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They could be paralyzed by hackers, or by bugs in labyrinthine software.”38 Likewise, in Dave Eggers’s The Circle,40 a fictitious Silicon Valley company representing an evil hybrid of Facebook, Google, and Apple, pulls together personal e-mails, banking information, purchases, social networking, and a universal operating system to portray what extreme loss of privacy can induce, such as placing chips in children to prevent kidnappings.41,42 Anthony Townsend has a more sanguine view in Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia.43 He believes the electronic surveillance is great and that we’re reinventing cities with a smartphone platform. With all the data flowing, there’s big business following. The “data brokers” are the companies that collect and analyze our personal information and sell it without our knowledge.44 Acxiom, using twenty-three thousand computer servers and processing more than fifty trillion data transactions per year, is the largest company in this multibillion dollar industry.
Atwood, “When Privacy Is Theft,” New York Review of Books, November 21, 2013, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/nov/21/eggers-circle-when-privacy-is-theft/?pagination=false&printpage=true. 42. J. Nocera, “A World Without Privacy,” New York Times, October 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/opinion/nocera-a-world-without-privacy.html. 43. A. Townsend, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 2013). 44. S. Kroft, “The Data Brokers: Selling Your Personal Information,” CBS News, March 9, 2014, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-data-brokers-selling-your-personal-information/. 45. A. E. Marwick, “How Your Data Are Being Deeply Mined,” New York Review of Books, January 9, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/jan/09/how-your-data-are-being-deeply-mined/?
See also Imaging; Scans Radiation Right campaign, 116 Ramamurthy, Lakshman, 65–66 RAND Corporation, 125(quote), 130–131 Reconstructive surgery after double mastectomy, 58–59 Records, medical Blue Button Initiative, 129–130 human phenome, 82–83 hype in health information technology, 130–132 OpenNotes project, 127–129 patient access to DNA data, 22 patient ownership, 125–126 See also entries beginning with Data Regulatory procedures, 288–289 Reinhardt, Uwe, 139(quote), 142 Religion, 13–14, 17–18, 50, 52 Relman, Arnold “Bud,” 176 Research, personal, 17 Respect, culture of, 20–21, 27–30 Revolution 2.0 (Ghonim), 13 Revolutions, social networks contributing to, 43–44 Rheumatoid arthritis, 144–145, 204 Rifkin, Jeremy, 49 Risk calculation Global Burden of Disease, 258–261 ionized radiation tests, 113–116 leading causes of disease and risk factors for death and disability, 260(table) predictive analysis, 249–250 TBI and gene variants, 94–95 traditional epidemiology, 70–71 RNA, 86, 98, 255–256 Roche, 215 Rosenberg, Tina, 139(quote) Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 140, 142, 148 Rubenstein, David, 37 Rush, Benjamin, 20 Ruthven, David, 189 Sabar, Ariel, 105(quote) Sage Bionetworks, 199–200 Sayfer, Steven, 190–191 Scans alternatives to radiation, 116 miniaturization of, 118–120 MOOMs, 204–205 patient access to test results, 120–121 portable devices for, 118–120 See also Imaging; Lab tests Schekman, Randy, 209–210 Schwamm, Lee, 167–168 Science, modern, 44–46 Seife, Charles, 71–72 Seigler, Mark, 20 Seinfeld (television program), 4 Semmelweis, Ignaz, 275 Sensor Project, 269 The Shallows (Carr), 40 Sharing Clinical Reports Project, 75 Shenkin, Budd, 127 Shortage of physicians, 173(fig.), 270–271 Side effects of drugs, 100–101 Sidereus Nuncius (Galilei), 44–45 The Signal and the Noise (Silver), 40 The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (Katz), 18–19 Silver, Nate, 40 Simon, Elena, 9, 10(fig.), 212 Siri, 164–165, 244 Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (Townsend), 223 Smart patients, 8–10 Smartphones attachment scopes, 122 biosensors, 83 boredom and, 48–49 compared to printing press, 40 conducting a full physical exam with, 121–123 data archiving, 48 declining cost of, 273(fig.) declining doctor visits, 162–163 diagnosis through, 4–7 DIY activities, 47 global health impact, 261–267 iBlueButton apps, 130 imaging and the anatome, 84 lab on a chip, 109–111 medical revolution stemming from, 50–54 nuclear magnetic resonance device, 119 office visits, 165(fig.)
1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, invisible hand, joint-stock company, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning
Patil, ‘Data Scientist: The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century’, Harvard Business Review, October 2012. 5Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, and Kenneth Cukier, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work and Think, London: John Murray, 2013. 6Anthony Townsend, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013, 297. 7Mark Harrington, ‘How Social Intelligence Is Revolutionizing Market Research’, business2community.com, 20 June 2013. 8‘Carol Matlack, ‘Tesco’s In-Store Ads Watch You – and It Looks Like You Need a Coffee’, businessweek.com, 4 November 2013. 9Mark Bright, ‘Facial Recognition Ads Planned for Manchester Streets’, salfordonline.com, 28 May 2013. 10Rob Matheson, ‘A Market for Emotions’, newsoffice.mit.edu, 31 July 2014. 11James Armstrong, ‘Toronto May Soon Track Residents’ Online Sentiments About City Services’, globalnews.ca, 17 June 2013 ; Sabrina Rodak, ‘Sentiment Analysis: An Emerging Trend That Could Give Hospitals an Edge in Patient Experience’, beckershospitalreview.com, 28 June 2013. 12Dana Liebelson, ‘Meet the Data Brokers Who Help Corporations Sell Your Digital Life’, Mother Jones, November/December 2013. 13Adam Kramer, Jamie Guillory and Jeffrey Hancock, ‘Experimental Evidence of Massive-Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks’, Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences 111: 24, 2014. 14Robinson Meyer, ‘Everything We Know About Facebook’s Secret Mood Manipulation Experiment’, theatlantic.com, 28 June 2014. 15Ernesto Ramirez, ‘How to Measure Mood Using Quantified Self Tools’, quantifiedself.com, 17 January 2013. 16Matthew Killingsworth and Daniel Gilbert, ‘A Wandering Mind Is an Unhappy Mind’, Science 330: 6006, 2010. 17Mount Sinai Medical Center, ‘Neuroimaging May Offer New Way to Diagnose Bipolar Disorder’, sciencedaily.com, 5 June, 2013; Lucy McKeon, ‘The Neuroscience of Happiness’, salon.com, 28 January 2012. 18Steve Lohr, ‘Huge New Development Project Becomes a Data Science Lab’, bits.blogs.nytimes.com, 14 April 2014. 19Shiv Malik, ‘Jobseekers Made to Carry Out Bogus Psychometric Tests’, theguardian.com, 30 April 2013. 20Randy Rieland, ‘Think You’re Doing a Good Job?
business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs
Tene, O. and Polonetsky, J. (2012) ‘Big data for all: privacy and user control in the age of analytics’, Social Sciences Research Network, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2149364 (last accessed15 July 2013). Thomas, J.J. and Cook, K.A. (2006) ‘A visual analytics agenda’, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 26: 10–13. Thrift, N. (2004) ‘Driving in the city’, Theory, Culture & Society, 21(4/5): 41–59. Townsend, A. (2013) Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. W.W. Norton & Co, New York. Trumpener, K. (2009) ‘Critical response I. Paratext and genre system: a response to Franco Moretti’, Critical Inquiry, 36(1): 159–71. Vanacek, J. (2012) ‘How cloud and big data are impacting the human genome – touching 7 billion lives’, Forbes, 16 April, http://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2012/04/16/how-cloud-and-big-dataare-impacting-the-human-genome-touching-7-billion-lives (last accessed 27 February 2013).
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact W. W. Norton Special Sales at firstname.lastname@example.org or 800-233-4830 Book design by Chris Welch Production manager: Louise Mattarelliano Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Townsend, Anthony M., 1973– Smart cities : big data, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia / Anthony M. Townsend. — First edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-393-08287-6 (hardcover) ISBN 978-0-393-24153-2 (e-book) 1. Cities and towns—History. 2. City planning—Technological innovations. 3. Regional planning—Technological innovations. 4.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Timmer, Marcel P., Abdul Azeez Erumban, Bart Los, Robert Stehrer, and Gaaitzen J. de Vries. Slicing Up Value Chains. University of Groningen, 2013. Tompkins, James A. No Boundaries: Breaking Through to Supply Chain Excellence. Tompkins Associates, 2003. Townsend, Anthony. Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. W. W. Norton, 2013. Toynbee, Arnold. A Study of History: Abridgement of Volumes VII–X. Oxford University Press, 1957. Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. State University of New York Press, 1996. Turchi, Peter. Maps of the Imagination: The Writer as Cartographer.