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searching for side reaction 93 found (112 total)

alternate case: Side reaction

Fat (1,797 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article

generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation. Saturated fats can stack
Enzyme promiscuity (3,402 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction. Although enzymes are remarkably specific
Beta-Hydride elimination (487 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
elimination can either be a vital step in a reaction or an unproductive side reaction. The Shell higher olefin process relies on β-hydride elimination to
Chichibabin reaction (1,033 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the decomposition that occurs at high temperatures. Dimerization is a side reaction that can occur. When heated in xylene and sodium amide at atmospheric
Chain transfer (1,157 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
polymerization (by use of a chain transfer agent) or it may be an unavoidable side-reaction with various components of the polymerization. Chain transfer reactions
Perkow reaction (438 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
road to alkenes. The Perkow reaction, in this respect is considered a side-reaction. The reaction mechanism of the Perkow reaction consists of a nucleophilic
Nucleophilic substitution (1,408 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Rearrangements Common Rare Side reaction Eliminations Common, especially with basic nucleophiles Only with heat & basic nucleophiles Side reaction esp. if heated
Catalytic reforming (3,322 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
which is fed into other refinery processes such as hydrocracking. A side reaction is hydrogenolysis, which produces light hydrocarbons of lower value
Dowd–Beckwith ring-expansion reaction (381 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
followed by ring expansion to ethyl cyclodecanone-6-carboxylate. A side-reaction is organic reduction of the iodoalkane. The reaction mechanism involves
Carbodiimide (1,313 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
will react with amines to give the desired amide 3 and urea 4. The side reaction of the O-acylisourea 2 produce both desired and undesired products.
Oppenauer oxidation (1,249 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
used in the synthesis of lactones from 1,4 and 1,5 diols. A common side-reaction of the Oppenauer oxidation is the base-catalyzed aldol condensation
Minisci reaction (711 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
regioselectively and enables the introduction of a wide range of alkyl groups. A side-reaction is acylation. The ratio between alkylation and acylation depends on
Steglich esterification (321 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
esterification is slow, a side-reaction occurs, diminishing the final yield or complicating purification of the product. This side-reaction is a 1,3-rearrangement
Self-condensation (470 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
favored side-reaction of mixed aldol condensation, and special precautions are needed to prevent it. In many cases, self-condensation is an unwanted side-reaction
Shi epoxidation (1,275 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
lowering the decomposition of reagents by disfavoring the Baeyer-Villiger side reaction. Higher temperatures result in further decomposition; thus a low temperature
Methanethiol (915 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
nucleophilic hydrosulfide ion (HS−) in a highly alkaline medium. However, in a side reaction, HS− attacks methoxyl groups (OMe) in lignin, demethylating them to
Seveso disaster (3,217 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
boiling point of 160 °C. Safety testing showed the onset of an exothermic side reaction if the reaction mixture temperature reached 230 °C. Crucially, no steam
Direct borohydride fuel cell (578 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
considerably. Unfortunately, DBFCs do produce some hydrogen from a side reaction of NaBH4 with water heated by the fuel cell. This hydrogen can either
Ostwald process (724 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A complication that needs to be taken into consideration involves a side-reaction in the first step that reverts the nitric oxide back to nitrogen: 4
Phytoglobin-NO cycle (488 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mitochondria by complex III and complex IV in the absence of oxygen, in the side reaction of nitrate reductase, or by electron transport proteins on the plasma
Polytetrafluoroethylene (4,581 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
polymerization to prevent hot spots that might initiate this dangerous side reaction. The process is typically initiated with persulfate, which homolyzes
Swern oxidation (956 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Using a bulkier base, such as diisopropylethylamine, can mitigate this side reaction. Dimethyl sulfide, a byproduct of the Swern oxidation, is one of the
Electrophilic aromatic substitution (2,073 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
