Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert

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pages: 464 words: 155,696

Becoming Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart Into a Visionary Leader by Brent Schlender, Rick Tetzeli


Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, computer age, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Jony Ive, market design, McMansion, Menlo Park, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

“I mean, his whole thing of knowing exactly what he’s going to say, but up on stage saying it in such a way that he is trying to make you think he’s thinking it up right then …” Gates just laughs. Making the “1984” ad with Steve was a pirate enterprise for creative director Clow, art director Brenton Thomas, and Steve Hayden, who wrote the copy. Steve didn’t let the board see the ad until a couple of days before the Super Bowl, and they were horrified. Directed by Blade Runner’s Ridley Scott, the sixty-second spot features a lone woman, in color, running through a sea of gray men and women listening obediently to a huge talking head nattering threateningly from an enormous screen about the enlightened potential of absolute conformity. As the ad nears its end, the woman hurls the large hammer she’s been carrying and smashes the screen. A simple line follows: “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’ ” Sculley got cold feet and told Chiat\Day to sell off the expensive Super Bowl ad space it had purchased.

Others found the experience exhilarating, but not something they’d want to repeat, and left Apple to find a less stressful employment environment. And then there was the small group of folks who loved it so much they stuck around, ready to do whatever it would take all over again, in order to work in the rarefied, exhilarating, and charged atmosphere that Steve created when he was running the show. When the job was over, Steve had the signatures of the forty-six key players on the team engraved on the inside of every Mac. Even people working on the Apple II found Steve’s performance inspiring. “We used to say that the Mac people had God on their side,” said one only half jokingly. THE DEBUT OF the Macintosh established Steve as a master showman. Between the famous “1984” ad, which played just once, during the Super Bowl broadcast on January 22, 1984, and the Mac’s official presentation at the Flint Auditorium on the campus of Cupertino’s De Anza College on January 24, 1984, Steve transformed expectations of what a product introduction could be.

NOW STEVE FACED the challenge of delivering on this promise within the gnawing confines of Apple. It would be a staggeringly ambitious project—one that no one at Apple but Steve could have imagined, and one that no one but he could have made so maddeningly complicated. The long road had many detours and would be pockmarked with collateral damage, but it would eventually lead to the introduction of the Macintosh computer in 1984. After that visit to Xerox PARC, Steve completed what had been a slow abandonment of the Apple III development. The more he realized that the machine was simply a modest renovation of the Apple II, the more his attention wandered. Now he turned away completely, with the intention of applying what he’d learned at PARC to another computer already under development at Apple. This machine was specifically designed for Fortune 500 companies that required heavy-duty networked computing to accomplish tasks that were significantly more data-intensive than anything that could be handled by the Apple II or even the Apple III.


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid


1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

“So I had this prejudice that computers were things that stapled you and punched you,” Leary recalled.72 The military-run, prohibitively expensive, all-controlling IBM supercomputer was the epitome of both big business and big government. IBM was “Big Brother,” as Leary saw it. This lingering image is what Apple mocked with such ingenuity in its famous one-minute 1984 Super Bowl ad, directed by Ridley Scott. An athletic blonde woman in T-shirt and shorts is seen charging past storm troopers, right into the heart of power, carrying that most iconic of tools, a sledgehammer. Then she throws the hammer, smashing the oppressor’s larger-than-life image: “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh,” the video concludes, “and you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”73 The personal computer had become the ultimate power tool of liberation. Leary purchased his first personal computer in early 1983. “I’ve learned so much about drugs and the brain in the last six months from working with a personal computer,” he told the audience at the Julia Morgan Theatre in Berkeley in July 1983.

., 49. 65.Stewart Brand, “SPACEWAR: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” Rolling Stone, December 7, 1972, 58. 66.Brand, Two Cybernetic Frontiers, 78. 67.Stewart Brand, “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time 145, no. 12 (March 1, 1995): 54–56. 68.Ken Goffman, “Wake Up, It’s 1984!” High Frontiers 1 (1984): 3. 69.Ibid. 70.Terence McKenna, “Phychopharmacognosticon,” High Frontiers 4 (1988): 12. 71.Ibid., 11–12. 72.Quoted in Goffman, “Wake Up, It’s 1984!” 23. 73.“Apple Macintosh Ad—Aired during the SuperBowl 1984,” YouTube video, posted November 9, 2009, 74.Timothy Leary, “Access Codes & Carnival Blasts,” High Frontiers 1 (1984): 24. 75.Elizabeth Mehrin, “People in the News: Timothy Leary,” PC Magazine, February 7, 1984, 62. 76.Timothy Leary, Chaos and Cyber Culture (Berkeley, CA: Ronin, 1994), 120. 77.Mehrin, “People in the News: Timothy Leary.” 78.Katie Hafner, “The Epic Saga of the Well,” Wired 5.5 (May 1997): 98–142. 79.Ibid. 80.Ibid. 81.For a video of one of these parties, see Susan Hedin, “WELL Party 1989,” YouTube video, posted August 24, 2009, 82.DEC’s VAX systems were still used for testing the ICBM program in 2012; the WELL replaced its VAX in 1988.

LSD, PC Magazine joked in an article about Leary’s wild party, would now stand for “Leary’s Software Development.”77 But Leary wasn’t nearly as good at organizing and software engineering. His plans to develop what he then called artificial intelligence with XOR didn’t go anywhere. But it was 1984—the year that wasn’t supposed to be like 1984, as Apple had put it in its Orwell-evoking ad. The Macintosh was here. William Gibson published Neuromancer, and an era-defining subculture emerged. Yet something was missing. It was again Stewart Brand, of Whole Earth fame, who turned a cybernetic vision into reality. A little less than a year after Leary’s party, on a day in the late fall of 1984, Brand had a fateful lunch with Larry Brilliant, in a restaurant in La Jolla. Both men were in town for a conference of the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute. Brilliant, a doctor, was a roly-poly man with a goatee and a lot of excess energy.


From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly


Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, inventory management, John von Neumann, linear programming, Menlo Park, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Adobe Systems was formed by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who pioneered laser printing technology at Xerox PARC in the late 1970s. In 1982, when Xerox had failed to market the technology, Warnock and Geschke started their own company.61 Adobe grew rapidly, supplying a software technology known as Postscript for manufacturers of laser printers and for the Apple Macintosh. That the Macintosh was subsequently able to dominate the high-end desktop publishing market was due largely to Adobe’s technology. By 1984, half of Adobe’s income came from Apple royalties. By the late 1990s, however, Adobe’s Postscript technology was no longer unique; both Apple and Microsoft had developed their own systems. Recognizing that its niche in printing software was evaporating, Adobe made a number of strategic acquisitions in order to diversify into desktop publishing and electronic document distribution. Intuit was established in 1983 by Scott Cook, a former Procter & Gamble brand manager.

The concept of a windows-based operating system had originated in the 1970s at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC),26 where most of the ideas now standard in a graphical user interface, including overlapping windows, pull-down menus, and point-and-click task selection by means of a mouse, originated. The work at Xerox PARC had led to the Xerox Star, announced in May 1981—a failure in the market, primarily because its price ($40,000) was much too high for a personal computer. The concept of the graphical user interface was also adopted by Apple Computer for its Lisa computer, launched in May 1983. Though universally regarded as a path-breaking product, the Lisa also failed in the market because of a high price ($16,995). Apple Computer’s second attempt—the $2,500 Macintosh, launched in January 1984—was much more successful. The Macintosh’s unique selling point was its userfriendly interface.27 It succeeded in capturing 5–10 percent of the personal computer market for the next decade. But because it was a proprietary system, it never attracted as many software and hardware suppliers as the IBM-compatible PC.

In early 1985, Microsoft and IBM had begun joint development of a new operating system intended to be the long-term replacement for MS-DOS. Meanwhile, inside Microsoft, development of Windows continued under its own momentum. In late 1987, Windows 2.0 was released to modest acclaim. The interface had been polished considerably, and its main visual elements were almost indistinguishable from those of the Macintosh. Microsoft had obtained a license from Apple Computer for Windows 1.0 but had not renogotiated it for the new release. Version 2.0 so closely emulated the “look and feel” of the Macintosh that Apple sued for copyright infringement in March 1988. The Apple-vs.-Microsoft lawsuit consumed many column-inches of reportage and rattled on for 3 years before a settlement in Microsoft’s favor was reached in 1991.33 So far as can be ascertained, the lawsuit was something of a sideshow that had little bearing on Microsoft’s or any other company’s technical or marketing strategy.


pages: 384 words: 89,250

Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade


Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, women in the workforce

As the elegant Macintosh approached its release date, Jobs got each of the forty-seven members of his team to sign their names inside the molding of the original design for the Macintosh case.46 Macintosh debuted in 1984, targeted to a family market, but it promptly fizzled Its initial failure followed a remarkably cinematic one-time-only television ad that aired during the 1984 Super Bowl. Later, after the computer was repositioned, the Macintosh achieved a 10 percent market share primarily as a result of its use in desktop publishing and education. The easy learning curve of the Mac’s intuitive GUI desktop made it ideal for use in the classroom among first- ime student users who knew nothing about operating systems or command lines. Buying only one Mac per classroom made the computer a very affordable tool, and in this way Jobs’ and Raskins’ invention accessed and influ nced an entire generation.

The next year, Jobs lost control of the Lisa project at Apple, and after a bitter corporate battle he was reassigned to administer another project—a less powerful computer whose design originated with Apple architect Jef Raskin. Raskin had worked at SRI in the early 1970s when Engelbart’s group was still focusing on problems with the “man and computer” interface. At SRI, Raskin also had extensive contact with the PARC personnel. Jobs now insisted that Raskin’s new desktop computer should have features that were not in the original design, including Engelbart’s mouse.43 Before he left Apple in 1982, Raskin named the new computer after a favorite variety of apple that grew abundantly in the hills around Cupertino. Raskin’s name was really a pun, of course. To most buyers, a Mac computer was a variety of Apple computer, just as a Macintosh was a kind of apple.

The machine’s excellent performance relied on more than a megabyte of memory to run an elegant new operating system. Macintosh’s designers pilfered Lisa’s OS and rewrote it in greatly reduced machine code so that it would fi onto a single chip. The Macintosh project was cocooned in a separate building over which Jobs himself hoisted a pirate fla . John Sculley remembered that “Steve’s ‘pirates’ were a handpicked pack of the most brilliant mavericks inside and outside Apple. Their mission . . .was to blow people’s minds and overturn standards . . . The pirates ransacked the company for ideas, parts, and design plans.”45 Lisa turned out to be exactly the overpriced marketing disaster Jobs had predicted. Macintosh quickly became the company’s only hope of survival, and Jobs regained enough influ nce within Apple to install John Sculley as CEO by late summer. As the elegant Macintosh approached its release date, Jobs got each of the forty-seven members of his team to sign their names inside the molding of the original design for the Macintosh case.46 Macintosh debuted in 1984, targeted to a family market, but it promptly fizzled Its initial failure followed a remarkably cinematic one-time-only television ad that aired during the 1984 Super Bowl.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, garden city movement, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

(Long obsolete, those original Macintoshes are now much sought after by collectors.) In early 1983, with less than a year to go before the Macintosh launch, Jobs persuaded Sculley to become CEO of Apple. This was seen by commentators as a curious choice because the forty-year-old Sculley had achieved national prominence by masterminding the relaunch of Pepsi-Cola against Coca-Cola in the late 1970s. But behind the move lay Jobs’s vision of the computer as a consumer appliance that needed consumer marketing. In what was one of the most memorable advertising campaigns of the 1980s, Apple produced a spectacular television advertisement that was broadcast during the Super Bowl on 22 January 1984: Apple Computer was about to introduce its Macintosh computer to the world, and the commercial was intended to stir up anticipation for the big event. It showed a roomful of gaunt, zombie-like workers with shaved heads, dressed in pajamas like those worn by concentration camp prisoners, watching a huge viewing screen as Big Brother intoned about the great accomplishments of the computer age.

Microsoft, which came late to the PDA/smartphone platform business by licensing Windows-based mobile operating systems, had some success in the enterprise market before smartphones became consumer oriented and the touchscreen-based Apple iOS and Android systems rose to dominance. While Apple’s Macintosh was a technical success at its launch in 1984, it helped Microsoft far more than Apple itself (by showing the dominant operating-system company the way to a user-friendly graphics-based operating system). Apple Computer was struggling as a company in the mid-1980s, and co-founder and Macintosh team leader Steve Jobs lost a boardroom battle, was isolated from Apple’s management, and elected to resign from the firm. In 1985 Jobs formed NeXT, a computer platform development company focused on the educational and business markets. NeXT acquired the small computer graphics division of Lucasfilms, which it later spun-off as Pixar—the IPO made Jobs a billionaire.

Suddenly, a tanned and beautiful young woman wearing bright red track clothes sprinted into the room and hurled a sledgehammer into the screen, which exploded into blackness. Then a message appeared: “On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce the Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.” Apple ran the commercial just once, but over the following weeks it was replayed on dozens of news and talk shows. The message was reinforced by a blaze of publicity eventually costing $15 million. There were full-page newspaper advertisements and twenty-page copy inserts in glossy magazines targeted at high-income readers. Although priced at $2,500—only 15 percent of the cost of the Lisa—sales of the Macintosh after the first flush of enthusiasm were disappointing. Much of the hope for the Macintosh had been that it would take off as a consumer appliance, but it never did. Sculley realized that he had been misled by Jobs and that the consumer appliance idea was ill-conceived: People weren’t about to buy $2,000 computers to play a video game, balance a checkbook, or file gourmet recipes as some suggested.


pages: 559 words: 157,112

Dealers of Lightning by Michael A. Hiltzik


Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, Dynabook, El Camino Real, index card, Jeff Rulifson, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, oil shock, popular electronics, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

April 27: Xerox unveils the Star workstation, the commercial offspring of the Alto and other PARC technology, at a Chicago trade show to wide acclaim. August 24: IBM unveils the Personal Computer, forever altering the commercial landscape of office computing and making the Star obsolete. May: Apple introduces the Lisa, a personal computer with a graphical interface based on principles developed at PARC. September 19: Bob Taylor resigns from PARC under pressure. Within a few months many of the center’s top computer engineers and scientists will resign in sympathy. January: Apple introduces the Macintosh, the popular successor to the Lisa and the most influential embodi-ment of the PARC personal computer, with a striking “1984”-style television commercial during the Super Bowl. INTRODUCTION The Time Machine It was April in California’s Santa Clara Valley, a fine time to be changing the world. Very late one night in 1973 a small group assembled inside the office of an electronics engineer named Charles P.

That sign appeared one day in 1979, when a Silicon Valley legend in the making walked through PARC’s front door. CHAPTER 23 Steve Jobs Gets His Show and Tell Thus we come to Steven P. Jobs. The Apple Computer cofounder’s visit to PARC, from which he reputedly spirited off the ideas that later made the Apple Macintosh famous, is one of the foundation legends of personal computing, as replete with drama and consequence as the story of David and Goliath or the fable of the mouse and the lion with an injured paw. It holds enough material to serve the mythmaking of not one corporation but two, Xerox and Apple. If one seeks proof of its importance, one need look no further than the fact that to this date no two people involved in the episode recollect it quite the same way. For a chronicler of PARC this presents a unique difficulty.

In an unexpected burst of proprietary pride, Xerox turned him down. (The company had already divested its equity in Apple, thus missing out on the computer company’s extraordinary run-up in value at the time of its 1980 initial public stock offering.) Steve Jobs made his offer instead to Tesler, one of Smalltalk’s developers. Heeding the mysterious tarot, Tesler accepted the job that April. He would go on to head the Lisa user interface team and to help design the Macintosh, eventually rising to the position of Apple’s chief scientist. The sign he was waiting for had come. PARC’s elitism had begun to seem threadbare, and even a little reactionary. “I remember once I said to Bob Taylor, ‘You know, I’ve been going to these Homebrew computer meetings and I’ve been talking to people at Apple and hanging out in the personal computer scene. There’s a lot of smart people out there who are going to run way ahead of PARC in PCs.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner


1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

As early as 1972, Brand had suggested that computers might become a new LSD, a new small technology that could be used to open minds and reform society. During the Super Bowl of 1984, Apple Computer introduced its Macintosh with a like-minded suggestion. Its mouse and monitor might have first been designed in research institutes funded by the Defense Department, but in the ad, a lithe blonde woman in a track suit raced up a theater aisle through row after row of gray-suited workers and threw a hammer into the maw of Big Brother on the screen. Thanks to the Macintosh, a voice then intoned, 1984 would not be like 1984. Like the Merry Pranksters in their bus, the ad implied, the executives of Apple had unleashed a new technology on Americans that would, if they only embraced it, make them free. By 1984 the New Communalist movement had disappeared. Nevertheless, thanks in large part to the entrepreneurship of Stewart Brand and the networks he assembled, its ideals lived on.

The hacker ethic helped make hackers particularly appealing to Stewart Brand and Kevin Kelly. Soon after Levy had shown them his book, Brand and Kelly got in touch with members of the hacking community, including Lee Felsenstein; Bill Budge, a software author; Andy Hertzfeld, a key member of Apple’s Macintosh development team; and Doug Carlston, founder and president of Broderbund Software Inc. Together they invited some four hundred self-described hackers to pay ninety dollars each to join them, the Whole Earth crew, and about twenty mainstream journalists for a three-day weekend in November 1984 at Fort Cronkhite, a former army base in the Marin Headlands just across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. At one level, the event was a master stroke of networking. Having been alerted to the existence of a new and potentially influential community by a member of their own Whole Earth network (Levy), Brand and Kelly reached out to that community and entrepreneurially extended and diversified their own networks.

The great machines of empire had been miniaturized and turned over to individuals, and so transformed into tools with which individuals could improve their own lives. Like many myths, this one contains several grains of truth. The 1970s did in fact witness the rise of a new form of computing, and Bay area programmers, many with countercultural leanings, played an important part in that process. And as they were distributed, some of the new computers—particularly the 1984 Apple Macintosh—were explicitly marketed as devices one could use to tear down bureaucracies and achieve individual intellectual freedom. Yet, the notion that the [ 103 ] [ 104 ] Chapter 4 counterculture gave rise to personal computing and computer networking obscures the breadth and complexity of the actual encounter between the two worlds. As Stewart Brand’s migrations across the 1960s suggest, New Communalistvisionsofconsciousnessandcommunityhadbecomeentangledwith the cybernetic theories and interdisciplinary practices of high-technology research long before computers were miniaturized or widely interlinked.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele


3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart,, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The advertisement closes with the text, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.19 Recounting the story of the ad, industry journalist Adelia Cellini noted, “Apple wanted the Mac to symbolize the idea of empowerment, with the ad showcasing the Mac as a tool for combating conformity and asserting originality. What better way to do that than have a striking blond athlete take a sledgehammer to the face of that ultimate symbol of conformity, Big Brother?”20 In many ways, this ad represents the apex of the personal computer revolution. The anti-institutional counterculture nerd ethos of the 1960s and 1970s had grown into the personal computer industry—an industry large enough by this time that it could now buy an advertisement during the Super Bowl. Yet the advertisement it used to make a splash still paradoxically evoked a deep strain of radical individualism and personal expression in the midst of conformity.

A liberationist ethic also became entrenched in the overt marketing of personal computing devices, most famously in a classic television commercial, Apple’s 1984 spot. Following the rousing success of Apple’s first two home computer models, Steve Jobs wanted to do something big to roll out its third model, the Macintosh personal computer. He hired Ridley Scott, who two years earlier had directed the sci-fi classic Bladerunner, to make the commercial.18 The result was a powerful and intense ad that referenced the dystopian future of George Orwell’s classic novel 1984. In the ad, a young woman breaks into a large auditorium where a crowd of mindless automatons sit listening to a giant screen of a speaking man, presumably Big Brother. The woman, representing the Macintosh (she has a sketch of the Mac on her tank top), smashes the screen. The advertisement closes with the text, “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh.

The quotation is taken from his essay “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, 1 Mar. 1995. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 1996). 18. 19. 20. Adelia Cellini, “The Story Behind Apple’s1984’ TV Commercial: Big Brother at 20.” MacWorld 21, no. 1 (2004): 18. 21.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding


affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks

It shows Big Brother projected on a screen, addressing lines of workers. These skinhead drones wear identical uniforms. Into the grey nightmare bursts an attractive young woman. She wears orange shorts and a white tank top. She is carrying a hammer! Police in riot gear run after her. As Big Brother announces ‘We shall prevail’, the heroine hurls the hammer at him. The screen explodes in a blaze of light; the workers are open-mouthed. A voice announces smoothly: ‘On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.’ The 60-second advert was screened to nearly 100 million Americans during the Super Bowl, and was subsequently hailed as one of the best ever. Isaacson writes: ‘Initially the technologists and hippies didn’t interface well. Many in the counterculture saw computers as ominous and Orwellian, the province of the Pentagon and the power culture.’

That was still to come. 10 DON’T BE EVIL Silicon Valley, California Summer 2013 ‘Until they become conscious, they will never rebel.’ GEORGE ORWELL, 1984 It was an iconic commercial. To accompany the launch of the Macintosh in 1984, Steve Jobs created an advert that would captivate the world. It would take the theme of George Orwell’s celebrated dystopian novel and recast it – with Apple as Winston Smith. His plucky company would fight the tyranny of Big Brother. As Walter Isaacson recounts in his biography of Jobs, the Apple founder was a child of the counterculture. He practised Zen Buddhism, smoked pot, walked around barefoot and pursued faddish vegetarian diets. He embodied the ‘fusion of flower power and processor power’. Even as Apple grew into a multi-billion dollar corporation, Jobs continued to identify with computing’s early subversives and long-haired pioneers – the hackers, pirates, geeks and freaks that made the future possible.

Many in the counterculture saw computers as ominous and Orwellian, the province of the Pentagon and the power culture.’ The commercial asserted the opposite – that computers were cool, revolutionary and empowering, instruments of self-expression. The Macintosh was a way of asserting freedom against an all-seeing state. Almost 30 years later, following Jobs’s death in 2011, an NSA analyst came up with a smirking rejoinder. He prepared a top-secret presentation and, to illustrate the opening slide, he pulled up a couple of stills from Jobs’s commercial – one of Big Brother, the other of the blonde heroine with the hammer and the orange shorts. Under the heading ‘iPhone Location Services’ he typed: ‘Who knew in 1984 …’ The next slide showed the late Jobs, holding up an iPhone. ‘… that this would be Big Brother …’ A third slide showed crowds of whooping customers celebrating after buying the iPhone 4; one fan had inked the name on his cheek.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management

Walter Thompson, where he stayed until Eastman Kodak, a client, recruited him to be its director of marketing. Then, in 1983, John Sculley, recently appointed the CEO of Apple, heard about Campbell from a relative and began courting him for the job of vice president of marketing. He clinched the sale by demonstrating for Campbell the revolutionary Macintosh computer, which Apple would introduce in 1984. “It would be pretty unusual today to hire a football coach to be your VP of sales,” Sculley later told a reporter. “But what I was looking for was someone who could help develop Apple into an organization.” Campbell took over sales as well as marketing just months after he joined Apple, and set about firing the consultants and most of a sales force that “wore polyester pants and gold chains.” He said he replaced them with recent college graduates, half of them women, and all hungry to succeed.

Steve Jobs and Apple are wave makers; companies like Dell—or Quincy Smith’s CBS and Irwin Gotlieb’s GroupM—attempt to ride the wave; newspapers crash into them. The Apple wave started with the Apple II, which launched the PC era in 1977; followed in 1984 by the Macintosh, with its innovative graphical user interface; followed by Pixar studios, which transformed movie animation; followed by the iPod and iTunes and the iPhone. It’s probably safe to say that Intel and HP created waves. Ditto Amazon. There are those who say Microsoft doesn’t qualify because it rode the waves others invented, but it is inarguable that it has thrived for three decades and changed computing. It is much too soon to know whether companies like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, or Wikipedia will have a lasting impact. It is not too early, however, to call Google a wave maker.

Campbell’s boldness appealed to the ever-rebellious Steve Jobs. The two men bonded. By 1984, said Campbell, “Sculley and Jobs were going at each other already.” Although Jobs had recruited Sculley to bring professional management to Apple, he came to think he was more interested in marketing, including marketing himself, than in Apple products; Sculley believed Jobs wanted an acolyte, not a CEO. Nevertheless, Campbell earned the rare distinction of being able to both befriend Jobs and command Sculley’s respect. Before Sculley succeeded in pushing Jobs out of Apple in 1985, Campbell warned him it would be a huge mistake. Tensions flared between Campbell and Sculley, and in 1987 Campbell was put in charge of Apple’s Claris software division, with the intention of spinning it off as a private company with Campbell at the helm.


pages: 307 words: 17,123

Behind the cloud: the untold story of how went from idea to billion-dollar company--and revolutionized an industry by Marc Benioff, Carlye Adler


Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, business continuity plan, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, iterative process, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, platform as a service, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs

I focused my studies at the University of Southern California on building companies and creating new technologies, and ran Liberty Software out of my dorm room. The lessons I learned as an entrepreneur were pivotal, as were those I learned working for somebody else. In 1984, I had a summer job at Apple writing some of the first native assembly language for the Macintosh. I had the opportunity to work on the most exciting and important project at Apple, and it was like getting paid to go to Disneyland. There were fruit smoothies in the refrigerators, a motorcycle in the lobby, and shiatsu massages. The very best part was being able to witness Steve Jobs walking around, motivating the developers. Steve’s leadership created the energy and spirit in the office. Apple encouraged the ‘‘think different’’ mind-set throughout its entire organization. We even had a pirate flag on the roof. That summer, I discovered that it was possible for an entrepreneur to encourage revolutionary ideas and foster a distinctive culture. xix INTRODUCTION That lesson became even more obvious when I returned to Apple for a second summer internship as a technical sales support person with an Apple partner.

Events proved to be an effective way to maximize the viral effect. Play #28: Build Street Teams and Leverage Testimony Although I had been inspired by the customer energy that Steve Jobs had built around the Macintosh, the idea for cultivating a group of enthusiasts did not come from the technology community; it emanated from the hip-hop community. A friend introduced me to MC Hammer, who visited our San Francisco office (wearing a business suit, not the trademark Hammer pants) and shared his ‘‘Street Team’’ concept: that of building local networks of people to back you. At the time, I didn’t know how Street Teams would work in action, but I thought that MC Hammer was a creative genius and that this unconventional idea was worth investigating. Our City Tour program served as a vehicle to extend the message, ignite passion behind the idea, and help us build Street Teams to get customers out and selling for us on a local level.

Oracle had about two hundred people when I started, and the fast-growing company prized the efforts of young people and rewarded them. Founder and CEO Larry Ellison regularly xx Introduction walked the halls to chat with employees. (I usually took these opportunities to share my enthusiasm for Macs.) Soon after I sent Larry a note asking when Oracle would be on the Macintosh and included a business plan about how to make us successful in the Apple market, Larry made me the director of Oracle’s Macintosh division. Being responsible for the division that created software for personal computers was an amazing opportunity. Then, after Tom Siebel, the executive who ran direct marketing, resigned and recommended me as his replacement, I inherited an even more exciting and formative role. It was Larry’s vision that inspired me. He wanted me to create an ‘‘electronic village’’ and the next generation of sales and marketing using state-of-the-art electronic conferencing technology, software systems, and multimedia.


pages: 385 words: 48,143

The Monk and the Riddle: The Education of a Silicon Valley Entrepreneur by Randy Komisar


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, discounted cash flows, estate planning, Jeff Bezos, Network effects, new economy, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs

While Apple clearly had to be financially successful, its more fundamental purpose was to innovate, invent, and lead an entire cultural revolution that Page 76 everyone there saw leaping from those keyboards and screens with silicon brains. Apple's 1984 Super Bowl commercial, where the free thinking individual charges through the faceless, gray crowd to shatter the tyranny of Big Brother, was gospel, not hype, throughout the Apple organization. All the people I met there, passionate young people, truly believed they were changing the world, not selling computers. I took a mental health day and rode my bicycle mile after mile through the backcountry of Marin county. Seventy-five miles later, I still didn't know what to do. The next morning, I walked into work, puzzling through the options. I can still remember sitting in my office at the end of the hall and looking down the long corridor.

Then the competition would look sufficiently like Apple to erode Apple's margins and back it into a corner of its own making, with declining share and profit. Along with many others inside Apple, I was a strong proponent of licensing the Macintosh operating system in order to preempt Microsoft in setting the standard for user-friendly computing. After all, it was Apple's birthright, its overriding Page 109 mission. It would mean cannibalizing our own model, sacrificing margins for volume and market share, but it seemed better than circling the wagons and defending an ever-declining piece of the PC business. Apple's general counsel, my boss, asked me to develop a licensing plan for the Mac operating system, with safeguards for protecting Apple's basic interests. In a first step toward a new strategy, a colleague and I were assigned to negotiate a license of the Mac look and feel to Apollo Computer in Massachusetts, one of the leading manufacturers of workstations at the time.

Her ambivalence and Lenny's focus on the formula over the mission brought to mind my experience at Apple, specifically one of the most pivotal negotiations I was involved in there, which was reported only recently for the first time. Apple's big idea had been Computing for the Rest of Us. But the company increasingly found itself hostage to the margins and quarterly results generated by its business model, which was built around premium hardware. Its share of the PC business was limited as it became addicted to selling computers at much higher margins and prices than its competition. Its intuitive, friendly interface was the justification for those margins, but that business model and Apple's position were threatened by none other than Microsoft. In 1986 we had all seen Windows 1.0, and while it posed no threat to the Macintosh operating environment at the time, we understood what it meant.


pages: 240 words: 109,474

Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize

Writing his .plan updates was becoming increasingly laborious because, as Carmack knew, everyone seemed to be hanging so much on what he said. “Some of you,” he finally typed, “are busy getting all bent out of shape about this.” Carmack was talking about the gaming community’s reaction to id’s announcement that the first test of their next game, Quake III Arena, would be released for Macintosh, not Windows. In the gaming world, this was usually as big as the controversies got. But while Carmack turned his attention to his plan, describing the pros and cons of the new Macintosh systems, he couldn’t avoid the other controversy. Finishing his update, he pushed himself away from his desk and walked down the hall to get a Diet Coke and a snack. “Hey,” he said, passing the police officers in his lobby, “do you guys want anything to eat?” The cops were the most obvious sign of Columbine’s impact on id.

A new one had begun. 176 THIRTEEN Deathmatch I n a dark room pulsing with blood red shadows, Stevie “Killcreek” Case sat at her computer, twitching her body as if she were repeatedly and intentionally sticking her toe in a light socket. “Doh!” she yelped, leaping her soldier on the screen through a static-filled teleporter gate, only to see him rematerialize in an unanticipated blizzard of nails. Or, as she described the style of this particular death, “Telefragged!” It was January 1997, minutes away from the online gaming underground’s unofficial Super Bowl. Like the few dozen others convulsing throughout this University of Kansas flophouse, Stevie–an ebullient twenty-year-old with a short brown hob–had been practicing two sleepless nights for the match between her team, Impulse 9, and their rivals, who had driven eight hours from Michigan, the Ruthless Bastards. Their contests were part of the burgeoning international subculture of clans: organized groups of gamers who played– and lived–Quake.

The one he liked best soon became his girlfriend, a popular, intelligent, and outgoing daughter of a respected officer. She had him buy button-down shirts, wear nice jeans and contacts. After years of being beaten down by his father and his stepfather, Romero was finally getting recognition. At sixteen, Romero was just as eager to have success with his games. After eight months of rejections, the good news came on March 5, 1984, from an Apple magazine called InCider. An editor, weary from a recent trip to Mardi Gras, wrote that the magazine had decided to publish the code for Romero’s Scout Search, a low-resolution maze game in which the player– represented by a single dot–had to gather all his scouts–more dots–before being attacked by a grizzly bear–another dot. It didn’t look great, but it was fun to play. Romero would be paid $100.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel,, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

Calibrating the right level of openness is undoubtedly one of the most complex as well as one of the most critical decisions that a platform business must make.4 The decision affects usage, developer participation, monetization, and regulation. It’s a challenge that Steve Jobs struggled with throughout his career. In the 1980s, he got it wrong by choosing to keep the Apple Macintosh a closed system. Competitor Microsoft opened its less elegant operating system to outside developers and licensed it to a host of computer manufacturers. The resulting flood of innovation enabled Windows to claim a share of the personal computer market that dwarfed Apple’s. In the 2000s, Jobs got the balance right: he opened the iPhone’s operating system, made iTunes available on Windows, and captured the lion’s share of the smartphone market from rivals like Nokia and Blackberry.5 Jobs liked to recast the open/closed dilemma as a choice between “fragmented” and “integrated,” terms that subtly skewed the debate in favor of a closed, controlled system.

In some cases, both the platform manager and the platform sponsor can be either a single company or a group of companies—with further implications for issues of control and openness.10 Figure 7.3 illustrates four models for managing and sponsoring platforms. In some cases, a single firm both manages and sponsors the platform. We call this the proprietary model. For example, the hardware, software, and underlying technical standards for the Macintosh operating system and mobile iOS are all controlled by Apple. Sometimes a group of firms manages the platform while one firm sponsors it. This is the licensing model. Google, for example, sponsors the “stock” Android operating system, but it encourages a number of hardware firms to supply devices that connect consumers to the platform. These device makers, including Samsung, Sony, LG, Motorola, Huawei, and Amazon, are licensed by Google to manage the interface between producers and consumers.

Sarah Needleman and Angus Loten, “When Freemium Fails,” Wall Street Journal, August 22, 2012. 7. Saul Hansell, “No More Giveaway Computers. Free-PC To Be Bought by eMachines,” New York Times, November 30, 1999, 8. Dashiell Bennett, “8 Dot-Coms That Spent Millions on Super Bowl Ads and No Longer Exist,” Business Insider, February 2, 2011, 9. “The Greatest Defunct Web Sites and Dotcom Disasters,” Crave, cnet, June 5, 2008,,39029477,49296926-6,00.htm. 10. Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Information Complements, Substitutes and Strategic Product Design,” Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Information Systems (Association for Information Systems, 2000), 13–15; Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Internetwork Externalities and Free Information Goods,” Proceedings of the Second ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce (Association for Computing Machinery, 2000), 107–16; Geoffrey Parker and Marshall Van Alstyne, “Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design,” Management Science 51, no. 10 (2005): 1494–1504. 11.


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In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

What about a Google-ized version of Apple’s Safari browser? Jobs bonded especially with Brin; both lived in Palo Alto, and the pair would take long walks around the town and up in the hills … current and future kings of the Valley, inventing the future. In August 2006, Jobs invited Eric Schmidt to sit on Apple’s board of directors, which included Google board member Arthur Levinson, CEO of Genetech; and Bill Campbell, Google’s corporate coach. Al Gore sat on Apple’s board, while he was the self-described “virtual advisory board” at Google. Intel CEO Paul Otellini, who was on Google’s board, had started supplying the chips for Macintosh computers. There was so much overlap that it was almost as if Apple and Google were a single company. Smart phones seemed to be the logical nexus of the unofficial partnership.

Michael Brin also talked about his son in Tom Howell, “Raising an Internet Giant,” University of Maryland Diamondback; and Adam Tanner, “Google Co-founder Lives Modestly, Émigré Dad Says,” USA Today, April 6, 2004; and Mark Malseed, “The Story of Sergey Brin,” Moment, February 2007. Malseed expanded on his research in The Google Story. 15 “Suppose all the information” Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web (New York: HarperBusiness, 2000), p. 4. 15 The web’s pedigree I give a detailed account of the work of Bush, Englebart, and Atkinson in Insanely Great: The Story of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything (New York: Penguin, 1994), and discuss Nelson’s work in Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Doubleday, 1984). 16 personalized movie ratings Sergey Brin, résumé at 17 “Why don’t we use the links” Page and Brin spoke to me in 2002 about developing the early search engine, a subject we also discussed in conversations in 1999, 2001, and 2004. 17 “The early versions of hypertext” Battelle, The Search, p. 72. 20 “For thirty years” Carolyn Crouch et al., “In Memoriam: Gerald Salton, March 8, 1927–August 28, 1995,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47(2), 108; “Salton Dies; Was Leader in Information Retrieval Field,” Computing Research Association website. 20 the web was winning I looked at the state of web search in “Search for Tomorrow,” Newsweek, October 28, 1996. 21 “The idea behind PageRank” John Ince, “The Lost Google Tapes,” a series of interviews with Google.

The timeline continued to the work of Douglas Engelbart, whose team at the Stanford Research Institute devised a linked document system that lived behind a dazzling interface that introduced the metaphors of windows and files to the digital desktop. Then came a detour to the brilliant but erratic work of an autodidact named Ted Nelson, whose ambitious Xanadu Project (though never completed) was a vision of disparate information linked by “hypertext” connections. Nelson’s work inspired Bill Atkinson, a software engineer who had been part of the original Macintosh team; in 1987 he came up with a link-based system called HyperCard, which he sold to Apple for $100,000 on the condition that the company give it away to all its users. But to really fulfill Vannevar Bush’s vision, you needed a huge system where people could freely post and link their documents. By the time Berners-Lee had his epiphany, that system was in place: the Internet. While the earliest websites were just ways to distribute academic papers more efficiently, soon people began writing sites with information of all sorts, and others created sites just for fun.


pages: 268 words: 112,708

Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell


1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

For example, in order to maintain its position as the Olympic network, the National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) invested $3.55 billion for television rights to the three Summer and two Winter Olympiads between 2000 and 2008.35 Broadcast rights for the Super Bowl also represent a significant part of the shared $17.6 billion eight-year contract signed by the NFL and ABC/ESPN, CBS, and Fox in 1998. Having 137 David L. A n d r e w s effectively purchased the American population’s sporting attention, it is subsequently leased for exorbitant sums to corporate advertisers. Jon Mandel of Grey Advertising noted that “When you think that virtually half the country’s watching the Super Bowl . . . this makes a hell of a statement.”36 Mandel was referring to Super Bowl 22 in 1997, which tied for the thirdmost-watched television show in U.S. history. Hence, in 1999 the popular appeal of the Super Bowl spectacle enabled Fox to charge $1.6 million for each of the thirty-second advertisement spots (of which there were fiftyeight in total), a figure that is expected to rise to $1.9 million per spot for 2000.37 Similarly, NBC charges elevated advertising rates for its near three weeks of prime-time Olympic coverage, making its television rights a highly profitable investment (see later discussion of the Olympic Games).

At its zenith, the “Wintel” monopoly so dominated that the two companies claimed half the profits of the entire PC industry, reducing PC makers to what one journalist called “a value-added reseller for Intel and Microsoft.”28 Wintel’s dominance cannot be attributed simply to consumer choice or technological superiority. Both companies gained their footholds in the PC market when IBM chose them to supply the microprocessor and operating system for its PCs in the early 1980s. By undercutting prices for the rival Macintosh computer, IBM (and the low-cost PC clone makers that followed it) grabbed the bulk of the market for business PCs. Throughout the 1980s, Apple offered a more user-friendly graphical interface than Microsoft, and at several points Intel’s competitors offered faster chips.29 But the large installed base of Wintel users created growing network effects, whereby the greater the number of users of a communication technology, the more valuable it becomes to each of them, because users can share information with more people.

For TV and radio, sport gets consumers in front of their sets to hear and see commercials; in effect, TV and radio rent their viewers’ and listeners’ attention.”32 Despite recent declines in television ratings caused by an ever-fragmenting media culture, sporting “mega-events”33—such as the Super Bowl, the Olympic Games, the NBA Finals, the MLB World Series, and the FIFA World Cup Final—continue to represent some of a dwindling number of collective media experiences that provide a thread of commonality (regardless of how ephemeral) in the life of a nation. For instance, of the ten largest audiences for shows on American television, nine have been sport-related: seven involved Super Bowl programming, and two were of coverage of the 1994 Winter Olympics (the Nancy Kerrigan and Tonya Harding skate-off ). The remaining one, in ninth place overall, was the 1983 M*A*S*H special that concluded the long-running comedy series.34 The clamor for audience ratings has led to network television moguls’ perpetual engagement in a circus of spiraling bidding wars for the exclusive rights to these high-profile events.


pages: 439 words: 104,154

The Clockwork Universe: Saac Newto, Royal Society, and the Birth of the Modern WorldI by Edward Dolnick


Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Arthur Eddington, clockwork universe, complexity theory, Edmond Halley, lone genius, music of the spheres, Saturday Night Live, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Even so, he knew how to charm and chat, and he could set his earnestness aside. “It’s so rare,” the Duchess of Orléans declared happily, “for intellectuals to be smartly dressed, and not to smell, and to understand jokes.” Leibniz was greatly impressed by a demonstration of “a Machine for walking on water,” which was apparently akin to this arrangement of inflatable pants and ankle paddles. Today we slap the word genius on every football coach who wins a Super Bowl, but both Newton and Leibniz commanded intellectual powers that dazzled even their enemies. If their talents were on a par, their styles were completely different. In his day-to-day life, as well as in his work, Leibniz was always riding off boldly in all directions at once. “To remain fixed in one place like a stake in the ground” was torture, he remarked, and he acknowledged that he “burned with the desire to win great fame in the sciences and to see the world.”

Some art historians believe that Vermeer’s Astronomer and his Geographer both depict Leeuwenhoek, but no one has been able to prove that Leeuwenhoek and Vermeer ever met. 26 The microscope that Leeuwenhoek used on that fateful night was put up for auction in April 2009. The winning bidder paid $480,000. 27 As one of Pythagoras’s followers told the tale, the story began when Pythagoras listened to the sound of hammering as he walked by a blacksmith’s shop. As the blacksmith struck the same piece of iron with different hammers, some sounds were harmonious, others not. The key, Pythagoras found, was whether the weights of the hammers happened to be in simple proportion. A twelve-pound hammer and a six-pound hammer, for instance, produced notes an octave apart. 28 Augustine did not explain why God did not make the world in 28 days (1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14) or 496 days or various other possibilities. 29 A prime number is one that can’t be broken down into smaller pieces.

JUST CRAZY ENOUGH 301 Molière long ago made fun: Thomas Kuhn famously cited Molière in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, p. 104. 302 “We are all agreed that your theory is crazy”: Bohr made the remark to Wolfgang Pauli and added, “My own feeling is that it is not crazy enough.” Dael Wolfle, ed., Symposium on Basic Research (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1959), p. 66. 302fn In time, this bewilderment: J. J. MacIntosh, “Locke and Boyle on Miracles and God’s Existence,” p. 196. 303 “He claims that a body attracts”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 273. 303 “Mysterious though it was”: John Henry, “Pray do not Ascribe that Notion to me: God and Newton’s Gravity,” in Force and Popkin, eds., The Books of Nature and Scripture, p. 141. 303 “even if an angel”: Brown, “Leibniz-Caroline Correspondence,” p. 291. 304 If the sun suddenly exploded: Brian Greene, The Elegant Universe (New York: Norton, 1999), p. 56. 305 “so great an absurdity”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 505. 305 “To tell us that every Species”: From the end of Opticks, quoted in Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, p. 259. 306 “as if it were a Crime”: Westfall, Never at Rest, p. 779. 306 “Ye cause of gravity”: Ibid., p. 505. 306 “I have not been able to discover”: Cohen’s translation of the Principia, p. 428.


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon


8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Flash crash, Googley, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

