Ferguson, Missouri

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pages: 152 words: 40,733

A Few Red Drops: The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 by Claire Hartfield

desegregation, Ferguson, Missouri, indoor plumbing, new economy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, strikebreaker, union organizing

As President Obama has reminded us, if we look closely we will see the “quiet riots” on “any street corner in Chicago or Baton Rouge or Hampton . . . born from the same place as the fires and the destruction . . . [that] happen when a sense of disconnect settles in and hope dissipates.” In 2015, this disconnect was once again forced into the light of day as violence surged in the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, New York City, and Baltimore. In 1919, the riot investigation commission concluded, “But for [white gangs] it is doubtful if the riot would have gone beyond the first clash.” In riots that have followed, poor blacks have been the ones to explode. But the riots have a common cause, as named by the civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.: “A riot is the language of the unheard.” Dr.

She never stopped working for a better world. Now men, women, and children all around us continue to follow in her footsteps. As fires burned in Baltimore, a five-year-old black child worked with neighbors and volunteers, sweeping up the debris, a small beginning toward picking up the pieces of her community. A black pastor worked with white businessmen to plan rebuilding of a Baltimore community center destroyed in the riot. In Ferguson, Missouri, artists, black and white, came together to paint murals of hope on boarded-up businesses. In New York, Chicago, and all across America, successful adults share their knowledge about the work world with middle-and high-schoolers. Police officers volunteer to read to students in public schools. Students are creating films, plays, and poems and are engaging with one another online to share their anger and also their hopes and ideas for a better tomorrow.

F. to, 41–42; new businesses in, 39; Packingtown in, 35–36; prejudice in, 37–38; racial tensions in, 121–127; “Refined” in, 29; “Respectables” in, 30; “Riffraffs” in, 30; schools in, 92; skyline of, 14–15; transportation in, 36; transport of dressed meat from, 43; Union Stock Yard in, 39, 41; wage scale in; white immigrants in, 35 Chicago Harbor, 66 Chicago race riot (1919), 140–146; Barnett’s conference on, 151; Black Belt in, 149, 150, 152–153; black workers in, 149, 149, 150, 152; bringing in of soldiers, 153; bringing of justice following, 164–165; choices for Chicago following, 162–163; commission investigating, 163, 168–169; continuance of violence after, 165–166; deaths in, 148, 149, 150, 153, 161; destruction in, 157–160, 158, 159; gang actions in, 147, 150, 153, 157–158; grand jury following, 164–165; indictments in, 163; injuries in, 148, 150, 161; Lithuanian community in, 157–160; militia and, 151, 160; mobs with bricks in, 118–119; Packingtown in, 157, 158, 158–159; police actions in, 145, 145–146, 148, 150, 153–154, 157; private security guards in, 148–149; progress following, 167–168; rain in, 153; ratcheting up in, 147–150; Thomson’s tour of area, 151–152; union leadership and, 156; white youths in, 147, 148; wrecked house in, 152 Chicago River docks, 65–67 Christiana Resistance, 23 Clarke, Dorothy, 9 Colored Men’s Library Association, 32 Consumers Ice Company, 7 Cour, Jan, 9 Crawford, James, 140 Culinary Alliance, strike by, 31 D Democratic Party, 39, 51 Dichter, Elsie, 9 Dismond, Binga, 80 Donnelly, Michael, 68, 69, 74 Drake, St. Clair, 29–30 Dunbar, Paul Lawrence, 3 E “Economically Dispossessed,” 30, 61 Efficiency Clubs, 105, 155–156 Eighth Infantry Regiment, 79–83, 127, 129 F Ferguson, Missouri, race violence in, 168, 169 Fifteenth Amendment, 25 Fifty-Fifth Street beach, 12 Firemen, black, 62 Fitzgerald, John, 124–125, 138–139 Fitzgerald, Joseph, 59 Fitzpatrick, John, 121 Ford, Henry, 47 Foster, William Z., 121, 124 Fourteenth Amendment, 25 Freer, L. C., 19 G Gangs, 57–58, 109, 136, 168–169 Gleeson, Ann, 8 Glick, Frieda, 9 Great Gate of the Union Stock Yard, 71, 136, 143, 144, 167 Great Migration, 85–106 H Harris, John Turner, 1, 5–6, 7, 10–12, 86, 140, 160, 165 Harrison family, 133–134 Henderson, Mr., as railroad worker, 89–90, 94–96 Henneberry, Bernice, 8 Highbinders (Chinese tongs), 57 Hill, T.


pages: 328 words: 97,711

Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know About the People We Don't Know by Malcolm Gladwell

Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, crack epidemic, Ferguson, Missouri, financial thriller, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, Snapchat

Bland: For a failure to signal? You’re doing all of this for a failure to signal? Bland was arrested and jailed. Three days later, she committed suicide in her cell. 2. The Sandra Bland case came in the middle of a strange interlude in American public life. The interlude began in the late summer of 2014, when an eighteen-year-old black man named Michael Brown was shot to death by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri. He had just, allegedly, shoplifted a pack of cigars from a convenience store. The next several years saw one high-profile case after another involving police violence against black people. There were riots and protests around the country. A civil rights movement, Black Lives Matter, was born. For a time, this was what Americans talked about. Perhaps you remember some of the names of those in the news.

If something went awry that day on the street with Sandra Bland, it wasn’t because Brian Encinia didn’t do what he was trained to do. It was the opposite. It was because he did exactly what he was trained to do. 4. On August 9, 2014, one year before Sandra Bland died in her cell in Prairie View, Texas, an eighteen-year-old African American man named Michael Brown was shot to death by a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri. Brown had been a suspect in a robbery at a nearby grocery store. When Darren Wilson—the police officer—confronted him, the two men struggled. Brown reached inside the driver’s window of Wilson’s patrol car and punched him. Wilson ended up shooting him six times. Seventeen days of riots followed. Prosecutors declined to press charges against Officer Wilson. Ferguson was the case that began the strange interlude in American life when the conduct of police officers was suddenly front and center.

A police officer approaches a civilian on the flimsiest of pretexts, looking for a needle in a haystack—with the result that so many innocent people are caught up in the wave of suspicion that trust between police and community is obliterated. That’s what was being protested in the streets of Ferguson: years and years of police officers mistaking a basketball player for a pedophile.2 Is this just about Ferguson, Missouri or Prairie View, Texas? Of course not. Think back to the dramatic increase in traffic stops by the North Carolina State Highway Patrol. In seven years they went from 400,000 to 800,000. Now, is that because in that time period the motorists of North Carolina suddenly started running more red lights, drinking more heavily, and breaking the speed limit more often? Of course not. It’s because the state police changed tactics.


pages: 242 words: 71,943

Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

Individual Americans had experienced how national growth solved their individual problems, a narrative they would never seriously question thereafter. Struggling with Constraints The liabilities from this experiment would now start to come due, particularly for local governments. The infrastructure investments being induced created a lot of transactions – a lot of economic growth – but the lack of productivity meant there wasn’t enough wealth to maintain everything once the financial sugar high wore off. Cities like Ferguson, Missouri, which was an affluent suburb of St. Louis in the first generation of the post-war boom, now had to sustain all those miles of roads, sidewalks, and pipes with a stagnating tax base not up to the challenge. Ferguson would go on to become notorious for decline and blight, a distinction it shares with most of America’s immediate post-war suburbs. These suburbs became known as “first ring” because, while they began to stagnate and struggle, a second ring of development was being created in the hinterland beyond them.

And this is all before considering the local government, who is now tasked with maintaining all the roads, streets, walks, curbs, pipes, pumps, valves, and meters – infrastructure they couldn’t afford to maintain when things were shiny and new – with a tax base in decline and an impoverished population struggling to get by. To make matters worse, aging cities routinely take on debt to compensate for their insolvency. Unlike federal and, to a lesser extent, state governments, debt levels are a genuine constraint for local governments. Too much debt crowds out other spending and only serves to magnify the despair of decline. There was a lot written about why Ferguson, Missouri, blew up in riots and a police crackdown following the shooting death of Michael Brown during a police incident. Most of this analysis involved race. Again, I’m not dismissing race as an accelerating factor, but Ferguson – one of the early post-war suburbs – is a case study in building a place designed to decline. Ferguson was one of the suburbs of St. Louis built in the first generation of automobile expansion.

., 28 city infrastructure necessary for, 115 productivity of, 134–138, 143–144 Efficiency, designing for, 174–176 Ehrenhalt, Alan, 116 Empire State Building (New York, New York), 129 Employment, in productive places, 133 England, 83 Expenses, and revenues, 41–44 Extended family, 200–201 F Failure, slow, 110–115 Failure to Act (ASCE report), 65–67 Family, extended, 200–201 Fannie Mae, 92 Farmers, risk management strategies of, 83–84 Federal Funds Rate, 97 Federal government: debt for, 186 impact of infrastructure on, 79 Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 89, 92 Federal Reserve, 99 Feedback, in local governments, 173–174 Ferguson, Missouri, 93, 114 FHA (Federal Housing Administration), 89 Financial status, local government's understanding of, 190–191 Finished states, neighborhoods built to, 21–23 “First ring” suburbs, 94 Form-based codes, 193–194 Fragile systems, 4 Franchises, productivity of, 133–134 Freddie Mac, 92 Future, predicting needs for, 19–20, 120–121 G Gaps, in cities, 160–163 Garcia, Anthony, 158 Gas tax, 75 Gawron, Stephen, 161 Gehl, Jan, 8 “General Theory of Walkability,” 206 Gentrification, of urban neighborhoods, 117 Goals, of individuals vs. communities, 40–41 Goland, Carol, 84 Gold reserves, 94 Gold standard, as basis for trade, 90 Government debt, 96–100 Government policies, prioritizing traffic, 29 Great Depression, 87–89, 191 The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (Ehrenhalt), 116 Great Society, 93 Growth: economic stability and focus on, 100–102 in municipalities, 50–57 as objective of local governments, 176 wealth vs., 102–104 H Haidt, Jonathan, 208, 209, 215 Hardship, response to, 172–174 Hasidic Judaism, 213–214, 217 Hemingway, Ernest, 4 Henwood, Doug, 79 Hierarchies, in local government, 174–176 Highland neighborhood (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 Highland Park (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 High land values, 27–30 High Point, North Carolina, 161 Highway bypass corridor, 134–138 Hollander, Justin B., 8, 9 Homeless shelters, xi Homes, changing, 20 Hoover, Herbert, 87 Horizontal expansion, in California, 197 Housing: in California, 197–198 post-war changes in, 92 preference for single-family, 144–145 Housing authority, 178t How to Live in a World We Don't Understand (Taleb), 59 Human habitats, 1–14 as complex, adaptive systems, 3–4 in North America, 1–3 spooky wisdom in, 5–10 as systems that are complicated, 11–14 Hunter-gatherer existence, 58 Hurricane Katrina, 102–103 Hurricane Rita, 102–103 I Illusion of Wealth: and constant maintenance, 152 human response to, 57–60 Illusion of Wealth phase of development, 143 Improvement to Land (I/L) Ratio, 25, 25f, 117 Improvement value, 23–25, 25f Incentives, to fix problems, 113 Income taxes, 72 Incremental changes, implementing, 122–123, 156–157 Incremental growth, 15–35 and complex, adaptive systems, 168 complex vs. complicated buildings in, 20–23 constraints on, 164 and founding of cities, 15–20 good and bad development in, 34–35 and high land values, 27–30 and neighborhood renewal, 23–27 private and public investment in, 30–34 in traditional habitat development, 2 Infill projects, 160 Infrastructure, 63–81 accounting for, 70–71 and American Society of Civil Engineers, 65–67 calculating returns on investment for, 67–69 Congressional Budget Office on, 78–80 development of, 30–34 as investment, 41–42 in modern development, 32 and municipalities, 44–50 perception of need for more, 63–65 ratio of private to public investment in, 129–130 real return on investment, 74–78 secondary effects of, 72–74 Infrastructure Cult: development of, 65–67 paper returns calculated by, 69 Insolvency, 187–192 Interstate highway system, 92 Investment(s), 147–170 barbell investment approach, 148–150 capital, 171–172 conventional vs. strong towns thinking about, 185–186, 186t in filling gaps in cities, 160–163 impact of regulations on, 194 infrastructure as, 41–42 little bets, 150–160 low-risk investments with steady returns, 150–155 prudent constraints for, 164–168 public and private, 30–34, 31f, 32f returns on, see Return on investment in Suburban Retrofit, 168–169 Italy, walking in, 203–204 J Jacobs, Jane, 8, 101–102 Japan, 76 Jimmy's Pizza, 161–162 Job creation, 49, 72–73 Johnson, Neil, 12, 13 Junger, Sebastian, 216–217 K Keynes, John Maynard, 88 Keynesian economic policies, 88 Krugman, Paul, 63, 78 Kunstler, James, 110–111 L Lafayette, Louisiana, 101, 141–144, 151 Landau, Moshe, 213–214, 217 Land value: in declining suburbs, 113 and interstate highway project, 92 and neighborhood renewal, 23–25, 25f in neighborhoods with different types of properties, 165–167, 165f, 166f and suburban development, 27–30 Learning, from previous local investments, 187 Legacy programs, 173 Lifestyle choices, 202, 205–206 “Lifestyle enclaves,” 208 Little bets, 16–18, 150–160 Local economy: as basis for national economy, 101–102 national vs., 103 Local government: changes in, to maintain economic stability, 105–106 debt taken on by, 113–114 funded by state government, 95 impact of infrastructure on, 79–80 profit run by, 37–38, 147 relationship of state and, 198 Long declines, 110–115 “Long emergency,” 110–111 Long Recession of the 1870s, 77 Los Angeles, California, xi Lovable places, 10 Low-risk investments, with steady returns, 150–155 Lydon, Mike, 158 M Maintenance: ability to keep up with, 109 cash-flow debt to cover, 188–192, 188f–190f of development projects, 52–57 of infrastructure, 46–49 need for constant, 151–154 in place-oriented government, 180–183 required for single-family homes, 112 Maintenance department, 179t Manhattan, New York, 24 Martenson, Chris, 108 Meaning, life of, 212–218 Middle class, 92, 93, 144–145 Milan, Italy, 164 Mills Fleet Farm, 134–137 Minicozzi, Joseph, 138–140, 161 “Minnesota Miracle,” 95 Mixed-use neighborhoods, 163, 169 Modern city development: as high-risk investments, 149 as lead by pubic investment, 34–35 productive places in, 131–134 Modern Monetary Theory, 99 Mortgages, during Great Depression, 88–89 Mouzon, Steve, 10, 113 Muskegon, Michigan, 161 N National Association of Home Builders, 136 National economy, local vs., 103 Natural disasters, 102–103 Neighborhoods: abandonment of, 109–110 built to finished states, 21–23 changing in post-war era, 92–93 community living in, 202–203 decline of, 113 gentrification of urban, 117 mixed-use, 163, 169 renewal of, and incremental growth, 23–27 responses to improvements in, 158 structured around religions, 214 in transition sections of Detroit, 118 Neighbors, being involved with, 202–203 New Deal economics, 87–88 New Orleans, Louisiana, 102, 182 Nixon, Richard, 94 Noncritical systems, 182 O Oak Cliff neighborhood (Dallas, Texas), 159 Obama, Barack, 63 Obesity, among Pacific Islanders, 58–59 Options Real Estate, 160 Orange County, California, xi–xii Order, chaos vs., 121–122 The Original Green (Mouzon), 10, 113 Oroville dam (California), 182 Oswego, New York, 152 Oswego Renaissance Association, 152 P Pacific Islanders, 58–59, 183–185 Paper returns on investment, 67–69 Paradox of Avarice, 104 Paradox of Thrift, 88, 104 Pareidolia, 8–9, 9f Parks department, 178t Party analogy, 34–35 A Pattern Language (Alexander), 8 Pension funds, 56–57, 70, 98 Pequot Lakes, Minnesota, 44–46 Perception, of need for more infrastructure, 63–65 Personal preferences, 144–145 Peru, 84 Place-oriented government, 171–198 and confirmation bias, 183–186 designed for efficiency, 174–176 focus on broad wealth creation by, 176–180 maintenance as priority for, 180–183 and regulations, 192–194 response to hardship by, 172–174 subsidiarity in, 195–198 understanding of debt by, 186–192 Political differences, 207 Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 Post-war boom: and economic stability, 91–93 modern city development established in, 12 Power, subsidiarity principle and, 196–198 Prayer of Saint Francis, 218 Prioritization, of maintenance, 180–183 Private development, 40 Private investment: private to public investment ratio, 129–130 public and, 30–34, 31f, 32f Private sector (businesses): response to economic hardship in, 172–173 small, see Small businesses Problem solving, 13–14 Productive places, 125–146 downtown vs. edge of town, 134–138 in past, 125–127 and personal preferences, 144–145 productivity calculations for, 128–130 return on investment, 141–144 traditional vs. modern development in, 131–134 value per acre, 138–141 Productivity, calculations of, 128–130 Project teams, 179–180 Property taxes, 49 Property value, 23–25, 25f Public health, and walking neighborhoods, 205 Public investment: private and, 30–34, 31f, 32f private to public investment ratio, 129–130 returns required for, 147 Public safety department, 179t Q Quality-of-life benefits, 187 Quantitative Easing, 99 R Railroad companies, 77 Rational decision making, 107–123 about failing development systems, 115–120 about long declines, 110–115 within complex, adaptive system, 120–123 and lack of single solution, 107–110 Real return on investment, 74–78 Redevelopment, financial productivity after, 131–134, 139–140, 139t Redundant systems, 182 ReForm Shreveport, 219, 220 Regulations: from place-oriented government, 192–194 and subsidiarity principle, 195–198 Repealing regulations, 192–193 Republican Party, 209 Request for proposal (RFP), 50 Residents, learning concerns of, 156–157 Resources: assumption of abundance of, 12–14 wasted, in modern development, 19 Retreats, strategic, 108–109 Return on investment, 141–144 calculating, for infrastructure, 67–69 for capital projects, 171–172 in cities, 44 and debt taken on by local governments, 187 low-risk investments with steady, 150–155 paper, 67–69 real, 74–78 social, 78–79 Revenues, and expenses, 41–44 RFP (request for proposal), 50 The Righteous Mind (Haidt), 208 Risk management strategies, 83–85 Roaring Twenties, 87 Roberts, Jason, 159 Roosevelt, Franklin, 87, 88 Rotary International, 203 S St.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Barack Obama’s second term happened to coincide with the moment in history when the victim’s perspective became the semi-official way of looking at crime and violence. Now the disproportionate incidence of black arrests was taken, in some quarters, as prima facie evidence of white racism. The Ferguson uprising On August 9, 2014, 18-year-old Michael Brown was shot dead by policeman Darren Wilson after a confrontation in a housing project in Ferguson, Missouri, a fast-changing but relatively well integrated town in St. Louis County. The incident sparked three waves of riots, the first one lasting two weeks, the second one coming three months later when a grand jury chose not to indict Wilson. There was additional unrest on the first anniversary of the shooting. The controversy was, in hindsight, unwarranted. According to an investigation into Wilson’s conduct by the civil rights division of the Obama administration’s Justice Department, the 289-pound Brown, high on THC and accompanied by his friend Dorian Johnson, had stolen several boxes of cigarillos from an Indian-owned variety store, manhandling the diminutive owner when he protested.