However, the loss of groups like iodo or alkyl is more often an undesired side reaction. Both the regioselectivity—the diverse arene substitution patterns—and
Corey–Itsuno reduction (1,904 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
10-12, efficient reduction of the ketone occurs despite the possible side reaction of hydroboration of the C-C unsaturated bond. The CBS reduction has
Carbene (2,250 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dimerization reactions to form alkenes. While this is often an unwanted side reaction, it can be employed as a synthetic tool and a direct metal carbene dimerization
Selenoxide elimination (1,572 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
tautomerization. (8) The seleno-Pummerer reaction is a significant side reaction that may occur under conditions when acid is present. Protonation of
DAMA/LIBRA (1,303 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
careful investigations on absence of any significant systematics or side reaction in DAMA/LIBRA have been quantitatively carried out. The obtained model
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (1,644 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The BCKDC will also oxidize pyruvate, but at such a slow rate this side reaction has very little physiological significance. The reaction mechanism is
N-Butyllithium (1,703 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
C4H9R + LiBr 2 C4H9Li + R'CH=CHBr → 2 C4H10 + R'C≡CLi + LiBr These side reaction are significantly less important for RI than for RBr, since the iodine-lithium
Ring-opening metathesis polymerisation (730 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Telene and Metton are polydicyclopentadiene products produced in a side reaction of the polymerization of norbornene. The ROMP process is useful because
DAMA/NaI (1,497 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
published at the time of each data release. No systematic effect or side reaction able to account for the observed modulation amplitude and to simultaneously
Guerbet reaction (465 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
disproportionation to form the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. Another side reaction is the Tishchenko reaction. Oxo alcohols - a different reaction which
Korea Passing (2,578 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Korea Passing (코리아 패싱) is a neologism to the phenomenon of the Republic of Korea being alienated from the international community in the course of discussions
Vinyl acetate (1,064 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\ce {2 C2H4 + 2 CH3CO2H + O2 -> 2 CH3CO2CHCH2 + 2 H2O}}} The main side reaction is the combustion of organic precursors. Isotope labeling and kinetics
Ammonium formate (323 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Upon further heating, it forms hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and water. A side reaction of this is the decomposition of formamide to carbon monoxide (CO) and
Enamine (1,718 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamically stable imine species. Methyl ketone self-condensation is a side-reaction which can be avoided through the addition of TiCl4 into the reaction
Benzene (8,514 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
C6H6 + CH4 This irreversible reaction is accompanied by an equilibrium side reaction that produces biphenyl (aka diphenyl) at higher temperature: 2 C 6H
Glyoxylic acid (1,983 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in the photorespiration pathway. Photorespiration is a result of the side reaction of Rubisco with O2 instead of CO2. While at first considered a waste
Electrolysis of water (4,866 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
chlorine and caustic soda. This is a prime example of a competing for side reaction. 2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH In the chloralkali process (electrolysis
Buchwald–Hartwig amination (3,457 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
complex, deprotonation followed by reductive elimination. An unproductive side reaction can compete with reductive elimination wherein the amide undergoes beta
VX (nerve agent) (4,954 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
sarin, VX undergoes relatively slow "aging". Aging is a time-dependent side reaction (loss of an alkoxyl group) that occurs on nerve agents after phosphonylation
Epoxy (6,835 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ring, e.g. by secondary hydroxyl groups in the epoxy resin. A possible side reaction may also occur between the epoxide and hydroxyl groups, but this may
Cystathionine beta synthase (3,159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Methylcysteine synthase was assigned the EC number EC 4.2.1.23 in 1961. A side-reaction of CBS caused this. The EC number EC 4.2.1.23 was deleted in 1972. The
Glycolysis (7,927 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the figure is shown behind the other steps, because that step is a side-reaction that can decrease or increase the concentration of the intermediate
