Gödel, Escher, Bach

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pages: 370 words: 94,968

The Most Human Human: What Talking With Computers Teaches Us About What It Means to Be Alive by Brian Christian

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4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, job automation, l'esprit de l'escalier, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

“I have come to the personal conclusion,” Duchamp wrote, “that while all artists are not chess players, all chess players are artists.” The scientific community, by and large, seemed to agree with that sentiment. Douglas Hofstadter’s 1980 Pulitzer Prize–winning Gödel, Escher, Bach, written at a time when computer chess was over twenty-five years old, advocates “the conclusion that profoundly insightful chess-playing draws intrinsically on central facets of the human condition.” “All of these elusive abilities … lie so close to the core of human nature itself,” Hofstadter says, that computers’ “mere brute-force … [will] not be able to circumvent or shortcut that fact.” Indeed, Gödel, Escher, Bach places chess alongside things like music and poetry as one of the most uniquely and expressively human activities of life. Hofstadter argues, rather emphatically, that a world-champion chess program would need so much “general intelligence” that it wouldn’t even be appropriate to call it a chess program at all.

(There are ten thousand billion billion billion billion possible games of chess for every atom in the universe.) As the New York Times explained: In “Gödel, Escher, Bach” [Hofstadter] held chess-playing to be a creative endeavor with the unrestrained threshold of excellence that pertains to arts like musical composition or literature. Now, he says, the computer gains of the last decade have persuaded him that chess is not as lofty an intellectual endeavor as music and writing; they require a soul. “I think chess is cerebral and intellectual,” he said, “but it doesn’t have deep emotional qualities to it, mortality, resignation, joy, all the things that music deals with. I’d put poetry and literature up there, too. If music or literature were created at an artistic level by a computer, I would feel this is a terrible thing.” In Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hofstadter writes, “Once some mental function is programmed, people soon cease to consider it as an essential ingredient of ‘real thinking.’ ” It’s a great irony, then, that he was among the first to throw chess out of the boat.

., unidentified newspaper clipping, object file, Department of Modern and Contemporary Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art; and Marcel Duchamp’s address on August 30, 1952, to the New York State Chess Association; see Anne d’Harnoncourt and Kynaston McShine, eds., Marcel Duchamp (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973), p. 131. 6 Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 7 “the conclusion that profoundly insightful chess-playing”: Douglas Hofstadter, summarizing the position taken by Gödel, Escher, Bach in the essay “Staring Emmy Straight in the Eye—and Doing My Best Not to Flinch,” in David Cope, Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001), pp. 33–82. 8 knight’s training … Schwarzkopf: See David Shenk, The Immortal Game (New York: Doubleday, 2006). 9 “The first time I”: Hofstadter, quoted in Bruce Weber, “Mean Chess-Playing Computer Tears at the Meaning of Thought,” New York Times, February 19, 1996. 10 “article in Scientific American”: Almost certainly the shocking Feng-hsiung Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, Murray Campbell, and Andreas Nowatzyk, “A Grandmaster Chess Machine,” Scientific American, October 1990. 11 “To some extent, this match is a defense of the whole human race”: Quoted by Hofstadter, “Staring Emmy Straight in the Eye,” and attributed to a (since-deleted) 1996 article titled “Kasparov Speaks” at www.ibm.com. 12 “The sanctity of human intelligence”: Weber, “Mean Chess-Playing Computer.” 13 David Foster Wallace (originally in reference to a tennis match), in “The String Theory,” in Esquire, July 1996.


pages: 274 words: 70,481

The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry by Jon Ronson

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Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, impulse control, Ronald Reagan, Skype

Because he knew who Professor Hofstadter was, and where he lived. “I’m not familiar with Professor Hofstadter,” I said to Deborah. “I know there are references to him scattered all over Being or Nothingness. But I couldn’t work out if he’s a real person or a fictional character. Is he well known?” “He wrote Gödel, Escher, Bach!” she replied, surprised by my lack of knowledge. “It was momentous.” I didn’t reply. “If you’re a geek,” sighed Deborah, “and you’re just discovering the Internet, and especially if you’re a boy, Gödel, Escher, Bach would be like your Bible. It was about how you can use Gödel’s mathematic theories and Bach’s canons to make sense of the experience of consciousness. Lots of young guys really like it. It’s very playful. I haven’t read it in its entirety but it’s on my bookshelf.” Hofstadter, she said, had published it in the late 1970s.

Deborah had offered me supplementary circumstantial evidence to back her theory that the whole puzzle was a product of Douglas Hofstadter’s impish mind. It was, she said, exactly the sort of playful thing he might do. And being the author of an international bestseller, he would have the financial resources to pull it off. Plus he was no stranger to Sweden; he had lived there in the mid-1960s. Furthermore, Being or Nothingness looked like a Hofstadter book. The clean white cover was reminiscent of the cover of Hofstadter’s follow-up to Gödel, Escher, Bach—the 2007 book I Am a Strange Loop. True, the creation of a fake Indiana University student with a fake Facebook page and an unlikely tale about a harem of beautiful French women was an odd addition, but it would do no good to second-guess the motives of a brilliant man like Hofstadter. Furthermore, Deborah believed she had solved the book’s puzzle. Yes, there was a missing piece, but it didn’t take the form of invisible ink or significant words cut out of page 13.

Levi’s story, and indeed Deborah’s theory, worked only if Douglas Hofstadter was some kind of playful, dilettantish prankster, and nothing I could find suggested he was. In 2007, for example, Deborah Solomon of The New York Times asked him some slightly facetious questions and his replies revealed him to be a serious, quite impatient man:Q. You first became known in 1979, when you published “Gödel, Escher, Bach,” a campus classic, which finds parallels between the brains of Bach, M. C. Escher and the mathematician Kurt Gödel. In your new book, “I Am a Strange Loop,” you seem mainly interested in your own brain. A. This book is much straighter. It’s less crazy. Less daring, maybe. Q. You really know how to plug a book. A. Well, O.K., I don’t know. Questions of consciousness and soul—that is what the new book was motivated by.


pages: 626 words: 181,434

I Am a Strange Loop by Douglas R. Hofstadter

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Conway, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, place-making, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, publish or perish, random walk, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, Turing machine

” — Wall Street Journal “I Am a Strange Loop scales some lofty conceptual heights, but it remains very personal, and it’s deeply colored by the facts of Hofstadter’s later life. In 1993 Hofstadter’s wife Carol died suddenly of a brain tumor at only 42, leaving him with two young children to care for . . . I Am a Strange Loop is a work of rigorous thinking.” — Time “Almost thirty years after the publication of his well-loved Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hofstadter revisits some of the same themes. The purpose of the new book is to make inroads into the nexus of self, self-awareness and consciousness by examining self-referential structures in areas as diverse as art and mathematics. Hofstadter is the man for the job. His treatment of issues is approachable and personal, you might even say subj ective. His discussion is never overtechnical and his prose never over-bearing.

” — Physics Today “I Am a Strange Loop is vintage Hofstadter: earnest, deep, overflowing with ideas, building its argument into the experience of reading it — for if our souls can incorporate those of others, then I Am a Strange Loop can transmit Hofstadter’s into ours. And indeed, it is impossible to come away from this book without having introduced elements of his point of view into our own. It may not make us kinder or more compassionate, but we will never look at the world, inside or out, in the same way again.” — Los Angeles Times Book Review “Nearly thirty years after his best-selling book Gödel, Escher, Bach, cognitive scientist and polymath Douglas Hofstadter has returned to his extraordinary theory of self.” — New Scientist “I Am a Strange Loop is thoughtful, amusing and infectiously enthusiastic.” — Bloomberg News “[P]rovocative and heroically humane . . . it’s impossible not to experience this book as a tender, remarkably personal and poignant effort to understand the death of his wife from cancer in 1993 — and to grasp how consciousness mediates our otherwise ineffable relationships.

A Shout into a Chasm When, some ten years or so later, I started working on my first book, whose title I imagined would be “Gödel’s Theorem and the Human Brain”, my overarching goal was to relate the concept of a human self and the mystery of consciousness to Gödel’s stunning discovery of a majestic wraparound self-referential structure (a “strange loop”, as I later came to call it) in the very midst of a formidable bastion from which self-reference had been strictly banished by its audacious architects. I found the parallel between Gödel’s miraculous manufacture of self-reference out of a substrate of meaningless symbols and the miraculous appearance of selves and souls in substrates consisting of inanimate matter so compelling that I was convinced that here lay the secret of our sense of “I”, and thus my book Gödel, Escher, Bach came about (and acquired a catchier title). That book, which appeared in 1979, couldn’t have enjoyed a greater success, and indeed yours truly owes much of the pathway of his life since then to its success. And yet, despite the book’s popularity, it always troubled me that the fundamental message of GEB (as I always call it, and as it is generally called) seemed to go largely unnoticed. People liked the book for all sorts of reasons, but seldom if ever for its most central raison d’être!


pages: 289 words: 22,394

Virus of the Mind by Richard Brodie

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cognitive dissonance, Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, joint-stock company, New Journalism, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy

As you’ll see in the next few chapters, much of that programming is the result of infection by mind viruses. To begin to see that, take a look at what a virus is and how it works. ttt 34 C hapter three Viruses “Imagine that there is a nickelodeon in the local bar which, if you press buttons 11-U, will play a song whose lyrics go this way: Put another nickel in, in the nickelodeon, All I want is 11-U, and music, music, music.” — Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach Long ago, possibly billions of years ago, there arose through evolution a new type of organism—if it can even be called an organism. The new thing had the unusual property that it could invade the reproductive facilities of other organisms and put them to use making copies of itself. We call this creature a virus. Viruses exist in three universes that we know of: — The first is the universe of biology, of organisms . . . of people, plants, and animals.