If those people were outside government, Black Lives Matter looked like something more threatening still: a party of race war. Every time someone was shot dead by police under difficult-to-piece-together circumstances, a daily occurrence in a vast and well-armed country, there were tensions. In the last days of 2014, an unstable Baltimore man named Ismaaiyl Brinsley drove to Brooklyn and murdered two police. Two officers were shot outside the Ferguson, Missouri, police station in March 2015. When Freddie Gray, another young man from Baltimore with a long rap sheet, died of a spinal injury in police custody a month later, there were nights of wild rioting. The following summer, in the middle of presidential election season, two armed black men were shot and killed by police on consecutive days. On July 5, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Alton Sterling, a street vendor of music CDs, was wrestled to the ground while resisting two policemen and shot dead.

Then a Sniper Opened Fire,” New York Times, July 10, 2016. Baltimore had a black mayor: “State Seeks Delay in 3 Freddie Gray Trials, Pending Appeals,” Chicago Tribune, February 8, 2016. “Part of the reason”: Mark Landler, “Obama Offers New Standards on Police Gear in Wake of Ferguson Protests,” New York Times, December 2, 2014. “I spoke to them”: U.S. Department of Justice, “Attorney General Holder Visits Ferguson, Missouri,” August 22, 2014. Online at justice.gov. Democrats were three times as likely: David Weigel, “Three Words Republicans Wrestle With: ‘Black Lives Matter,’ ” Washington Post, July 13, 2016. “end to the war”: “End the War on Black People,” Movement for Black Lives. Online at policy.m4bl.org. “digital”: Jessica Guynn, “Meet the Woman Who Coined #BlackLivesMatter,” USA Today, March 4, 2015.


pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

If you film a political demonstration or action by the police, you may end up possessing information that powerful interests would like to suppress. Something similar, after all, happened to Laura Poitras. She began her adult life as a chef. After she started making films with strong political themes, she became a target for government harassment. In other words: this stuff can happen to anyone. Smartphone-wielding citizens were arrested for filming the deaths of Philando Castile, Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, and Alton Sterling. In Ferguson, Missouri, civilians were also detained for filming officers after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown. “The possibility of citizen journalism is thrilling, but we’re also seeing this pushback around if you are the person who provided the video information; there’s pressure on you from power structures,” Kirsten continued. “For me that’s a very critical part of this next phase of history, the way in which we are addressing how to empower people to use their cameras to speak about abuses of power but also to do it in a way where they are personally protected.”

See US Customs and Border Patrol CV Dazzle, 142 Czudaj, Harald, 4 Daly, Carson, 105 Darfur Now (Johnson), 63–4 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), 106–7 Desert Solitaire (Abbey), 109 Doctorow, Cory, 5 Douglass, Frederick, 83 DuckDuckGo (browser), 139 East Germany, 4. See also Stasi Egypt, 145 Elahi, Hasan, 112 Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 66–8, 79, 93, 125, 140, 143, 144 Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), 143 Ellsberg, Daniel, 36, 43, 67 Espionage Act, 10, 42, 129 European Union, 143, 144 Evans, Jon, 8 Facebook, 48, 102, 103, 136–7, 141 FBI, 15, 18, 22, 86–8, 90, 94; FOIA requests, 124, 125, 126, 127, 145 Ferguson, Missouri, 111 Firefox (browser), 139 First Look Media, 126–9, 130 FitBit, 104 Ford, Gerald, 91 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), 90–1 Franklin, Benjamin, 74 Freedom of the Press Foundation, 39, 62, 67, 68, 70 Gellman, Barton, 41, 43, 120 General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (Europe), 143, 144 Glomar Explorer, 125 Google, 48, 102, 108, 139, 145; Gmail, 137 Google Docs, 138 Google Drive, 126 Google Home, 99, 131 Google Maps, 21 Government Accountability Project, 85 GPG (Gnu Privacy Guard), 69, 70–1, 74, 75, 138 Greenwald, Glenn, 80, 120, 121, 129; Brazil, 59; EFF role, 67; First Look Media, 127–8; Hong Kong trip, 45, 46; Poitras and, 16–17, 38–9, 44–5, 46, 48; Snowden and, 6–7, 44–5, 48–9, 70–4, 75–6; Timm and, 62–3 Grindr, 103 Guantánamo Bay Naval Base, 64 Guardian, 2, 45, 46–7, 63, 80, 94; Poitras video, 48–49, 92 Hampton, Fred, 87–8 Harrison, Sarah, 56 Harvey, Adam, 142 Hawaii, 1, 28, 58 Hersh, Seymour, 43, 88 Holder, Eric, 29 Homeland Security Department.


pages: 273 words: 87,159

The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy by Peter Temin

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, mortgage debt, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, price stability, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, white flight, working poor

The FTE sector is eager to enlarge military spending and they support militarization of government services that they cannot do without. Police in the United States have become paramilitary organizations. The Pentagon gives them surplus military equipment, and the police use the same equipment in the United States that the military used in Iraq. This can be seen in the reaction to the tragic events in Ferguson, Missouri, when a policeman shot and killed Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager who was about to start college, in the late summer of 2014. The community was outraged by this apparently random killing of a black teenager, and there were massive public demonstrations in the following evenings. The police showed up for one of the evening demonstrations in a fortified military personnel carrier. This was a dramatic sign that the police were at war with the black residents of Ferguson.1 Another sign was the killing of a sniper who shot at police officers in Dallas while they were protecting a peaceful protest in 2016.

But since Congress appropriated only a small part of the planned spending, it is not clear how much of this limited plan will be done. Both candidates for president in 2016 campaigned on promises to repair our infrastructure, but recent history does not suggest that these promises will be kept.22 Notes 1. Jargowsky 2015, 13. 2. Caraley 1992. 3. Troesken 2006, 140. 4. Rocheleau 2016. 5. Bosman 2016a; Wines, McGeehan, and Schwartz 2016. 6. Schwartz 2016b. 7. Belkin 1999; Jargowsky 2015. Ferguson, Missouri, where a white policeman shot an unarmed young black man in 2014, was 75 percent white in 1990, but it had become two-thirds black by 2010 as white flight spread from inner cities to inner suburbs. 8. Newman 1972. 9. Wilson 1996, 2009; Murray 2012. 10. MacDonald 1999; Swarns 2015. 11. Goffman 2014. 12. Chetty, Hendren, and Katz 2016; Chyn 2016; Wolfers 2016. 13. Heckman 1989. 14. The eight criteria are capacity, condition, funding, future need, operation and maintenance, public safety, resilience, and innovation. 15.

