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Viscosity (5,148 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal
Orders of magnitude (viscosity) (79 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
- 2.2.3 Viscosities "Viscosity of Liquids and Gases". Retrieved 2014-08-12.  "Viscosity Tables". Retrieved 2014-08-12.  "Units of viscosity" (PDF).
Volume viscosity (448 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Volume viscosity (also called second viscosity or bulk viscosity) becomes important only for such effects where fluid compressibility is essential. Examples
Extensional viscosity (119 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
about extensional viscosity. For other uses, see Rheology. Extensional viscosity (also known as elongational viscosity) is a viscosity coefficient when
Intrinsic viscosity (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Intrinsic viscosity is a measure of a solute's contribution to the viscosity of a solution. It should not be confused with inherent viscosity, which is
Viscosity index (406 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary measure for the change of viscosity with variations in temperature. The lower the VI, the greater the change of viscosity
Viscometer (3,611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions, an instrument called
Relative viscosity (28 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Relative viscosity () (a synonym of "viscosity ratio") is the ratio of the viscosity of a solution () to the viscosity of the solvent used (), . IUPAC
Viscosity printing (661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Viscosity printing is a multi-color printmaking technique that incorporates principles of relief printing and intaglio printing. It was pioneered by Stanley
Poise (278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The poise (symbol P, /ˈpɔɪz/) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. It is named after Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
Temperature dependence of liquid viscosity (756 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The temperature dependence of liquid viscosity is the phenomenon by which liquid viscosity tends to decrease (or, alternatively, its fluidity tends to
Inherent viscosity (74 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Inherent viscosity is the ratio of the natural logarithm of the relative viscosity to the mass concentration of the polymer. Inherent viscosity is defined
Viscosity solution (1,317 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, the viscosity solution concept was introduced in the early 1980s by Pierre-Louis Lions and Michael G. Crandall as a generalization of
Apparent viscosity (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Apparent viscosity (sometimes denoted η) is the shear stress applied to a fluid divided by the shear rate (). For a Newtonian fluid, the apparent viscosity is
Mooney viscosity (95 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Mooney viscosity is a measure of viscosity commonly used for rubbers taken at a certain temperature, it is named after Melvin Mooney. It is measured by
Rheology (3,133 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be characterized by a single coefficient of viscosity for a specific temperature. Although this viscosity will change with temperature, it does not change
Newtonian fluid (786 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe the viscous stress and the strain rate are related by a constant viscosity tensor that does not depend on the stress state and velocity of the flow
Non-Newtonian fluid (1,226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
time-dependent (Time Dependent Viscosity). Therefore, a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined. Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used in
Viscosity (imaging software) (31 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Viscosity is also an out-of-print image and animation editing utility published by Sonic Foundry. It can work with PNG, GIF, JPG/JPEG, BMP, AVI and its
Motor oil (8,658 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – then using inefficient combinations of petroleum
Schmidt number (376 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) and mass diffusivity, and is used to characterize fluid flows in which
Ford viscosity cup (181 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Ford viscosity cup is a simple gravity device that permits the timed flow of a known volume of liquid passing through an orifice located at the bottom
Zahn cup (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A Zahn cup is a viscosity measurement device widely used in the paint industry. It is commonly a stainless steel cup with a tiny hole drilled in the center
Heavy crude oil (2,213 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gravity of less than 10° and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoises. When reservoir viscosity measurements are not available, extra-heavy
Smart fluid (446 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity) can be changed by applying an electric field or a magnetic field. The most developed smart fluids today are fluids whose viscosity increases
Turbulence modeling (722 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the mean flow is like that of a stress term, such as from pressure or viscosity. To obtain equations containing only the mean velocity and pressure, we
Thixotropy (812 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed (time dependent viscosity). They then take a fixed time to return to a more viscous state. In more
Inviscid flow (337 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inviscid flow is the flow of an ideal fluid that is assumed to have no viscosity. In fluid dynamics there are problems that are easily solved by using
Carreau fluid (101 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fluid where viscosity, , depends upon the shear rate, , by the following equation: Where: , , and are material coefficients. = viscosity at zero shear
Saybolt universal second (151 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Saybolt universal second (SUS or SSU) is a measure of kinematic viscosity used in classical mechanics. It is the time that 60 cm3 of oil takes to
Reduced viscosity (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
recommended. Relative viscosity increment: Relative viscosity Viscosity Intrinsic viscosity Huggins equation "reduced viscosity of a polymer". IUPAC
Visbreaker (1,694 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
e., breaks) the viscosity of the residual oil. The process is non-catalytic. The objectives of visbreaking are: Reduce the viscosity of the feed stream:
Hemorheology (4,189 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
properties play significant roles in disease processes. Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cell, which
Constant Viscosity Elastic (Boger) Fluids (869 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Constant Viscosity Elastic Liquids are elastic fluids with constant viscosity. This creates an effect in the fluid where it flows like a liquid, yet behaves
Mooney units (60 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
unit used to measure the mooney viscosity of certain rubbers and elastomers. It is difficult to convert mooney viscosity to other units because it is measured
Rheometry (160 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be determined. This can be the steady shear viscosity, the linear viscoelastic properties (complex viscosity respectively elastic modulus), the elongational
Aerodynamic drag (693 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surface, symbolized , and forces due to skin friction, which is a result of viscosity, denoted . Alternatively, calculated from the flowfield perspective (far-field
Liquid (3,354 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their properties as lubricants. Lubricants such as oil are chosen for viscosity and flow characteristics that are suitable throughout the operating temperature
