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The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
Getting over conventional zoning codes is often problematic and requires lots of patience, and often compromise: FHA loan rules still limit the percentage of commercial real estate in vertical apartment units, making it hard for New Urbanism developers to secure financing for the mixed-use buildings they say are a critical ingredient in their neighborhoods. Nevertheless, New Urbanism principles have been followed and copied over the years. In 1996, Disney opened Celebration, Florida, its five-thousand-acre master-planned community near Orlando, largely on New Urbanism principles, though it did not bill it a New Urbanist community. In the mid-1990s, the Department of Housing and Urban Development adopted New Urbanist design criteria in its program to build public housing projects. The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Learning now offers a master’s in architecture and New Urbanism.
See also Commuting accidents and suburbs, 82–85 decreased use (2004- ), 107–12 decreased use, future view, 106–7 dependence and health, 86–89 dependence and suburban living, 79–81, 85–86, 89–91 energy efficient, 105, 108 millennials rejection of, 20 pollution and, 46, 99, 108 and suburban design, 32–34 and suburban development, 32–34, 41–42, 81–82 use, beginning of, 32 walkable communities and use, 133–34 Baby boomers, 145, 148, 160 Baby bust, 145 Baches, Demetri, 203–4 Banks, repossessed homes, reuse of, 186–87, 205–6 Barclays Center, 176 Beacon Hill, Boston, 29, 41 Beazer Homes, 24 Belmar, Colorado, 181 Bernstein, Scott, 99–102, 205 Best Buy, 45, 172 Best Buy Mobile, 172 Big-box stores emergence of, 44–45 scale-down for cities, 18, 172–73 Birth rate, decline of (2011), 144, 158 Blackstone Group, 187 Bloomberg, Michael, 159 Boccaccio, 27 Boston, renewal and growth (2011), 168 Brant, Gary, 144 Brooklyn Heights, 29 Buffalo Commons, 184 Buffett, Warren, 72 Bush, George W., 66 Butler, Win and William, 51 Calthorpe, Peter, 19, 52, 119, 120, 209 Cambridge, Boston, 29, 111–12 Camden Yards Sports Complex, 176 Caruso, Rick, 132, 198 Case-Shiller Home Price Indices, 8 Celebration, Florida, 126 Center City Philadelphia, 17–18 Charleston, South Carolina, 40 Chester County, Pennsylvania, 13 Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 41 Chicago corporation relocations to, 173 early suburbs of, 30 renewal and growth (2011), 167 Children automobile dependence of, 81, 85–86 cities as enrichment for, 112, 170–71 obesity problem, 88–89 population decline in suburbs, 145–47 street play, lack in suburbs, 81, 90 Cicero, 27 Cities big-box store formats in, 18, 172–73 children, benefits to, 112, 170–71 corporation relocations to, 173–76 crime, past view, 44, 167, 168, 179 decline (1970s), 44, 168 developments by suburban developers, 6, 18, 23, 163–66 empty nesters return to, 172 exodus from.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
As the delamination and re-interweaving of Clouds and contemporary states point toward one possible future of proliferating and overlapping enclaves and exclaves, the Apple totality is a model for an elite sovereign format, walled off from the relative chaos of outside publics. As ever, utopias are closed systems—islands—but where “Apple” is finally located is not so clear. Whereas Disney's original plan for EPCOT Center was a utopian community, a real Disney city realized with diminished ambition as Celebration, Florida, the town of Apple, North Carolina, is the home of one of the company's most important data centers, but it is a very unlikely site for residential relocation. Apple's comprehensive attention to the interiority of product experience is well suited to a future featuring nation-sized gated communities wherever they may encircle themselves. For this, the exceptional enclave and the camp work both ways.
Bloomfield Hills comes with South Detroit; Silicon Valley comes with its San Joaquin Valley. Today new enclave developments, and soon charter cities looping around them, are marketed as branded service platforms. In time, they will require more than this. In order to fully urbanize secession, they will have to take on the status of “homeland” and mobilize patriotism against the temptations of “exit.” Disney's Celebration, Florida, is a landmark project here, from its branded mythology to its status as a self-governing city and county. Elsewhere developers recognize that a fetish for arbitrary distinctions of hierarchy isn't a bug but a feature, and so at The Oaks, north of Los Angeles, residents who pass through one gate from the outside world still are excluded from the gated community inside the gated community, known as The Estates of The Oaks.