Electrophoretic deposition (3,537 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cause yellowing in subsequent topcoat layers. A significant undesired side reaction which occurs during the baking process produces aromatic polyamines
Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase (2,196 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the formation of superoxide. The relevance of this otherwise minor side reaction is that superoxide and other reactive oxygen species are highly toxic
Water-gas shift reaction (2,260 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ammonia synthesis. The water-gas shift reaction may be an undesired side reaction in processes involving water and carbon monoxide, e.g. the rhodium-based
Medrogestone (2,169 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to afford the 17α-methyl compound,. The acetate group is lost as a side reaction. In an interesting modification on the usual scheme, (3) is treated
Weinreb ketone synthesis (1,259 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
methoxide moiety to release formaldehyde can occur as a significant side reaction. Nonetheless, the Weinreb–Nahm amide figures prominently into many syntheses
Stille reaction (5,183 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
potential minor product in many cases. Finally, a rather rare and exotic side reaction is known as cine substitution. Here, after initial oxidative addition
Hydroacylation (583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
beta-ketoalkyl-hydride complex undergoes reductive elimination. A competing side-reaction is decarbonylation of the aldehyde. This process also proceeds via the
Wolff–Kishner reduction (4,203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
more common side-reactions are listed below. A commonly encountered side-reaction in Wolff–Kishner reductions involves azine formation by reaction of
Corynebacterium (3,579 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
through PCR engineering and chemical knockouts to ensure production of side-reaction enzymes are limited. Many genetic manipulations conducted in industry
Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction (661 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
nickel used should be low as a direct alkene coupling to a diene is a side reaction. Related reactions are the Grignard reaction (magnesium), the Barbier
Minamata disease (7,562 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
co-catalyst was changed from manganese dioxide to ferric sulfide. A side reaction of this catalytic cycle led to the production of a small amount (about
Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction (1,517 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
for the reaction, but pyrolysis of the ester to an acid is a common side reaction. The poor availability of substituted phosphonites limits the usage
Benzilic acid rearrangement (950 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as this favors the Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction pathway as a side reaction. The reaction is second order overall in terms of rate, being first
Thermal runaway (4,238 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
control failed. Thermal runaway may result from unwanted exothermic side reaction(s) that begin at higher temperatures, following an initial accidental
Organolithium reagent (6,862 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
Henry; Langham, Wright; Jacoby, Arthur L. (1939). "Metalation as a Side Reaction in the Preparation of Organolithium Compounds". Journal of the American
Trans fat (15,638 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
lower energy form, and is favored when catalytically equilibrated as a side reaction in hydrogenation. The same molecule, containing the same number of atoms
Ring-closing metathesis (4,708 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
addition of a second molecule of starting material, a common competing side reaction which may lead to polymerization Cycloreversion of the metallacyclobutane
Paraffin oxidation (729 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
which degrades as the main reaction into water and a ketone. As a side reaction secondary alcohols are formed according to the following reaction: C
Carbon capture and storage (16,514 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
form secondary amines and these will emit volatile nitrosamines by a side reaction with nitrogendioxide, which is present in any flue gas even after DeNOx
Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids (1,194 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dimerization of primary alcohols. Holland and Gilman proved that this side reaction can be greatly suppressed by following the inverse addition protocol
Schwartz's reagent (1,526 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
done quickly, and reduction of the alcohol form is not a problematic side reaction as it can be with other reducing agents. Schwartz's reagent will selectively
Bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium carbonyl chloride (263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
homogeneous catalysis, this conversion is typically an undesirable side-reaction since [RhCl(CO)(PPh3)2] is a poor hydrogenation catalyst.
Hydrocyanation of unsaturated carbonyl compounds (1,202 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to the unsaturated carbonyl starting material is also an important side reaction. Acetone cyanohydrin can be used to reversibly generate the cyanide
Firefly luciferase (1,317 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ground state. Luciferyl adenylate can additionally participate in a side reaction with O2 to form hydrogen peroxide and dehydroluciferyl-AMP. About 20%
4+4 Photocycloaddition (901 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
could be achieved. Inevitably, [4+4] photocycloadditions carry the side reaction of [2+2] photocycloadditions. However, since these reactions are reversible
Vanadium nitrogenase (659 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
than molybdenum nitrogenases because it converts more H+ to H2 as a side reaction. However, at low temperatures vanadium nitrogenases have been found
Michael Bühl (624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Bühl, Michael (2014-04-01). "On the Importance of Decarbonylation as a Side-Reaction in the Ruthenium-Catalysed Dehydrogenation of Alcohols: A Combined Experimental
Photocatalytic water splitting (2,675 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
deviation could be due to a flaw in the experimental setup and/or a side reaction, both of which do not indicate a reliable photocatalyst for water splitting
Photoconductive polymer (2,734 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
from Mk will result in forming Mj coming from Mj+ (ii) Mj+ undergo a side-reaction leading to a charged species X+ that won't further exchange the charge
Electrophilic amination (1,803 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reagents or enolates may be converted into azides or amines. A significant side reaction that occurs under these conditions is the diazo transfer reaction: instead
Manganese peroxidase (1,463 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
with lactate, MnP instead catalyzes the evolution of O2. However, this side reaction has little impact on enzymatic activity because it follows slower third
Reductive dehalogenation of halo ketones (1,241 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the dialkyl ketone is isolated (geminal alkylation is a problematic side reaction). (10) The 2-oxyallyl metal intermediates generated during reductions
Ketene cycloaddition (1,172 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The ketene is usually used in excess when dimerization is a major side reaction. The success of the reaction is often determined by the relative rates
Vinyl sulfone dyes (606 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
compounds with hydroxyl groups of cellulose (HO-CELL) An unfavorable side reaction in the dyeing process is the conversion of the vinylsulfone group to
Difluorodisulfanedifluoride (1,044 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reversible. It also disproportionates: SF2 + FSSF3 → FSSF + SF4. A side reaction also produces the intermediate F3SSSF3. hydrogen fluoride catalyses
Stetter reaction (2,367 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
thiazolium salt is used as a catalyst, as they undergo aldol condensation side reaction when a cyanide catalyst is used. In addition, α,β-unsaturated esters
Oligonucleotide synthesis (9,784 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
oxidation with I2/water, and, respectively, does not suffer from the side reaction described above. On the other hand, if the capping step is performed
Alkenylaluminium compounds (1,661 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(anti-Markovnikov selectivity). Metalation of terminal alkynes is a significant side reaction that occurs under these conditions. If metalation is desired, tertiary
Ei mechanism (1,956 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
selenides under acidic or neutral conditions. Under basic conditions, this side reaction is suppressed. The one-pot dehydration of a primary alcohol to give
Synthesis of nucleosides (1,606 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
presence of a Lewis acid has been observed, and represents a potential side reaction. Heterocycles must not be too basic in order to avoid excessive complexation
Oxidation with dioxiranes (1,948 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
heteroatom oxidation is the nucleophilic decomposition of DMD by N-oxides, a side reaction that regenerates the reduced starting material and converts the oxidizing
Enders SAMP/RAMP hydrazone-alkylation reaction (2,376 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
process for substrates possessing Evans' oxazolidinone is also a main side reaction for the related alkylation reactions. Development in the field of enamine
Green chemistry metrics (2,387 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
converted into products; some reactants are also lost by undesired side reaction. To evaluate these losses of chemicals, actual yield has to be measured
Vinylcyclopropane rearrangement (3,602 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rearrangement was much more challenging than initially thought since side reaction such as the homodienyl [[[1,5]-hydrogen shift]]s and more so thermal
Heteroatom-promoted lateral lithiation (1,691 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Competitive ring metalation (directed ortho-metalation) is an important side reaction, but a judicious choice of base often allows for selective benzylic
Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (1,120 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
nonaflates superior electrophiles in Buchwald-Hartwig couplings, where this side reaction can be deleterious to yields of the desired product. The sodium enolates
Cattle urine patches (1,621 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
produce small quantities of nitrous oxide from produced nitrite in a side reaction. Nitrous oxide emissions increase as soil pH concentration increases
Chemical looping reforming and gasification (4,071 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
volatile and char conversion. This may also promote the full oxidation side reaction resulting in an increased CO2 concentration in the syngas. Additional
Triboracyclopropenyl (3,101 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dehydrogenates methane to afford the products VB3CH2+ and H2. A minor side reaction that produces VH+ and eliminates B3CH3 is also operative. Organoboron