Conway's Game of Life

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pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

harmonics, Spectral Density hash function, Hashtables HashMap, Hashtables hashtables, Hashtables Hertz, Spectral Density Hist, Zipf’s Law histograms, Cumulative Distributions hoisting, Spectral Density holism, A New Kind of Model holistic model, Reductionism and Holism, Reductionism and Holism Homo economicus, The Axes of Scientific Models homogeneous, The Axes of Scientific Models hop, Stanley Milgram hurricane, Realism, Instrumentalism I id, Instrumentalism immutable objects, Representing Graphs implementing cellular automata, Implementing CAs implementing Game of Life, Implementing Life in operator, Analysis of Search Algorithms incompleteness, A New Kind of Thinking Incompleteness Theorem, A New Kind of Thinking indeterminism, A New Kind of Thinking indexing, Analysis of Basic Python Operations, Fast Fourier Transform infinite loop, Generators infinite sequence, Iterators inheritance, Representing Graphs, Representing Graphs __init__, Representing Graphs instantiate, CADrawer instrumentalism, A New Kind of Model, Instrumentalism interactions, minimizing, A New Kind of Engineering interface, CADrawer, CADrawer implementing, CADrawer specifying, CADrawer IPython, Summing Lists isolation of components, A New Kind of Engineering __iter__, Iterators iterator, Iterators iteritems, List Comprehensions itertools, Iterators J join, Analysis of Basic Python Operations K Kansas, Stanley Milgram kernel, Implementing Life KeyError, Hashtables Kosko, Bart, A New Kind of Thinking Kuhn, Thomas, Paradigm Shift?

Adding more detail, like features w and z, might make the model more realistic, but that realism adds no explanatory power. Figure 6-7. The logical structure of a simple physical model Chapter 7. Game of Life One of the first cellular automata to be studied (and probably the most popular of all time) is a 2D CA called “The Game of Life,” or GoL for short. It was developed by John H. Conway and popularized in 1970 in Martin Gardner’s column in Scientific American. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway_Game_of_Life for more information. The cells in GoL are arranged in a 2D grid, either infinite in both directions or wrapped around. A grid wrapped in both directions is called a torus because it is topographically equivalent to the surface of a doughnut; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torus. Each cell has two states (live and dead) and eight neighbors (north, south, east, west, and the four diagonals).


pages: 524 words: 120,182

Complexity: A Guided Tour by Melanie Mitchell

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, scientific worldview, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine

Wolfram speculated that, because of this complexity of patterns and interactions, all class 4 rules are capable of universal computation. However, in general it is hard to prove that a particular cellular automaton, Turing machine, or any other device is universal. Turing’s proof that there exists a universal Turing machine was a triumph, as was von Neumann’s proof that his self-replicating automaton was also a universal computer. Since then several researchers have proved that simple cellular automata (such as the Game of Life) are universal. In the 1990s, Matthew Cook, one of Wolfram’s research assistants, finally proved that Rule 110 was indeed universal, and is perhaps the simplest known example of a universal computer. Wolfram’s “New Kind of Science” I first heard about Cook’s result in 1998 when he spoke at a workshop at the Santa Fe Institute. My own reaction, like that of many of my colleagues, was “Very cool!

CHAPTER TWO Dynamics, Chaos, and Prediction CHAPTER THREE Information CHAPTER FOUR Computation CHAPTER FIVE Evolution CHAPTER SIX Genetics, Simplified CHAPTER SEVEN Defining and Measuring Complexity PART TWO Life and Evolution in Computers CHAPTER EIGHT Self-Reproducing Computer Programs CHAPTER NINE Genetic Algorithms PART THREE Computation Writ Large CHAPTER TEN Cellular Automata, Life, and the Universe CHAPTER ELEVEN Computing with Particles CHAPTER TWELVE Information Processing in Living Systems CHAPTER THIRTEEN How to Make Analogies (if You Are a Computer) CHAPTER FOURTEEN Prospects of Computer Modeling PART FOUR Network Thinking CHAPTER FIFTEEN The Science of Networks CHAPTER SIXTEEN Applying Network Science to Real-World Networks CHAPTER SEVENTEEN The Mystery of Scaling CHAPTER EIGHTEEN Evolution, Complexified PART FIVE Conclusion CHAPTER NINETEEN The Past and Future of the Sciences of Complexity Notes Bibliography Index PREFACE REDUCTIONISM is the most natural thing in the world to grasp.

In 2005 Lohn and his colleagues won a “Human Competitive” award for their GA’s design of a novel antenna for NASA spacecraft, reflecting the fact that the GA’s design was an improvement over that of human engineers. PART III Computation Writ Large The proper domain of computer science is information processing writ large across all of nature. —Chris Langton (Quoted in Roger Lewin, Complexity: Life at the Edge of Chaos) CHAPTER 10 Cellular Automata, Life, and the Universe Computation in Nature A recent article in Science magazine, called “Getting the Behavior of Social Insects to Compute,” described the work of a group of entomologists who characterize the behavior of ant colonies as “computer algorithms,” with each individual ant running a simple program that allows the colony as a whole to perform a complex computation, such as reaching a consensus on when and where to move the colony’s nest.