., 87 Arizona Public Service (APS) Company, 66, 211, 223 Arizona State University, 227 ARPANET, 19, 117, 135 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 AT&T, 191, 249 B Ballmer, Steve, 39 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 Bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 2, 249 BlackBerry, 60, 96, 116, 121, 171, 184, 246, 261, 296, 317 Blalock, Becky, 182, 191, 215 adaptability, 192 Air Force brat, 191, 192 Atlanta-based Southern Company, 191 banking industry, 203 Boucher, Marie, 196 brainstorm, 202 24/7 business, 199 business intelligence, 204 cloud computing, 205 cognitive surplus, 206 cognitive time, 206 Coker, Dave, 196 communication and education, 200 Community and Economic Development, 194 consumer market, 202 cybersecurity, 207, 209 data analytics, 204, 205 disaster recovery, 209 distributed generation, 204 distribution organization, 201 Egypt revolution, 198 farming technology, 206 finance backgrounds/marketing, 200, 209 Franklin, Alan, 193 Georgia Power, 191 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 global society, 206 Google, 198 incredible technology, 195 Industrial Age, 206 Information Age, 206 InformationWeek's, 196 infrastructure, 202 intellectual property, 196 intelligence and redundancy, 207 Internet, 198, 206 leapfrog innovations, 205 mainframe system, 207 marketing and customer service, 193, 200 MBA, finance, 192 microfiche, 207 microwave tower, 207 mobile devices, 203 mobility and business analytics, 205 Moore's Law, 205 new generation digital natives, 197 flexible and adaptable, 199 innovation and creativity, 199 superficial fashion, 198 Olympic sponsor, 193 out pushing technology, 202 reinforcement, 201 sense of integrity, 200 Southern Company, 194, 198, 201, 207 teamwork survey, 201 technology lab, 202 undergraduate degree, marketing, 192 virtualization, 205 VRU, 203 Ward, Eileen, 196 wire business, 201 world-class customer service, 203 Bohlen, Ken, 211 American Production Inventory Control Society, 211 Apple, 217 APS, 211, 223 ASU, 227 benchmarking company, 216 chief innovation officer, 229 Citrix, 217 cloud computing, 218, 219 cognitive surplus, 220 DECnet, 212 Department of Defense, 222 distributed computing, 217 energy industry, 214 gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 GoodLink, 217 hard-line manufacturing, 218 home computing, 219 home entertainment, 219 Honeywell, 219 HR generalists, 215 information technology department, 211 Intel machines, 217 John Deere, 213 just say yes program, 223 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Linux, 220 MBA program, 214 mentors, 213 national alerts, 224 North American universities, 228 paradigm shifts, 218, 220 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 prefigurative culture, 221 R&D companies, 218 Rhode Island, 226 role models, 213 San Diego Fire Department, 224 security/privacy issues, 217 skip levels, 223 smart home concepts, 219 smartphone, 217 social media, 225 Stead, Jerry, 214 Stevie Award, 211 Storefront engineering, 212 traditional management, 219, 226 Twitter, 224 vocabulary, 221 Waterloo operations, 213 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 wikipedia, 220 Y2K, 222 Botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Broadband networks, 241 Brown, 227 Bryant, 227 BT Global Services, 253 BT Innovate & Design (BTI&D), 253 Bumblebee tuna, 130 C Career writing technology, 67 CASE tools, 232 Cash, Jim, 50 Christensen, Clyde, 212 Chrome, 14, 18 Chrysler Corporation, 175 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313 Citrix, 217 Client-server-type applications, 59 Cloud computing, 218, 219, 239, 240, 261, 262, 310, 311, 313 Cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 COBOL, 250 Cognitive surplus, 20, 79, 206, 291 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 Columbia University, 1 Community and Economic Development, 194 Computer Sciences Corporation, 35 Computerworld magazine, 196 Consumer-oriented technology, 22 Content management system, 133 Corporate information management (CIM) program, 309 Corporate Management Information Systems, 87 Corvus disk drive, 36 Customer Advisory Boards of Oracle, 191 Customer-relationship management (CRM), 56 Cutter Business Technology Council, 173 D Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 DARPA, 19 DDoS attacks and security, 81 DECnet, 212 Dell Platinum Council, 113 DeMarco, Tom, 16, 226 Department of Defense, 222, 329, 332 Detroit Energy, 252 Digital books, 30 Digital Equipment, 48 Distributed computing, 217 Dodge, 189 Dogfooding, 11, 37, 38, 236 DTE Energy, 173 DuPont Dow Elastomers, 151 E Educational Testing Service (ETS), 151 E-government, 282, 285 Electrical distribution grid, 182 Elementary and Secondary Education Strategic Business Unit, 151 Elements of Programming Style, 2 Ellyn, Lynne, 173 advanced technology software planning, 175 Amazon, 184 artificial intelligence group, 175 Association for Women in Computing, 173 benchmark, 180, 181 BlackBerries, 184 Burns, Ursula, 175 Chrysler, 176 Cisco, 186 cloud computing, 183, 184 component-based architecture, 186 corporate communications customer service, 185 Crain's Detroit Business, 173 cyber security threats, 177 degree of competence, 187 diversity and sophistication, 182 DTE Energy, 173 energy trading, 176 engineering and science programs, 188 enterprise business systems policy, 186 executive MBA program, 176 Facebook, 185 fresh-out-of-the-university, 187 General Electric, 174 Google, 184 Grace Hopper, 174 grid re-automation, 182 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 internal social media, 185 International Coaching Federation, 178 iPads, 184 IP electrical grids, 182 iPod applications, 182 IT budgets, 186 IT responsibilities, 176 Java, 186 level of sophistication, 179 lobbying efforts, 181 medical computing, 175 Miller, Joan, 174 Mulcahey, Anne, 175 Netscape, 175 neuroscience leadership, 189 object-oriented programming, 186 Oracle, 186 peer-level people, 179 people system, 177 policies and strategies, 180 Radio Shack, 180 remote access capacity, 189 security tool and patch, 183 sense of community, 180 Shipley, Jim, 174 smart grid, 177, 182 smart meters, 182 smart phone applications, 183 swarming, 179 technical competence, 178, 179 Thomas, Marlo, 174 Twitter, 185 UNITE, 181 vendor community, 186 virtualization, 183, 184 Xerox, 175 E-mail, 9 Employee-relationship management (ERM), 56 Encyclopedia, 115 Encyclopedia Britannica, 292 ERP, 123 F Facebook, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Sridhara, Mittu, 73, 84 Temares, Lewis, 116, 121, 131 Wakeman, Dan, 169 Federal information technology investments, 299 Flex, 236 Ford, 102 Ford, Monte, 47 agile computing, 59 agile development, 62, 66 airplanes, 51 American Airlines, 47 Arizona Public Services, 66 Bank of Boston, 47 Baylor-Grapevine Board of Trustees, 47 BlackBerry, 60 board of Chubb, 51 board of Tandy, 51 business organizations, 63 business school, dean, 50 career writing technology, 67 client-server-type applications, 59 cloud technology, 62 CNN, 54 common-sense functionality, 49 consumer-based technology, 60 CRM, 56 Dallas Children's Medical Center Development Board, 48 Digital Equipment, 48 ERM, 56 financial expert, 69 frequent-flier program, 57 frontal lobotomy, 57 Harvard Business Review, 50 HR policies, 65 IBM, 48 information technology, 47, 52 Internet, 54 Internet-based protocol, 59 iPhone, 52 IT stuff, 58 Knight Ridder, 51 legacy apps, 59 mainframe-like applications, 59 management training program, 64 marketing and technical jobs, 48 Maynard, Massachusetts mill, 48 MBA program, 50 mentors, 49 Microsoft, 50 mobile computing, 62 New York Times, 53 operations center, 54 PDP-5, 49 PDP-6, 49 Radio Shack, 51 revenue management, 57 role models, 49 security paradigms, 62 self-service machine, 57 Silicon Valley companies, 68 smartphones, 54 social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 stateful applications, 59 techie department, 48 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 transmission and distribution companies, 47 wireless network, 59 YouTube, 65 Fort Worth, 226 Free software foundation, 19 Fried, Benjamin, 1, 241 agile development, 25 agile methodologies, 26 Apple Genius Bar, 8 ARPANET, 19 Art of Computer Programming, 2 Bell Labs, 2 books and records, accuracy, 25 botnets, 23 Brian's and Rob Pike's, 2 cash-like principles, 29 CFO, 4 check writers, 18 chrome, 14, 18 classic computer science text, 1 cognitive surplus, 20 Columbia University, 1 compensation management, 7 competitive advantage, 9, 18 computer science degree, 1 computer scientists, 6 consumer-driven computing, 12 consumer-driven software-as-a-service offerings, 12 consumer-driven technology, 12 consumer-oriented technology, 14, 22 corporate leadership, 25 cost centers, 4 DARPA, 19 decision makers, 17 decision making, 13 360-degree performance management, 7 detroit energy, 30 digital books, 30 document workbench, 2 dogfooding, 11 e-books, 29 Elements of Programming Style, 2 e-mail, 9 end-user support, 7 engineering executive group, 4 European vendors, 6 file servers and print servers, 17 Folger Library editions, 30 free software foundation, 19 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 Gmail, 15 Godot, 26 Google, 1 books, 29 products, 5, 10 software engineers, 6 hiring managers, 6 HR processes and technologies, 6 IBM model, 13 instant messaging, 9 Internet age, 6 interviewers, training, 6 iPad, 29 iPhone, 29 IPO, 3 IT, engineering and computer science parts, 4 Knuth's books, 2 Linux machine, 8 Linux software, 19 machine running Windows, 8 Macintosh, 8 Mac OS, 9 macro factors, 11 Managing Director, 1 mentors, 1 microcomputers, 18 Microsoft, 5 Minds for Sale, 20 Morgan Stanley, 1–3, 5, 16 nonacademic UNIX license, 2 nontechnical skills, 5 oil exploration office, 17 open-source phone operating system, 20 outlook, 15 PARC, 19 performance review cycles, 7 personal computer equipment, 15 post-Sarbanes-Oxley world, 25 project manager, 13 quants, 24 rapid-release cycle, 26 R&D cycle, 24 regression testing, 27 role models, 1 shrink-wrapped software, 14 signature-based anti-virus, 22 smartphone, 20, 27 social contract, 8 society trails technology, 21 software engineering tool, 13 software installation, 14 supply chain and inventory and asset management, 10 SVP, 4 telephony, 17 ten things, 13 TMRC, 19 TROFF, 2 typesetter workbench, 2 UI designer, 14 university computing center, 28 videoconferencing, 12 Visicalc, 24 Wall Street, 23 Walmart, 6 waterfall approach, 25 XYZ widget company, 5 YouTube video, 20 G Gates, Bill, 39, 50 General Electric, 134 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 33, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Georgia Power Company, 191–193, 196 Georgia Power Management Council, 193 German company, 13 German engineering, 13 German manufacturing company, 232 Gizmo/whiz-bang show, 216 Gmail, 15 GoodLink, 217 Google, 1, 84, 85, 117, 217, 219, 220, 222, 235, 241, 263, 302, 319 apps, 314 books, 29 commercial products, 10 model, 293 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 305 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 GTE, 231 Gupta, Ashish aspiration, organization, 256 bandwidth and network infrastructure, 267 BlackBerry, 261 business and customer outcomes, 274 capital investment forums, 269 career progression, 255 cloud-based shared infrastructure model, 263 cloud computing, 261, 262 collaboration, 272 communications infrastructure, 258 compute-utility-based model, 262 control and integrity, 268 core competency, 255 core network infrastructure, 267 core strengths, 256 cost per unit of bandwidth, 267 customer demands, 268 data protection, 261, 262 decision-making bodies, 269 demographics, 272, 273 device convergence, 263 dogfooding, 259 employee flexibility, 260, 264 engagement and governance, 269 enterprise market segment, 261 equipment management, 260 executive MBA, 256 fourth-generation LTE networks, 267 functional service departments, 270 Global Services, distributed organization, 257 Google, 263, 275 Google Apps, 266 handheld devices, 265 hastily formed networks, 258 IMF, 266 innovation and application development, 265 iPad, 257, 260, 261, 266,267 iPhone, 266 Japan, 257, 258 London Business School, 253 management functions, 257 management sales functions, 257 market segments, 259 MBA, General Management, 253 measurements, 271 messaging with voice capability, 264 mini-microcomputer model, 261 mobile communications network, 258 mobile-enabling voice, 259 mobile phone network, 260 mobile traffic explosion, 265 network infrastructures, 265 network IT services, 254 network quality, 257 new generation digital natives, 271 disadvantages, 273 Google, 273 opportunities, 273 Olympics, 263 opportunities, 275 organizational construct, 272 outsourced network IT services, 259 outsourcing, 271 per-use-based model, 262 portfolio and business alignment, 274 Portfolio & Service Design (P&SD), 253 primary marketing thrust, 264 product development thrust, 264 product management team, 259 project and program management, 255 resource balance, 270 scalability, 262 security, 262 Selley, Clive, 254, 255 service delivery organization, 254 single-device model, 264 smart devices, 267 smart phones, 266 telecommunications capability, 259 upward-based apps, 264 virtualization, 261 voice-over-IP connections, 258 Windows platform, 261 Gurnani, Roger, 231 accounting/finance department, 233 analog cellular networks, 250 AT&T, 249 bedrock foundation, 249 Bell Atlantic Mobile, 231 Bell Labs, 249 blogs, 244 broadband networks, 241 business benefits, 237 business device, 240 business executives, 238 business leaders, 248, 249 business relationship management, 248 buzzword, 239 CASE tools, 232 cloud computing, 239, 240 COBOL, 250 consumer and business products, 231 consumer electronics devices, 241 consumer telecom business, 233 customer-engagement channel, 244 customer forums, 244 customer support operations, 251 customer-touching channels, 236 degree of control, 246 distribution channel, 250 dogfooding, 236 ecosystem, 243, 249 enterprise business, 233 ERP systems, 236 face-to-face communications, 244 FiOS product, 235 flex, 236 "follow the sun" model, 239 German manufacturing company, 232 4G program, 250 4G smartphone, 235 hardware/software vendors, 247 information assets, 245 information technology strategy, 231 intellectual property rights, 244 Internet, 235, 239 iPhone, 243 Ivan, 232 Lowell, 232 LTE technology-based smartphone, 235 marketing, 251 MIT, 246 mobile technology, 234 Moore's law, 242 MP3 file, 235 network-based services, 240 Nynex Mobile, 233 P&L responsibility, 251 PDA, 238 personal computing, 235 product development, 234, 251 role models, 232 sales channels, 251 smartphones, 238 state-level regulatory issues, 251 state-of-the-art networks, 243 telecom career, 232 telephone company, Phoenix, 234 Verizon Communication, 231, 232 virtual corporations, 241 Web 2.0, 244 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 wireless business, 233 H Hackers, 19 Harmon, Jay, 213 Harvard Business Review, 50 Harvard Business School, 331 Heller, Martha, 171 Henry Ford Hospital, 174 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 Home computing, 219 Honda, 102 Honeywell, 219 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 I IBM, 48, 250 manpower, 311 model, 13 Indian IT outsourcing company, 255 Information technology, 52 Intel machines, 217 International Coaching Federation, 178 Internet, 9, 44, 54, 117, 235, 239, 316, 322 Internet-based protocol, 59 Interoperability, 341 iPads, 2, 94, 97, 184, 257, 260, 264, 267, 288, 289, 295, 296 IP electrical grids, 182 iPhones, 43, 52, 96, 101, 170, 181, 260, 264,296 iPod, 101 IT lifecycle management process, 37 Ivan, 232 J John Deere, 213 K Kansas, 226 Kernigan, Brian, 2 Knight Ridder, 51 Knuth, Donald, 2, 29 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 Krist, Nicholas, 28 Kundra, Vivek Clever Commute, 305 cognitive surplus, 303 command and control systems, 301 consumerization, 302 consumption-based model, 300 cyber-warfare, 301 Darwinian pressure, 302 desktop core configuration, 306 digital-borne content, 301 digital oil, 300, 307 digital public square, 304 enterprise software, 303 entrepreneurial startup model, 306 frugal engineering, 306 Google, 302 government business, 302 innovator's dilemma, 307 iPad, 302 IT dashboard, 302 leapfrog technology, 306 massive consumerization, 301 megatrends, 301 parameter security, 302 Patent Office, 305 pharmaceutical industry, 304 phishing attacks, 301 policy and strategic planning, 299 security and privacy, 301 server utilization, 300 social media and technology, 300, 306 storage utilization, 300 Trademark Office, 305 Wikipedia, 303 L LAN, 259 Lean Six Sigma improvement process, 211 Levy, Steven (Hackers), 19 Linux, 220 machine, 8 open-source software, 19 Lister, Tim, 226 London Business School, 73, 253, 256 Long-term evolution (LTE), 235 Lowell, 232 M MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Macintosh, 8 Mainframe computers, 118 Mainframe-like applications, 59 Marriott's Great America, 35 McDade, 327 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147, 150 Mead, Margaret, 221 Mendel, 311 Microcomputers, 18 Microsoft Corporation, 5, 11, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46, 50, 156, 217, 223, 236, 250, 293 Microsoft Higher Education Advisory Group, 113 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 Middlesex University, 189 Miller, Joan Apple products, 295 authority and accuracy, 292 award-winning ICT programs and services, 277 back locked-down information, 289 big-scale text issues, 294 big-time computing, 279 BlackBerry, 296 business management training, 281 business skills, 281 central government, 283 cognitive surplus, 291 community care project, 278 community development programs, 277, 278 computers, constituency office, 294 confidential information, 284 data management, 281 decision making, 286 democratic process, 288 economics degree, 278 e-government, 282, 285 electronic communication, 289 electronic-enabled public voice, 286 electronic information, 288 electronic media, 286 electronic records, 280, 284 electronic services, 294 e-mail, 289, 290, 295 forgiving technology, 296 front-office service, 282, 283 Google, 292 Google's cloud service, 290 Government 2, 287 Health and Social Care, 284 House business, 294 House of Lords, 288 ICT strategy, 289, 290 information management, 278 insurance company, 278 Internet information, 285 iPad, 288, 289, 296 IT data management, 279 management principle, 280 local government, 283 mainframe environment, 289 member-led activity, 287 messages, 289 Microsoft, 293 Microsoft's cloud service, 290 mobile electronic information, 284 mobile technology, 289 national organization, 284 network perimeters, 290 official government information, 285 on-the-job training, 281 organizational planning, 278 Parliamentary ICT, 277 project management, 279 public sector, 282 public transportation, 285 quango-type organizations, 283 representational democracy, 286 security, 290, 291 social care organization, 279 social care services, Essex, 278 social care systems, 284 social networking, 285 sovereignty, 291 sustainability and growth, 293 technical language, 294 technology skills, 281 transactional services, 285 transferability, 291 Web-based services, 285 Wikipedia, 291, 292 X-factor, 286 Minds for Sale, 20 Mitchell & Co, 333 MIT Media Labs, 149 Mobile computing, 62 Mobile technology, 234 Mooney, Mark, 133 artificial intelligence, 134 back-office legacy, 136 balancing standpoint, 145 BBC, 140 Bermuda Triangle, 135 BlackBerry shop, 142 Bureau of National Standards, 136 business model, 140 career spectrum, 144 cloud computing, 148 competitive intelligence and knowledge, 143 Connect, 141 customer-facing and product development, 135 customer-facing product space, 137 customer space and product development, 136 digital products development, 144 digital space and product, 146 educational and reference content, 139 educational products, 141 entrepreneur, 150 General Electric, 134 GradeGuru, 140 handheld devices, 142 hard-core technical standpoint, 146 hardware servers, 142 Houghton Mifflin, 134, 136 HTML, 138 industrial-strength product, 141 intellectual content, 148 Internet, 148 iPad, 138, 139, 142 iPhone, 142, 143 iTunes, 138 Klein, Joel, 147 learning management systems, 137 long-term production system, 141 Marine Corps, 134 McGraw-Hill Education, 133, 147 media development, 144 media space, 138, 142 mobile computing, 139 MOUSE, 150 online technology, 138 open-source capabilities, 142 Oracle quota-management system, 143 people's roles and responsibilities, 137 Phoenix, 149 product development, 149 publishing companies, 142 publishing systems, 137 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136, 144, 149 scalability testing, 145 senior business leaders, 146 social network, 148 soft discipline guidelines, 141 solar energy, 149 Strassmann, Paul, 135 technical skill set, 143, 144 testing systems integration, 145 The Shallows, 139 transactional systems, 142 trust and integrity, 145 TTS, QuickPro, and ACL, 144 Vivendi Universal, 134 War and Peace today, 139 Moore's law, 242 Morgan Stanley, 2, 3, 16 N NASA, 309, 333, 334 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 173 Naval Postgraduate School, 134 Netscape, 175 New Brunswick model, 282 News Corp., 147 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 87, 116, 223, 278 New York Times, 53 North American universities, 228 NSA/CIA software, 134 Nynex Mobile, 233 O Oil exploration office, 17 Open-source phone operating system, 20 Outlook, 15 P Pacer Software, 135 Paradigm shifts, 218, 220 Parks and Recreation Department, 126 PDP minicomputers, 212 Peopleware, 226 Personal computing, 235 Personal digital assistant (PDA), 238 Petri dish, 44 Phoenix, 211 Plauger, Bill, 2 Q Quants, 24 R Radio Shack, 51 Reed Elsevier, 133, 136 Reed, John, 335 Rubinow, Steve, 87 AdKnowledge, Inc., 87 agile development, 110 Agile Manifesto, 110 Archipelago Holdings Inc., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S.

I said, “We have large scale assessment programs that happen only once a year and I need a tremendous amount of computing power. You know what that computing power does the rest of the year?” Yourdon: Just gathers dust. Wakeman: Right, it does nothing but burn up electricity. Yourdon: Yeah. And it’s amazing how many situations there are like that. I think of the Oscars or the Olympics. Wakeman: Super Bowl. Yourdon: Super Bowl. Yeah. On and on and on. Christmas shopping season for most of the retail industry. Wakeman: Mm-hmm. Yourdon: Yeah, it is, it is amazing to think about it. In terms of futures, I’ve got a related kind of social question. This whole issue of the “digital nation,” the Gen X or Y or Z or whatever generation it is that’s grown up with computers, how do you see them impacting what you do here at ETS?

The sixteen CIOs interviewed in this book represent hundreds of years of experience. Read what they have to say and benefit from their experience! New York, NY Ed Yourdon June, 2011 Benjamin Fried CIO, Google Inc. Benjamin Fried is Chief Information Officer of Google Inc., overseeing the company’s global technology systems. His extensive hands-on experience in technology includes stints as a dBASE II programmer, front-line support manager, Macintosh developer, Windows 1.0 programmer, and UNIX systems programmer. Prior to joining Google, he spent more than 13 years in Morgan Stanley’s technology department, where he rose to the level of Managing Director. During his time there, he led teams responsible for software development technology, web and electronic commerce technologies and operations, and technologies for knowledge workers. Ben received his degree in Computer Science from Columbia University.


pages: 197 words: 59,946

The Thank You Economy by Gary Vaynerchuk


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, business process, call centre, crowdsourcing,, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, new economy, pre–internet, Skype, social software, Tony Hsieh

That’s a thought most corporate execs are going to meet with about as much enthusiasm as Dwyane Wade would if he were suddenly faced with undeniable proof that basketball was dead and ice hockey was the only game left.* Yet let’s remember it wasn’t so long ago that the few people who owned home computers used them almost exclusively for word processing and video games. In 1984, you’d get stuffed in your locker for gloating over your new Apple Macintosh; in 2007 you could score a hot date by showing off your new iPhone. Culture changes, and business has to change with it or die. * * * Why I Speak in Absolutes Because if I give you an inch, you’ll run a mile with it. When I said in 1998, “You’re dead if you don’t put your business on the Internet and get in on ecommerce,” was that true? No. But boy, can you imagine trying to be in business in 2010 with zero Web presence?

That was culturally unacceptable in my company. Leadership and Culture Bill Parcells is the best coach of all time. Screw Phil Jackson—I could have won a few championships with Jordan, Shaq, and Kobe on my teams. Parcells is the greatest coach in history because he went to a rotten New York Giants team and won two Super Bowls; went to the New York Jets, who had won four games in two years, and in two short years got them within one game of the Super Bowl; went to the Patriots, who were one in fifteen, and took them to the Super Bowl; went to Dallas and made them a consistent playoffs contender; and then to Miami, where he coached the biggest turnaround in one season in NFL history. He wins through building team morale, hiring the right people, and instilling the right culture. He brings his DNA. In this new world where people can communicate more freely with not just customers, but with employees too, the Bill Parcells style of leadership will become more and more necessary.

You might take a walk, duck into a bookstore, or stop in at the retro vinyl shop. If you’re on a fabulous date, you don’t want the night to end, and you’re going to try to find any way you can to keep the conversation and connection going. Combining traditional and social media can allow you to do the same thing when talking to people about your brand. Denny’s, for example, had a great TV date with its customers during the 2010 Super Bowl. It ran three commercials announcing that for a few hours on the following Tuesday, you could come in for a free Grand Slam breakfast. The ads were funny and creative—chickens freaking out over how many eggs they were going to have to lay for the event—but what a missed opportunity to leverage all the people watching the ads with their laptops open in front of them! All Denny’s had to do was say, “Go to’s right now, become a fan [an option that was supplanted by the “Like” button], and receive a coupon for an additional free large OJ.”


The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer

Is he telling the truth or pretending that he didn't do it, that he just knows of Rochester, the site revealed in Markoff's original article? Or is he revealing a more tantalizing possibility? That there may have been other people involved in the attack on Shimomura. ■ ■ ■ "Mr. Jon," Kevin Mitnick welcomes me hours later and we chat briefly about the Super Bowl. He enjoyed the commercials, particularly the one with the computerized frogs croaking "Bud-weis-er" in sequence. I can hear the first rumblings of a Mitnick belly laugh. "I was thinking of getting in the P link [one of AT&T's satellite phone links] and sending, "Hi, Shimomura, die with honor [broadcasting it worldwide to hundreds of millions of Super Bowl viewers]." Then, suddenly, Mitnick is pissed. "I read that shit [Markoff's Times profile of Shimomura]. He said now he considers it a matter of honor.... Remember I told you that Markoff has an [e-mail] account on Shimomura's system?

That's not what Kevin Mitnick and all the other hackers I talk to say. It's not what countless articles in newspapers and magazines say. It's not even what John Markoff used to say. Every cyberspace journalist worth his memory chips knows security on the Internet is an illusion, and always has been. The Internet is about as safe as a convenience store in East L.A. on Saturday night. January 29,1995 It's Super Bowl Sunday, a couple of hours before kickoff, and though I'm not a big football fan, I plan on watching the San Francisco 49ers demolish the San Diego Chargers. I pick up the phone, thinking it's my friend, the one who's supposed to bring the guacamole, but instead it's Kevin Mitnick. It's been six days since his last call. "I'm walking along the beach here relaxing," Mitnick bubbles, sounding euphoric.

Eric may be a fugitive on the run, but when it comes to his story, he's in total control. He pauses a moment and then coolly orders, "Stand by. There's some movement here. . . ." Have they already trapped and traced the call? Is the FBI moving in for the bust? Should I hang up? "It was nothing," Eric deadpans a few seconds later. I've climbed the steep steps to my cluttered attic office, switched on the lamp, and booted up my Macintosh. I'm in my pajamas. "So how badly do the feds want you?" "I think they don't care. Schindler probably does, but I think he realizes he's got a can of worms on his hands if he finds me. I'm one of the few defendants that has ever had extensive personal phone calls with Schindler. We've been very much on a first-name basis for some time. It makes him very nervous now that I'm out here." ■ ■ ■ Eric makes his smooth, Hollywood sales pitch.


pages: 295 words: 89,280

The Narcissist Next Door by Jeffrey Kluger


Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Madoff, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, impulse control, Jony Ive, meta-analysis, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Walter Mischel

And while neither Ford nor Edison died as publicly or as young as Jobs, it’s unlikely the passing of either one of them would ever have been met with the outpourings of grief or mounds of flowers with which Jobs’s death was met, with Apple stores becoming impromptu gathering places for the stricken masses. The reason—the thing that distinguished Jobs from the other greats—was that he understood something, and that something was the people around him. His very first Apple products may have followed the beige box model that was the computer standard at the time, but there was something primally appealing about them, too. There was the little rainbow apple that was the company’s logo—a tiny icon that didn’t invite you to work with the machine as much as play with it. The beige box soon gave way to a white box—a small, streamlined thing that you wanted to look at, to display, not just use. When the first little Macintosh came along—just a year before Jobs left the company—the central image in all of the ads was the computer itself with the loopy, cursive word “Hello” written on the screen.

You can be a National Football League flameout like Ryan Leaf, the number two player picked in the 1998 draft, who was out of the league entirely by 2002 after four years of indifference, poor play and multiple ugly public incidents including an infamous moment, caught on videotape, in which he stood over a frightened-looking sportswriter who had apparently asked the wrong question, screaming, “Just fucking don’t talk to me, all right? Knock it off!” Or you can be Super Bowl winner Peyton Manning, picked number one in the same year Leaf was drafted, who has spent the better part of two decades winning games and smashing records and whose only scandalous moment in his long career was . . . well, never mind. There never was one. So what makes the difference between a Palin and a Rubio, a Leaf and a Manning, a Sheen and, say, a Michael J. Fox—whose nice-guy image was established back in the days of his star turns on TV’s Family Ties and in the Back to the Future movies, and whose grace in battling Parkinson’s disease has simply confirmed the high opinion most of the world had of him?

He stood before the newsreel cameras and the cheering reporters and did what most people do in that situation, which was to begin handing out thanks—to the university, the foundation that funded his work, the drug companies that manufactured the test vaccine, the dozens of children who volunteered to take the earliest formulation of it, the hundreds of thousands who later stepped forward as guinea pigs for the final version, nearly anyone who had even brushed up against the enterprise in the long years that had preceded that day. And yet somehow—oversight, nerves, an overweening ego at last showing itself (his critics preferred that explanation)—he never mentioned a single member of his lab team, the people who had done more than anyone else to make the vaccine a reality. It would be like a Super Bowl–winning coach acknowledging everyone but the players, a victorious general thanking everyone but the foot soldiers. For the stunned lab workers sitting in the audience, the day turned instantly to ash. “Young man,” legendary CBS newsman Edward R. Murrow said to Salk when he buttonholed him in the back of the hall after the presentation, “a great tragedy has befallen you. You’ve lost your anonymity.”


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, financial independence, financial innovation, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight

That was going to be my next stop in life. I had done Wall Street, and I was going to do the White House next.” 1984 On January 24, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.… BANK SECURITIES UNITS MAY UNDERWRITE BONDS … It’s morning again in America, and under the leadership of President Reagan, our country is prouder and stronger and better. Why would we ever want to return to where we were less than four short years ago?… I had a job, I had a girl / I had something going mister in this world / I got laid off down at the lumberyard / Our love went bad, times got hard … TAMPA SEES GAINS FOR ITS HARD WORK “But those kinds of things can’t do for us, long-term, what a Super Bowl can do. This is a real opportunity for us to show people what a great place this is, that they can come here and not expect to get taken advantage of.” … MISS AMERICA IS ORDERED TO QUIT FOR POSING NUDE … You’re judged by performance.

The words appeared on billboards, bumper stickers, and T-shirts, and who could doubt that they would prove true when Tampa had a new international airport, it had the 1984 Super Bowl, it had the NFL Buccaneers, it had the eleven million square feet of the Westshore business and shopping district, it had sunshine and beaches, and it was growing as fast as anywhere in the country? Fifty million new people came to Florida every year, and since the sunshine and beaches weren’t going anywhere, Tampa would continue to grow, and by growing, become great. It grew and grew. It grew in order to grow. It grew throughout the eighties, in good economic times and bad, when pro-growth conservatives ran the Hillsborough County Commission and when pro-planning progressives ran the county commission. It grew throughout the nineties, when Tampa Bay got the NHL Lightning and the major league Devil Rays, plus another Super Bowl. After the millennium it grew like gangbusters.

Between the midseventies and the early nineties, the personal computer had spawned countless hardware and software companies in Silicon Valley, and in other high-tech centers around the country; during the seventies and eighties the population of San Jose doubled, approaching a million, and by 1994 there were 315 public companies in the Valley. But none of the newer ones had been as important as Hewlett-Packard, Intel, or Apple. In the years since the Macintosh, the computer industry had seen more consolidation than innovation, and the undisputed winner was in Seattle. The most important Silicon Valley company to come along since Apple was originally called Mosaic, started in 1994 by Jim Clark, a former Stanford professor and founder of Silicon Graphics, and Marc Andreessen, a University of Illinois graduate who, at twenty-two, had just the year before developed the first graphical browser for the World Wide Web. In 1995, the year that the last restrictions on commercial use of the Internet were lifted, their company went public as Netscape, headquartered south of Stanford in Mountain View.


pages: 500 words: 145,005

Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler


Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, impulse control, index fund, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, late fees, law of one price, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market clearing, Mason jar, meta-analysis, More Guns, Less Crime, mortgage debt, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, New Journalism, nudge unit, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel

After online criticism, some Humans at Uber decided to offer free rides and to refund people who had paid (Sullivan, 2014). ‡ Notably, an even larger organization—the NFL—recognizes and ascribes to this same piece of advice. In an interview with economist Alan B. Krueger, the NFL’s VP for public relations, Greg Aiello, explained that his organization takes a “long-term strategic view” toward ticket pricing, at least for the Super Bowl. Even though the high demand for Super Bowl tickets might justify significantly higher prices (and short-term profits—he calculates the profit increase as on the same scale as all advertising revenues), the organization intentionally keeps these prices reasonable in order to foster its “ongoing relationship with fans and business associates” (Krueger, 2001). 15 Fairness Games One question was very much on the minds of Danny, Jack, and me while we were doing our fairness project.

Likewise in the draft, when a team falls in love with a certain player they are just sure that every other team shares their view. They try to jump to the head of the line before another team steals their guy. 5. Present bias. Team owners, coaches, and general managers all want to win now. For the players selected at the top of the draft, there is always the possibility, often illusory, as in the case of Ricky Williams, that the player will immediately turn a losing team into a winner or a winning team into a Super Bowl champion. Teams want to win now! So our basic hypothesis was that early picks were overvalued, meaning that the market for draft picks did not satisfy the efficient market hypothesis. Fortunately, we were able to get all the data we needed to rigorously test this hypothesis. The first step in our analysis was just to estimate the market value of picks. Since picks are often traded, we could use the historical trade data to estimate the relative value of picks.

The following year, he did not return to the top form he had showed as a rookie, and the Redskins had a terrible season, so bad that the 2014 first-round pick the Redskins had given the Rams turned out to be the second pick in that draft, so giving up that pick turned out to be very expensive. (Recall that it was a number two pick that the Redskins had originally traded up to get.) The 2014 season was also a disappointing one for RG3. In hindsight, another player named Russell Wilson, who was not picked until the third round, appears to be better and less injury-prone than RG3. During his three years in the NFL, Wilson has led his team to the Super Bowl twice, winning once. Of course, one should not judge a trade using hindsight, and the Redskins were certainly unlucky that Griffen suffered from injuries. But that is part of the point. When you give up a bunch of top picks to select one player, you are putting all your eggs in his basket, and football players, like eggs, can be fragile.§ Our relationship with the Redskins did not last very long, but we soon found that another team (whose identity shall remain confidential) was interested in talking to us about draft strategy.


pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel


Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil,, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

It’s scary how few people actually get that.” As Black Swan author Nassim Taleb put it in his suitably titled book, Fooled by Randomness, “Nowhere is the problem of induction more relevant than in the world of trading—and nowhere has it been as ignored!” Thus the occasional overzealous yet earnest public claim of economic prediction based on factors like women’s hemlines, men’s necktie width, Super Bowl results, and Christmas day snowfall in Boston. The culprit that kills learning is overlearning (aka overfitting). Overlearning is the pitfall of mistaking noise for information, assuming too much about what has been shown within data. You’ve overlearned if you’ve read too much into the numbers, led astray from discovering the underlying truth. Decision trees can overlearn like nobody’s business.

—HAL, the intelligent computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Science fiction almost always endows AI with the capacity to understand human tongues. Hollywood glamorizes a future in which we chat freely with the computer like a well-informed friend. In Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986), our heroes travel back in time to a contemporary Earth and are confounded by its primitive technology. Our brilliant space engineer Scotty, attempting to make use of a Macintosh computer, is so accustomed to computers understanding the spoken word that he assumes its mouse must be a microphone. Patiently picking up the mouse as if it were a quaint artifact, he jovially beckons, “Hello, computer!” 2001: A Space Odyssey’s smart and talkative computer, HAL, bears a legendary, disputed connection in nomenclature to IBM (just take each letter back one position in the alphabet); however, author Arthur C.

See artificial intelligence (AI) airlines and aviation, predicting in Albee, Edward Albrecht, Katherine algorithmic trading. See black box trading Allen, Woody Allstate AlphaGenius employee security access needs machine learning and predictive models Mechanical Turk personalized recommendations sarcasm in reviews American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) American Public University System Ansari X Prize Anxiety Index calculating as ensemble model measuring in blogs Apollo 11 Apple, Inc. Apple Mac Apple Siri Argonne National Laboratory Arizona Petrified Forest National Park Arizona State University artificial intelligence (AI) about Mechanical Turk mind-reading technology possibility of, the Watson computer and Asimov, Isaac astronomy AT&T Research BellKor Netflix Prize teams Australia Austria automobile insurance crashes, predicting credit scores and accidents driver inatentiveness, predicting fraud predictions for Averitt aviation incidents Aviva Insurance (UK) AWK computer language B backtesting.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman


4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

The speaker was a senior leader of the US Department of Defense. The topic was why he thought cybersecurity and cyberwar was so important. And yet, when he could only describe the problem as “all this cyber stuff,” he unintentionally convinced us to write this book. Both of us are in our thirties and yet still remember the first computers we used. For a five-year-old Allan, it was an early Apple Macintosh in his home in Pittsburgh. Its disk space was so limited that it could not even fit this book into its memory. For a seven-year-old Peter, it was a Commodore on display at a science museum in North Carolina. He took a class on how to “program,” learning an entire new language for the sole purpose of making one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind print out a smiley face.

An attacker could do this either by depriving users of a system that they depend on (such as how the loss of GPS would hamper military units in a conflict) or by merely threatening the loss of a system, known as a “ransomware” attack. Examples of such ransoms range from small-scale hacks on individual bank accounts all the way to global blackmail attempts against gambling websites before major sporting events like the World Cup and Super Bowl. Beyond this classic CIA triangle of security, we believe it is important to add another property: resilience. Resilience is what allows a system to endure security threats instead of critically failing. A key to resilience is accepting the inevitability of threats and even limited failures in your defenses. It is about remaining operational with the understanding that attacks and incidents happen on a continuous basis.

This is the category that uses the type of ransomware attacks we read about earlier. The victim has to weigh the potential cost of fighting a well-organized attack versus paying off the potential attacker. Websites with time-dependent business models, such as seasonal sales, are particularly vulnerable. One study reported that, “In 2008, online casinos were threatened with just such an [extortion] attack, timed to disrupt their accepting wagers for the Super Bowl unless the attackers were paid 40,000 dollars.” Of course, gambling itself is illegal in many jurisdictions, making it just one of many illicit activities that have extended into cyberspace. What makes these activities relevant to cybersecurity is their virtualization challenges territorial definitions. Some activities, such as the distribution of pedophilic images, are widely condemned around the world whether in a physical magazine or a website.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper


4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

The morning after they arrived at the Valemont lodge, Wences, Briger, and the rest of the men climbed into a red-and-white Bell 212 helicopter sitting just outside the lodge and lifted off toward the high white peaks, for a day of heli-skiing. In the afternoon, the group returned to the lodge and sat around in the expansive common room, an enormous fire crackling away. This was not a crowd to chat about kids and the upcoming Super Bowl. The men had dedicated their lives to making money and Pete pressed them to present their best investment ideas. “Pete, I told you, I’m interested in Bitcoin,” Wences said when his turn came to talk. “It hasn’t changed.” Wences drew the group in with an explanation of the basic notion of a new kind of network that could allow people to move money anywhere in the world, instantaneously—something that these financiers, who were frequently moving millions between banks in different countries, could surely appreciate.

CHAPTER 4 April 2010 Laszlo Hanecz, a Hungarian-born twenty-eight-year-old software architect who lived in Florida, heard about Bitcoin from a programming friend he’d met on Internet relay chat, known as IRC. Assuming it was some scam, Laszlo poked around to figure out who was secretly making money. He soon realized there was an interesting and high-minded experiment going on and decided to explore further. He began by buying some coins from NewLibertyStandard and then building software so that the Bitcoin code could run on a Macintosh. But like many good coders, Laszlo approached a new project with a hacker’s mind-set, probing where he might break it, in order to test its robustness. The obvious vulnerability here was the system for creating, or mining, Bitcoins. If a user threw a lot of computing power onto the network, he or she could win a disproportionate amount of the new Bitcoins. Although Satoshi Nakamoto had designed the mining process so that the hash function contest would become harder if computers were winning the mining race more frequently than every ten minutes, those users with the most powerful computers still had a much better chance of winning a majority of the coins.* Until now, no one had an incentive to throw lots of computing power into mining, given that Bitcoins were worth essentially nothing.

See conferences (Bitcoin and others) Bitcoin mining about process vulnerability, 41–42 creating blocks and recording transactions, 359–361 creation of ASIC chip, 189–192, 259, 329–330 creation of Avalon chip, 190, 206 formation of mining companies, 294–295, 328–329 formation of mining pools, 192–194 GPU technology, 42, 56, 189–191 growth in China, 259–261, 329 Litecoin mining, 283 more users increased difficulty, 53 role in securing system, 100 Satoshi Nakamoto patterns, 324 specialized computers/computing power, 105, 170, 190, 233, 324, 330, 347 The Bitcoin Show (TV program), 102, 128 Bitcoin software about operation, 23, 357–362 beta testing, 25–26, 58 changes to code, 22–24, 35–39, 43–46, 55–58, 61–62, 141, 309, 346–347 creating/maintaining protocol, x, 5–6, 32, 99, 215–216 creation and launch, xiv, 30–31, 319, 346 downloads, 49–51, 80, 237, 261 Google interest, 100–102 hard fork, 193, 195 “1 RETURN” bug, 56 role of public-key cryptography, 9–10, 17–18 running on Macintosh, 41 transaction malleability problem, 309–314 updates and old versions, 37, 59, 193–195 version 0.2, 37 version 0.3, 47–48 version 0.319, 59 version 0.7, 194–195 version 0.8, 194–195 The Bitcoin Trader (blog), 195 Bitcoin White Paper, 21, 45, 339 Bitfury, 330 bit gold, 18, 338–339 BitInstant. See also Shrem, Charlie attracting investors, 130–135 creation and function, 128–130 dealing with problems and competitors, 201–207 hacker penetration, 150 investment by David Azar, 134, 150–151 investment by Roger Ver, 128 investment by Winklevoss twins, ix, 173–176, 211–215 involvement of Erik Voorhees, 135–137 management problems, 220–222 regulatory problems, 222–224 trading volume, 201, 205–207 BitLicense, 302, 317 Bitomat (Polish exchange), 97–98 BitPagos (Argentinian payment service), 278–279 BitPay, 134, 211, 219, 272 Bitstamp (Slovenian exchange) about founding, 203 attendance at 2014 Bitcoin Pacifica, 252–253, 337 regulation of virtual currencies, 271 response to Mt.


pages: 526 words: 158,913

Crash of the Titans: Greed, Hubris, the Fall of Merrill Lynch, and the Near-Collapse of Bank of America by Greg Farrell


Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, banking crisis, bonus culture, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, financial innovation, glass ceiling, high net worth, Long Term Capital Management, mass affluent, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, technology bubble, too big to fail, yield curve

Lewis avoided explaining to his young daughter why her friend’s father, a commercial real estate developer, had a license plate on his car that consisted of six letters: FU NCNB. When Lewis tried to join the Young Presidents Organization in Dallas, he was sponsored by Roger Staubach, the beloved ex-quarterback of the Dallas Cowboys. It didn’t matter. The city’s love for Staubach, a star player who had led its team to Super Bowl victories, was outweighed by its leaders’ visceral hatred of Lewis and his Charlotte colleagues. After two years of such vehement rejection—at a time when the bank’s retail business in the Lone Star State was booming—Lewis came close to snapping. He and his wife, Donna, were having dinner one evening at a fashionable restaurant when Lewis overheard a remark from a neighboring table about NCNB.

ONE TEAM, SHARED VALUES, SHARED FUTURE 1 But on January 15, word started leaking out: “Bank of America to Get Billions in U.S. Aid; Sides Finalizing Terms for Fresh Bailout Cash,” by Dan Fitzpatrick, Damian Paletta, and Susanne Craig, The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 15, 2009. 2 On this morning, he got no further than the Financial Times: “Merrill Delivered Bonuses Before BofA Deal,” by the author and Julie MacIntosh, Financial Times, Jan. 22, 2009. CHAPTER 21. THE BOSTON MAFIA 1 not only had Lewis been consulting with the bank’s largest investors: “BofA Faces Pressure to Split Top Roles,” by Dan Fitzpatrick and Joann S. Lublin, The Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2009. 2 When Lewis returned from vacation after Labor Day: “In U.S. Regulators, Lewis Met His Match,” by Carrick Mollenkamp and Dan Fitzpatrick, The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 10, 2009. 3 But information started leaking to the media: “Bank of America Can’t Sign New CEO,” by Dan Fitzpatrick and Joanne S.

In an emergency situation such as the one involving Lehman, Paulson and Geithner had assumed that the British would be supportive and allow the Barclays acquisition of Lehman to proceed, since it would benefit capital markets around the world. But the British weren’t playing along. Around 10:30, Paulson and Geithner broke the news to the Wall Street executives on the first floor. The group had been in the process of hammering out a $30 billion pool to support the Barclays deal, but the update from the regulators changed the dynamic in the room. Paulson returned upstairs, while Geithner urged the bankers to keep at it, in case the Barclays deal did come off. But he made it clear that Lehman was not going to be bailed out with federal money. Kraus and Kelly kept running into executives from Goldman Sachs who wanted to know when the Merrill due diligence team was going to be ready to work.


pages: 914 words: 270,937

Clear and Present Danger by Tom Clancy


affirmative action, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, card file

"This is a Sony MFD-2DD microfloppy, double-sided, double-density, 135TPI, probably formatted for 800K. What's supposed to be on it?" "We're not sure, but probably an encipherment algorithm." "Ah! Russian communications systems? The Sovs getting sophisticated on us?" "You don't need to know that," O'Day pointed out. "You guys are no fun at all," the man said as he slid the disk into the drive. The computer to which it was attached was a new Apple Macintosh IIx, each of whose expander slots was occupied by a special circuit board, two of which the technician had personally designed. O'Day had heard that he'd work on an IBM only if someone put a gun to his head. The programs he used for this task had been designed by other hackers to recover data from damaged disks. The first one was called Rescuedata. The operation was a delicate one. First the read heads mapped each magnetic zone on the disk, copying the data over to the eight-megabyte memory of the IIx and making a permanent copy on the hard drive, plus a floppy-disk copy.

"Going on my experience, not his, I'd say it's real gray, Dan. Davidoff's good - I mean, he's really good in front of a jury - but so's the defense guy, Stuart. The local DEA hates his guts, but he's an effective son of a bitch. The law is pretty muddled. What'll the judge say? Depends on the judge. What'll the jury say - depends on what the judge says and does. It's like putting a bet down on the next Super Bowl right now, before the season starts, and that doesn't even take into account what'll happen in the U.S. Court of Appeals after the trial's over in District Court. Whatever happens, the Coasties are going to get raped. Too bad. No matter what, Davidoff is going to tear each of 'em a new asshole for getting him into this mess." "Warn 'em," Murray said. He told himself that it was an impulsive statement, but it wasn't.

Members of the senior executive service did not take vows of poverty and chastity, however - and obedience was also a sometime thing. "I promised the American people that we'd do something about this problem," the President observed crossly. "And we haven't accomplished shit." "Sir, you cannot deal with threats to national security through police agencies. Either our national security is threatened or it is not." Cutter had been hammering that point for years. Now, finally, he had a receptive audience. Another grunt: "Yeah, well, I said that, too, didn't I?" "Yes, Mr. President. It's time they learned a lesson about how the big boys play." That had been Cutter's position from the beginning, when he'd been Jeff Pelt's deputy, and with Pelt now gone it was his view that had finally prevailed. "Okay, James. It's your ball. Run with it.