Celebration, Florida

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pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

Getting over conventional zoning codes is often problematic and requires lots of patience, and often compromise: FHA loan rules still limit the percentage of commercial real estate in vertical apartment units, making it hard for New Urbanism developers to secure financing for the mixed-use buildings they say are a critical ingredient in their neighborhoods. Nevertheless, New Urbanism principles have been followed and copied over the years. In 1996, Disney opened Celebration, Florida, its five-thousand-acre master-planned community near Orlando, largely on New Urbanism principles, though it did not bill it a New Urbanist community. In the mid-1990s, the Department of Housing and Urban Development adopted New Urbanist design criteria in its program to build public housing projects. The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Learning now offers a master’s in architecture and New Urbanism.

See also Commuting accidents and suburbs, 82–85 decreased use (2004- ), 107–12 decreased use, future view, 106–7 dependence and health, 86–89 dependence and suburban living, 79–81, 85–86, 89–91 energy efficient, 105, 108 millennials rejection of, 20 pollution and, 46, 99, 108 and suburban design, 32–34 and suburban development, 32–34, 41–42, 81–82 use, beginning of, 32 walkable communities and use, 133–34 Baby boomers, 145, 148, 160 Baby bust, 145 Baches, Demetri, 203–4 Banks, repossessed homes, reuse of, 186–87, 205–6 Barclays Center, 176 Beacon Hill, Boston, 29, 41 Beazer Homes, 24 Belmar, Colorado, 181 Bernstein, Scott, 99–102, 205 Best Buy, 45, 172 Best Buy Mobile, 172 Big-box stores emergence of, 44–45 scale-down for cities, 18, 172–73 Birth rate, decline of (2011), 144, 158 Blackstone Group, 187 Bloomberg, Michael, 159 Boccaccio, 27 Boston, renewal and growth (2011), 168 Brant, Gary, 144 Brooklyn Heights, 29 Buffalo Commons, 184 Buffett, Warren, 72 Bush, George W., 66 Butler, Win and William, 51 Calthorpe, Peter, 19, 52, 119, 120, 209 Cambridge, Boston, 29, 111–12 Camden Yards Sports Complex, 176 Caruso, Rick, 132, 198 Case-Shiller Home Price Indices, 8 Celebration, Florida, 126 Center City Philadelphia, 17–18 Charleston, South Carolina, 40 Chester County, Pennsylvania, 13 Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 41 Chicago corporation relocations to, 173 early suburbs of, 30 renewal and growth (2011), 167 Children automobile dependence of, 81, 85–86 cities as enrichment for, 112, 170–71 obesity problem, 88–89 population decline in suburbs, 145–47 street play, lack in suburbs, 81, 90 Cicero, 27 Cities big-box store formats in, 18, 172–73 children, benefits to, 112, 170–71 corporation relocations to, 173–76 crime, past view, 44, 167, 168, 179 decline (1970s), 44, 168 developments by suburban developers, 6, 18, 23, 163–66 empty nesters return to, 172 exodus from.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

Newburbia is another option. The brainchild of architects like Andres Duany and Peter Calthorpe, newburbia is a designed community with a traditional feel.7 The houses are clustered tightly together but surrounded by lots of green space. These places are typically oriented to pedestrian traffic (they restrict the use of cars) and shaped around town centers. One of the most famous examples is Celebration, Florida, on the outskirts of Disney World. But even though they have town centers, these new urbanist communities can lack diversity. Seaside, Florida, Duany’s signature project, was the community used in the movie, The Truman Show. Jim Carey’s character is unaware that he is living in a constructed reality surrounded by fake friends and family, leading a life intended for the entertainment of those who live outside it.