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Accelerando by Stross, Charles

business cycle, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K, zero-sum game

Each of these companies – and there are currently more than sixteen thousand of them, although the herd is growing day by day – has three directors and is the director of three other companies. Each of them executes a script in a functional language Manfred invented; the directors tell the company what to do, and the instructions include orders to pass instructions on to their children. In effect, they are a flock of cellular automata, like the cells in Conway's Game of Life, only far more complex and powerful. Manfred's companies form a programmable grid. Some of them are armed with capital in the form of patents Manfred filed, then delegated rather than passing on to one of the Free Foundations. Some of them are effectively nontrading, but occupy directorial roles. Their corporate functions (such as filing of accounts and voting in new directors) are all handled centrally through his company-operating framework, and their trading is carried out via several of the more popular B2B enabler dot-coms.


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Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

Magazine and Its Glorious, Tedious Type-in Code,” Ars Technica, December 28, 2012, accessed August 18, 2018, https://arstechnica.com/staff/2012/12/first-encounter-compute-magazine-and-its-glorious-tedious-type-in-code; Shelby Goldstein, “Making Music with Your Vic,” Creative Computing 9, no. 7 (July 1983): 43; Marek Karcz, “Conway’s Game of Life on a Commodore 64,” Commodore and Retro Computing, September 15, 2013, accessed August 18, 2018, http://c64retr.blogspot.com/2013/09/conways-game-of-life-on-commodore-64.html. calling the trick “war dialing”: Patrick S. Ryan, “War, Peace, or Stalemate: Wargames, Wardialing, Wardriving, and the Emerging Market for Hacker Ethics,” Virginia Journal of Law & Technology 9, no. 7 (Summer 2004): 1–57, accessed August 18, 2018, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=585867. primarily one of boys: I discuss the boy-centric nature of the home-computer coding scene in greater length in chapter 7, “The ENIAC Girls Vanish,” but some documents of this phenomenon include Sara Kiesler, Lee Sproull, and Jacquelynne Eccles, “Pool Halls, Chips, and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing,” Psychology of Women Quarterly 9, no. 4 (December 1985): 451–62; Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher, Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003).


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Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, assortative mating, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test

So this seems at first to be a striking demonstration that natural selection cannot be the source of organization and order after all — which would indeed be the downfall of the Darwinian idea. But there is another way of looking at it, as we have seen. What conditions have to be in effect for evolution by natural selection to occur? The words 1 put into Darwin's mouth were simple: Give me Order, and time, and I will give you Design. But what we have subsequently learned is that not every variety of Order is sufficient for evolvability. As we saw illustrated by Conway's Game of Life, you have to have just the right sort of Order, with just the right mix of freedom and constraint, growth and decay, rigidity and fluidity, for good things to happen at all. You only get evolution, as the Santa Fe motto proclaims, on the edge of chaos, in the regions of possible law that {222} form the hybrid zone between stifling order and destructive chaos. Fortunately, our portion of the universe is poised in just such a zone, in which the conditions for evolvability are tuned just right.


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All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How Fifty Years of Video Games Conquered Pop Culture by Harold Goldberg

activist lawyer, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, cellular automata, Columbine, Conway's Game of Life, G4S, game design, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Oldenburg, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning

As well, when Maxis was still a public company, Braun had shown Wright a 1985 Activision game for the Apple II called Little Computer People. Little Computer People was occasionally hilarious and featured a slow-moving cartoonlike character called Darren who would write you letters saying, “I have many hobbies that occupy my time.” To prove it, he watched TV, exercised, and searched for someone to live in his computer with him. Finally, Wright was impressed with John Horton Conway’s theories of cellular automata, which were espoused in The Game of Life. In his 1970s simulation game, Conway showed that you could emulate the complex patterns of the birth and death of organisms living together in society—and everything in between. All these combined to influence Wright as he dreamed up a project whose working title was Home Tactics, the Experimental Domestic Simulator. Wright later tweaked the name to the slightly more appealing Dollhouse.


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Numpy Beginner's Guide - Third Edition by Ivan Idris

algorithmic trading, business intelligence, Conway's Game of Life, correlation coefficient, Debian, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Khan Academy, p-value, random walk, reversible computing, time value of money