The author of several best-selling selfimprovement books recounts the events that led to his being brainwashed into spending 15 years in and giving $1 million to a cult. 233 virus of the mind Zen Cleary, Thomas. No Barrier: Unlocking the Zen Koan (Bantam, 1993). Superb explanation of Zen introduces a brilliant translation of the Wumenguan, the most famous book of Zen riddle-lessons. Hofstadter, Douglas R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Vintage, 1979). Even though Thomas Cleary claims Hofstadter doesn’t really grok Zen, any serious student of the nature of the mind should read this Pulitzer Prize–winning labor of love. Pirsig, Robert M. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (Bantam, 1974). Autobiographical narrative of the author’s inquiry into the nature of reality, distinctions, and sanity.

See basic drives Frankl, Victor, 216 gambling, psychology of, 117–19 blackjack and, 119 cheap insurance and, 118, 121, 122 overvaluing a long shot and, 118 playing hunches and, 119 playing the streaks and, 118, 121 stinginess, generosity and, 118–19 Gandhi, Mohandas, 181 Gates, Bill, xv, 205 Get Smart, 211 Getting Past OK (Brodie), xix, 122, 216, 223 golden handcuffs, 203 guns, danger and, 164–65 gut feelings, 212 Hamilton, William D., 51 Heisenberg, Werner, 13–14 241 virus of the mind Henry Weinhard’s beer, 155 Hofstadter, Douglas: Gödel, Escher, Bach, 35 Hugo, Victor, 65 Hunger Project, 208–9 initiation ordeals, 122–23, 143, 203–4 instincts, 18 journalism, 159–61, 164–67 bias and, 160–61 King, Larry, 162 Kusnick, Greg, 1–4, 121–22 learning pyramid, 220–22 Limbaugh, Rush, 159 making sense of senseless things, 81, 162, 188 Manchurian Candidate movie, 125 marriage, programming and, 139 Maslow, Abraham, 216 MCI telephone company, 200–201 memes, 71–72 biological definition of, 5–6 bundling of, 132–33 classes of, 19–25, 70–71 cognitive definition of, 8–11 cognitive dissonance and, 126–27, 130–31 concept of, xvi conditioning and, 126, 127–30 danger and, 111–12, 117 embedding of, 133–35 evangelism and, 80 evolution of, 65–66, 212–13 fitness and, 71–74 language and, 71 242 Index laws and customs and, 26–27 metamemes and, 12–14 origins of, 4–5, 72–74 peer pressure and, 27–28 primary drives and, 71–74, 79 programming and, 18–19 psychological definition of, 6–8 replication and, 68–69 secondary drives and, 79 self-fulfilling prophesy and, 28–29 selfish-gene theory and, 66–68 sexual evolution and, 96–98 spoked wheels as, 9–10 success and, 14–15 television and, 70 tradition and, 80 Trojan horses and, 127, 132–34 truth and, 12–14, 16 vehicles and, 9, 11 working definition of, 11–12 See also button-pushing memes; memes, spreading of; specific meme types memes, spreading of, 80–82, 222–23 evangelism and, 80 faith and, 81 familiarity and, 81 making sense and, 81 skepticism and, 81 tradition and, 80 memetics, xiii–xv concepts and, xv–xvii definition of, 5 instinct and programming and, 34 paradigm shifts and, xv–xvii quality of life and, xix–xxi Truth and, 16 243 virus of the mind Mensa, 67 Microsoft, 1, 28, 205–6 mind viruses, 15–16 cognitive dissonance and, 143 concept of, xvi cultural institutions and, 34 cultural viruses and, 45–46 definition of, 16 designer viruses and, 45–46, 195–96 evangelism and, 146 faithful reproduction and, 144–45 the future and, 196–97 penetration and, 142–44 profit motive and, 197 quality of life and, xix–xxi, 207–9 repetition and, 143 spreading of, 145–46 as threat to humanity, xvii–xix Trojan horses and, 143–44 mirroring, rapport and, 139–40 mission meme, 73 mission statements, 203 Morris, Robert, Jr., 36 multilevel marketing (MLM), 199, 206 mutation, 39 natural selection, xiii, xvii, 48–49, 58, 71–72, 79 sex drives and, 100, 109 Nazism, 15 Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), 133–34 New York Times Magazine, xxi NFL instant replay, 214–15 niche strategies, 101–2 obeying authority drive, 78 operant conditioning, 129–30 244 Index opportunity meme, 73 Oprah, 156 O’Rourke, P.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

You can put your hand over it, but it is not always so easy to get your head around it. Recursion can make the brain ache. Douglas Hofstadter’s classic volume Gödel, Escher, Bach is probably the most comprehensive and approachable explanation of the concept available to nonmathematicians. Hofstadter connects the mysterious self-referential effects found in certain realms of mathematics with the infinitely ascending staircases of M. C. Escher’s art and with J. S. Bach’s playful canons and fugues, and gives all these phenomena a memorable label: strange loops. Hofstadter’s lucid explorations go on for nearly eight hundred pages of variations on the theme; recursively, Gödel, Escher, Bach illustrates its own theme—it loops strangely. A man on an Escher staircase can climb forever without ever getting any higher. Recursion is dangerous in software because there has to be an exit.

“This is the whole world of programming”: Alan Kay’s discussion of Lisp is in “A Conversation with Alan Kay,” ACM Queue, December 2004–January 2005, at http://acmqueue.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage& pid=273. Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Basic, 1979). “Any recursive function will cause”: From Colin Allen and Maneesh Dhagat, LISP Primer, at http://grimpeur.tamu.edu/~colin/lp/node31.htm. My discussion of the halting problem is indebted to David Harel’s lucid explanations in his book Computers Ltd.: What They Really Can’t Do (Oxford, 2000). “It is tempting to try and solve the problem”: David Harel, Computers Ltd., p. 53. “dashes our hope for a software system”: Ibid., p. 50. Hofstadter’s Law appears on p. 152 of his book, Gödel, Escher, Bach. “When people ask me when”: Richard Stallman, quoted in Paul Jones, “Brooks’ Law and Open Source: The More the Merrier?”


pages: 210 words: 62,771

Turing's Vision: The Birth of Computer Science by Chris Bernhardt

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, British Empire, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Conway's Game of Life, discrete time, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

Walter Isaacson’s The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution gives a wide, sweeping history of the computer starting with Babbage and ending with the Web. Computers, minds, and the universe Scott Aaronson, David Deutsch, and Douglas Hofstadter are three computer scientists who have written thought-provoking works on a wide variety of ideas related to the theory of computation. Quantum Computing since Democritus by Aaranson, The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by Deutsch, and Gödel, Escher, Bach by Hofstadter are all fascinating. Cellular automata We only looked briefly looked at cellular automata, but they have a long and interesting history. They were first studied by Ulam and von Neumann as the first computers were built. Nils Barricelli was at Princeton during the 1950s and used the computer to simulate the interaction of cells. George Dyson’s Turing’s Cathedral gives a good historical description of this work John Conway, in 1970, defined Life involving two-dimensional cellular automata.