Board of Education and, 116, 119, 171n16 concepts of government and, 89 elitism and, 52, 66, 74, 161 equal protection clause and, 58, 67, 102 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 15, 20–21 gender, 49 (see also Women) Investment Theory of Politics and Jim Crow policies and, 27, 49, 51–53, 58, 65–66, 104, 107, 154 juries and, 56, 59 low-wage sector and, 38, 153 mass incarceration and, 105 mortgages and, 117 poll taxes and, 58, 65 public education and, 117 racial, 15, 20–21, 38, 51–54, 56, 58, 66, 89, 105, 117, 153, 171n29 redlining and, 34, 53 segregation and, 53 (see also Segregation) statistical, 171n29 War on Drugs and, 27, 37–38, 53, 55, 104, 106 white rage and, 51, 101, 104 Disengagement, 35, 117 Diversity, 49, 51, 128, 156 Dix, Dorothea, 107 Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Act Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, 93 Dow Jones Industrial Index, 23 Draft, 16 Dropouts, 42, 45, 108, 158 Drug laws, 104, 171n24 Dual economy African Americans and, 9–13 college and, 3, 8, 11–12 farmers and, 6–11 financial crisis of 2008 and, 4, 9, 12 FTE and, 9–13, 168n10 (see also FTE [Finance, Technology, and Electronics] sector) human capital and, 11–12 immigrants and, 10 income distribution and, 3–5 inequality and, 10 integration and, 13 labor and, 6–7 Latinos and, 9–10, 13, 54–55 Lewis model and, xiii, xvii, 5–12, 62, 82, 89, 124, 158 low-wage sector and, 4, 8, 9–13 (see also Low-wage sector) social capital and, 12 taxes and, 10, 12 transition and, 41–46 wages and, 3–13 Dukakis, Michael, 109 Dylan, Bob, xii Elephant, 150 Earned Income Tax Credit, 79 Edwards, John, 3 Elitism, 52, 66, 74, 161 Emergency managers, 35–36 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 84, 93, 130 Environmental racism, xv Equal protection clause, 58, 67, 102 Equity, 30, 111 Eurodollars, 16, 23 Evans, Walker, 52 Exchange rates, 15–16, 23, 32, 169n3 Expected wage, 8 Facebook, 122 Fannie Mae, 138 Farmers African Americans and, 50–51 agricultural issues and, xi, 6, 31, 63 cotton and, xi, 59, 115 dual economy and, 6–11 as economic maximizers, 168n13 indentured servants and, 50 Investment Theory of Politics and, 62, 66 migrant workers and, 11 poor, 6 race and, 50, 52 subsistence, 5–6, 8, 10, 62 Federal funding, 35, 37, 93, 129 Federalism, 21–22, 35, 44, 65, 83, 103, 110 Federal Reserve System, 15–16, 93 Ferguson, Missouri, 102–103 Fernandez, Nelson, 103–104 Fifteenth Amendment, 15, 56, 58 Filibusters, 19 Financial crisis of 2008 concepts of government and, 91, 95 cross-country comparison and, 150–151 debt and, 138–141, 143, 154, 158 dual economy and, 4, 10, 12 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 17 housing boom and, 164 Investment Theory of Politics and, 174n15 labor and, 158 low-wage sector and, 38 private equity firms and, 111 public education and, 118–119, 128 S&L crisis and, 17 transition and, 45 very rich and, 80 Financial Times magazine, 61, 135 FIRE (finance, insurance, and real estate) sector, 80 Flint, Michigan, water crisis, xv, 35–36, 129–130 Food stamps, 79 Forbes 400 list, 77, 82–83, 85, 92 Ford, Gerald, 168n2 Foster, Timothy, 59 401(k) plans, 33–34 Fourteenth Amendment, 51, 58 Freddy Mac, 138 Freeland, Chrystia, 3, 79 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector African Americans and, 15, 20, 22 birth of, 27 capital and, 11–13, 23–24, 42–45, 153, 164 CEO earnings and, 24 cities and, 130, 135–136, 179n18 college and, 10, 24–25, 41–46 concepts of government and, 87, 92, 94, 96 conservatives and, 16–22 cross-country comparison and, 147, 149 debt and, 137–144 democracy and, 21 demographics of, 10 deregulation and, 16–23, 32, 44, 85 discrimination and, 15, 20–21 dual economy and, 9–13, 168n10 expansion of, 30 financial crisis of 2008 and, 17 globalization and, 29 Great Gatsby Curve, The, and, 46 Great Migration and, 20 hourglass job profile and, 28–29 human capital and, 23, 44 ignoring needs of poor by, 80, 135, 142, 153–155 immigrants and, 20 income distribution and, 22 industry and, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25 infrastructure and, 36, 154 Investment Theory of Politics and, 67–70, 74–75 labor and, 13, 19–21, 24, 153 Lewis model and, 20, 36, 101, 105, 153 liberals and, 17, 19, 21–22, 105 low-wage sector and, 11–13, 25, 27–29, 32–37, 153–155, 170n6 mass incarceration and, 101–106, 109, 112–114 middle class and, 96, 144, 147, 153, 155 military and, 102–104, 109–110, 112, 127, 143 North and, 20 political choice by, 153 public education and, 115, 117, 119, 122, 127–128 race and, 9–10, 49, 55 S&L crisis and, 17 slavery and, 17, 22 Social Security and, 33, 45, 52, 69–70, 79, 90, 93, 141, 174n15 South and, 15, 17, 20, 22 taxes and, 15, 17–18, 22–24, 155 transition and, 11, 41–46, 154 unemployment and, 16, 21 unions and, 18–22, 28–29, 32–34, 64, 80–81, 116, 120 very rich and, 77–81 wages and, 16, 20–23, 25 World War I era and, 20–21 World War II era and, 15, 21 Garland, Merrick, 96 Gates, Bill, 121 Geithner, Timothy, 139 General Motors (GM), 33–34 Gerrymandering, 96 GI Bill, 34, 43, 52, 65 Globalization competition and, 8, 28–29, 33, 55, 148, 151, 155, 161 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 29 low-wage sector and, 28–29, 33 Goldin, Claudia, xiii Great Depression, 21, 52–53, 80, 93 Great Gatsby Curve, The, 46 Great Migration African Americans and, xi–xii, xiv, 20, 27–29, 34–35, 52–55, 104, 116–117, 125 company boundaries and, 29–30 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 20 Latinos and, 55 length of, 20, 27–28 Lewis model and, 20 low-wage sector and, 27–29, 34–35 mass incarceration and, 104 Michigan and, 35 mortgages and, 34 public education and, 116–117, 125 urbanization and, 20 Growth miracles, 6 Halliburton, 143 Hamilton, Derrick, 173n17 Handlin, Mary, 50 Handlin, Oscar, 50 Hayek, Friedrich, 21–22, 81 Head Start, 126–127, 156 Health care Aetna and, 142 Affordable Care Act and, xv, 18, 57, 91–92, 95, 141–142 concepts of government and, 92 low-wage sector and, 154 mass incarceration and, 108–109, 113 Medicare/Medicaid and, xv, 91, 93, 142 Piketty on, 156 universal, 79 women and, 56–57 Heckman, James, 124 Hedge fund managers, xv, 23–24, 82, 167n1, 179n5 Helms, Jesse, 80 Heritage Foundation, 17–18, 22 Heroin, 104 High school, 25, 119–121, 126 Hispanics.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

The federal government also began to fund training and equipment for SWAT teams in the 1970s as part of the last round of major national policing reforms, which were intended to improve police-community relations and reducing police brutality through enhanced training. These reforms instead poured millions into training programs that resulted in the rise of SWAT teams, drug enforcement, and militarized crowd control tactics. Diversity There is no question that the racial difference between the mostly white police and the mostly African American policed in Ferguson, Missouri, contributed to the intensity of protests over the killing of Mike Brown. Reformers often call for recruiting more officers of color in the hopes that they will treat communities with greater dignity, respect, and fairness. Unfortunately, there is little evidence to back up this hope. Even the most diverse forces have major problems with racial profiling and bias, and individual black and Latino officers appear to perform very much like their white counterparts.

They are also likely to be the subjects of extensive police surveillance and to be accused of planning violence. They are often met with high levels of force in the form of “less lethal” weaponry such as pepper spray, tear gas, and rubber bullets. The Miami model has also been driven in part by the broad militarization of civilian policing, as described in previous chapters. Some argue that militarized riot control is merely prudent preparation—for example, in Ferguson, Missouri. Shouldn’t authorities take whatever steps they can to protect life and property? There are two major problems with this line of thinking. First, it is not at all clear that these measures advance public safety; second, the right to protest cannot be abridged because of the threat of illegal activity or even the commission of violence nearby. All this militarized posturing failed to prevent widespread looting and property destruction in Ferguson.

This eBook is licensed to Edward Betts, edward@4angle.com on 06/08/2020 Index Abbott, Greg 189 Advancement Project 71, 170, 238n7 AFL-CIO 192 Alexander, Michelle 50–2, 142, 229, 237n41, 248n8, 249n28, 250n37 Alvarado, Daniel 66 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 14, 63, 138, 165, 179, 208–10, 213, 217, 234n47, 234n54, 239n26, 239n28, 254n10, 254n20, 257n26, 257n28, 258n29, 258n35, 258n37 American Federation of Teachers 71–2, 240n51 American Friends Service Committee 209 American Immigration Council 188, 255n35 American Legion 206 American Indian Movement 49 American Party 176 American Protective League 206 Americans with Disabilities Act 63, 147 Anslinger, Harry 132 Anthracite Coal Strike 40 Apuzzo, Matt, 213, 229, 258n43 Asset forfeiture 25, 135–6 Bacon, David 256n46 Balko, Radley 135, 229, 231n11, 232n28, 248n14, Banfield, Edward 5–6, 232n13 Baum, Dan 248n9 Bayley, David 32, 235n1 Beck, Charlie 159, 169–70 Becker, Howard 248n7 Beckett, Katherine 92–3, 229, 243n2, 245n2 Belafonte, Harry 55 Belenko, Steven 248n5 Bernal, Joe 236n28 Bernstein, Elizabeth 247n21 Biasotti, Michael 87 Bittner, Egon 76–7, 241n2 Black Lives Matter 55, 208, 218, 226 Black Panthers 49 Black Youth Project 154–5, 225, 259n2 Blackmon, Douglas 237n35 Body cameras 17, 22, 23–4, 188, 222 Boone, Levi 38 Boyd, James 94 Bracero Program 177, 191–2 Bratton, William 4, 15, 169 Broeker, Galen 235n7 Broken Windows Theory 5–7, 13, 22, 51, 53, 56, 60, 93–4, 97, 148, 168, 184, 222 Brooklyn College 213 Brown, David 27–8 Brown, Michael 11, 18, 216 Bush, George W. 22, 59–60, 123, 180, 219 Butler, Smedley 42 Calavita, Kitty 253n4 Calderon, Felipe 144 Cantu, Aaron 236n26 Carrigan, William 43, 236n5 Center for Court Innovation 101, 146, 250n48 Center for Media and Democracy 210 Central Intelligence Agency 49, 144 Coal and Iron Police 40 Colorado Campaign for Middle East Peace 209 Cox, Mike 43, 236n24 Charleston City Guard and Watch 46 Chartists 36 Children’s Defense Fund 62 Chinese Exclusion Act 176 Clear, Todd 252n27 Clinton, Bill 51, 61, 129, 134, 179–80, 194 Coates, Ta-Nehisi 155, 251n63 Columbine school shooting 57 Comey, James 15 Community policing 16–17, 22, 222 Congress for Racial Equality (CORE) 49 Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) 202, 206–7 Crabapple, Molly 120, 247n20 Crawford, John 1, 10 Critical Resistance 165 Cruz, Alvin 2 Csete, Joanne 248n13 Cure Violence 174 Currie, Elliott 171, 229, 253n24 Czitrom, Daniel 229, 236n17 Daley, Robert 248n17 Dashboard cameras 22–3 de Blasio, Bill 4 Death penalty 28 Decriminalization of drugs 134, 145, 148–50; of sex work 109, 118–19, 124–8 Denver Peace and Justice Committee 209 Dewey, Susan 125, 229, 245n1, 247n23 DiIulio, John 56 Domanick, Joe 159, 229, 252n5, 253n21 Donner, Frank 203, 257n21 Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) 67, 151 Drug courts 145–8 Drug Enforcement Agency 49, 130, 134, 137, 178 Drug Policy Alliance 148, 250n47, 251n55, 251n57, 251n60 Dukakis, Michael 51 Dunn, Robert 257n16 Elliot, Samuel 37 Empower Chiang Mai 122–3, 247n22 Engle, Byron 50 Evans, Rob 256n11 Fagan, Jeffrey 249n29 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 15, 49, 123, 137–8, 157, 178, 188, 201–3, 205–6, 209, 211–12 Ferdaus, Rezwan 212 Ferguson, Missouri 2, 11, 15, 18–20, 22, 215–217 Focused Deterrence 167–8 Food and Drug Administration 130 Fortner, Michael 172, 253n26 Fosdick, Raymond Blaine 236n12 Friedman, Barry 24, 229, 234n52 Friedman, Milton 5 Fuentes, Annette 59, 64, 229, 238n11, 239n31 Fusion centers 210–11 Geller, Amanda 249n29 Gage, Beverly 257n14 Gang databases 164–165; injunctions 163–5 Garcia, Ramon 189 Garriot, William 154, 229, 248n2 Garner, Eric 1, 4–5, 7 Garwood, Jesse 42 Gates, Daryl 158, 169 Gates, Henry Louis 3 General Trade Union 37 German, Michael 258n35, 258n37 Gilje, Paul 235n11 Glenn, Brendon 95 Glick, Brian 257n20 Global AIDS Act 123 Goldman, Adam 213, 229, 258n43 Goldman, Emma 202 Gottschalk, Marie 255n26 Grandin, Greg 256n49 Graham, Ramarley 141–2 Graham v.


pages: 223 words: 60,909

Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech by Sara Wachter-Boettcher

Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, Grace Hopper, job automation, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The community creates what it needs.” 34 Martin saw this hands-off approach as a fundamental strategy for Reddit: “Make the users do the hard part,” 35 he once said. But moderators aren’t paid Reddit employees; they’re volunteers. And by the time Reddit changed its policy in 2015, many of those volunteers had decided that the part Reddit required them to play had become too hard. Back in August of 2014, just after Mike Brown was shot by police and Ferguson, Missouri, erupted into protests, the subreddit r/blackladies, a community for black women, was inundated with hateful, racist posts. “The moderators . . . tried to delete the hateful content as best they could, but the entire experience exhausted and demoralized them,” wrote Aaron Sankin in the Daily Dot. “They contacted Reddit’s management, but were told that, because the trolls weren’t technically breaking any of the site’s core rules, there was . . . nothing Reddit would do about it.” 36 When management rejected their requests for help, the moderators published an open letter on the r/blackladies subreddit, demanding that the problem be addressed.

See also gender bias; racial bias companies’ efforts to improve, 22–26, 182–184 correlation with performance, 184–186 in design teams, 11, 14, 16–17, 20, 28, 35 and Facebook, 19, 21–22, 23–25 and innovation, 186 and Slack, 190–191 tech industry’s lack of, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18–20, 116, 135–136, 150, 157–158, 169, 171–176, 182, 196 and Twitter, 155–156 Dorsey, Jack, 155–156 edge cases, 38–40, 50, 137 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 108 The End of Average (Rose), 38–39 engagement, as goal of interaction design, 74 ethics at Facebook, 172 and Gamergate, 157 and meritocracy of tech, 176, 189 and racial bias on Nextdoor, 74 and tech products’ ethical blunders, 6, 13, 26, 199 at Uber, 108, 180, 187, 191–192 Etsy, 32–33, 32 Eve by Glow app, 31, 31, 33 Eveleth, Rose, 137 Facebook and Americans’ online status, 2 artificial intelligence feature, 171 and cares about us metric, 97 collection of gender information by, 63–66, 63, 64 creators’ values and biases, 168–172 and data brokers, 104 default privacy settings, 108–109 and fake news, 165–166, 199 Friends Day feature, 84–85 and gender of profile picture avatars, 36 and the Hacker Way, 170–171 and Halloween icons, 80 and journalism industry, 199 Moments feature, 85, 97 News Feed feature, 144, 168–169 On This Day feature, 83–84, 97 and presidential election of 2016, 10 problems with personal names, 53–59, 75 and proxy data use, 112 and selection of ads users see, 10 Trending feature, 149, 165–169, 172 and value of user data, 97 What Facebook Thinks You Like browser extension, 103 and workforce diversity, 19, 21–22, 23–25 Year in Review feature, 4–6, 5, 79, 83 facial-recognition software, 137 Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency in Machine Learning (FAT/ML), 128 fairness criteria, 127–128, 136 Fake, Caterina, 171–172 fake news stories, 10, 149, 165–166, 170, 199 Ferguson, Missouri protests, 163, 166 fertility, and menstrual tracking apps, 28–30, 33 financial performance, and diversity, 186 Fisher, Carrie, 148 Flickr, 135, 155, 171 forms. See digital forms Fowler, Susan, 177–180 free speech, 154, 157, 164 Friedler, Sorelle, 128, 136, 145–146 Friends Day, 84–85 Fugett, Dylan, 119–120 Gamergate, 151, 154, 157 Gates, Bill, 182 gay people. See LGBTQ community gender bias.


pages: 392 words: 112,954

I Can't Breathe by Matt Taibbi

"side hustle", activist lawyer, affirmative action, Broken windows theory, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, mass incarceration, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Snapchat, War on Poverty

There was a long list of such politicians who used Sharpton’s name and face to secure votes, with Rudy Giuliani being one of his most successful foils. Dan Donovan, the Staten Island district attorney, was about to add his name to that list. — Shortly after Donovan met with the Garner family members, a new controversy sent the police brutality issue into overdrive nationally. A police killing in the heretofore-little-known St. Louis exurb of Ferguson, Missouri, where an eighteen-year-old African American named Michael Brown was shot by a white officer, sent the country spiraling into furious protests. There were street demonstrations in dozens of cities large and small, from L.A. to Oakland to Denver to Chicago to New York to Boston. Many involved people blocking highways and intersections. One of the largest was in New York, where both the FDR Drive and West Side Highway were jammed with people chanting, “Mike Brown!

” “Gotta do something,” agreed McCrae, tapping his feet. Weeks and weeks had passed. Then it was months. Garner had been killed in the middle of summer, and the grand jury had been called in August. Now fall was winding to a close and it was beginning to get very cold outside. The grand jury still had not made its decision. What was taking so long? — On November 24, 2014, a grand jury in Ferguson, Missouri, reached a decision not to indict Officer Darren Wilson. St. Louis County prosecutor Bob McCulloch, Dan Donovan’s counterpart, announced that the grand jury had found “no probable cause” to indict for either first-degree murder or manslaughter. McCulloch directly addressed witness accounts of Brown holding his hands up in surrender at the time of the shooting, an image that inspired the iconic nationwide “Hands Up, Don’t Shoot” protest meme.

These crowds formed without top-down advance direction of the sort practiced by the older generation of civil rights leaders, people like Sharpton and Jesse Jackson. Those two had been the faces of such protests for decades, but in a subplot to the Ferguson protests, both were heckled everywhere they went by younger, more strident activists. Many of these confrontations became widely circulated YouTube hits, with titles like “Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson Booed Off Stage in Ferguson Missouri.” Sharpton would later try to fight back, reportedly telling young members at an NAN gathering that new activist groups trying to drive a wedge between protesters and the old guard were “pimping” young people. “It’s the disconnect that is the strategy to break the movement,” Sharpton said, according to Capital New York reporter Azi Paybarah, who obtained a recording of the meeting. On tape, the reverend goes on: “They play on your ego.


pages: 397 words: 110,222

Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

San Leandro, a small working-class city (population 85,000) to the immediate southeast of Oakland, is one of the Bay Area cities that had restrictive covenants—a clause in a deed or lease that restricts what the owners can do with their property, often used to restrict African-Americans from owning or leasing property in a given area—for decades. In 1960, the city was nearly entirely white, while Oakland, in comparison, had a large African-American population. By 2010, Asian-Americans comprised roughly one-third of San Leandro’s population. Less than three months after the San Leandro City Council approved the purchase of body cameras, in August 2014, Michael Brown, an unarmed black 18-year-old in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by a local cop. Like most law enforcement agencies nationwide at the time, the Ferguson Police Department lacked body cameras. On December 1, 2014, the White House announced a three-year, $263 million grant program for local law enforcement body cameras. Many agencies, like the San Leandro Police Department (SLPD), were already in the process of obtaining body cameras, but Ferguson helped accelerate deployment in many cities.

In 2007, San Leandro paid a $395,000 settlement to the family of Jose Maravilla Perez, Jr., who died at the hands of the SLPD after he was repeatedly shocked with a Taser. In more recent and higher-profile examples from other cities the list goes on: In 2015, Baltimore, Maryland, settled with the estate of Freddie Gray for $6.4 million. In 2017, St. Anthony, Minnesota, settled with the estate of Philando Castile for $3 million. Also in 2017, Ferguson, Missouri, settled with the estate of Michael Brown for $1 million. In short, cities nationwide are pushing for body cameras to make sure that both citizen and officer are on their best behavior. But like LPRs, where data-retention policies are all over the map, so it is with body-worn cameras. In Pueblo, Colorado, some camera footage is kept indefinitely. In Minnesota, traffic stops are kept for a year.

Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/​local/​crime/​baltimore-reaches-64-million-settlement-with-freddie-grays-family/​2015/​09/​08/​80b2c092-5196-11e5-8c19-0b6825aa4a3a_story.html. In 2017, St. Anthony, Minnesota: Sarah Horner, “Philando Castile Family Reaches $3M Settlement in Death,” Twin Cities, June 26, 2017. Available at: http://www.twin-cities.com/​2017/​06/​26/​philando-castile-family-reaches-3m-settlement-in-death/​. Also in 2017, Ferguson, Missouri: Paul LeBlanc, “Settlement Reached in Michael Brown Civil Lawsuit,” CNN, June 20, 2017. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/​2017/​06/​20/​us/​michael-brown-settlement-ferguson/​index.html. But like LPRs: Elizabeth Atkins, “#Blacklivesrecorded,” Unpublished Thesis, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, 2016. Available at: https://www.documentcloud.org/​documents/​3894162-SSRN-id2803588.html#document/​p12/​a362822.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

The terror threat was hyped daily in the media, so a massive market existed to keep a sense of insecurity permanently afloat across the country. Wandering around the exhibition hall, I saw a Homeland Security Evidence Collection Kit for $1,000, which included a range of objects, including tweezers, a tape measure, and a urine specimen jar—apparently the perfect accessory for police authorities in the post-9/11 environment. While I was in Salt Lake City there were riots in Ferguson, Missouri, over the police killing of a young black man, Michael Brown. Television images showed a militarized police force looking as if they were equipped to face insurgents in Iraq. A Department of Defense program allowed the transfer of excess military equipment to local police forces. With massive budget hikes, local law enforcement increasingly claimed that it needed to prepare for war and terrorism.

35, 112–13, 139–40, 221 detention centers access 252–3, 299, 359n31 Australia 271, 274, 276, 278–9, 280–5, 285–305, 356n2, 357n11 conditions 66–71, 79, 299–304, 334n14, 357n11 costs 96, 281–3, 304 economic logic of privatization 289–99 Greece 64–71, 76, 77–80, 96, 98, 336n14 guards 64–5, 68–9 house rules 232–4 medical care 77–80, 266, 295 price-gouging 292 privatization 13, 98, 230–5, 245–51, 280–5, 289–99 racism 65, 259–60, 294 sexual abuse 252–8 size 76 staff numbers 294 staff pain and suffering 296–8 United Kingdom 230–5, 245–51, 252–8, 263–7 United States of America 211–28 workers’ health and safety 298 working conditions 297–8 Detention Watch Network 216, 222, 227–8 diabetes 14 Digicel 122 Dilley, Texas 221 disaster capitalism, definition 6–9 disaster, definition 9 disaster economics 322n18 disaster relief NGO-ization of 137–41 privatization 108–9 Droneshield 205 drones (UAVs) 97–8 drug abuse 37–9, 102 drug trade, Afghanistan 37–9 Dubai 45 Duma, William 186 Dungavel detention centre 266 Dupuy, Alex 133 Dutton, Peter 281 Duvalier, Francois (“Papa Doc”) 109–10 Duvalier, Jean-Claude (“Baby Doc”) 110–12 DynCorp 16, 26–7, 124 ecological damage, copper mining 173 Ecolog International 29 economic empowerment 162 economic exploitation, Haiti 132, 133–6 Economist 117 eco-system damage, Haiti 130 Eldorado Gold 100 Elie, Patrick 119–22 El Refugio 223 embassies, security of 30 embedded journalism 10, 26, 324n5 enlightened dictatorship 2 environmental destruction 157–8, 173, 273–4 Eppright, Fred 136 equality 311 Equatorial Guinea 14 Etienne, Yanick 126–8 Eurasian Minerals 120 Eurobank 101 European Central Bank 72 European Commission 72, 73 European Court of Human Rights 68 European External Border Surveillance System 97 European Refugee Fund 66 European Union asylum seeker numbers 96 development aid 324n3 and drones 97–8 and Greece 12 questions of identity 103–4 refugee crisis 95–8 Euro, the, Greece and 84 Evans, Tim 306 Evergreen Aviation 34 Evros 66–7 executions 199 Executive Outcomes 180 exploitation 107–8 Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) 190–1 extraordinary rendition 16, 34 extremism 25 ExxonMobil LNG pipeline 166 Facebook 308 Fahim (Afghan engineer) 46–8 Farage, Nigel 236 Farmer, Paul 113–14, 139 fascism 85 Fatal Assistance (aid) 118–19 Ferguson, Missouri, riots in 203 Fiji 346–7n41 Financial Times 6, 191, 242 Finn, Noel 255 fiscal policy 84 Fisher, Nigel 122 Flores, Anton 223 Flynn, Michael T. 55 Fonteyne, Jean-Pierre 357n4 food aid 3, 145–6 food and drink multinationals 14 Foreign Policy 6, 45, 123 fossil fuel industry 8–9 Four Horseman International 60 fracking 8–9 France 99, 120, 311 fraud 240–1 Friedmann, Alex 216, 222 Frontex 67, 96, 97 Frontex Plus 95 Funk, McKenzie 9 Fyssas, Pavlos, murder of 90 G4S 13, 16, 23, 57, 230–5, 235, 240, 248, 255, 256–8, 258–60, 264, 277, 278, 280, 282, 283–4, 289, 290 Gaddafi, Muammar 16, 30 Gap 132 Garoute, Hans P. 147–9 Gates Foundation 202 General Atomics 31 GEO Group 124, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 227, 255, 266 Georgia Detention Watch 223 Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights (GLAHR) 224 Georgia, USA 199–200 immigrants 211–28 Stewart immigration detention centre 211–22 Germany 75, 84, 239 Gertler, Dan 120 Ghana 339n38 Ghani, Ashraf 27, 32, 45, 62 Gibney, Matthew J. 284 Gilbert, Sylvie 190 Glass, Charles 27 global capitalism, Klein’s critique of 7–8 Global Detention Project 68 global financial crisis, 2008 3, 72, 239, 309 Global Solutions Limited (GSL) 289–90 Golden Dawn 12, 71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 80, 104 aims 91–2 anti-Semitism 90–1 appeal 87 and the Greek Orthodox Church 88 iconography 89–90, 92 and immigration 88–9, 92 leadership 86, 91 Luqman trial 94 opposition 93–5 patriotism 88 popularity 85–6 and privatization 92–3 relationship with police 86 supporters 86, 87 violence 92, 94 worldview 87–93 Goldman Sachs 4 Gopal, Anand 32–3, 46–7 Gopnik, Adam 196 Government Accountability Office (US) 35 government, role of 4 Grainger 206 Grayling, Chris 261–2 Grayson, John 235, 262 Greece 4, 12, 64–104 ANEL (Independent Greeks) 73 anti-Semitism 93 asylum seeker infrastructure 66–8, 76–7 asylum seekers 64–71, 75–7, 77–80, 89 Asylum Service 66–7 austerity 71–5, 99–103, 307–8 closed hospitality centers 67–8 corruption 64, 72 debt crisis 71–5, 84 detention centers 64–71, 76, 77–80, 96, 98, 334n14 economic policies 12, 73 election, 2015 72–3, 91, 101 and the Euro 84 Eurozone exit 95 foreign investment 100–1 and Germany 75 Golden Dawn 12, 71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 80, 85–95, 104 healthcare system 80–4 Health Ministry 82 immigrants 74, 88–9, 92 immigration policy 96 medical care, asylum seekers 77–80 Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection 76 police brutality 83 potato movement 78 poverty rate 98–9 press freedom 74, 75 pressure on 73 privatization 72, 98, 100–2, 307–8 privatization of the detention network 77 questions of identity 103–4 racism 71, 80 reception centers 67 refugee crisis 95–8 sovereignty 104 suicide rate 102 Syntagma Square protest, 2014 70 Syriza 12, 72–5, 83, 91, 95, 103 unemployment 67, 99 Greek Council for Refugees 66 greenhouse gases 1–2 Green Prison 204 green technology, prisons 204 Greenwald, Glenn 219 Greg (PMC contractor) 60–1 Greiner, Robert 15 GTL 210 Guantánamo Bay 28, 240 Guardian 75, 261 Guatemala 134 Gulf War, First 25 Gulf War, Second 60 Gurkhas 20, 22, 25 Habib-Ur-Rahman 46–8 Hadawal, Khan Afzal 61 HADOM 140 Haidari, M.

W. 33, 34 Sisalem, Aladdin 281 al-Sisi, Abdel Fattah 2 Smart Borders 97 Smart, Frank 209 Smeets, Alice 137 Snowden, Edward 15, 55, 219, 359n32 social-impact bonds 4 social media 75 social sensitivity 21 social spending, cuts 6–7 Solnit, Rebecca 311 Solomon Islands 176, 346n28 Solon, Vivian Alvarez 289 Somalia 26 Somare, Michael 170, 171, 191 Sonapi 131 Sontag, Deborah 113 Sopko, John 62 South Africa 196 Southern Center for Human Rights 199 South Korea 117 South Sudan 14 South Yorkshire Migration Asylum Action Group 235 sovereignty Greece 104 Haiti 135, 146, 152 Papua New Guinea 156, 175–6, 176–8, 191, 192 and private military companies 22–3 Soviet Union 33, 37 Spaccia, Angela 5 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 35 Spicer, Tim 33, 180 Sri Lanka, Boxing Day tsunami, 2004 11 Stathis, Epaminondas N. 87–91 Stavridis, Stelios 102 Stewart Immigration Detention Center, Lumpkin, Georgia 211–22 Stillman, Sarah 29 Sturm, Axel 185–6 suicide attacks 41–2 suicide rates 102, 209, 217, 332n83 Supreme Foodservice AG 29 surveillance 6, 15, 237–8 sustainable development 2, 162 sweatshops 149, 341n65 Syntagma Square protest, 2014, Greece 70 Syria 14 Syriza 12, 72–5, 83, 91, 95, 103 Taibbi, Matt 3–4, 309–10 Takaung, Philip 179 Taliban barbarism 25 drug trade 37 fear of resurgent 44–5 fractured 63 overthrow 31 in Pakistan 31 suicide attacks 41 targeting 55 and women 47, 330n59 Tapakau, Patricia 183–4 Task Force 377 331n69 taxation, global 6 Taylor, Peter 185, 186 Tepper Aviation 34 terrorism, September 11 terrorist attacks, 2001 7, 33 Tethys Petroleum 50 Texas 197 Tex-Net 206 Thatcher, Margaret 234, 238–9, 310 Thehan (asylum seeker) 253–4 Theonil (PNG resident) 167–9 This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (Klein) 8 Thomas, Jean-Louis Saint 131 Thomson, Gordon 273–4, 275 Thorburn, James 232 three-strike laws 198 Tiefer, Charles 35 Time Warner 5 torture 15 tourism 152 Trans-Afghanistan pipeline 25 Transfield 283, 358n25 transparency 10, 191, 249, 310 prisons 225–6 private military companies 34 privatization 246, 290–1 Treatment Advocacy centre 201 Tribelnig, Stuart 259 Triple Canopy 108 Tsiolkas, Christos 103–4 Tsipras, Alexis 72, 73–4, 74, 93, 95 Tuckey, Wilson 278 Tunisia 128 Twitter 308 Tzanetea, Revekka 78–80 UK Border Agency 241 Unilever 267 Union of Christmas Island Workers (UCIW) 273, 275 United Kingdom and Afghanistan 49–50 asylum seekers 230–5, 244, 245–51, 252–8, 258–63 contractor privacy 248–9 deportations 258–63 detention centers 230–5, 245–51, 252–8, 263–7 elite salaries 239 health services privatization 244–5 housing demand 234 immigration policy 243–4 inequality 242–3 Liberal Democrats 252 living standards 243 opposition to privatization 251 outsourcing contractors 240–2 prisons 240, 264–5 privatization 13, 230–68, 237–9, 310 racism 259–60 rent increases 4 scale of privatization 244 slumification 234 Welfare to Work program 261–2 United Nations 16, 68, 126, 277 and Haitian cholera outbreak 113–14, 115–16 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 139 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries policy 344n19 United Nations Environment Programme 157 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 37 United States of America Afghan dependence on 45 aid contracts 123–5 American Correctional Association (ACA) conference, 2014 202–11 arms sales 110–11 Assessing Progress in Haiti Act 124 Commission on Wartime Contracting 34 corporate pillaging of Haiti 111–12 cost of Afghan war 45 Defense Logistics Agency 29 deportations 212, 227–8 detention centers 211–28 executions 199 farm subsidies 122–3 female prison population 197 food assistance 3 foreign policy 5, 152 Government Accountability Office 35 Haiti colonialism 109–13 Haiti Economic Lift Program 133 Haiti policy 115–16, 116–20, 134 immigrants 195, 196, 198–9, 211–28 incarceration rates 195–6, 200, 204 inequality 2–4 investment in Haiti 116–20 military bases 28 obsession with imprisonment 198 opposition to private prisons 223–8 and Papua New Guinea 170–1 police brutality 203 prison bed mandate 226–7 prison population 196, 204, 228 prison quotas 226–7, 228 prisons 195–229 private prison operators 196–8 privatization 4, 5, 13 the Reagan Revolution 3 rice exports 122–3 riots, Ferguson, Missouri 203 role of government 4 sentencing reform 198 southern border 212 three-strike laws 198 Urban Shield conference 203–4 use of contractors 28–31 waste reduction 30 youth detention 208 Unocal 25 unregulated capitalism, Haiti 135–6 Urban Shield conference 203–4 URS 172 USAID 28, 38, 108, 123–5, 130, 134, 135, 142, 146–7, 152, 327–8n46, 331–2n77 US Department of Defense 28, 30 US Geological Society 49 US–Korea Free Trade Agreement 133 US special forces 55 U.S.


pages: 324 words: 86,056

The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality by Bhaskar Sunkara

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, inventory management, labor-force participation, land reform, land value tax, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Occupy movement, postindustrial economy, precariat, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, We are the 99%

The real legacy of Occupy Wall Street was in its revival of a form of mass protest and its foregrounding of the issue of austerity and inequality in an accessible way. It was a glimmer, more obvious than the Wisconsin uprising, that a simple message based on fairness and democracy could garner widespread support. A FEW YEARS AFTER Occupy, another movement made it impossible to ignore the failures of American democracy. On August 9, 2014, in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson, Missouri, a white police officer named Darren Wilson gunned down a black teenager, Michael Brown. Only two years earlier, Trayvon Martin, a black seventeen-year-old from Florida, had been shot to death by a white vigilante while walking in his own neighborhood, eliciting outrage around the country. The man who killed him, a self-appointed neighborhood watchman named George Zimmerman, said he was terrified of the skinny teenager, and avoided punishment by claiming he acted in self-defense.

See Britain environmentalism, 240–241 equal pay for equal work, 115, 121 Erfurt Congress, 51–52 Erfurt Program, 58–59, 63, 72, 82–83 Erlander, Tage, 116, 118 Espionage Act, 173–174 Ethiopia, 153 European Monetary System, 125 eurozone, 125, 221 Evolutionary Socialism (Bernstein), 63 exceptionalism, 159 Factory Act of 1847, 46 fake news, 205 famine, 38, 102, 139, 146, 147–148 farm collectivization, 102, 142–143, 144–146, 154 February Revolution, 81, 88–91. See also Russian Revolution (1917) Federal Elections Campaign Act, 231 Federalist No. 10 (Madison), 233 Ferguson, Missouri, 198–199 feudalism, 36–37, 132, 133, 161 filibuster, 234–235 Finnish civil war, 117 First International, 43 Fitzpatrick, John, 176 Five Year Plan (China), 141–142 Five Year Plan (Russia), 101–102 Foot, Michael, 208 foreclosure, 193 foreign aid, 154, 156 “Forward March of Labour Halted?, The” (Hobsbawm), 207–208 Foster, William Z., 169, 177, 181 Fourier, Charles, 160–161 France, 107, 109–111, 124–125 Franco-Prussian War, 71 Frank, Ludwig, 77 Freeman, Jo, 197 French Revolution, 48 Fukuyama, Francis, 239 functional socialism, 115, 120 Future of Socialism, The (Crosland), 116, 126, 209 Gang of Four, 148, 151 gender, 208, 236.


pages: 281 words: 79,464

Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion by Paul Bloom

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Columbine, David Brooks, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Ferguson, Missouri, impulse control, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Paul Erdős, period drama, Peter Singer: altruism, publication bias, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

But this taunting would be odd behavior if the Israelis actually did think of them as dogs because, really, what would be the point? It would be one thing if the soldiers in the jeep casually described their enemies as dogs in conversations with one another—this could be pure dehumanization—but to use the description as a taunt implies the opposite, that you believe they are people and wish to demean them. Kate Manne makes a similar argument in her discussion of the aftermath of a police shooting in Ferguson, Missouri, where police officers screamed at protesters, “Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it!” For Manne, this can best be seen not as a failure to acknowledge the protesters’ humanity, but as “a slur and a battle cry,” as an “insult that depends, for its humiliating quality, on its targets’ distinctively human desire to be recognized as human beings.” Manne quotes Kwame Anthony Appiah as noting that those accused of dehumanizing others often “acknowledge their victims’ humanity in the very act of humiliating, stigmatizing, reviling and torturing them.”

See politics as poor moral guide, 2–3, 9–10, 54–55 positive aspects of, 2, 12–13, 18–19, 44–48, 76–77 spotlight nature of, 9, 30–31, 33–34, 87–88, 89–90, 95, 130, 136–37 use of term, 3–4, 16–17, 39–41, 61–62 empathy-altruism hypothesis, 25, 75–76, 85–86, 168 empathy deficit, 18, 19, 200 Empathy Exams, The (Jamison), 25, 146–47 empathy listening circles, 19 Empathy Quotient (EQ), 81–82 empathy scales, 77–83, 120–21 empathy training, 139–40 environmentalism, 49–50 envy, 69, 151–52 Epley, Nicholas, 17 Erdõs, Paul, 231 evil. See violence and cruelty Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty (Baumeister), 180, 181–82, 183 evolution, 94–95, 154, 168–70, 179, 209–10 Ex Machina (movie), 148 fairness, 42–43, 120, 159 Fantasy scale, 79–81 fear, 47, 141, 208 feeling vs. understanding, 70–73 Ferguson, Missouri, shooting of Michael Brown, 205 Fiscus, Kathy, 90 Fiske, Alan, 184–85 Fiske, Susan, 69 Flanagan, Owen, 208–9, 210, 211 Foer, Jonathan Safran, 50 Food, Inc. (documentary), 50 food aid, 99 football, and violence, 187 foreign aid, 99 forgiveness, 25 Fourth Amendment, 37 Freddie Kruger (character), 180 free speech, 123–26 free trade, 112, 117 free will, 218–19, 221 Freud, Sigmund, 5, 145, 216 friendship, 149–54, 158–59 Fritz, Heidi, 133–35 Gandhi, Mahatma, 159–60 Garner, Eric, 118 Gawande, Atul, 145 gay marriage, 53, 55, 116, 122 Gaza War, 186, 188–89, 190 Gazzaniga, Michael, 220 gender differences, 81, 129, 133–36 objectification, 203–4, 206 genes, 8, 94–95, 154, 169, 195 Ghiselin, Michael, 166 Gladwell, Malcolm, 231–32 Glover, Jonathan, 74, 188 Godwin, Morgan, 202 Godwin’s Law, 63 Goebbels, Joseph, 196 Goodman, Charles, 138 goodness (good actions/behaviors), 41–42, 85–86, 101–6 effective altruism, 102–6, 238–39 empathy-altruism hypothesis, 25, 85–86, 168 high intelligence and, 233 measuring empathy and, 41–42, 77–82 publication bias and measuring empathy, 82–83 Gore, Al, 49–50, 121 Göring, Hermann, 196 Gourevitch, Philip, 93 greed, 188 Greene, Joshua, 10 guilt, 44, 87, 182, 198 gun control, 115, 116, 119, 122–23 gut feelings, 7, 213–14 Habitat for Humanity, 88 Haidt, Jonathan, 6, 120, 223 Haldane, J.


pages: 285 words: 83,682

The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah

affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

One reason race continues to play a central role in international politics, as well, is the politics of racial solidarity that Du Bois helped to inaugurate in the black world, in cofounding the tradition of Pan-Africanism. It shows up in diverse ways: African-Americans are more likely than whites to be interested in U.S. foreign policy in Africa; people in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, protested the 2014 killing of Michael Brown by a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri; black Americans have a special access to Ghanaian passports; Rastafarianism in the Caribbean celebrates Africa as the home of black people; and heritage tourism from North and South America and the Caribbean to West Africa has boomed.34 But Pan-Africanism is not the only movement in which groups defined by common ancestry show transnational solidarity: many Jews show an interest in Israeli politics; Chinese follow the fates of Chinese in their diaspora; Japanese follow goings-on in São Paulo, home to more than a million people of Japanese descent—and to perhaps a million people of Arab descent (largely Lebanese), some of whom follow events in the Middle East.35 Identities rooted in the reality or the fantasy of shared ancestry remain central in our politics, both within and between nations.

., 124–28, 130, 132 Dunlop, Daniel, 138, 139 Dworkin, Ronald, 177 East Asia, 120 East End (London, England), 153, 154 Eastern Europe, 77, 79, 195 East Germany, 78 East Pakistan, 78 Ecclesiastes, Book of, 52 Ecclesiasticus, Book of, 50 Edinburgh, Scotland, 86, 196 Edison, Thomas, 200 Edward III (king of England), 75 Egypt, 75, 79, 125, 192, 200, 203 Einstein, Albert, 181, 182 “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” (Gray), 181, 182 Eliot, George, 3 Elizabeth I (queen of England), 198 Elmhirst, Dorothy, 137, 138, 160 Elmhirst, Leonard, 137, 138, 140, 160, 185 Engels, Friedrich, 158 England, 6, 7, 20, 45, 60, 61, 75, 76, 87, 88, 113, 138, 139, 142, 148, 150, 153, 158, 162, 163, 171, 189, 191, 199; see also Great Britain “English Aristocracy, The” (Mitford), 163, 164 Ephesians, Letters to, 47, 59 Erikson, Erik, 3, 4 Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (Gobineau), 113 Esther, Book of, 52 Ethiopia, 79, 125 Euclid, 196, 207 Europe, 5, 78, 79, 87, 98, 103, 104, 107, 111, 112, 114, 117, 119, 120, 123, 125, 126, 128, 129, 133, 146, 150, 191, 192, 194, 197, 198, 201, 205, 207, 219 Eve (biblical figure), 111 Evelina (Burney), 155 Exodus, Book of, 67 Ezra, Book of, 52 Family and Kinship in East London (Young and Willmott), 153, 154, 161 Federation of Malaya, 91 Federation of Malaysia, 91 Ferguson, Missouri, 132 Filkins, England, 61 Fitzpatrick, Louisa, 138 Flanders, Michael, 21 Ford, Henry, 140 Ford, Leonard, 140 Forster, E. M., 215 Fort St. Sebastian, Ghana, 134 Four Weddings and a Funeral (film), 45 France, 20, 21, 28, 71, 75, 84, 88, 113, 114, 172, 187, 193, 195 Frederick II (Holy Roman Emperor), 198 Frederick the Great (king of Prussia), 203 Free Territory of Trieste, 90 French Empire, 93 Freud, Clement, 138 Freud, Lucian, 138 Fujian Province, China, 91 Furbank, P.


pages: 287 words: 82,576

The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, business cycle, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

These trends of increasing segregation show up in the aggregate numbers, but if you think about it, you probably can see it in some of the details of your own life, at least in many parts of this country. Circa 2016, you can see a black president on your television or internet screen, but that doesn’t mean you’re going to see more neighbors of a different race than you would have seen a few decades ago. Or if you do, you’re much less likely to see such individuals outside of your income class, even if they are not of your race. The Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore riots of 2015 took a lot of people by surprise, especially a lot of white people, and the proximate cause of these events was an accumulating pattern of police violence and misbehavior. But the deeper underlying roots of these and subsequent events were that the civil rights movement never really triumphed, and since then some economic forces have brought a lot of reversals when it comes to racial justice and fair treatment.

If a riot was likely, more likely than not it would be defused by the deliberate application of crowd management techniques. Starting in the 1970s, police hired consultants, when necessary, for assistance in responding to extreme events. The result was that American public sector servants have nudged the citizenry closer to order in lieu of inflaming marchers with batons and tear gas. To be sure, the recent trouble in Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, has represented cracks in this façade, a theme to which I return to later. In both cases, the initial police behavior was violent, and the subsequent police response to protests induced crowd violence, which then spiraled out of control, especially in Ferguson. The local police responded to protests with tear gas, helicopters, and smoke bombs, when they should have behaved more deliberately and taken steps to defuse the tensions.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

Within two weeks, solvers from outside the university—none in the fields of computational biology or life sciences—had produced genomics algorithms a hundred times faster than the current solution. The miracle of finding the right person at the right time is also transforming political activism. An activist and writer known by her Twitter handle, @FeministaJones, led an organizing movement for a national moment of silence (#nmos14) in response to the police killing of Michael Brown, a black teenager walking down the middle of a street at midday in Ferguson, Missouri, on August 9, 2014. Within just three days, Jones’s digital organizing—mostly on Twitter, Facebook, and Google Docs—resulted in thousands of people in tens of cities nationwide coming together. And while the mainstream media reported on the case slowly and sporadically with a handful of reporters, it was people in the right place—protesters, bystanders, eyewitnesses—who live-tweeted up-to-date news, videos, and photographs of events unfolding in Ferguson.

See also Capitalism; Collaborative economy Edge cases, innovation, 167–170 Elder care, challenge solution, 174 Emergencies and crises, crowdsourcing, 85 Employees, lack of flexibility, 189 Employment, shifting implications, 59–60 Employment status, employee vs. freelancer, 156–157 Energy, renewables, 94–95 Equity crowdfunding, 204–205 Ethiopia Toto Agriculture Portal, 42 Etsy, 229–230 benefits to peers, 51 Race to the Top Award, 230 social and environmental benefits, 201 Excess capacity beating law of physics, 73–78 Craigslist, 24–25 FOSS, 42–44 joined with platforms and peers, 72–73 large-scale uses, 33–34 Lyft, 67–68 map applications, 29–30 opening, 38–44 peers’ assets leveraged, 214 physical spaces, 31–32 reCAPTCHA, 27–28 recognizing, 22–33 sharing as tapping, 16–19 shipping, 94 Skype, 23–24 slicing and aggregating, 37–38 smartphone uses, 25–27 solar energy, 95 unshared experience, 40 ways platforms use, 37–42 Experimentation. See Controlled kernel; Innovation Expertise, peers as source, 81–85 Exponential learning, 78–81, 146, 185–186 Facebook allowing users to communicate, 128 fallout from experiment, 135–136 as power user, 119–120 Failure, 100. See also GoLoco Farm-to-fork program, 235–237 Farmville, dependence on Facebook, 119–120 FedEx, employment status, 156 Ferguson, Missouri, protests through social media, 83–84 Field, Matan, 215 Financing angel and capital investors, 9–11 crowdfunding, 202–205 options for platform building, 199–203 Flexibility, 56–57, 188–189 Flexicurity, 190 Forbes’ “Best Countries for Business,” 190 Forest fires, Indonesia, NGO’s work, 230–232 Free and open-source software (FOSS), 25 and community, 134–135 crowdfunded and privately financed, 207–211 as excess capacity, 42–44 power of communities, 219–220 volunteer coordinator, 210–211 Free riders, problems and opportunities, 166 Freelancers no perks or protections, 252 U.S. numbers, 157–158 Freight, excess capacity, 94 Future, near, Peers Inc, 88–89 G-Auto, 239–243 GE, partnering with Quirky, 63–64 Gebbia, Joe, 58 General Public License (GPL), 205–207 Gift crowdfunding, 203–205 GitHub, 43, 45, 209–210 GlaxoSmithKline, edge case innovation, 170 Global events, 350.org, 233 Global Forest Watch, 228, 230–232 Global Positioning System.


pages: 109 words: 33,946

Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging by Sebastian Junger

banking crisis, Credit Default Swap, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, income inequality, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, Yom Kippur War

Kung would not permit that because it would represent a serious threat to group cohesion and survival, but that is not true for a wealthy country like the United States. There have been occasional demonstrations against economic disparity, like the Occupy Wall Street protest camp of 2011, but they were generally peaceful and ineffective. (The riots and demonstrations against racial discrimination that later took place in Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, led to changes in part because they attained a level of violence that threatened the civil order.) A deep and enduring economic crisis like the Great Depression of the 1930s, or a natural disaster that kills tens of thousands of people, might change America’s fundamental calculus about economic justice. Until then, the American public will probably continue to refrain from broadly challenging both male and female corporate leaders who compensate themselves far in excess of their value to society.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

The 2015 documentary Peace Officer tells the story of Dub Lawrence, a former Utah county sheriff who became a police critic after his son-in-law was shot by a SWAT team officer during a standoff that was originally precipitated by a domestic violence call from his girlfriend.27 At the street level, too, the threat of police violence is constant, especially for the black and brown. In July 2014, New York City resident Eric Garner died after being placed in a chokehold by officers, for the suspected crime of selling untaxed loose cigarettes. His death provoked an uproar in part because the incident was caught on a cell phone camera, but also because it brought attention to something that is all too routine. Soon after, Mike Brown was shot down in the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, giving more fuel to a national movement. Although exact details of the encounter are disputed, all agree that Brown was unarmed and that the officer who shot him started a confrontation over the grave crime of walking in the street. These events echoed many similar incidents around the country, an unceasing drumbeat of violence over the years. In Oakland, for example, there was the police execution of Oscar Grant.


pages: 349 words: 114,914

We Were Eight Years in Power: An American Tragedy by Ta-Nehisi Coates

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Broken windows theory, Charles Lindbergh, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Ferguson, Missouri, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, jitney, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, moral panic, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, War on Poverty, white flight

“I appear before you this evening as a thief and a robber,” Frederick Douglass told his audiences. “I stole this head, these limbs, this body from my master, and ran off with them.” In Douglass’s time, to stand up for black rights was to condone black criminality. The same was true in King’s time. The same is true today. Appearing on Meet the Press to discuss the death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, the former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani—in the fashion of many others—responded to black critics of law enforcement exactly as his forebears would have: “How about you reduce crime?…The white police officers wouldn’t be there if you weren’t killing each other 70 to 75 percent of the time.” But even in Giuliani’s hometown, the relationship between crime and policing is not as clear as the mayor would present it.

“They abort their young children, they put their young men in jail, because they never learned how to pick cotton,” Bundy explained. “And I’ve often wondered, are they better off as slaves, picking cotton and having a family life and doing things, or are they better off under government subsidy? They didn’t get no more freedom. They got less freedom.” That same year, in the wake of Michael Brown’s death, the Justice Department opened an investigation into the police department in Ferguson, Missouri. It found a city that, through racial profiling, arbitrary fines, and wanton harassment, had exploited law enforcement for the purposes of municipal plunder. The plunder was sanctified by racist humor dispensed via internal emails among the police that later came to light. The president of the United States, who during his first year in office had reportedly received three times the number of death threats of any of his predecessors, was a repeat target.


Confronting Gun Violence in America by Thomas Gabor

Columbine, demand response, Ferguson, Missouri, income inequality, mandatory minimum, More Guns, Less Crime, RFID, Silicon Valley, urban sprawl

Incidents of self-protection by police would be even fewer, as officers may shoot at fleeing suspects and may also engage in illegitimate uses of force. At the time this section is being written, there has been increasing concern around the USA regarding police shootings of unarmed suspects, especially young AfricanAmerican men and teenagers (e.g., the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by a Ferguson, Missouri, police officer). 142 Confronting Gun Violence in America The New York City Police Department (NYPD) provides detailed data on intentional firearm discharges by police occurring in conflicts with civilians. The city’s annual report on firearms discharges for 2011 notes: While it must be acknowledged that the most serious category of discharges— shootings involving adversarial conflict with a subject—increased by 9 percent over last year’s record low, it is also true that experiencing 36 adversarial-conflict incidents during a year makes for a remarkably infrequent rate.

., 12 educational attainment, 140, 289 Ellington Bridge, 96 Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, 286 England and Wales, 22, 23, 97 Erfurt, 5 Estonia, 39, 40, 46 Everytown for Gun Safety, 6, 17n14, 72, 80n2, 81n16, 81n20, 81n21, 82n35, 283, 296, 343n50, 343n63 Index F Farleigh Dickinson University Poll, 236 FBI, 26, 66, 78, 108, 134, 138, 141, 148, 149, 183, 221, 253, 280, 328 fear, 4, 14, 26, 27, 52, 134–6, 173, 203, 208, 219, 258, 259, 270, 280, 339 fear of rape, 134 feelings of safety, 182 female homicide victims, 9, 203 Ferguson, Missouri, 141 Finland, 7, 8, 23, 40 firearm discharges by police, 142, 145 firearm homicide rate, 7, 42, 122, 128n5, 285, 311, 319 firearm injuries, 7, 10, 11, 18n20, 19n31, 100n12, 147, 260n5, 324 firearm ownership levels, 91, 128n3 firearm-related injuries, 6, 10, 14, 101n39, 159n36, 276, 304 firearms industry, 134, 193–215, 303, 314, 324 firearms training, 179, 188n58, 189n72, 223 firearm suicide, 9, 43, 83, 90–3, 97, 98, 122, 289, 299, 318, 319, 349n129 firing test, 307 First Amendment, 264 Fleegler, E., 126, 129n11, 289, 342n43 Florida, ix, viii, 28, 52, 58, 67, 74, 135, 136, 148, 155, 169–71, 173–5, 183, 357 187n44, 187n 47, 187n 48, 218–20, 223, 256, 264, 312, 314 Florida State University, 31, 56, 109, 143, 149, 167 focused-deterrence strategies, 314–16 Follman, M., 19n34, 66, 68, 72, 74, 80n6, 81n8, 81n17, 81n22, 82n29, 351n166 Fortunato, D., 167, 185n24 Fox, J.


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

Unless overawed by the threat of state violence in police or planning or regulation, ordinary people, especially the lower classes, will spurn priests, stop paying their rents and taxes, not save enough for old age, kill each other, not buy enough insurance, speak against the government, appear with hair uncovered, refuse military service, drink to excess, commit unnatural acts, use naughty words, chew gum, smoke marihuana—committing in sum, as Bill Murray put it in Ghost Busters, “human sacrifice, dogs and cats living together, mass hysteria.” A progressive or a conservative program of heavy regulation is a first-night-in-Ferguson-Missouri notion of keeping order. It is the justification of all tyranny, hard or soft. “Women will go wild if not confined,” the chieftain says, and then insists on burqas and honor killings. In matters of religious belief and in matters of economic betterment and in matters of clothing style, almost everyone before the tolerant Poles and Dutch in the sixteenth century or the reluctantly tolerant English in the early eighteenth century or the anyway ungovernable Americans of the late eighteenth century were persuaded that liberty meant license.

Babbitt, I just don’t think you have much of a future at Acme”); writers and authors (we are merely 178,000, but again think of the tens of thousands of people who work at it in blogs and writers’ groups without publication, though also without payment figuring in national income); claims adjusters and investigators (303,000); and, a big category, the 8,114,000 educational, training, and library occupations, such as college professors (we are 1.2 million alone) and nursery-school teachers. Perhaps a mere quarter of the effort of the 1,313,000 police and sheriff’s patrol officers, detectives and criminal investigators, correctional officers, and private detectives is spent on persuasion, though the ones I’ve talked to put the figure higher. Look at the difference from one night to the next in the persuasiveness in 2014 of the police in Ferguson, Missouri. In health care, as anyone who has worked in it knows, sweet talk is important—advocating for the patient, getting him to stay on his blood-pressure medicine, talking sweetly with other caregivers, dealing with insurance companies and hospital administrators (some of whom are included above in the managerial category). In the large category “health care practitioners and technical occupations,” we can remove from the realm of persuasion the technical occupations—x-ray technicians, medical records technicians, and so forth—although even these can’t merely silently work, if they work well.

.: censorship in the East, 684n8; Chinese higher education, 687n7 Falangas, Andronikos: Austrian bureaucracy, 438 Fallows, Deborah: Chinese aspirations, 23 Falstaff, Sir John, 309, 317–318 family as socialist, 577, 624; Swedish national home, 577 Farrell, James, 42 faux policies: effect on poor, 73, 572 Feinstein, Charles: quotes report of van Imhoff, 690n35 Feinstein, Jonathan: acknowledged, xxxix Fenoaltea, Stefano: GDP, 654n6 Ferguson, Missouri: policing, 493; regulation, 208 Ferguson, Niall, chap. 10; imperialism, 88; Jews and betterment, 687n3; killer apps, 85; Landes-Ferguson right wing, 89; national decline, 91; overpopulation of the East, 11; power and plenty, 87. See also domination; imperialism; power and plenty Fernandez, Angel: early Spanish liberals, 682n7 Field, Alexander: benevolence, 218; betterment in the 1930s, 206 Field, Marshall: business plan, 59 Fields, Polly Stevens, 270 Filling, John: social body, 299 Findeisen, Chris, 667n9 Findlay, Ronald: power and plenty, 99; use of Mantoux, 99.


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

For social movements, an algorithm can be a strong tailwind or a substantial obstacle.32 Algorithms can also shape social movement tactics as a movement’s content producers adapt or transform their messages to be more algorithm friendly. Consider how the Black Lives Matter movement, now nationwide in the United States, encountered significant algorithmic resistance on Facebook in its initial phase. After a police officer killed an African American teenager in Ferguson, Missouri, in August 2014, there were protests in the city that later sparked nationwide demonstrations against racial inequalities and the criminal justice system. However, along the way, this burgeoning movement was almost tripped up by Facebook’s algorithm. The protests had started out small and local. The body of Michael Brown, the black teenager shot and killed by Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson on August 9, had been left in the street for hours.

Faced with growing pressure, the state of Florida finally initiated a trial. Although the killer was acquitted (there was no video of the incident, and the only person alive to tell the story was the killer), the social networks that carried on this conversation continued to keep talking to one another and to grow. Two years later, in August 2014, another black teenager, Michael Brown, was killed by a police officer under murky circumstances in Ferguson, Missouri (see my examination in chapter 6 of how Facebook’s algorithm treated this incident, and other details). Some witnesses claimed that his hands were up in the air when he was shot.25 There was no video of the incident. His body was left in the middle of the street in the hot August sun for many hours. A Justice Department report later revealed the root causes of the tensions between the city’s almost all-white police force and its almost all-black residents: the city governance and budget were based on fining the minority residents for every minor infraction.


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Indeed, it would have been impossible for Carrillo or Figueres to build a Shackled Leviathan if Costa Rica had had the same labor-repressive agriculture as Guatemala. Chapter 10 WHAT’S THE MATTER WITH FERGUSON? A Killing at Noon Shortly after noon on August 9, 2014, Michael Brown, an eighteen-year-old African American, was shot dead by police officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri, a city in St. Louis County. Brown had stolen a packet of cigarillos from a store and was with a friend when Wilson, who had learned of the robbery on his radio, asked them to stop. A struggle took place with Wilson still in his car, and two shots were fired. Brown fled and Wilson chased him, eventually hitting him with six bullets. A mere ninety seconds expired between Wilson’s encountering Brown and the young man’s death.

The shifting mix of private and public provision was an expedient way for the American state to gain greater capacity over time, but it also meant that it was particularly hamstrung in dealing with several critical problems. Many of the pressing challenges facing the country today, ranging from high levels of poverty and lack of access to healthcare (by the standards of other rich nations) to crime (gargantuan compared to other countries) and lack of protection for citizens (easily visible in Ferguson, Missouri, or in Hyde Park, Chicago, where one of us lives), have their origins in this hamstrung state building. The killing of Michael Brown must be seen in the context of the lamentable state of relations between the citizens and the police force in Ferguson. This is the complex outcome of many things, but it is common across many poor, minority urban neighborhoods. These areas have the same problems everywhere; they disproportionately house racial minorities; they have fewer jobs and economic opportunities than elsewhere in the nation and poverty rates are far higher than normal; they have a severe undersupply of public services; and they have much higher rates of crime, particularly gun crimes and homicides.

See also Gilgamesh problem equal-field system, 209, 222 Equal Pay Act, 194 Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip, 425, 440, 442 Eric Bloodaxe, 167 Estates General (France), 182 European Court of Justice, 490 European Union (EU), 284, 439, 441–42, 490 Evans, Richard, 397, 400 extractive growth, 114–15, 118–19 extraordinary rendition, 335, 491 Fahd, King (Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud), 378, 380 Faisal, King (Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud), 376–78, 380, 385 famine, 14–15, 224, 229 fascism, 405, 420 Fashola, Babatunde Raji, 445–46 Fatimid dynasty, 111–12 fatwas, 372, 374–80, 382–84, 388–89 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 333–35, 491 Federal Housing Authority (FHA), 329–30 Federal Republic of Central America, 295, 302 Federal Reserve System, 480 Federalist Papers, 48–49 Federalists, 47–51, 297, 315–16. See also Bill of Rights; U.S. Constitution; and specific amendments Fellers, Bonner F., 436, 437 Ferguson, Missouri, 304–6, 309–11, 313, 327–29 Fernández de Kirchner, Cristina, 343, 344 feudalism, 169–73, 175, 177–78, 181, 184, 266, 271, 278–79, 414, 416–17, 455, 500 feuds, 35–36, 162, 168, 267, 276–78, 415 Fibonacci, Leonardo, 138–39 Field, Stephen, 311 Fifteenth Amendment, 52 Fifth Amendment, 312 Figueres, José, 297, 303 Finer, Herman, 405 Finley, Moses, 454 firearms, 89–90, 94 First Amendment, 305, 310, 490 First and Second Congo Wars, 99 First Crusade, 188 First Reform Act, 190 FitzNigel, Richard, 173 Flanders, 136 Florence, Italy, 139–40, 141 Florentine Catasto of 1427, 139–40 Flores, Juan José, 355 Flynn, Henry, 84 Fogel, Robert, 454 Force Publique (Belgian Congo), 457 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts, 491 Fornander, Abraham, 116–17 Foster, Augustus John, 315 “Four Clean-ups” campaign, 17 “Four Freedoms” speech, 493–94 Fourteenth Amendment, 52, 310–11 Fourth Amendment, 305, 310, 312, 490 Fourth Crusade, 188 Francis of Assisi, Saint, 135–40, 143–44 Franklin, Benjamin, 495 Franks, 154, 154–57, 160–64, 167, 170, 213 Frederick Barbarossa, 127–28, 142, 417 Frederick I, King of Prussia, 274 Frederick II (the Great), King of Prussia, 274–75 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 182 Frederick William I (the Great Elector), King of Prussia, 273–74, 275 Free Corps, 393, 395 Free Officers Movement, 385 Frei, Eduardo, 408 Fritzsche, Peter, 393–94 FSB (Federal Security Bureau, Russia), 286, 287 Fujimori, Alberto, 422 Fukuyama, Francis, 1–2 Gaidar, Yegor, 285 Galileo Galilei, 196 Gamsakhurdia, Zviad, 92–93 gana-sanghas, 252, 253–54 Gandhi, Mahatma, 261 Gaozu, Emperor, 207 García Granados, Miguel, 299 Gaviria, César, 448 Gebusi of Papua New Guinea, 8, 59 generational theory of Ibn Khaldun, 104–14, 116, 122, 125, 373, 387 Geneva Convention, 460 Genoa, Italy, 139 Georg Wilhelm, elector of Brandenburg, 273 Georgia (republic), 92–94, 121–24 German National People’s Party, 397 German Workers’ Party, 396 Germania, The (Tacitus), 155–56 Germanic tribes, 155–56, 160, 182, 185, 199, 270 Germany: and decline of Weimar Republic, 390–96; and Great Depression, 467; and Nazi takeover of German state, 404–6; and Prussian bureaucracy, 12; recovery from autocracy, 423–25; Red Queen dynamics of, 399–404, 405–6; and rise of Nazism, 396–99; welfare state development, 472 Ghana, 18, 20, 362–63, 364, 366 Ghazali, Abu Hamid al-, 379 Ghibellines, 417 Giele, Enno, 206 Gilgamesh problem, xiii–xv, 18, 47, 68, 153, 297 Glass-Steagall Act, 478 globalization, 269, 420, 455–57, 476–78, 482, 486 Glorious Revolution, 188, 189, 195, 280 Gluckman, Max, 120–21 “gnocchi” (ghost workers), 341–44, 345, 445, 448, 449 Godric of Finchale (later Saint Godric), 143 Godwinson, Harold, 169 Goebbels, Joseph, 392, 404 Goi, 20–21 Golden Bull (document), 182 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 93, 282, 285, 288 Göring, Hermann, 392 Goths, 185 Govindan, Thillai, 245 Gram Sadak Yojana, 262–63 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, 479 Great Britain.


pages: 157 words: 53,125

The Fifth Risk by Michael Lewis

Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, chief data officer, cloud computing, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, uranium enrichment

Mobility had a racial dimension as well: A white child born into the upper-income quintile was five times more likely to stay there than to fall to the bottom. A black child born into the upper-income quintile was as likely to fall to the bottom as to remain rich. More of America’s problems than even DJ had imagined could be better understood and addressed with better access to the right information. The problem of excessive police force was another example. After a white policeman shot a defenseless black man in Ferguson, Missouri, the White House convened police chiefs from ten American cities, along with their data. The policing data was local and difficult to get ahold of—and that was DJ’s point. He wanted to show what might be possible if the government collected the information. “We asked the question: What causes excessive use of police force?” Combing the data from the ten cities, a team of researchers from several American universities found a pattern that would have been hard to spot with the naked eye.


pages: 667 words: 149,811

Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Toward the end of the twentieth century, in tandem with mounting costs to fund the ballooning criminal justice system, governments began requiring more of the costs to be paid by defendants through fines and fees.62 At least one estimate places the amount that state and local governments collect each year at $15 billion, with some counties relying on fines and fees for as much as half of their policing and judicial expenditures.63 Punitive fines and fees are also used disproportionately in jurisdictions with higher shares of black residents.64 Indeed, in Ferguson, Missouri, the Department of Justice found that court fees and fines constituted a major source of city revenue.65 The number of people affected by such fees is dramatic. In 2004, the latest year that the federal government surveyed incarcerated individuals on this topic, two-thirds of inmates reported that they were ordered to pay various fines or fees, compared with 25 percent in 1991.66 In 2014, sociologist Alexes Harris estimated that the share of returning individuals with these costs was 80 to 85 percent.67 Many of the most common fees are for things that most Americans probably believe are guaranteed by law to indigent defendants.

Georgia in 1983 that it is unconstitutional to incarcerate people simply because of their inability to pay fines and fees that courts impose,75 that ruling is not holding up in the real lives of people across this country. Even in 2004, a study found that twenty-one thousand people returned to prison because their parole or probation had been revoked because they failed to meet the financial conditions of their release.76 A study in Rhode Island found that between 2005 and 2007 nearly one in five of all incarcerated people were imprisoned for failure to pay a court debt.77 In Ferguson, Missouri, missed payments or court dates often resulted in jail time for the predominantly poor African American population disproportionately targeted by police.78 On any given day in the United States, close to half a million people are incarcerated but not convicted of a crime.79 Those who remain incarcerated are there because they cannot afford to post bail. If they use bail bondsmen to get out of jail, they likely incur high interest rates on the loans that can take years to pay back.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

But the largest chunk, by far, would seem to be dead, victims of heart disease and diabetes and the worst epidemic of all, homicide, which may have accounted for a sobering two hundred thousand dead black men in the age bracket demographers rightly call “prime age.” The median black woman in America is likely to live in a community in which there are only forty-three men for every sixty-seven women. The gender gap is worst, the Times discovered, in Ferguson, Missouri—the same community that became the locus of the Black Lives Matter movement after a police officer killed an unarmed black teenager in 2014. The gap is also greater in North Charleston, where the police killed an African American suspect, Walter Scott, also unarmed, as he tried to run away. Taking so many people out of circulation cripples communities that are often already facing challenges to their schools, businesses, and social structure.


pages: 251 words: 76,225

The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, commoditize, desegregation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Skype, women in the workforce

To say, “This is the stuff of circuses and mistakes. This is the stuff of nightmares.” It’s easier to reject,10 fear,11 and destroy12 what we don’t understand. It’s impossible to understand what we’re never allowed to see. Even if, in many cases, what we never see is ourselves.13 * * * I passed a man and his son headed to a football game one day. The news was, at the time, all about the protest and unrest in the city of Ferguson, Missouri, where peaceful protests in reaction to the shooting of an unarmed teenager were met with an increasingly violent police response. One would think there would be a profound backlash against this militarized police response, no matter the race of the victim. But one would be wrong.14 The boy and his father crossing the street to the stadium were white; the boy was about eight or nine years old, and he asked, “Dad, what if it had been a black cop shooting a black kid?


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, American ideology, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

Because race has always been classed and class has always been raced, most of these city- or state-based organizations understand the connections between corporate power, police brutality, underfunded public schools, and low-paying jobs. There’s a new beltway of activism flowing through the South, from Atlanta, Georgia, all the way down to Miami, Florida, and on over to Jackson, Mississippi. Phillip Agnew is the director of Dream Defenders, based in Florida, and was one of the handful of young activists invited to the White House to meet with President Obama about the protests in Ferguson, Missouri. Agnew, whom I met at a Demos gala when we honored Dream Defenders with a Transforming America Award, brought the house down in his acceptance speech. Like so many other leaders, he and his group are joining the chorus of activists supporting Black Lives Matter while continuing to do local organizing and work to change policies and laws. In an interview, he seamlessly laid out the breadth of the challenge and what animates working-class people whose struggles form the backbone of the second wave of civil rights activism: “The values that our country is supposed to be built on—equal opportunity for all, the ability of all to represent our values at the ballot box—this country has never done that.


pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

Furthermore, the violent crime rate—which has been declining across the United States—fell three times faster in America’s primary cities than it did in their suburbs between 1990 and 2008. Murders actually rose by 16.9 percent in the suburbs between 2001 and 2010, while falling by 16.7 percent in cities.11 And the suburbs have been the sites of many, if not most, of America’s mass shootings, from Columbine to Sandy Hook. Suburban governments and police departments have been slow to adjust to these new realities. That became agonizingly apparent to the whole world when Ferguson, Missouri, a St. Louis suburb of 21,000, spun out of control in the wake of the police killing of Michael Brown in 2015. Over two-thirds (67 percent) of Ferguson’s population is black, but only four of the town’s fifty-four police officers were black at the time. Ferguson is hardly a typical case—it had suffered from many local traumas, from a failed airport expansion, in which thousands of homeowners were displaced by eminent domain, to long-standing racial red-lining.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

In Argentina, for instance, unemployed workers’ movements blockaded major streets in order to make themselves heard and were central to the overthrow of the government.82 Expelled from the wage, shorn of a workplace, blockading urban arteries becomes a primary means of exerting political power.83 The surge in freeway blockades in the wake of the August 2014 police killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, demonstrates the increasing prevalence of this type of struggle.84 Similar tactics take on other aspects of capitalist reproduction with the same basic objective, including rent strikes and debt strikes. Port blockades also have potential as a tactic, and computer modelling can offer insights into how to avoid scattershot and ineffective political action.85 These new tactics must, of course, be situated within a larger strategic plan, or risk becoming so many temporary movements that erupt only to disappear without a trace.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

Misogyny once limited to rhetoric is now codified in law: in May 2019, the Missouri legislature passed a law banning abortion after eight weeks even in the case of rape or incest. The day this was passed, I woke up to learn that my husband now had more rights than me—and that any man who chose to rape me in Missouri did too. * * * In August 2014, I was with my friend and sometimes cowriter Umar Lee—probably the only person in America to cash a check from Politico at a corner store—in a restaurant in Ferguson, Missouri. Down the block, the staff of a major cable network had barricaded itself in a giant steel cage from black protesters, among them St. Louisans who were close friends of mine and Umar’s. The brutal killing of eighteen-year-old Michael Brown by police officer Darren Wilson had happened two weeks before, and the nightly gassing of protesters by the police had begun. The world that had once ignored St.


pages: 416 words: 100,130

New Power: How Power Works in Our Hyperconnected World--And How to Make It Work for You by Jeremy Heimans, Henry Timms

"side hustle", 3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, battle of ideas, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Chris Wanstrath, Columbine, Corn Laws, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, game design, gig economy, hiring and firing, IKEA effect, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, Kibera, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, profit motive, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Snapchat, social web, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, web application, WikiLeaks

Garza, Cullors, and Tometi set about, in Garza’s words, “[creating] the infrastructure for this movement project—moving the hashtag from social media to the streets.” They began to mobilize online and on calls, connecting organizers around the country, with the goal of creating the “space for the celebration and humanization of Black lives.” Their response to the killing of Michael Brown by police in Ferguson, Missouri, took the movement to the next level. The three women—working as always in partnership with others—quickly organized the Black Lives Matter “Freedom ride,” where activists from around the country piled into buses and rode to Ferguson to support local organizing efforts and the community there. This iconic moment inspired many more. Three months later, in December 2014, a Black Lives Matter banner stretched across the crowd at the Millions March NYC.


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche

In the United States, neighborhoods are increasingly segregated—economically, politically, almost any way one cares to look at the data.29 We have an unprecedented choice of news outlets. Americans, Canadians, Australians, and Brits can easily read The Times of India or The Japan Times. But we don’t. Instead, conservatives watch Fox News and liberals watch MSNBC.30 There’s the Internet, of course, a cornucopia of news and opinion, but we sample its riches selectively—often without realizing how the selection is made. Consider the way that the troubles of Ferguson, Missouri, were covered by social media in the summer of 2014 after a police officer, Darren Wilson, shot and killed a young black man, Michael Brown. Night after night of confrontation between police and protesters barely made a ripple on Facebook. The most likely explanation for that is that Facebook is set up for sharing good news. You signal your approval of a post by clicking “Like,” which feels like an inappropriate response to a photograph of a masked protester or a line of riot cops.


pages: 412 words: 96,251

Why We're Polarized by Ezra Klein

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climategate, collapse of Lehman Brothers, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Nate Silver, obamacare, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, source of truth

If that’s true, then the rise of digital media was simply revealing what was already there. In this telling, we used to have a limited number of media outlets, and they were almost all run by wealthy white men, so the market was simply ill served and waiting for correction. This is clearly part of the story. In the absence of social media and audience analytics, I doubt that newsrooms run by white men would’ve devoted blanket coverage to the events in Ferguson, Missouri, and their aftermath. And I say that as a white man who was running a newsroom at that time—this is the way analytics and social media improve our work, by giving us truer, broader information about the audience’s interests. But the other perspective takes identities as living, malleable things. They can be activated or left dormant, strengthened or weakened, created or left in the void.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

He’s publicly backed Planned Parenthood, protested President Trump’s controversial travel ban targeting Muslims, and sent a companywide memo in 2016 urging his employees to take a pause on Martin Luther King Jr. Day. “Think about how profoundly shameful it is that there even ever had to be a ‘civil rights movement,’” Butterfield wrote. Two years before I sat down with Butterfield, former Google engineer Erica Joy Baker was marching the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, to protest the shooting of a young black man named Michael Brown, when Butterfield tweeted at her, “Be safe.” When Baker looked at Butterfield’s Twitter page, she realized he cared about diversity almost as much as she did. “He is woke. I want to go work for him,” Baker said of her discovery. In 2015, she joined the Slack team as a senior engineer fully convinced after reading a powerful Medium post by Slack’s then-engineering chief of staff, Nolan Caudill, in which he outlined the company’s core values.


pages: 382 words: 107,150

We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck

airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

My coworkers were already having their doors broken down at dawn by ICE. Parents were being dragged away and taken someplace their children couldn’t find them. That’s why we started fighting. That’s why we won’t stop. I honestly don’t know how much worse it can get.” For Sanders, Rainer, and many others, the living-wage campaign is inextricably tied to the struggle against police violence and for immigration reform. Fight for $15 activists at a McDonald’s in Ferguson, Missouri, provided safe space during the unrest after police killed teenager Michael Brown in the summer of 2014. Living-wage marchers in New York wore shirts emblazoned with the last words of Eric Garner, father of six, killed by the NYPD that summer. “We’re the same people,” says Rainer. “We have to hold down three jobs, and when we are done and tired, walking home from work, then we are abused by police, raided by immigration cops.”


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, twin studies, uber lyft, women in the workforce

Oxford University Press. On governments as organised crime, Williamson, Kevin D. 2013. The End is Near and it’s Going to be Awesome. HarperCollins; Nock, A.J. 1939. The criminality of the state. The American Mercury March 1939; and Morris, Ian 2014. War: What is it Good For?. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Also Robert Higgs, Some basics of state domination and public submission. Blog.independent.org 27 April 2104. On Ferguson, Missouri, Paul, Rand. We must demilitarize the police. Time 14 August 2014. Balko, Radley 2013. Rise of the Warrior Cop. PublicAffairs. On Lao Tzu, Blacksburg, A. 2013. Taoism and Libertarianism – From Lao Tzu to Murray Rothbard. Thehumanecondition.com. Lord Acton’s letter to Mary Gladstone (24 April 1881), published in Letters of Lord Acton to Mary Gladstone (1913) p. 73. Michael Cloud quoted in Frisby, Dominic 2013.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

These are facts of urban life that have deep significance for the country, because in a nation of immigrants, the question of integration and relations between ethnic groups stretches back to its foundation, and permeates all its arguments about itself. Americans today listen to a president who talks about race with an abandon that none of his predecessors in living memory could have imagined – whether about a white supremacist march in Charlottesville, police shootings in Ferguson, Missouri, which produced a string of riots, security on the Mexican border, where he says the nation is under threat, or about ‘sanctuary cities’ (which set themselves up as bulwarks against mass deportation), about which he mused that it might be a good idea to transport illegal immigrants there against their will. Trump’s language is new. He argues that with job growth strong – more Americans were indeed in work in mid-2019 than for five years – black and Hispanic employment will inevitably improve.


pages: 521 words: 125,749

Fallen Astronauts: Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon by Colin Burgess, Kate Doolan

Charles Lindbergh, Ferguson, Missouri, Mikhail Gorbachev, profit motive, Ronald Reagan

Slayton felt that Bassett would work well with Frank Borman and Bill Anders (both of whom would eventually fly on the Apollo 8 mission). If he performed well on that flight, there was a high probability he would later command his own lunar landing mission and become one of a handful of men to walk on the moon. When he confided this in Jeannie, she could see that he was thrilled, almost beyond words. Charlie Bassett, it seemed, was definitely on his way to the moon. Kenneth Stovall from Ferguson, Missouri, was employed as a company linesman by Union Electric. He was walking through a substation parking lot near the McDonnell Plant when he heard the T-38 approaching from the east. He remembered it descending at "a fairly sharp angle." As he watched, the pilot cut in the afterburners, desperately throwing on extra power. Moments later the aircraft disappeared from view behind some stationary boxcars on the elevated railroad tracks skirting the northern side of the airfield.


pages: 531 words: 125,069

The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure by Greg Lukianoff, Jonathan Haidt

AltaVista, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, helicopter parent, hygiene hypothesis, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed

YEAR MAJOR NEWS STORIES RELATED TO SOCIAL JUSTICE 2009 Inauguration of Barack Obama 2010 Tyler Clementi suicide (raises awareness of bullying of LGBT youth) 2011 Occupy Wall Street (raises awareness of income inequality) 2012 Killing of Trayvon Martin; reelection of Barack Obama; Sandy Hook elementary school massacre (raises interest in gun control) 2013 George Zimmerman acquitted of murder in the death of Trayvon Martin; Black Lives Matter founded 2014 Police killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri; police killing of Eric Garner in New York City (with video); Black Lives Matter protests spread across America; lead in drinking water in Flint, Michigan, raises awareness of “environmental justice” 2015 Supreme Court legalizes gay marriage; Caitlyn Jenner publicly identifies as a woman; white supremacist Dylann Roof massacres nine black worshipers in Charleston, South Carolina; Confederate flags removed from state capitol in South Carolina; police killing of Walter Scott (with video); universities erupt in protest over racism, beginning at Missouri and Yale, then spreading to dozens of others 2016 Terrorist Omar Mateen kills forty-nine in attack on gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida; police killing of Alton Sterling (with video); police killing of Philando Castile (with video); killing of five police officers in Dallas; quarterback Colin Kaepernick refuses to stand for national anthem; North Carolina requires transgender people to use bathrooms corresponding to the sex on their birth certificates; protest against Dakota Access Pipeline at Standing Rock Indian Reservation; nomination and election of Donald Trump 2017 Trump inauguration; Trump attempts to enact various “Muslim bans”; women’s march in Washington; violent protests against campus speakers at UC Berkeley and Middlebury; Trump bans transgender people from military service; Trump praises “very fine people” in Charlottesville march, during which a neo-Nazi kills Heather Heyer and injures others by driving a car into a crowd; fifty-eight killed in largest mass shooting in U.S. history in Las Vegas; start of the #MeToo movement, to expose and stop sexual harassment and assault 2018 (through March) Nikolas Cruz, expelled student with history of emotional and behavioral disorders, kills seventeen at high school in Parkland, Florida; students organize school walkouts and marches for gun control across the United States Important, terrifying, thrilling, and shocking events happen every year, but the years from 2012 through 2018 seem like the closest we’ve come to the intensity of the stretch from 1968 to 1972.


Policing the Open Road by Sarah A. Seo

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, barriers to entry, Ferguson, Missouri, jitney, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, strikebreaker, the built environment, traffic fines, War on Poverty

Although Bland was not killed during the traffic stop, in 2015, the year of her death, 27 percent of police killings of unarmed citizens began with a traffic stop, according to one survey. Bland herself had been increasingly vocal on social media against police abuse and violence against African Americans, especially when the Black Lives Matter movement gained momentum after a police officer fatally shot eighteen-year-old Michael Brown. It turned out that what had happened in Ferguson, Missouri, on August 9, 2014, was part of a larger trend. The US Department of Justice opened an investigation of the Ferguson Police Department and found “a pattern of unconstitutional policing” that skewed along racial lines. Most encounters with law enforcement, the report concluded, began with a traffic stop, an experience that disproportionately befell Ferguson’s black residents. In 2014, its municipal court had roughly 53,000 traffic cases, compared with about 50,000 nontraffic cases.


pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The problem is that, in a post-9/11 world, the US police have become what Balko calls ‘a protected class’. Few politicians want to oppose them, so they are rarely held to account successfully, and, despite a growing media focus on their actions, no one seems to be effectively restricting their powers. Instead, America just keeps arming its law enforcement officers with military-grade equipment. It was something that was glaringly obvious on the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, in the summer of 2014. When Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager, was shot and killed on August 9 by Darren Wilson, a white police officer, protests riled the area for weeks. The world looked on as the streets of an American town seemed to descend into a war zone – masked police with tear gas, beanbag rounds, flash grenades and rubber bullets descended on Ferguson. A policeman was filmed saying, ‘Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it’, and the issue of the militarisation of America’s police became the focus of endless media columns and articles.


pages: 504 words: 129,087

The Ones We've Been Waiting For: How a New Generation of Leaders Will Transform America by Charlotte Alter

"side hustle", 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Hangouts, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job-hopping, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, passive income, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, white picket fence, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Until 2013, movements for racial justice in the United States tended to coalesce around small groups of black men, or what The New Yorker’s Jelani Cobb called “the great-black-man theory of history.” But Black Lives Matter activists were more interested in what they called a “leaderful” movement, like Occupy Wall Street, where no single person called the shots. There was such a distaste for what Garza called “the model of the black preacher leading people to the promised land” that when Rev. Jesse Jackson tried to address protesters after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, he was booed. “Organizations that are led by one person are very vulnerable,” Garza told me. “If there are many leaders, you can’t compromise a movement and you can’t kill it. If there’s one leader, it’s very easy to neutralize.” First through Occupy and then through Black Lives Matter, millennials were beginning to seek political change through movements rather than through individuals.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

For example, the police are increasingly averse to being monitored. All over the US, police harass and prosecute people who videotape them, and some jurisdictions have ruled it illegal. Cops in Chicago have deliberately obscured cameras, apparently attempting to conceal their own behavior. The San Diego Police Department denies all requests for police videos, claiming that they’re part of ongoing investigations. During the 2014 protests in Ferguson, Missouri, after the police killed an unarmed black man, police routinely prevented protesters from recording them, and several reporters were arrested for documenting events. Los Angeles police even went so far as to sabotage court-mandated voice recorders in their patrol cars. Governments and corporations routinely resist transparency laws of all kinds. But the world of secrecy is changing. Privacy-law scholar Peter Swire writes about a declining half-life of secrets.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Far more radical proposals have been offered to restore the city to its previous size and sense of purpose: making it a tax-free zone, creating a Detroit-only visa for hardworking Latin and Asian immigrants, and giving Detroit to Canada, which provides a much larger federal share (approximately 20 percent) of city budgets than America does (less than 10 percent). Dozens of other cities are also on life support, in deep debt, and without viable business models. Fiscal stress makes municipal welfare a token gesture at best. Many of these cities are also so deeply divided by wealth and race that they have become tinderboxes—the 2014 Ferguson, Missouri, riots were only the most widely reported episode. They are so poor and unequal they should be treated like underdeveloped countries.9 Washington is haphazardly helping them pay for police officers and commuter buses, backing bonds to cover pensions, and offering investment rebates and tax credits for job creation and business start-ups. But creating a few jobs isn’t a sustainable economic strategy.


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Ann was now a senior advisor at the State Department working on global women’s issues. She was also five months pregnant and coming with me. These trips could go either way—a paid vacation with the president, or a nightmare of nonstop work with a skeleton staff. On the Saturday that we boarded Air Force One for the Vineyard, the United States began air strikes on ISIL targets, and a young African American named Michael Brown was killed by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri. This was not going to be a vacation. Obama was staying at a large rental house on the other side of the island, an hour’s drive from the staff. When we got to our hotel, Ann and I were shown to a small, dark room on the ground floor with twin beds. “I’m not staying here,” she said. She didn’t even sit down. I tried to block off time we could spend together, hoping to schedule something of a vacation within the confines of my job, but I had to spend hours sitting in a dark NSC office, wearing headphones, patched into meetings by secure videoconference so that I could update Obama.


pages: 522 words: 162,310

Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

He’s still around, ragging on the military-industrial complex (“sending troops to die in illegal wars”), the horrors of the prison camp at Guantánamo Bay, the Bilderberg Group (“the apex of the…power structure”), Goldman Sachs, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, corporate America in general (“Madison Avenue makes us addicts of consumerism”). He has been a supporter of Edward Snowden. In an on-air conversation with Noam Chomsky, a towering intellectual avatar of the far left, the men agreed that the elite imposes an illusion of consent on the people, that U.S. elections are mostly meaningless, that the Democrats and Republicans (as Chomsky remarked) are really just “two factions of one party.” During the protests in Ferguson, Missouri, in 2014, he said that the National Guard was “clearly being given orders to brutalize the press…and to threaten to kill the press.” “You’re one of the only prominent leaders,” he told Louis Farrakhan during their conversation in 2016, “that addresses that there is a conspiracy…[of] the power elite.” “We’re on the march,” he says again and again, the way Henry V said unto the breach, “and the empire is on the run.”


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The high school has a student council that is predominantly white, but it also has a black male leadership group, a female leadership group, a Latino one, and an African–Middle Eastern one. “These groups meet every other week and talk about their responsibility to the school,” said Meyers. “They elect captains and if they have a grievance they come and see me.” In the wake of the police shooting in Ferguson, Missouri, students staged a walkout and created a group called Students Organizing Against Racism, or SOAR. “If kids have a voice, with mentoring from teachers, it can make a huge difference,” said Meyer. “They cannot be coming to a school and feeling like they are visiting someone else’s school.” Metz remarked that when he was the high school principal he got to “talk to a lot of seniors when they go out the door and almost always their biggest regret is that they didn’t mix with more kids.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

This is why companies and wealthy individuals spend millions on search engine optimisation. If, due to some small change in the algorithm, ‘Bates Motel + Fairvale’ disappears from the top 10 results, that could be the commercial kiss of death for that delightful hostelry. The internet scholar Zeynep Tufekci argues that Facebook’s News Feed algorithm unintentionally buried news of the first days of protests against the killing of a black youth by a white policeman in the town of Ferguson, Missouri, in summer 2014.51 The psychologist Robert Epstein, an outspoken critic of Google, goes further, talking of a search engine manipulation effect. In a study conducted with 1,800 undecided voters in India’s 2014 parliamentary election, he claimed to have shifted votes by an average of 12.5 percent to particular candidates simply by improving their placings in search results found by the individual voter.52 An extreme example of algorithmic choice could be provided by Google’s computer-driven car.


pages: 788 words: 223,004

Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

When protests erupted in Burma later that year and the government barred journalists from entering the country, a legion of local bloggers exposed the military’s campaign against its people. A true endorsement from the media establishment came in 2008, when YouTube won a Peabody, broadcasting’s most prestigious award, for “promoting a free exchange of ideas” in a way that “both embodies and promotes democracy.” The earthquake in Nepal, the Charlie Hebdo shootings in Paris, and popular uprisings like the Green Revolution, the Arab Spring, and the protests in Ferguson, Missouri, could be seen on YouTube almost as they unfolded, from the unprocessed point of view of those present. Cell phone videos of police violence, uploaded to YouTube, were transforming the criminal justice system. And there wasn’t just news content: by mid-2010 the site was attracting a viewership nearly double the combined primetime audience of America’s three biggest TV networks. (To be sure, broadcasters have long argued that online video numbers are inflated by including more casual viewers.)