Bourgeois-bohemian Bowling Alone (Putnam) Brazil BRIC nations See also Brazil; China; India; Russia Bridging Brisbane Brookings Institution Brooks, David Brownsville, Texas Brûlé, Tyler Buenos Aires Buffalo Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Burtless, Gary Busan Business Week Cairncross, Frances Cairo(fig.) Calgary Calthorpe, Peter Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge University Canada Capital, mobility of Carey, Jim Carnegie Mellon University Cascadia(fig.) Case, Karl Cato Institute Caves, Richard Celebration, Florida Center for International and Security Studies Center for International Earth Science Information Network Char-Lanta region(fig.) Charlotte Chicago lakefront of Children place choice and supervision of China growth of megaregions in as world’s factory Chi-Pitts(fig.) Cincinnati Cirque du Soleil Cisco Cities beautiful choosing consumer edge education and global v.


pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

“The state-of-the-art mega-suburbs of recent decades,” he suggests, “have produced horrendous levels of alienation, anomie, anxiety, and depression.”142 New Urbanist theorists and “smart growth” advocates claim that by using more traditional architecture and increased densities, we can once again enjoy the kind of “meaningful community” that existed in the past but is supposedly unachievable in conventional suburbs.143 Yet these claims that social comity can be created by architecture are somewhat exaggerated, to be charitable. New Urbanist Léon Krier, for example, claims that New Urbanism can bring together “diverse ages, races and incomes,” citing Seaside and Celebration, Florida, as his examples. This is certainly an odd choice, given that most of the homes in these developments are upward of $600,000, and many are around $1 million.144 To be sure, some ideas proposed by New Urbanists—such as offering more options for walking and biking, as well as the need for town centers—can improve the quality of suburban communities. Yet rather than merely suggest improvements or prove the appeal of New Urbanist designs in the competitive marketplace, there is a growing tendency among New Urbanists to impose, as one critic puts it, “proscriptive policies and social restraint.”145 One strong smart growth advocate has even suggested siphoning tax revenues from suburbs to keep them from “cannibalizing” jobs and retail sales.

See Great Britain Broadacre City, 45 Bronx, 96–97 Brookhaven, New York, 177 Brooklyn, 97, 100, 111, 165, 177 Brueckner, Jan, 162 Bruegmann, Robert, 150, 186 Brussels, 41 Buenos Aires, 53, 65 Buffalo, 32 Built-up urban areas, 6, 269n5 Bulgaria, 138 Byrd, Hugh, 190 Byzantium, 24, 57 C Cabramatta (Australia), 158 Cairo, 24, 58, 60, 63–65, 69 California climate change policies in, 191 commuting times in, 187 dispersion in, 176 land-use regulations in, 173–174 opposition to densification in, 178 Callenbach, Ernest, 194 Calthorpe, Peter, 190 Cambay, India, 81 Cambridge, 40 Cambridge Science Park (UK), 185 Campanella, Richard, 107, 145 Campbell, Alana, 68 Campbell, Tim, 68 Canada agricultural land in, 193 dispersion in, 154 house size in, 179 housing shortage in, 175 immigrants to, 98 migration to, 137 millennial housing preferences in, 172 minorities in suburbs of, 158 seniors in workforce in, 181 seniors’ living preferences in, 181 Canley Vale, Australia, 158 Carcopino, Jérôme, 57 Carney, Mark, 175 Castells, Manuel, 93 CBS, 130 Celebration, Florida, 161 Chan, Angelique, 133 Chandler, Raymond, 145 Charles, Prince, 10 Charleston, 9 Chennai, 54, 68, 74 Cherlin, Andrew, 129 Chesterton, G. K., 103–104 Chicago financial jobs in, 186 foreign-born population of, 98 homogenization of, 106 and housing bubble, 152 inequality in, 95–96 as luxury-oriented city, 40 migration to, 173 in 19th century, 28, 116 population loss in, 32, 117 racial income inequality in, 156–157 social classes in, 41–42 suburban poverty around, 159 Childlessness, 16, 116, 128, 278n5.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The New Urbanism “stand[s] for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.” Poundbury is considerably more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; Breakaway, North Carolina; and the Disney Corporation’s town of Celebration, Florida. These places do try to reduce car dependence, but their objectives seem as much social as they are environmental. In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars. More people (64.5 percent) drive to work in Poundbury than in neighboring areas. Three quarters of Poundbury’s residents drive on their shopping trips. These areas appeal not to the diehard urbanites of Livingstone’s London, but to people who like the idea of a more traditional small town, with plenty of cars.

., Learning from Poundbury, 8. 214 New Urbanism “stand[s] for . . . our built legacy”: Charter of the New Urbanism, www.cnu.org/charter. 214 more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America: Compare the Web site of Poundbury, www.duchyofcornwall.org/designanddevelopment_poundbury_livinginpoundbury.htm, with its note that “It is intended to be a sustainable development” and that it is “designed to maintain the quality of the environment” and its photographs of green space, with the Web site of Celebration, Florida, www.celebration.fl.us/towninfo.html, with its emphasis on its “strong sense of self ” and photographs of people at play. 215 In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, P30, Means of Transportation to Work for Workers 16 Years and Over, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 215 More people (64.5 percent) drive to work in Poundbury: Watson, Learning from Poundbury, 37. 215 Three quarters of Poundbury’s residents drive on their shopping trips: Ibid. 215 About 70 percent of the homes in Celebration are single-family: U.S.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

As the delamination and re-interweaving of Clouds and contemporary states point toward one possible future of proliferating and overlapping enclaves and exclaves, the Apple totality is a model for an elite sovereign format, walled off from the relative chaos of outside publics. As ever, utopias are closed systems—islands—but where “Apple” is finally located is not so clear. Whereas Disney's original plan for EPCOT Center was a utopian community, a real Disney city realized with diminished ambition as Celebration, Florida, the town of Apple, North Carolina, is the home of one of the company's most important data centers, but it is a very unlikely site for residential relocation. Apple's comprehensive attention to the interiority of product experience is well suited to a future featuring nation-sized gated communities wherever they may encircle themselves. For this, the exceptional enclave and the camp work both ways.

Bloomfield Hills comes with South Detroit; Silicon Valley comes with its San Joaquin Valley. Today new enclave developments, and soon charter cities looping around them, are marketed as branded service platforms. In time, they will require more than this. In order to fully urbanize secession, they will have to take on the status of “homeland” and mobilize patriotism against the temptations of “exit.” Disney's Celebration, Florida, is a landmark project here, from its branded mythology to its status as a self-governing city and county. Elsewhere developers recognize that a fetish for arbitrary distinctions of hierarchy isn't a bug but a feature, and so at The Oaks, north of Los Angeles, residents who pass through one gate from the outside world still are excluded from the gated community inside the gated community, known as The Estates of The Oaks.

See also borders defined, 368–369 exceptionality of, 23, 32–33 free of information technology, 313, 315 gated communities as, 311–312 interiority/exteriority of, 173–175, 311–312 nomos of the Modern, 20, 369 refugee, 174–175, 308, 312 reversibility of, 23, 32–33, 312, 324 walled gardens compared, 187 Campus 2 (Apple), 186–187, 189, 320 Čapek, Karel, 279 capital, computational, 80–81 capitalism accomplishments of, 332 algorithmic, 72, 80–81 Anthropocenic, 213 cognitive, 110, 116, 203, 241, 258, 295 digital, 80 future of, 321 industrial/postindustrial, 80, 128, 254 of people versus things, 212 capitalist pricing problem, 333, 337, 369 carbon economy, 98 carbon footprint China, 259 of data computing, 92–96 electricity generation, 95 India, 95 stabilizing, 259, 303 US, 259 carbon governance, 88–90 carbon police, 306 Carpenter, John, 427n51 cars car+phone hybrid, 280 communication in, 280 driverless, 238, 279–283, 342, 344, 437nn57–58 (see also Google Car) hacking, 283–284 human-driven, 283, 344–345 redefining, 238–239 vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) networks, 281–282, 438n60 cartography function of the state, 119 cassiterite, 82 Castells, Manuel, 416n28 catallaxy, 329–331, 375 Celebration, Florida (Disney), 311 cellular phones. See mobile devices Center for Bits and Atoms (MIT), 226 Central Bureau of the Map of the World, 413n5 centralized cybernetic economic planning systems, 58–61, 328–329 Central Nervous System of the Earth (CeNSE) (HP), 192 Cerf, Vint, 42, 62–63 chains of interfaciality, 231, 233–234, 338–339 change, commitment to, 303–304 charter city movement, 310–311 Chicago Boys, 385n25 Chile, 58, 328 China boundary enforcement, 310 carbon emissions, 259 conflict with Google, 9, 112–115, 143–144, 245, 361 factory cities in, 179, 189 internal illegal aliens, 310, 409n39 Internet in, 113 jurisdictional anomalies, 310 mobile operating systems popular in, 398n21 rain, control of, 398n21 social media in, 126 software espionage, 398n21 state services apparatus, 316 Universal Postal Union, 194 weather data, claim over, 97 Christianity, 239 Chrysler Building, 183 Church-Turing thesis, 78 Cisco Systems, 88, 179 cities.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

A/B grid adjacency, accessibility versus advertising, retail aesthetics: and siting of houses ; of sprawl affordable housing; architecturally compatible; design and location of; federal policy on; inner-city; public process and; in regional planning; state funding of; types of age value agricultural land, preservation of air pollution Alexandria (Virginia); Torpedo Factory Alfandre, Joe alleys; construction costs for amenities American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Defense Committee of American Automobile Association Ames (Iowa) anchor tenants Angelides, Phil Annapolis (Maryland) Ann Arbor (Michigan) apartments: above stores; in mixed-use development; outbuilding; in traditional neighborhoods Appalachian Trail architects; role in fighting sprawl of architectural codes architecture; homebuilders and; in new towns and villages; pedestrian-friendly; use of traditional detailing artists’ cooperatives assisted-care facilities Atlanta; Perimeter Center section of; regional transportation authority in; Riverside automobiles: accidents; commuting by; dependency on; design based on needs of; downtown viability undermined by; federal subsidies for; financial impact of ownership of; increase in use of; infrastructure required by(see also roadways); pedestrians versus; public realm and; regional planning and; school construction and; sociopathic behavior associated with; subsidization of; teenagers and; urban poor and lack of; see also traffic Baltimore: Camden Yards; Roland Park Barnes, Roy Bedford (New Hampshire) Bel Geddes, Norman Belmont (Virginia) Bender, Christopher Berlin (Germany) Bethesda (Maryland) Beverly Hills (California) bicycle-friendly street design big-box retail Blake, William Blakely, Edward Boca Raton (Florida) Boddy, Trevor Bogosian, Eric Bohrer, Ed Boston; Back Bay; Beacon Hill; Emerald Necklace boulevards Box, Paul Britain, traffic patterns in Brown, Catherine Brown, Peter bubble diagram building types; in new towns and villages; variety of; zoning codes and business parks Byrne, John California; growth rate in; highway traffic in; segregation of housing by income in; wall plane of houses in; see also specific municipalities Calthorpe, Peter Campbell, Robert capital, cost of Carson, Rachel Celebration (Florida) center-line radii chain stores Charleston (South Carolina); St. Philip’s Episcopal Church Chattanooga (Tennessee) Chellman, Chester E. (Rick) Chicago; Cabrini Green housing project;; Lake Street children: in new towns and villages; suburban; see also schools Churchill, Winston Cisneros, Henry citizen participation City Beautiful movement civic buildings; decay of; in new towns and villages; in traditional neighborhoods civic decorum classicism Clean Air Act Cleaver, Emmanuel Cleveland; Neighborhood Progress Foundation Clinton Administration clusters Cohen, Zev Cold War collector roads; new towns and villages and; width of commercial development, see malls; office facilities; retail; shopping centers community: abrogation by public sector of responsibility for; affordable housing and; citizen involvement in building; civic buildings and; developers and; government commitment to; homebuyers’preference for; impact of automotive infrastructure on; modes of development fostering, see new towns and villages; in public realm; variety and community policing Community Reinvestment Act commuters compliance review process congestion pricing Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) Congress, U.S.


pages: 287 words: 99,131

Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

In 2002, Ellen Goodman, author and syndicated columnist for The Boston Globe, then sixty-one years old, invited me to a small, informal conference with a group of women that she and Patricia Schroeder, who served for twenty-four years in the House of Representatives from Colorado, were organizing, to discuss the approach of retirement age and how they—we—felt about it. We met that December in Celebration, Florida, over a weekend, a group of seven women, all of whom had had careers and all of whom, somewhat to my surprise, were currently married and had grown-up children. We were all in our sixties, each with a range of degrees, books, and titles to her credit. A novelist. A psychotherapist. A college president. An entrepreneur. Women who had been active in different ways in the liberation movements of the twentieth century, and who had struggled for the right to work outside the home, now looking at retirement.


pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo

Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

In terms of health and well-being, science tells us that there are unintended negative consequences when, as Walter Lippmann put it a century ago, “we have changed our environment more quickly than we know how to change ourselves.”13 Here in the United States, progressive architects and developers have heeded Jane Jacobs’s call to take the imperatives of social connection more seriously. They try to replicate, in new communities such as Celebration, Florida, the physical aspects of small-town life—clustered housing, sidewalks, front porches for sitting—that facilitate social connection. Other communities, such as Treetops in Easthampton, Massachusetts, try to reintegrate older and younger people in a single living arrangement. In the United Kingdom, the Prince of Wales has championed attempts to mirror the traditional English village in contemporary housing.


pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

At the start, his innovation was that he branded a part of the economy that had never been branded before: high-end real estate. Obviously, there were global branded hotel and resort chains before. But Trump pioneered the idea that where you work (an office tower), where you live (a condominium), and where you play (your golf club or vacation destination) would all be franchises of a single global luxury brand. Much like Celebration, Florida—Disney’s fully branded town—Trump was selling the opportunity for people to live inside his brand, 24/7. The real breakthrough, however, came when Mark Burnett, head of a reality TV empire, pitched Trump on the idea of The Apprentice. Up until then, Trump had been busy coping with the fallout from his bankruptcies and the impatience of his bankers. Now, out of the blue, he was being offered a chance to leap into the stratosphere of Superbrands, those rarefied companies earning their enormous profits primarily by building up their brand meaning and then projecting it hither and yon, liberated from the burden of having to make their own products—or, in Trump’s case, build his own buildings.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

The Joe Camel ads for cigarettes that have given way to the slick beer ads featuring turtles, parrots, and other kiddie staples, like the roadside playpens at McDonald’s and the Peter Pan–themed rides of Disneyland (pirates and cowboys and Indians all still there a hundred years later) are designed not to help children remain children but to “help” children become grown-up consumers of cigarettes or lite beer or Big Macs or Disney’s whole lifeline of products from animated films to new-town utopias like Celebration, Florida. Disneyland sells childhood mythology in order to reap grown-up profits. The play at the theme park is pay as you go, a relatively passive “ride” experience that happens to you in return for your dollar. In these new theme-park playgrounds that now occupy the leisure time of cash-carrying kids, parents are reduced to the role of minders with wallets. There is of course irony in an “adult culture” which is intensely serious and very grown up—what is serious if not the bottom line?


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

His list of “regions with the highest levels of inequality” include Raleigh-Durham, San Francisco, Washington-Baltimore, Austin, Houston, New York, West Palm Beach, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Boston, while those with the lowest levels of inequality are Milwaukee, Portland, St. Louis, Memphis, Salt Lake City, Oklahoma City, Buffalo, Louisville, Indianapolis, Grand Rapids, and Las Vegas. Pay for jobs turns out to be critical. 17. There are truly new cities: not just new towns like Celebration, Florida, built by Disney, or planned and “garden cities” growing out of the new urbanism movement such as Radburn, New Jersey, before World War II, or Greenbelt, Maryland, after, but cities like Las Vegas that, as Robert Venturi quips, “was built in a day” and “not superimposed on an older pattern” (Robert Venturi et al, Learning from Las Vegas, rev. ed., Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977, p. 18). Brazil built a new capital in the middle of nowhere (Brasilia), England has experimented with new towns, and of course China is seeing dozens of cities springing up where there were only village exurbs.


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Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional

But these days at least a third of the people at theme parks are adults without children. These days thousands of couples get married every year at Disney theme parks—women imagining their weddings as the final scenes of Cinderella or themselves as Ariel or Belle or Jasmine in character-specific gowns purchased through Disney’s Fairy Tale Weddings division, attended by strangers in royal-servant getups. To produce our documentary, we also went to Walt Disney World—and to Celebration, Florida, where I’d been before. Celebration is the real town that Disney built at the south end of Disney World in the 1990s. It’s an example of New Urbanism, the movement among architects and planners, beginning in the 1980s, that considers the development of cities and suburbs since World War II disastrously misguided. America abandoned the accumulated wisdom of centuries and built streets too wide, houses too far apart, driveways and garages too dominant, and homes too far from jobs and shopping, with too much dependence on driving and too much incoherent sprawl.