See also borders defined, 368–369 exceptionality of, 23, 32–33 free of information technology, 313, 315 gated communities as, 311–312 interiority/exteriority of, 173–175, 311–312 nomos of the Modern, 20, 369 refugee, 174–175, 308, 312 reversibility of, 23, 32–33, 312, 324 walled gardens compared, 187 Campus 2 (Apple), 186–187, 189, 320 Čapek, Karel, 279 capital, computational, 80–81 capitalism accomplishments of, 332 algorithmic, 72, 80–81 Anthropocenic, 213 cognitive, 110, 116, 203, 241, 258, 295 digital, 80 future of, 321 industrial/postindustrial, 80, 128, 254 of people versus things, 212 capitalist pricing problem, 333, 337, 369 carbon economy, 98 carbon footprint China, 259 of data computing, 92–96 electricity generation, 95 India, 95 stabilizing, 259, 303 US, 259 carbon governance, 88–90 carbon police, 306 Carpenter, John, 427n51 cars car+phone hybrid, 280 communication in, 280 driverless, 238, 279–283, 342, 344, 437nn57–58 (see also Google Car) hacking, 283–284 human-driven, 283, 344–345 redefining, 238–239 vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) networks, 281–282, 438n60 cartography function of the state, 119 cassiterite, 82 Castells, Manuel, 416n28 catallaxy, 329–331, 375 Celebration, Florida (Disney), 311 cellular phones. See mobile devices Center for Bits and Atoms (MIT), 226 Central Bureau of the Map of the World, 413n5 centralized cybernetic economic planning systems, 58–61, 328–329 Central Nervous System of the Earth (CeNSE) (HP), 192 Cerf, Vint, 42, 62–63 chains of interfaciality, 231, 233–234, 338–339 change, commitment to, 303–304 charter city movement, 310–311 Chicago Boys, 385n25 Chile, 58, 328 China boundary enforcement, 310 carbon emissions, 259 conflict with Google, 9, 112–115, 143–144, 245, 361 factory cities in, 179, 189 internal illegal aliens, 310, 409n39 Internet in, 113 jurisdictional anomalies, 310 mobile operating systems popular in, 398n21 rain, control of, 398n21 social media in, 126 software espionage, 398n21 state services apparatus, 316 Universal Postal Union, 194 weather data, claim over, 97 Christianity, 239 Chrysler Building, 183 Church-Turing thesis, 78 Cisco Systems, 88, 179 cities.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
The New Urbanism “stand[s] for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.” Poundbury is considerably more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; Breakaway, North Carolina; and the Disney Corporation’s town of Celebration, Florida. These places do try to reduce car dependence, but their objectives seem as much social as they are environmental. In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars. More people (64.5 percent) drive to work in Poundbury than in neighboring areas. Three quarters of Poundbury’s residents drive on their shopping trips. These areas appeal not to the diehard urbanites of Livingstone’s London, but to people who like the idea of a more traditional small town, with plenty of cars.
., Learning from Poundbury, 8. 214 New Urbanism “stand[s] for . . . our built legacy”: Charter of the New Urbanism, www.cnu.org/charter. 214 more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America: Compare the Web site of Poundbury, www.duchyofcornwall.org/designanddevelopment_poundbury_livinginpoundbury.htm, with its note that “It is intended to be a sustainable development” and that it is “designed to maintain the quality of the environment” and its photographs of green space, with the Web site of Celebration, Florida, www.celebration.fl.us/towninfo.html, with its emphasis on its “strong sense of self ” and photographs of people at play. 215 In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, P30, Means of Transportation to Work for Workers 16 Years and Over, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 215 More people (64.5 percent) drive to work in Poundbury: Watson, Learning from Poundbury, 37. 215 Three quarters of Poundbury’s residents drive on their shopping trips: Ibid. 215 About 70 percent of the homes in Celebration are single-family: U.S.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
A/B grid adjacency, accessibility versus advertising, retail aesthetics: and siting of houses ; of sprawl affordable housing; architecturally compatible; design and location of; federal policy on; inner-city; public process and; in regional planning; state funding of; types of age value agricultural land, preservation of air pollution Alexandria (Virginia); Torpedo Factory Alfandre, Joe alleys; construction costs for amenities American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Defense Committee of American Automobile Association Ames (Iowa) anchor tenants Angelides, Phil Annapolis (Maryland) Ann Arbor (Michigan) apartments: above stores; in mixed-use development; outbuilding; in traditional neighborhoods Appalachian Trail architects; role in fighting sprawl of architectural codes architecture; homebuilders and; in new towns and villages; pedestrian-friendly; use of traditional detailing artists’ cooperatives assisted-care facilities Atlanta; Perimeter Center section of; regional transportation authority in; Riverside automobiles: accidents; commuting by; dependency on; design based on needs of; downtown viability undermined by; federal subsidies for; financial impact of ownership of; increase in use of; infrastructure required by(see also roadways); pedestrians versus; public realm and; regional planning and; school construction and; sociopathic behavior associated with; subsidization of; teenagers and; urban poor and lack of; see also traffic Baltimore: Camden Yards; Roland Park Barnes, Roy Bedford (New Hampshire) Bel Geddes, Norman Belmont (Virginia) Bender, Christopher Berlin (Germany) Bethesda (Maryland) Beverly Hills (California) bicycle-friendly street design big-box retail Blake, William Blakely, Edward Boca Raton (Florida) Boddy, Trevor Bogosian, Eric Bohrer, Ed Boston; Back Bay; Beacon Hill; Emerald Necklace boulevards Box, Paul Britain, traffic patterns in Brown, Catherine Brown, Peter bubble diagram building types; in new towns and villages; variety of; zoning codes and business parks Byrne, John California; growth rate in; highway traffic in; segregation of housing by income in; wall plane of houses in; see also specific municipalities Calthorpe, Peter Campbell, Robert capital, cost of Carson, Rachel Celebration (Florida) center-line radii chain stores Charleston (South Carolina); St. Philip’s Episcopal Church Chattanooga (Tennessee) Chellman, Chester E. (Rick) Chicago; Cabrini Green housing project;; Lake Street children: in new towns and villages; suburban; see also schools Churchill, Winston Cisneros, Henry citizen participation City Beautiful movement civic buildings; decay of; in new towns and villages; in traditional neighborhoods civic decorum classicism Clean Air Act Cleaver, Emmanuel Cleveland; Neighborhood Progress Foundation Clinton Administration clusters Cohen, Zev Cold War collector roads; new towns and villages and; width of commercial development, see malls; office facilities; retail; shopping centers community: abrogation by public sector of responsibility for; affordable housing and; citizen involvement in building; civic buildings and; developers and; government commitment to; homebuyers’preference for; impact of automotive infrastructure on; modes of development fostering, see new towns and villages; in public realm; variety and community policing Community Reinvestment Act commuters compliance review process congestion pricing Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) Congress, U.S.
Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce
In 2002, Ellen Goodman, author and syndicated columnist for The Boston Globe, then sixty-one years old, invited me to a small, informal conference with a group of women that she and Patricia Schroeder, who served for twenty-four years in the House of Representatives from Colorado, were organizing, to discuss the approach of retirement age and how they—we—felt about it. We met that December in Celebration, Florida, over a weekend, a group of seven women, all of whom had had careers and all of whom, somewhat to my surprise, were currently married and had grown-up children. We were all in our sixties, each with a range of degrees, books, and titles to her credit. A novelist. A psychotherapist. A college president. An entrepreneur. Women who had been active in different ways in the liberation movements of the twentieth century, and who had struggled for the right to work outside the home, now looking at retirement.
Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo
Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel
In terms of health and well-being, science tells us that there are unintended negative consequences when, as Walter Lippmann put it a century ago, “we have changed our environment more quickly than we know how to change ourselves.”13 Here in the United States, progressive architects and developers have heeded Jane Jacobs’s call to take the imperatives of social connection more seriously. They try to replicate, in new communities such as Celebration, Florida, the physical aspects of small-town life—clustered housing, sidewalks, front porches for sitting—that facilitate social connection. Other communities, such as Treetops in Easthampton, Massachusetts, try to reintegrate older and younger people in a single living arrangement. In the United Kingdom, the Prince of Wales has championed attempts to mirror the traditional English village in contemporary housing.
No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor
At the start, his innovation was that he branded a part of the economy that had never been branded before: high-end real estate. Obviously, there were global branded hotel and resort chains before. But Trump pioneered the idea that where you work (an office tower), where you live (a condominium), and where you play (your golf club or vacation destination) would all be franchises of a single global luxury brand. Much like Celebration, Florida—Disney’s fully branded town—Trump was selling the opportunity for people to live inside his brand, 24/7. The real breakthrough, however, came when Mark Burnett, head of a reality TV empire, pitched Trump on the idea of The Apprentice. Up until then, Trump had been busy coping with the fallout from his bankruptcies and the impatience of his bankers. Now, out of the blue, he was being offered a chance to leap into the stratosphere of Superbrands, those rarefied companies earning their enormous profits primarily by building up their brand meaning and then projecting it hither and yon, liberated from the burden of having to make their own products—or, in Trump’s case, build his own buildings.