Collected Works: Volume I: Publications 1929–1936, edited by Solomon Feferman et. al. Oxford University Press, 1986. [22] Goldstine, Herman H. The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann, Princeton University Press, 1972. [23] Hilbert, David. The Foundations of Geometry, Chicago: Open Court, 2nd Edition, 1980 (1899). [24] Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma, Princeton University Press, reprinted in 2014. [25] Hofstadter, Douglas R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Basic Books, 1979. [26] Hofstadter, Douglas R. I Am a Strange Loop, Basic Books, 2007. [27] Hopcroft, John; Ullman, Jeffrey. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computation, Addison-Wesley, 1979. [28] Isaacson, Walter. The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, Simon & Schuster, 2014. [29] Ketcham, John Henry.


pages: 536 words: 73,482

Programming Clojure by Stuart Halloway, Aaron Bedra

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continuous integration, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Paul Graham, type inference, web application

Make sure the improved replace-symbol can handle deep nesting: ​(replace-symbol (deeply-nested 10000) 'bottom 'deepest)​ ​-> (((((((((((((((((((((((((#)))))))))))))))))))))))))​ Laziness is a powerful ally. You can often write recursive and even mutually recursive functions and then break the recursion with laziness. Shortcutting Recursion with Memoization To demonstrate a more complex mutual recursion, we will look at the Hofstadter Female and Male sequences. The first Hofstadter sequences were described in Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid [Hof99]. The Female and Male sequences are defined as follows:[40] F(0) = 1; M(0) = 0 F(n) = n - M(F(n-1)), n > 0 M(n) = n - F(M(n-1)), n > 0 This suggests a straightforward definition in Clojure: src/examples/male_female.clj ​; do not use these directly​ ​(declare m f)​ ​(defn m [n]​ ​ (if (zero? n)​ ​ 0​ ​ (- n (f (m (dec n))))))​ ​(defn f [n]​ ​ (if (zero?

id=4050 jEdit jedit modes http://github.com/djspiewak/jedit-modes/tree/master/ NetBeans enclojure http://enclojure.org TextMate textmate-clojure https://github.com/swannodette/textmate-clojure Vim VimClojure http://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=2501 Footnotes [69] http://dev.clojure.org/display/doc/Getting+Started [70] http://github.com/jochu/clojure-mode Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Appendix 2 Bibliography [Goe06] Brian Goetz. Java Concurrency in Practice. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2006. [Hof99] Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 20th Anniv, 1999. [McC06] Steve McConnell}. Software Estimation: Demystifying the Black Art. Microsoft Press, Redmond, WA, 2006. Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. You May Be Interested In… Click a cover for more information * * *


pages: 242 words: 68,019

Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies by Cesar Hidalgo

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Claude Shannon: information theory, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Hofstadter, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, New Economic Geography, Norbert Wiener, p-value, phenotype, price mechanism, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, working-age population

Then this number gradually decreased, from forty-two in 1990 to twenty-nine in 2000 and twenty-two in 2008, eventually reaching the final number of twenty. See “Mathematics of the Rubik’s Cube,” Ruwix, http://ruwix.com/the-rubiks-cube/mathematics-of-the-rubiks-cube-permutation-group. 12. The idea that information involves aperiodicity and a multitude of correlations of different lengths is also explored in Douglas Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach. See, for instance, Chapter VI: The Location of Meaning. Douglas R. Hofstadter Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 13. In recent years methods inspired by the ideas of information have been used to identify new genes in what was believed to be intergenic material. See Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis et al., “Proto-genes and De Novo Gene Birth,” Nature 487, no. 7407 (2012): 370–374. 14. See Dave Munger, “A Simple Toy, and What It Says About How We Learn to Mentally Rotate Objects,” Cognitive Daily blog, September 17, 2008, http://scienceblogs.com/cognitivedaily/2008/09/17/a-simple-toy-and-what-it-says; Helena Örnkloo and Claes von Hofsten, “Fitting Objects into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills,” Developmental Psychology 43, no. 2 (2007): 404.


pages: 490 words: 150,172

The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance by Henry Petroski

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business climate, Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, Menlo Park, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen

The problem is at the same time stated and solved in the illustration on the cover of Douglas Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach. In the illustration a cube of wood is carved in such a clever way that the block takes the shape of the letter G, E, or B depending on which face is viewed directly. If only a single face is viewed, we might naturally conclude that the entire block is in the shape of the letter we see. If two faces are viewed simultaneously in perspective, we might conclude that the block was carved with a pair of letters, and which pair would depend upon which two faces we see. But in a perspective drawing showing all three faces simultaneously, we see all three letters simultaneously. This is the case on Gödel, Escher, Bach, and when from three light sources three shadows are cast by the block, these shadows show the projections of the three perpendicular faces.

Translated for and edited by Bennet Woodcroft. London, 1851. Hill, Donald. A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. La Salle, Ill., 1984. Hill, Henry. “The Quill Pen.” The Year Book of the London School of Printing & Kindred Trades, 1924–1925: 73–78. Hindle, Brooke. Emulation and Invention. New York, 1981. Historische Bürowelt. “L’Histoire d’un Crayon.” No. 11 (October 1985): 11–13. Hofstadter, Douglas R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York, 1980. Howard, Seymour. “The Steel Pen and the Modern Line of Beauty,” Technology and Culture, 26 (October 1985): 785–98. Hubbard, Elbert. Joseph Dixon: One of the World-Makers. East Aurora, N.Y., 1912. Hubbard, Oliver P. “Two Centuries of the Black Lead Pencil,” New Englander and Yale Review, 54 (February 1891): 151–59. Hunt, Robert, editor. Hunt’s Hand-Book to the Official Catalogues: An Explanatory Guide to the Natural Productions and Manufactures of the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, 1851.


pages: 696 words: 143,736

The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, fudge factor, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, information retrieval, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

Anscombe, Wittgenstein “acknowledges” that he made “grave mistakes” in his earlier work, the Tractatus. 9 For a useful overview of Descartes’s life and work, see The Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 4, pp. 55-65. Also, Jonathan Rées Descartes presents a unified view of Descartes’s philosophy and its relation to other systems of thought. 10 Quoted from Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 11 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” Mind 59 (1950): 433-460, reprinted in E. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman, eds., Computers and Thought (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963). 12 For a description of quantum mechanics, read George Johnson, “Quantum Theorists Try to Surpass Digital Computing,” New York Times, February 18, 1997. CHAPTER 4: A NEW FORM OF INTELLIGENCE ON EARTH 1 Simple calculating devices had been perfected almost two centuries before Babbage, starting with Pascal’s Pascaline in 1642, which could add numbers, and a multiplying machine developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz a couple of decades later.

Electrons are said to tunnel through the barrier as a result of the quantum uncertainty as to which side of the barrier they are actually on. 19 Knowledge chunks would be greater than the number of distinct words because words are used in more than one way and with more than one meaning. Each different word meaning or usage is often referred to as a word “sense.” It is likely that Shakespeare used more than 100,000 word senses. 20 Quoted from Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 21 Michael Winerip, “Schizophrenia’s Most Zealous Foe,” New York Sunday Times, February 22, 1998. 22 The goal of the Visible Human Project is to create highly detailed, three-dimensional views of the male and female human body. The project is collecting transverse CT, MRI, and cryosection images. The web site is located at <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html> . 23 Researchers Mark Hübener, Doron Shoham, Amiram Grinvald, and Tobias Bonhoeffer published their experiments on optical imaging in “Spatial Relationships among Three Columnar Systems in Cat Area 17,” Journal of Neuroscience 17 (1997): 9270-9284.More information on this and other brain-imaging research is located at the Weizmann Institute’s web site <http://wwwweizmann.ac.il/> and at Amiram Grinvald’s web site <http://www.weizmann.ac.il/brain/grinvald/grinvald.htm>. 24 The work of Dr.

.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986. Hoage, R. J. and Larry Goldman. Animal Intelligence: Insights into the Animal Mind. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. Hoel, Paul G., Sidney C. Port, and Charles J. Stone. Introduction to Stochastic Processes. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1972. Hofstadter, Douglas R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books, 1979. _________. Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. New York: Basic Books, 1985. Hofstadter, Douglas R. and Daniel C. Dennett. The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul. New York: Basic Books, 1981. Hofstadter, Douglas R., Gray Clossman, and Marsha Meredith. “Shakespeare’s Plays Weren’t Written by Him, but by Someone Else of the Same Name.”


pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

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3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight

Neither do we have time to gather data on the new cancer from a lot of patients; there may be only one, and she urgently needs a cure. Our best hope is then to compare the new cancer with known ones and try to find one whose behavior is similar enough that some of the same lines of attack will work. Is there anything analogy can’t do? Not according to Douglas Hofstadter, cognitive scientist and author of Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. Hofstadter, who looks a bit like the Grinch’s good twin, is probably the world’s best-known analogizer. In their book Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking, Hofstadter and his collaborator Emmanuel Sander argue passionately that all intelligent behavior reduces to analogy. Everything we learn or discover, from the meaning of everyday words like mother and play to the brilliant insights of geniuses like Albert Einstein and Évariste Galois, is the result of analogy in action.

Einstein’s “happiest thought,” out of which grew the general theory of relativity, was an analogy between gravity and acceleration: if you’re in an elevator, you can’t tell whether your weight is due to one or the other because their effects are the same. We swim in a vast ocean of analogies, which we both manipulate for our ends and are unwittingly manipulated by. Books have analogies on every page (like the title of this section, or the previous one’s). Gödel, Escher, Bach is an extended analogy between Gödel’s theorem, Escher’s art, and Bach’s music. If the Master Algorithm is not analogy, it must surely be something like it. Rise and shine Cognitive science has seen a long-running debate between symbolists and analogizers. Symbolists point to something they can model that analogizers can’t; then analogizers figure out how to do it, come up with something they can model that symbolists can’t, and the cycle repeats.