Finally, fush the result: glColor3f(1.0, 0, 0) vertices = np.array([[0, 0], [DIM/2, DIM], [DIM, 0]]) NPOINTS = 9000 indices = np.random.random_integers(0, 2, NPOINTS) point = [175.0, 150.0] for i in xrange(NPOINTS): glBegin(GL_POINTS) point = (point + vertices[indices[i]])/2.0 glVertex2fv(point) glEnd() glFlush() The Sierpinski triangle looks like the following: The full Sierpinski gasket demo code with all the imports is as follows: import pygame from pygame.locals import * import numpy as np from OpenGL.GL import * from OpenGL.GLU import * def display_openGL(w, h): pygame.display.set_mode((w,h), pygame.OPENGL|pygame.DOUBLEBUF) glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0) glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT) gluOrtho2D(0, w, 0, h) def main(): pygame.init() pygame.display.set_caption('OpenGL Demo') DIM = 400 display_openGL(DIM, DIM) glColor3f(1.0, 0, 0) vertices = np.array([[0, 0], [DIM/2, DIM], [DIM, 0]]) NPOINTS = 9000 indices = np.random.random_integers(0, 2, NPOINTS) point = [175.0, 150.0] for i in xrange(NPOINTS): glBegin(GL_POINTS) point = (point + vertices[indices[i]])/2.0 glVertex2fv(point) glEnd() glFlush() pygame.display.flip() while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == QUIT: return if __name__ == '__main__': main() What just happened? As promised, the following is a line-by-line explanaton of the most important parts of the example: Simulation game with Pygame As a last example, we will simulate life with Conway's Game of Life . The original game of life is based on a few basic rules. We start out with a random confguraton on a two-dimensional square grid. Each cell in the grid can be either dead or alive. This state depends on the neighbors of the cell. You can read more about the rules at http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Life#Rules At each step in tme, the following transitons occur: 1. Live cells with less than two live neighbors die. 2.


pages: 448 words: 116,962

Singularity Sky by Stross, Charles

anthropic principle, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, Doomsday Clock, Extropian, gravity well, Kuiper Belt, life extension, means of production, new economy, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, skinny streets, technological singularity, uranium enrichment

Together they'd pieced together a terrifying hypothesis. "Herman was unusually vague about it," Martin admitted. "Normally he has a lot of background detail. Every word means something. But it's as if he doesn't want to say too much about the Festival. They're—he called them, uh, glider-gun factories. I don't know if you know about Life—" "Cellular automata, the game?" "That's the one. Glider guns are mobile cellular automata. There are some complex life structures that replicate themselves, or simpler cellular structures; a glider-gun factory is a weird one. It periodically packs itself into a very dense mobile system that migrates across the grid for a couple of hundred squares, then it unpacks itself into two copies that then pack down and fly off in opposite directions. Herman said that they're a real-space analogue: he called them a Boyce-Tipler robot.


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, animal electricity, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

The journey of the individual parts towards forming a self-organised system appears then to be algorithmically determined: they are ‘attracted’ to self-organisation and, ultimately, to life. We do not yet know whether this attraction is governed by a general law for biology. However, we have discovered something that seems to point towards such a law: Rule 110, a recursive algorithm that is Turing complete and lifelike – and there might be more.23 This profound correlation between cellular automata and biological phenomena suggests that life is governed by recursive computations, probably similar – or identical – to cellular automata. There is one more special feature of complex computations that is worth noting. They are fractal-like and scale-invariant. This means that they repeat themselves at every scale. From microscopic organisms to weather systems and the formation of galactic clusters nature creates similar patterns of organisation and behaviour.


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Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

Seibel: You guys were building these computers from scratch in '76 to '79. Isn't that about the same time the Altair was coming out? Peyton Jones: That's right. Hobbyist computers were definitely starting to come out. But we considered those to be rather cheating. The thing about this machine that we built ourselves was that software was the problem. I think my most advanced program for this machine was Conway's Game of Life. That worked very nicely. But writing any kind of serious program, like a programming language, was just too much work because it had very limited permanent storage medium. And it was all typing in hexadecimal stuff—no assembler. Seibel: So more raw machine code. Peyton Jones: Of course the Cambridge mainframe understood BCPL so we were writing lots of BCPL programs. We were actually writing a compiler then for a programming language that we'd invented.


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The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, social intelligence, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game


The Deep Learning Revolution (The MIT Press) by Terrence J. Sejnowski

AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Conway's Game of Life, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, delayed gratification, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Henri Poincaré, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Norbert Wiener, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, PageRank, pattern recognition, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Socratic dialogue, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

But rule 30 produced unfolding patterns and rule 110 dazzled with continually evolving complex patterns (box 13.1).8 It was eventually proved that rule 110 was capable of universal computation; that is, some of the simplest of all possible cellular automata have the power of a Turing machine that can compute any computable function, so it is in principle as powerful as any computer. One of the implications of this discovery is that the remarkable complexity we find in living things could have evolved by sampling the simplest space of chemical interactions between molecules. That complex combinations of molecules have emerged from evolution should be expected and not considered a miracle. But cellular automata may not be good models for early life, and which simple chemical systems are capable of creating complex molecules remains an open question.9 It might be that only special biochemical systems have this property, which could help narrow the possible set of interactions from which life could have originated. An essential property of life is a cell’s ability to replicate itself, an ability explored by the Hungarian-born American mathematician John von 200 Chapter 13 Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in the 1940s using cellular automata.


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The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business cycle, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, coronavirus, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra