Despite More Women, VCs Still Mostly White Men,” The Information, December 14, 2016. 22.


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Total Recall: My Unbelievably True Life Story by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Peter Petre

Berlin Wall, California gold rush, call centre, clean water, cleantech, Donald Trump, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Y2K

That’s a good way to make people feel guilty and hopeless—and nobody likes to feel like that. Besides, it’s hard to relate to a polar bear on an ice floe when you’re out of a job, or worried about your health insurance or about educating your kids. I promoted the California Global Warming Solutions Act as good for business—not only large and established businesses but also entrepreneurial businesses. In fact we wanted to create a whole new clean-tech industry that would create jobs, develop cutting-edge technology, and become a model for the rest of the country and the world. Building a consensus was very hard, and the Global Warming Act was far from perfect. There were fierce disagreements internally and with legislators and interest groups. But we dealt with those disagreements by listening to one another and debating the merits. We talked to leading activists and top academics.