., 128 building blocks and, 128–129, 134 schemas, 129 survival of the fittest programs, 131–134 The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (Fisher), 122 Genetic programming, 52, 131–133, 240, 244, 245, 252, 303–304 sex and, 134–137 Genetic Programming (Koza), 136 Genetic search, 241, 243, 249 Genome, poverty of, 27 Gentner, Dedre, 199 Ghani, Rayid, 17 The Ghost Map (Johnson), 182–183 Gibson, William, 289 Gift economy, 279 Gleevec, 84 Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 261 Gödel, Escher, Bach (Hofstadter), 200 Good, I. J., 286 Google, 9, 44, 291 A/B testing and, 227 AdSense system, 160 communication with learner, 266–267 data gathering, 272 DeepMind and, 222 knowledge graph, 255 Master Algorithm and, 282 Naïve Bayes and, 152 PageRank and, 154, 305 problem of induction and, 61 relational learning and, 227–228 search results, 13 value of data, 274 value of learning algorithms, 10, 12 Google Brain network, 117 Google Translate, 154, 304 Gould, Stephen Jay, 127 GPS, 212–214, 216, 277 Gradient descent, 109–110, 171, 189, 193, 241, 243, 249, 252, 257–258 Grammars, formal, 36–37 Grandmother cell, perceptron and, 99–100 Graphical models, 240, 245–250 Graphical user interfaces, 236 The Guns of August (Tuchman), 178 Handwritten digit recognition, 189, 195 Hart, Peter, 185 Hawking, Stephen, 47, 283 Hawkins, Jeff, 28, 118 Hebb, Donald, 93, 94 Hebb’s rule, 93, 94, 95 Heckerman, David, 151–152, 159–160 Held-out data, accuracy of, 75–76 Help desks, 198 Hemingway, Ernest, 106 Heraclitus, 48 Hidden Markov model (HMM), 154–155, 159, 210, 305 Hierarchical structure, Markov logic network with, 256–257 Hill climbing, 135, 136, 169, 189, 252 Hillis, Danny, 135 Hinton, Geoff, 103, 104, 112, 115, 137, 139 The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (Adams), 130 HIV testing, Bayes’ theorem and, 147–148 HMM.


pages: 706 words: 120,784

The Joy of Clojure by Michael Fogus, Chris Houser

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cloud computing, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Paul Graham, rolodex, traveling salesman

We now turn our focus to Clojure’s multimethods, a way of defining polymorphic functions based on the results of arbitrary functions, which will get you halfway toward a system of polymorphic types. 9.2. Exploring Clojure multimethods with the Universal Design Pattern The most specific event can serve as a general example of a class of events. Douglas R. Hofstadter In Douglas Hofstadter’s Pulitzer prize winning work Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, he describes a notion of the Prototype Principle—the tendency of the human mind to use specific events as models for similar but different events or things. He presents the idea “that there is generality in the specific” (Hofstadter 1979). Building on this idea, programmer Steve Yegge coined the term The Universal Design Pattern (UDP), extrapolating on Hofstadter’s idea (Yegge 2008) and presenting it in terms of prototypal inheritance (Ungar 1987).

We had considered offering an implementation of Mike as an appendix, but we ran over our page count. Herlihy, Maurice, and Nir Shavit. 2008. The Art of Multiprocessor Programming. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann. Hickey, Rich. 2009. “Are We There Yet?” Presented at JVM Languages Summit. This wonderful presentation made firm the popular view of Rich as Philosopher Programmer. Hofstadter, Douglas. 1979. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books. See the sections “Classes and Instances,” “The Prototype Principle,” and “The Splitting-off of Instances from Classes” for more detail of the topics in section 9.2. Hoyte, Doug. 2008. Let Over Lambda. Lulu.com. This is an amazing look into the mind-bending power of Common Lisp macros that provided the motivation for the DSLs section of this book.

encapsulation, 5th block-level encapsulation local encapsulation namespace encapsulation Enlive enumeration values enumerator env ephemeral equality, 2nd, 6th, 7th equality partitions, 2nd, 3rd equality semantics error handling, 2nd, 3rd escaped evaluation contextual-eval, 2nd eval, 2nd meta-circular exceptions, 5th, 9th, 10th, 20th exceptions exceptions exceptions exceptions catch, 2nd checked compile-time, 2nd ConcurrentModification-Exception finally, 2nd handling java.lang.ClassCastException java.lang.Exception java.lang.NullPointer-Exception java.lang.RuntimeException runtime runtime vs. compile-time throw, 2nd, 3rd expand-clause expansion expected case experimentation expression problem extend, 2nd, 3rd, 4th extend-protocol, 2nd extend-type, 2nd Extensible Markup Language (XML), 2nd, 3rd F Factor (programming language), 2nd factory methods fail, 2nd false, 3rd evil-false Fantom (programming language) fence post errors filter, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th find-doc find-ns finite state machines first, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th First In, First Out (FIFO), 2nd First In, Last Out (FILO) first-class, 2nd, 3rd fixed-size pool FIXO, 3rd, 5th fixo-peek fixo-push, 2nd, 3rd flexibility float, 2nd floating point, 2nd, 5th overflow rounding error underflow, 2nd floats fluent builder FluentMove fn, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th for, 2nd force, 2nd, 3rd forever form free variables freedom to focus frequencies Frink (programming language), 2nd frustrating fully qualified, 2nd, 3rd fun functions, 6th anonymous, 2nd, 3rd, 4th arity Calling Functions dangerous function signatures local multiple function bodies named arguments G Gang of Four garbage collection, 2nd, 3rd gcd gen-class, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th generalized tail-call optimization, 2nd generic genotype gensym get, 2nd, 3rd, 4th get-in getter global hierarchy map goal Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid good-move Graham, Paul, 2nd graphic graphical user interface (GUI), 2nd, 3rd, 4th graphics context greatest common denominator, 2nd green thread Greenspun’s Tenth Rule, 2nd Groovy (programming language) H Halloway, Stuart, 2nd has hash maps hash-map, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Haskell (programming language), 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th out of order execution Template Haskell typeclasses, 2nd heuristic Hickey, Rich, 2nd hidden hierarchy history homoiconicity, 2nd hooks, 2nd hops host semantics Hoyte, Doug hyphens I I/O, 2nd, 3rd idempotent, 2nd identical?


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

And the key to understanding how second-order emergence arises in living systems is reflexivity. The fugue of the mind In 1979 the American mathematician and philosopher Douglas Hofstadter published a ground-breaking book17 that explored how self-reference and formal rules allow meaning to emerge from meaningless elements. The book created a sensation because, apart from its very serious scientific premise, it was also inspired by art. Entitled Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, the book used narratives, paradoxes and logical arguments to explore the connection between the Austrian mathematician who discovered the limits of logic, the Dutch graphic artist who challenged our visual perception and the German composer who produced some of the most beautiful music ever. All three used self-referencing, or reflexivity, in their work. I have mentioned in passing how Kurt Gödel used logical substitution to prove his incompleteness theorem, and thus prove that logic is not sufficient to prove that something is true.

‘Synthetic Self-Replicating Molecules’, Scientific American, 48–55 (July 1994). 15Zarkadakis, G. (2001), ’Noetics: A proposal for a theoretical approach to consciousness’, Proceedings of International Conference ‘Toward a Science of Consciousness: Sweden 2001; Consciousness and its place in Nature’, University of Skövde, Sweden, 7–11 August 2001. 16Foerster, H. von (1981), Observing Systems. Seaside, Calif.: Intersystems Publications. 17Hofstadter, D. (1979), Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books. 18Hofstadter, D. (2007), I Am a Strange Loop. New York: Basic Books. 19Corballis, M. C. (2014), The Recursive Mind: The Origins of Human Language, Thought, and Civilisation. Princeton: Princeton University Press. PART III: ADA IN WONDERLAND 12 All Cretans are Liars 1Aristotle’s collective writings on logic were later grouped under a book entitled Organon (which means the ‘instrument’ in Greek). 2More precisely, the title of George Boole’s book was An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities.

However, that proof does not preclude us humans from rethinking the problem from a completely different axiomatic set, and inventing a ‘paradoxical arithmetic’. In effect, we can change the axioms at will – and that’s a manifestation of intuitive, incomputable thinking. 21Turing, A. M. (1939), ‘Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals’, in: Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, pp. 161–228. The paper was based on Turing’s 1938 PhD thesis of the same title (Princeton University). 22Hofstadter, D. (1979), Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books. 13 The Program 1Or ‘memes’, to use Richard Dawkins’ paradigm, where ideas behave like genes and are governed by evolutionary forces. 2Lord Stanhope (3rd Earl Stanhope and Viscount Mahon) was a scientist and statesman who worked on logic machines for several decades. His Demonstrator was a device capable of solving mechanically traditional syllogisms, numerical syllogisms and elementary probability problems. 3Morris, I. (2010), Why the West Rules–For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future.


pages: 317 words: 84,400

Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World by Christopher Steiner

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23andMe, Ada Lovelace, airport security, Al Roth, algorithmic trading, backtesting, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, dumpster diving, Flash crash, Gödel, Escher, Bach, High speed trading, Howard Rheingold, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, medical residency, Narrative Science, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Sergey Aleynikov, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

The audience then voted on the identity of each composition. Larson’s pride took a ding when his piece was fingered as that belonging to the computer. When the crowd decided that Emmy’s piece was the true product of the late musician, Larson winced.13 Douglas Hofstadter, a professor of cognitive science at Indiana University, oversaw the competition among Larson, Emmy, and Bach. Hofstadter’s 1979 book Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid contemplated artificial intelligence and music composition and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. “Emmy forces us to look at great works of art and wonder where they came from and how deep they really are,” Hofstadter said at the time.14 With a victory in a controlled, academic setting, Emmy’s profile soared, as did Cope’s. But as the requests and praised poured in, so did the scorn.

., 3, 218 “Explanation of Binary Arithmetic” (Leibniz), 58 ExxonMobil, 50 Facebook, 198–99, 204–6, 214 graph theory and, 70 face-reading algorithms, 129, 161 Falchuk, Myron, 157 Farmville, 206 fat tails, 63–64 FBI, 137 FedEx, 116 Ferguson, Lynne, 87 Fermat, Pierre, 66–67 fiber: dark, 114–20, 122 lit, 114 fiber optic cables, 117, 124, 192 Fibonacci, Leonardo, 56–57 Fibonacci sequence, 57 Fidelity, 50 finance, probability theory and, 66 financial markets, algorithms’ domination of, 24 financial sector, expansion of, 184, 191 see also Wall Street Finkel, Eli, 145 Finland, 130 First New York Securities, 4 Fisher, Helen, 144 Flash Crash of 2010, 2–5, 48–49, 64, 184 Forbes magazine, 8 foreign exchange, golden mean and, 57 Fortran, 12, 38 Fortune 500 companies, Kahler’s methods at, 176 Fourier, Joseph, 105–6 Fourier series, 105–7 Fourier transforms, 82 401K plans, 50 Fox News, 137 fractal geometry, 56 France, 61, 66, 80, 121, 147 Frankfurt, 121 fraud, eLoyalty bots and, 193 French-English translation software, 178–79 From Darkness, Light, 99 galaxies, orbital patterns of, 56 gambling: algorithms and, 127–35 probability theory and, 66, 67 game theory, 58 algorithms and, 129–31 and fall of Soviet Union, 136 in organ donor networks, 147–49 in politics, 136 sports betting and, 133–35 terrorism prevention by, 135–40 gastroenterology, 157 Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 61–65 Gaussian copula, 65, 189 Gaussian distributions, 63–64 Gaussian functions, 53 GE, 209, 213 Geffen, 87 General Mills, 130 General Motors, 201 genes, algorithmic scanning of, 159, 160 geometry, 55 of carbon, 70 fractal, 56 George IV, king of England, 62 Germany, 26, 61, 90 West, 19 Getco, 49, 116, 118 Glenn, John, 175 gluten, 157 Gmail, 71, 196 Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Hofstadter), 97 gold, 21, 27 Gold and Stock Telegraph Company, 123 Goldberg, David, 219 golden mean, 56–57 Goldman Sachs, 116, 119, 204, 213 bailout of, 191 engineering and science talent hired by, 179, 186, 187, 189 Hull Trading bought by, 46 Peterffy’s buyout offer from, 46 Gomez, Dominic, 87 goodwill, 27 Google, 47, 71, 124, 192, 196, 207, 213, 219 algorithm-driven cars from, 215 PageRank algorithm of, 213–14 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 136 Göttingen, 122 Göttingen, University of, 59, 65 grain prices, hedging algorithm for, 130 grammar, algorithms for, 54 Grammy awards, 83 graph theory, 69–70 Great Depression, 123 Greatest Trade Ever, The (Zuckerman), 202 Greece, rioting in, 2–3 Greenlight Capital, 128 Greenwich, Conn., 47, 48 Griffin, Blake, 142 Griffin, Ken, 128, 190 Groopman, Jerome, 156 Groupon, 199 growth prospects, 27 Guido of Arezzo, 91 guitars: Harrison’s twelve–string Rickenbacker, 104–5, 107–9 Lennon’s six–string, 104, 107–8 hackers: as algorithm creators, 8, 9, 178 chat rooms for, 53, 124 as criminals, 7–8 for gambling, 135 Leibniz as, 60 Lovelace as, 73 online, 53 poker played by, 128 Silicon Valley, 8 on Wall Street, 17–18, 49, 124, 160, 179, 185, 201 Wall Street, dawn of hacker era on, 24–27 haiku, algorithm-composed, 100–101 Haise, Fred, 165–67 Hal 9000, 7 Hammerbacher, Jeffrey, 201–6, 209, 216 Handel, George Frideric, 68, 89, 91 Hanover, 62 Hanto, Ruthanne, 151 Hardaway, Penny, 143 “Hard Day’s Night, A,” opening chord of, 104–10 hardware: escalating war of, 119–25 Leibniz’s binary system and, 61 Harrah’s, 135 Harrison, George, 103–5, 107–10 on Yahoo!


pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

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23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

For Ray, though, that’s kind of the point – crib to jet fighter is really just a few doublings, the law of accelerating returns in action. In fact, Ray points out that sometimes the rate of doubling can double itself, creating the ‘hyper-exponential growth’ Stewart Brand references. Others are unconvinced. They see Ray the same way the State of Massachusetts sees Tracy – he makes a road where there isn’t one. Douglas Hofstadter is one critic. Now a cognitive scientist at Indiana University, he most famously authored Gödel, Escher, Bach – an attempt to explain how consciousness can arise from a system, even though the system’s component parts aren’t individually conscious. Hofstadter told American Scientist that he thought Ray’s ideas were like a blend of ‘very good food and some dog excrement’ that made it hard to untangle the ‘rubbish’ ideas from the good ones. That’s gotta hurt. My sense is that Ray plays with ideas that touch on some of our deepest hopes and fears, and that’s why people react.

M. 161 fossil fuels 168, 191–2, 193, 302 Fowler, Colorado 200–1 Franken, Al 303 Future of Humanity Institute 13, 25 G Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich 133 Gaia hypothesis 164 Galactic Suite 137 Gas Technology Institute 212 Gates, Bill 186 Gayoom, Maumoon Abdul 244–5 Ge Hong 15 Gelsinger, Jesse 58–9, 64 gene expression 47 gene therapy 58–60 genes 45, 46–7 genetic testing 297–9 genome 35–52, 55, 279 genome engineering 60–3, 186–7 genome sequencing 35–6, 40–1, 50–1 influenza virus 64–5 Personal Genome Project (PGP) 37, 42–3, 47–50, 273, 301 geo-engineering 179 Gerritsen, Nick 218–20 Girifushi 241–2 global warming 143, 164, 167–72, 174–7, 208 and agriculture 228–31, 233–5 Maldives 241–9, 256–62 Northwest Passage 178 Gödel, Escher, Bach (Hofstadter) 276 Godin, Seth 155–6, 291 Goldacre, Ben 58 Goldberg, David 182 Goodall, Chris 215 Google 151, 152, 157, 160, 194–5 ‘Google Goggles’ 163 Google Lunar X prize 137 Gore, Al 303 Gray, John 303 Greason, Jeff 136, 137, 141–3 Greenpeace 185 Greider, Carol 18 Grey Goo 121–3 grid parity 203, 205 guanine 37–9, 46 Guggenheim, Polly 77, 80 Guthrie, Woody 44 H H5N1 69–70 Hailiebrae 235–7 Haiti 202 HAL 9000 76, 102 Hansen, Jim 215 Harvard 20, 40 Harvard Medical School 149 Hawking, Stephen 140, 159 Hayflick, Leonard 18 Hayflick limit 18–19, 51, 52 Haylan, Ken 235–7, 239 Heeger, Alan 196, 201, 203 Heinlein, Robert 142 Heinrich, Andreas 125 Herr, Hugh 29 Hess, Rick 197–204, 285 Hillis, W.


pages: 211 words: 77

The Little Schemer by Daniel P. Friedman, Matthias Felleisen, Duane Bibby

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Gödel, Escher, Bach, pattern recognition, Y Combinator

Introduction and notes by Martin Gardner. Original publications under different titles: Alice's Adventures Under Ground and Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There, Macmillan and Company, London 1865 and 1872, respectively. Halmos, Paul R. Naive Set Theory. Litton Educational Publishers, New York, 1960. Hein, Piet. Grooks. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1960. Hofstadter, Douglas R. Godel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Bmid. Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1979. Nagel, Ernest and James R. Newman. Godel's Proof. New York University Press, New York,1958. P6lya, Gyorgy. How to Solve It. Doubleday and Co., New York, 1957. Smullyan, Raymond. To Mock a Mockingbird And Other Logic Puzzles Including an Amazing Adventure in Combinatory Logic. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 1985. Suppes, Patrick.

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

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additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra

The narrative is complemented by twenty-three articles on AI from thinkers such as Sherry Turkle, Douglas Hofstadter, Marvin Minsky, Seymour Papert, and George Gilder. For the entire text of the book, see http://www.KurzweilAI.net/aim. 5. Key measures of capability (such as price-performance, bandwidth, and capacity) increase by multiples (that is, the measures are multiplied by a factor for each increment of time) rather than being added to linearly. 6. Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel; Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). Chapter One: The Six Epochs 1. According to the Transtopia site (http://transtopia.org/faq.html#1.11), "Singularitarian" was "originally defined by Mark Plus ('91) to mean 'one who believes the concept of a Singularity.' " Another definition of this term is " 'Singularity activist' or 'friend of the Singularity'; that is, one who acts so as to bring about a Singularity [Mark Plus, 1991; Singularitarian Principles, Eliezer Yudkowsky, 2000]."

., "Many Future Nanomachines: A Rebuttal to Whitesides' Assertion That Mechanical Molecular Assemblers Are Not Workable and Not a Concern," a Debate about Assemblers, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, 2001, http://www.imm.org/SciAmDebate2/whitesides.html. 156. Tejal A. Desai, "MEMS-Based Technologies for Cellular Encapsulation," American Journal of Drug Delivery 1.1 (2003): 3–11, abstract available at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/expand?pub=infobike://adis/add/2003/00000001/00000001/art00001. 157. As quoted by Douglas Hofstadter in Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 158. The author runs a company, FATKAT (Financial Accelerating Transactions by Kurzweil Adaptive Technologies), which applies computerized pattern recognition to financial data to make stock-market investment decisions, http://www.FatKat.com. 159. See discussion in chapter 2 on price-performance improvements in computer memory and electronics in general. 160.

The "Entscheidungsproblem" is the decision or halting problem—that is, how to determine ahead of time whether an algorithm will halt (come to a decision) or continue in an infinite loop. 29. Church's version appeared in Alonzo Church, "An Unsolvable Problem of Elementary Number Theory," American Journal of Mathematics 58 (1936): 345–63. 30. For an entertaining introductory account of some of the implications of the Church-Turing thesis, see Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel; Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1979). 31. The busy-beaver problem is one example of a large class of noncomputable functions, as seen in Tibor Rado, "On Noncomputable Functions," Bell System Technical Journal 41.3 (1962): 877–84. 32. Ray, "Kurzweil's Turing Fallacy." 33. Lanier, "One Half of a Manifesto." 34. A human, that is, who is not asleep and not in a coma and of sufficient development (that is, not a prebrain fetus) to be conscious. 35.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

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agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Ambassador Thomas Graham, expert on spy satellites John Grant, author of Corrupted Science Eric Green, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health Ronald Green, author of Babies by Design Brian Greene, professor of mathematics and physics, Columbia University, author of The Elegant Universe Alan Guth, professor of physics, MIT, author of The Inflationary Universe William Hanson, author of The Edge of Medicine Leonard Hayflick, professor of anatomy, University of California at San Francisco Medical School Donald Hillebrand, director of Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory Frank von Hipple, physicist, Princeton University Jeffrey Hoffman, former NASA astronaut, professor of aeronautics and astronautics, MIT Douglas Hofstadter, Pulitzer Prize winner, author of Gödel, Escher, Bach John Horgan, Stevens Institute of Technology, author of The End of Science Jamie Hyneman, host of MythBusters Chris Impey, professor of astronomy, University of Arizona, author of The Living Cosmos Robert Irie, former scientist at AI Lab, MIT, Massachusetts General Hospital P. J. Jacobowitz, PC magazine Jay Jaroslav, former scientist at MIT AI Lab Donald Johanson, paleoanthropologist, discoverer of Lucy George Johnson, science journalist, New York Times Tom Jones, former NASA astronaut Steve Kates, astronomer and radio host Jack Kessler, professor of neurology, director of Feinberg Neuroscience Institute, Northwestern University Robert Kirshner, astronomer, Harvard University Kris Koenig, filmmaker and astronomer Lawrence Krauss, Arizona State University, author of The Physics of Star Trek Robert Lawrence Kuhn, filmmaker and philosopher, PBS TV series Closer to Truth Ray Kurzweil, inventor, author of The Age of Spiritual Machines Robert Lanza, biotechnology, Advanced Cell Technology Roger Launius, coauthor of Robots in Space Stan Lee, creator of Marvel Comics and Spider-Man Michael Lemonick, former senior science editor, Time magazine, Climate Central Arthur Lerner-Lam, geologist, volcanist, Columbia University Simon LeVay, author of When Science Goes Wrong John Lewis, astronomer, University of Arizona Alan Lightman, MIT, author of Einstein’s Dreams George Linehan, author of SpaceShipOne Seth Lloyd, MIT, author of Programming the Universe Joseph Lykken, physicist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Pattie Maes, MIT Media Laboratory Robert Mann, author of Forensic Detective Michael Paul Mason, author of Head Cases W.

Some say that within twenty years robots will approach the intelligence of the human brain and then leave us in the dust. In 1993, Vernor Vinge said, “Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended …. I’ll be surprised if this event occurs before 2005 or after 2030.” On the other hand, Douglas Hofstadter, author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, says, “I’d be very surprised if anything remotely like this happened in the next 100 years to 200 years.” When I talked to Marvin Minsky of MIT, one of the founding figures in the history of AI, he was careful to tell me that he places no timetable on when this event will happen. He believes the day will come but shies away from being the oracle and predicting the precise date. (Being the grand old man of AI, a field he helped to create almost from scratch, perhaps he has seen too many predictions fail and create a backlash.)


pages: 158 words: 49,168

Infinite Ascent: A Short History of Mathematics by David Berlinski

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, Stephen Hawking, Turing machine, William of Occam

Gödel’s monograph was not published in English until 1961, and even during the 1960s, when I was studying logic at Princeton—Gödel’s home, after all—the great theorem could only really be learned from mimeographed notes that Alonzo Church had carefully prepared and from a very useful popular account of the theorem written by Ernest Nagel and James Newmann. This has now changed, perhaps as the result of Douglas Hofstadter’s entertaining book, Gödel, Escher, Bach. And yet Gödel’s theorem has retained its esoteric aspect, with many mathematicians regarding it as marginal to their own working concerns. On the other hand, philosophers as well as physicists have attempted to appropriate Gödel’s theorem for their own ends. The physicist Stephen Hawking has recently declared that he for one has lost faith in the prospects of a single unified theory of everything; it has apparently been Gödel’s theorem, which he has been late in appreciating, that has persuaded him that any such system could not be complete if it were consistent.


pages: 222 words: 74,587

Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929 by Markus Krajewski, Peter Krapp

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business process, double entry bookkeeping, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Index librorum prohibitorum, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacques de Vaucanson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, means of production, new economy, paper trading, Turing machine

Zur Geschichte der österreichischen Bibliotheks-Instruktion. Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Vereins für Bibliothekswesen, 5, 9ff. Hoffmeister, Johannes, ed. 1936. Dokumente zu Hegels Entwicklung. Stuttgart: Fr. Frommans Verlag. Hofmann, Walter. 1916. Buch und Volk und die volkstümliche Bücherei. Vol. 4 of Schriften der Zentralstelle für Volkstümliches Büchereiwesen. Leipzig: Theodor Thomas Verlag. Hofstadter, Douglas R. 1989. Gödel, Escher, Bach: Ein endloses geflochtenes Band. 12th edition. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. Hohn, Thomas. 1993. Moderne Zeiten! Von der Karteikarte zur elektronischen Akte. Jahrbuch der rheinischen Denkmalpflege 36:517–524. Holst, Helge. 1937. Blattkatalog oder Kartothek als systematischer Bibliothekskatalog. Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 54 (11):556–564. Hopkins, Judith. 1992. The 1791 French Cataloging Code and the Origins of the Card Catalog.


pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

However, there are certain planetary candidates discovered by the Kepler mission that are even more Earth-like but have not been confirmed as of mid-2012. 132 whole new pieces of math were involved: Singh, Simon. Fermat’s Enigma. New York: Walker & Company, 1997. 134 There are some problems: This was shown by Kurt Gödel in his Incompleteness Theorem. For further reading, see for example, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid by Douglas R. Hofstadter. Basic Books. 1979. 135 it turns out we will have to wait until 2024: Arbesman, Samuel, and Rachel Courtland. “2011 preview: Million-Dollar Mathematics Problem.” New Scientist, December 2010. More recently, Ryohei Hisano and Didier Sornette have conducted a more sophisticated statistical analysis; they estimate that there’s a 41 percent chance by 2024, similar to our prediction of 50 percent.


pages: 893 words: 199,542

Structure and interpretation of computer programs by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

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Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Fermat's Last Theorem, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine

See Hodges 1983 for a biography of Turing. 20 Some people find it counterintuitive that an evaluator, which is implemented by a relatively simple procedure, can emulate programs that are more complex than the evaluator itself. The existence of a universal evaluator machine is a deep and wonderful property of computation. Recursion theory, a branch of mathematical logic, is concerned with logical limits of computation. Douglas Hofstadter's beautiful book Gödel, Escher, Bach (1979) explores some of these ideas. 21 Warning: This eval primitive is not identical to the eval procedure we implemented in section 4.1.1, because it uses actual Scheme environments rather than the sample environment structures we built in section 4.1.3. These actual environments cannot be manipulated by the user as ordinary lists; they must be accessed via eval or other special operations.

In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 295-301. Hewitt, Carl E. 1977. Viewing control structures as patterns of passing messages. Journal of Artificial Intelligence 8(3):323-364. Hoare, C. A. R. 1972. Proof of correctness of data representations. Acta Informatica 1(1). Hodges, Andrew. 1983. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Simon and Schuster. Hofstadter, Douglas R. 1979. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books. Hughes, R. J. M. 1990. Why functional programming matters. In Research Topics in Functional Programming, edited by David Turner. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 17-42. IEEE Std 1178-1990. 1990. IEEE Standard for the Scheme Programming Language. Ingerman, Peter, Edgar Irons, Kirk Sattley, and Wallace Feurzeig; assisted by M. Lind, Herbert Kanner, and Robert Floyd. 1960.


pages: 1,387 words: 202,295

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Second Edition by Harold Abelson, Gerald Jay Sussman, Julie Sussman

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Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Richard Stallman, Turing machine, wikimedia commons

See Hodges 1983 for a biography of Turing. 224 Some people find it counterintuitive that an evaluator, which is implemented by a relatively simple procedure, can emulate programs that are more complex than the evaluator itself. The existence of a universal evaluator machine is a deep and wonderful property of computation. Recursion theory, a branch of mathematical logic, is concerned with logical limits of computation. Douglas Hofstadter’s beautiful book Gödel, Escher, Bach explores some of these ideas (Hofstadter 1979). 225 Warning: This eval primitive is not identical to the eval procedure we implemented in 4.1.1, because it uses actual Scheme environments rather than the sample environment structures we built in 4.1.3. These actual environments cannot be manipulated by the user as ordinary lists; they must be accessed via eval or other special operations.

In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 295-301. –› Hewitt, Carl E. 1977. Viewing control structures as patterns of passing messages. Journal of Artificial Intelligence 8(3): 323-364. –› Hoare, C. A. R. 1972. Proof of correctness of data representations. Acta Informatica 1(1). Hodges, Andrew. 1983. Alan Turing: The Enigma. New York: Simon and Schuster. Hofstadter, Douglas R. 1979. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books. Hughes, R. J. M. 1990. Why functional programming matters. In Research Topics in Functional Programming, edited by David Turner. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 17-42. –› IEEE Std 1178-1990. 1990. IEEE Standard for the Scheme Programming Language. Ingerman, Peter, Edgar Irons, Kirk Sattley, and Wallace Feurzeig; assisted by M. Lind, Herbert Kanner, and Robert Floyd. 1960.


pages: 846 words: 232,630

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test

Probably nobody is a reductionist in the preposterous sense, and everybody should be a reductionist in the bland sense, so the "charge" of reductionism is too vague to merit a response. If somebody says to you, "But that's so reductionistic!" you would do well to respond, "That's such a quaint, old-fashioned complaint! What on Earth did you have in mind?" I am happy to say that in recent years, some of the thinkers I most admire have come out in defense of one or another version of reductionism, carefully circumscribed. The cognitive scientist Douglas Hofstadter, in Godel Escher Bach, composed a "Prelude ... Ant Fugue" (Hofstadter 1979, pp. 275-336) that is an analytical hymn to the virtues of reductionism in its proper place. George C. Williams, one of the pre-eminent evolutionists of the day, published "A Defense of Reductionism in Evolutionary Biology" (1985). The zoologist Richard Dawkins has distinguished what he calls hierarchical or gradual reductionism from precipice reductionism; he rejects only the precipice version (Dawkins 1986b, p. 74).1 More recently the physicist Steven Weinberg, in Dreams of a Final Theory (1992), has written a chapter entitled "Two Cheers for Reductionism," in which he distinguishes between uncompromising reductionism (a bad thing) and compromising reductionism (which he ringingly endorses).

It does not appear, then, that there is any fair arithmetic test we can put to the boxes that will clearly distinguish the man from the machine. This difficulty had been widely seen as systematically blocking any argument from Godel's Theorem to the impossibility of AI. Certainly everybody in AI has always known about Godel's Theorem, and they have all continued, unworried, with their labors. In fact, Hofstadter's classic Godel Escher Bach (1979) can be read as the demonstration that Godel is an unwilling champion of AI, providing essential insights about the paths to follow to strong AI, not showing the futility of the field. But Roger Penrose, Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford, and one of the world's leading mathematical physicists, thinks otherwise. His challenge has to be taken seriously, even if, as I and others in AI are convinced, he is making a fairly simple mistake.


pages: 315 words: 93,628

Is God a Mathematician? by Mario Livio

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Albert Einstein, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Brownian motion, cellular automata, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, Georg Cantor, Gerolamo Cardano, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, music of the spheres, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, traveling salesman

Hersh, R. 2000. 18 Unconventional Essays on the Nature of Mathematics (New York: Springer). Herz-Fischler, R. 1998. A Mathematical History of the Golden Number (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications). Hobbes, T. 1651. Leviathan. Republished 1982 (New York: Penguin Classics). Hockett, C. F. 1960. Scientific American, 203 (September), 88. Höffe, O. 1994. Immanuel Kant. Translated by M. Farrier (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press). Hofstadter, D. 1979. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books). Holden, C. 2006. Science, 311, 317. Huffman, C. A. 1999. In Long, A. A., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ———. 2006. “Pythagoras.” In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pythagoras. Hume, D. 1748. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.


pages: 313 words: 101,403

My Life as a Quant: Reflections on Physics and Finance by Emanuel Derman

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Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, Claude Shannon: information theory, Emanuel Derman, fixed income, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, hiring and firing, implied volatility, interest rate derivative, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, law of one price, linked data, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Murray Gell-Mann, pre–internet, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Richard Feynman, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, stochastic volatility, technology bubble, transaction costs, value at risk, volatility smile, Y2K, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

Finally, I spent a halfyear writing the thesis, composing a paper for publication, and preparing for my thesis defense. A small number of my friends got out of Columbia in five years, but many took eight or nine. Sometimes we tried to save others from our fate. In the early 1970s Doug Hofstadter came by our office in Pupin. He was still unknown, a PhD student in physics at Eugene, Oregon, and not yet the famous author of GOdel, Escher, Bach. It took some time before I realized that he was the son of my cousin's friend Robert Hofstadter of electron-proton scattering fame. Doug was contemplating a switch to Columbia from the University of Oregon where he was in graduate school. Though it felt deliciously like biting the hand that fed us, we tried to warn him away from Pupin. Most of us grew to hate our stay in the physics department.


pages: 294 words: 86,601

Mind Wide Open: Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life by Steven Johnson

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Columbine, double helix, epigenetics, experimental subject, Gödel, Escher, Bach, James Watt: steam engine, l'esprit de l'escalier, pattern recognition, phenotype, Steven Pinker, theory of mind

“Bridging the Gap”: Where Cognitive Science Meets Literary Criticism. Stanford Humanities Review Supplement 4, no. 1 (spring 1994). Hall, Stephen. “Journey to the Center of My Brain.” The New York Times Magazine, July 1999. Hauser, Marc D. Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000. Hoffman, Donald D. Visual Intelligence: How We Create What We See. New York and London: W.W. Norton, 1998. Hofstadter, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books, 1979. – -. Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language. New York: Basic Books, 1997. Horgan, John. Rational Mysticism: Dispatches from the Border Between Science and Spirituality. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer, and Sue Carter. “Mothering and Oxytocin or Hormonal Cocktails for Two,” Natural History (December 1995).


pages: 362 words: 97,862

Physics in Mind: A Quantum View of the Brain by Werner Loewenstein

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, complexity theory, dematerialisation, discovery of DNA, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, informal economy, information trail, Isaac Newton, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, Norbert Wiener, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, stem cell, trade route, Turing machine

Vorlesungen über Gastheorie. Leipzig: J. A. Barth. In English translation: Lectures in Gas Theory, 74, 446–448. Berkeley: University of California Press; London: Cambridge University Press. Broda, E. 1983. Ludwig Boltzmann: Man, Physicist, Philosopher. English translation by Gray, L. Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press. 12. How to Represent the World The Universal Turing Machine Hofstadter, D. R. 1980. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Braid. New York: Vintage Books, Random House. Trakhtenbrot, B. A. 1963. Algorithms and Automatic Computing Machines. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co. Turing, A. 1936. On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society (2nd Series) 42:230–265. Turing, A. 1937. On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem: A correction.


pages: 385 words: 25,673

Word Freak: Heartbreak, Triumph, Genius, and Obsession in the World of Competitive ScrabblePlayers by Stefan Fatsis

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deliberate practice, Donner party, East Village, forensic accounting, Golden Gate Park, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Saturday Night Live

A B C T W S D E F G DLS H I J K T W S L M N DLS O T W S 1 D W S TLS 2 D W S 3 F L I B U G A S H ME T DLS 4 5 6 7 8 TLS DLS T W S DLS 9 10 TLS TLS D W S O U F T V E T E r A N S W R G O O A R B L I N D H I O N I N E E D T E DLS D W S DLS D W S DLS D W S D W S DLS D W S TLS TLS DLS DLS DLS DLS TLS DLS DLS DLS TLS T W S DLS TLS TLS Adam’s final play used three letters and scored 78 points. “I don’t quite know how I knew the words; maybe memory from organic chemistry or from some popular book on the subject (Gödel, Escher, Bach?),” Adam tells me in an e-mail after the tournament. “And I think I’d heard those hooks mentioned before in a Scrabble context. I saw the possibilities as soon as he played THIONINE, and, believe me, when he played USE, I was very glad to see that I’d just picked the M!” In the same round, Joel Wapnick turns the word GLOM into the nonbingo, triple-triple EGLOMISE$ for 99 points. And when Brian Cappelletto beats Mark Nyman — despite Mark’s play of CAThOODS#, which Chambers defines as the state of being a cat or having the nature of a cat — he moves into first place on the leader board.


pages: 574 words: 164,509

Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom

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agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey

Wikipedia (2012a). 51. Markoff (2011). 52. Rubin and Watson (2011). 53. Elyasaf et al. (2011). 54. KGS (2012). 55. Newell et al. (1958, 320). 56. Attributed in Vardi (2012). 57. In 1976, I. J. Good wrote: “A computer program of Grandmaster strength would bring us within an ace of [machine ultra-intelligence]” (Good 1976). In 1979, Douglas Hofstadter opined in his Pulitzer-winning Gödel, Escher, Bach: “Question: Will there be chess programs that can beat anyone? Speculation: No. There may be programs that can beat anyone at chess, but they will not be exclusively chess programs. They will be programs of general intelligence, and they will be just as temperamental as people. ‘Do you want to play chess?’ ‘No, I’m bored with chess. Let’s talk about poetry’” (Hofstadter [1979] 1999, 678). 58.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

There was free food at corporate and academic events every evening and no shortage of “womanizing” opportunities. He bought a home in Los Trancos Woods several miles from Stanford, near SAIL, which was just in the process of moving from the foothills down to a new home on the central Stanford campus. When he arrived at Stanford in 1979 the first golden age of AI was in full swing—graduate students like Douglas Hofstadter, the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid; Rodney Brooks; and David Shaw, who would later take AI techniques and transform them into a multibillion-dollar hedge fund on Wall Street, were all still around. The commercial forces that would lead to the first wave of AI companies like Intellicorp, Syntelligence, and Teknowledge were now taking shape. While Penn had been like an ivory castle, the walls between academia and the commercial world were coming down at Stanford.


pages: 476 words: 120,892

Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology by Johnjoe McFadden, Jim Al-Khalili

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, bioinformatics, complexity theory, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Ernest Rutherford, Gödel, Escher, Bach, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, New Journalism, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, theory of mind, traveling salesman, uranium enrichment, Zeno's paradox

Kinsbourne, “Integrated cortical field model of consciousness,” in Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness, CIBA Foundation Symposium No. 174 (Chichester: Wiley, 2008). 7 K. Saeedi, S. Simmons, J. Z. Salvail, P. Dluhy, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, J. J. L. Morton and M. L. W. Thewalt, “Room-temperature quantum bit storage exceeding 29 minutes using ionized donors in silicon-28,” Science, vol. 342: 6160 (2013), pp. 830–33. 8 D. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Basic Books, 1999; first publ. 1979). 9 R. Penrose, Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994). 10 S. Hameroff, “Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose–Hameroff ‘Orch OR’ model of consciousness,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series A, vol. 356: 1743 (1998), pp. 1869–95; S.


pages: 506 words: 152,049

The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene by Richard Dawkins

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Alfred Russel Wallace, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, epigenetics, Gödel, Escher, Bach, impulse control, Menlo Park, Necker cube, p-value, phenotype, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, stem cell

The influence of daylength and male vocalizations on the estrogen-dependent behavior of female canaries and budgerigars, with discussion of data from other species. In Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 8 (eds J. S. Rosenblatt et al.), pp. 39–73. New York: Academic Press. Hines, W. G. S. & Maynard Smith, J. (1979). Games between relatives. Journal of Theoretical Biology 79, 19–30. Hofstadter, D. R. (1979). Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. Brighton: Harvester Press. Hölldobler, B. & Michener, C. D. (1980). Methods of identification and discrimination in social Hymenoptera. In Evolution of Social Behavior: Hypotheses and Empirical Tests (ed. H. Markl), pp. 35–57. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie. Holmes, J. C. & Bethel, W. M. (1972). Modification of intermediate host behaviour by parasites. In Behavioural Aspects of Parasite Transmission (eds E.

Principles of Protocol Design by Robin Sharp

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, business process, discrete time, fault tolerance, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, loose coupling, packet switching, RFC: Request For Comment, stochastic process, x509 certificate

Which of the security techniques discussed in Chapter 6 would you use in order to avoid this problem? Chapter 8 Protocol Encoding Anteater: “Actually, some trails contain information in coded form. If you know the system, you can read what they’re saying just like a book.” Achilles: “Remarkable. And can you communicate back to them?” Anteater: “Without any trouble at all. That’s how Aunt Hillary and I have conversations for hours”. ¨ “Godel, Escher, Bach” Douglas R. Hofstadter According to our definition in Chapter 1, the representation rules for PDUs are just as much part of the protocol as the rules of the exchange of PDUs. However, until now we have ignored this topic completely, describing the contents of PDUs in an abstract manner as records with fields of more or less standard elementary or composite data types. The representation rules are chosen so as to fulfil a number of general objectives in relation to the protocol: 1.


pages: 624 words: 127,987

The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, loose coupling, loss aversion, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

When delegating responsibilities, always assign tasks to a single owner with a clear deadline. Only then will people feel responsible for getting things done. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/bystander-apathy/ Planning Fallacy Hofstadter’s Law: it always takes longer than you expect, even when you take into account Hofstadter’s Law. —DOUGLAS HOFSTADTER, COGNITIVE SCIENTIST AND PULITZER PRIZE- WINNING AUTHOR OF GÖDEL, ESCHER, BACH: AN ETERNAL GOLDEN BRAID People are consistently and uniformly horrendous at planning. As uncomfortable as this sounds, any plan created by even the most intelligent and skilled CEO or project manager is very likely to be grossly inaccurate. As Jason Fried and David Heinemeier Hansson memorably quip in their book Rework, “Planning is guessing.” The reason we’re so bad at planning is because we’re not omniscient—unforeseen events or circumstances can dramatically impact even the most detailed plans.


pages: 551 words: 174,280

The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Bonfire of the Vanities, conceptual framework, cosmological principle, dark matter, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, first-past-the-post, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, William of Occam

., Science and Ultimate Reality (Cambridge University Press, 2003) David Deutsch, ‘Quantum Theory of Probability and Decisions’, Proceedings of the Royal Society A455 (1999) David Deutsch, ‘The Structure of the Multiverse’, Proceedings of the Royal Society A458 (2002) Richard Feynman, The Character of Physical Law (BBC Publications, 1965) Richard Feynman, The Meaning of It All (Allen Lane, 1998) Ernest Gellner, Words and Things (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) William Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Basic Books, 1979) Douglas Hofstadter, I am a Strange Loop (Basic Books, 2007) Bryan Magee, Popper (Fontana, 1973) Pericles, ‘Funeral Oration’ Plato, Euthyphro Karl Popper, In Search of a Better World (Routledge, 1995) Karl Popper, The World of Parmenides (Routledge, 1998) Roy Porter, Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World (Allen Lane, 2000) Martin Rees, Just Six Numbers (Basic Books, 2001) Alan Turing, ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Mind, 59, 236 (October 1950) Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men (Faber, 2002) Vernor Vinge, ‘The Coming Technological Singularity’, Whole Earth Review, winter 1993 *The term was coined by the philosopher Norwood Russell Hanson.


pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1995. Hey, Anthony J. G., ed. Feynman and Computation. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2002. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, or, the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth, Eclesiasticall and Civill. London: Andrew Crooke, 1660. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing: The Enigma. London: Vintage, 1992. Hofstadter, Douglas R. Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid. New York: Basic Books, 1979. ———. Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. New York: Basic Books, 1985. ———. I Am a Strange Loop. New York: Basic Books, 2007. Holland, Owen. “The First Biologically Inspired Robots.” Robotica 21 (2003): 351–63. Holmes, Oliver Wendell. The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1893.