Chandrasekhar number (172 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in magnetic convection to represent ratio of the Lorentz force to the viscosity. It is named after the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
High viscosity mixer (193 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
High viscosity mixers are mixers designed for mixing materials with laminar mixing processes because the ingredients have such high viscosities that a
Time-dependent viscosity (1,158 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Time-dependent viscosity is a property of one class of non-Newtonian fluids in which the apparent viscosity of the fluid changes with time as the fluid
Fluid (543 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fluid is not entirely obvious. The distinction is made by evaluating the viscosity of the substance. Silly Putty can be considered to behave like a solid
Farinograph (713 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and viscosity of a mixture of flour and water. The primary units of the farinograph are Brabender Units, an arbitrary unit of measuring the viscosity of
Galactomannan (392 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
often used in food products to increase the viscosity of the water phase. Guar gum has been used to add viscosity to artificial tears, but is not as stable
Mucokinetics (366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
bonding to surfaces (stickiness) and by the viscosity of mucous secretions in the lungs. In turn, the viscosity is dependent upon the concentration of mucoprotein
Grease (lubricant) (1,733 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
initial viscosity, which upon the application of shear, drops to give the effect of an oil-lubricated bearing of approximately the same viscosity as the
Rotational viscosity (425 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Viscosity is usually described as the property of a fluid which determines the rate at which local momentum differences are equilibrated. Rotational viscosity
Freestar experiment (552 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
measure ozone by the next generation of weather satellites. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 Experiment measures the viscous behavior of xenon – a heavy
Reynolds number (3,709 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
river systems) (m) μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m2 or kg/(m·s)) ν (nu) is the kinematic viscosity (ν = μ/ρ) (m2/s) ρ is the density
Roshko number (156 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic length (for example hydraulic diameter); ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Olim, A. M.; Riethmuller, M. L.; Gameiro da Silva, M. C
Diffusivity (58 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
diffusivity (often called "diffusion coefficient") Eddy diffusion, eddy diffusivity Viscosity#Kinematic_viscosity, momentum diffusivity Magnetic diffusivity
Lax–Friedrichs method (519 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the FTCS (forward in time, centered in space) scheme with an artificial viscosity term of 1/2. One can view the Lax–Friedrichs method as an alternative
Macroglobulin (98 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
macroglobulins (macroglobulinemia) may cause manifestations of excess blood viscosity (as is the case for IgM antibodies in Waldenström macroglobulinemia) and/or
Poiseuille (153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Poiseuille is an SI-derived unit for absolute viscosity and dynamic viscosity, named after the French physicist Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
Microviscosity (266 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Microviscosity, also known as microscopic viscosity, is the friction experienced by a single particle undergoing diffusion because of its interaction
Reyn (109 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(disambiguation). In fluid dynamics, the reyn is a British unit of dynamic viscosity, named in honour of Osbourne Reynolds, for whom the Reynolds number is
Shear thinning (466 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
used in rheology to describe non-Newtonian fluids which have decreased viscosity when subjected to shear strain. The term is sometimes considered to be
Mafic (153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to the older basic rock class. Mafic lava, before cooling, has a low viscosity, in comparison to felsic lava, due to the lower silica content in mafic
Capillary number (186 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity effects, but the surface tension forces tend to minimize the surface. The capillary number is defined as: where µ is the dynamic viscosity
Lava dome (934 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high
Fuel oil (3,391 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity also increases with number, and the heaviest oil has to be heated to get
Mark–Houwink equation (326 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight : From this equation the molecular weight of a polymer can be determined from data on the intrinsic viscosity and
Rayleigh number (787 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Grashof number, which describes the relationship between buoyancy and viscosity within a fluid, and the Prandtl number, which describes the relationship
Magnetic Prandtl number (198 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetohydrodynamics which approximates the ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) and magnetic diffusivity. It is defined as: where: Rem is the magnetic
Molecular mass (820 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic
Polyethylene terephthalate (6,567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
as intrinsic viscosity (IV). The intrinsic viscosity of the material, found by extrapolating to zero concentration of relative viscosity to concentration
Gas reinjection (365 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
production. The basic difference between light crude and heavy crude is its viscosity and pumpability - the lighter the crude the easier it is to pump. Recovery
Melting (1,013 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generally have reduced viscosity as the temperature increases. An exception to this principle is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases to a point
Ubbelohde viscometer (397 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which uses a capillary based method of measuring viscosity. It is recommended for higher viscosity cellulosic polymer solutions. The advantage of this
Electroviscous effects (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an IUPAC definition, are the effects of the particle surface charge on viscosity of a fluid. Viscoelectric is an effect by which an electric field near
Stokes' law of sound attenuation (392 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid's viscosity. It states that the amplitude of a plane wave decreases exponentially
Molar mass distribution (1,127 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Zentrifuge) Viscosity average molar mass or Mv Here a is the exponent in the Mark–Houwink equation that relates the intrinsic viscosity to molar mass
Hyperviscosity syndrome (435 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
group of symptoms triggered by increase in the viscosity of the blood. Symptoms of high blood viscosity include spontaneous bleeding from mucous membranes
Lotion (1,124 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity. Lotions are
Congelation (56 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
increase in viscosity can be achieved through a reduction in temperature or through chemical reactions. Sometimes the increase in viscosity is great enough
Viscotherm (313 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe equipment for control of viscosity and temperature of a fluid, in particular of fuel oil in fuel viscosity control systems. The term originated
Loaf (403 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity, meaning that some doughs will tend to collapse and spread out more than others during the cooking process. Doughs with a thicker viscosity
Cross fluid (81 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalized Newtonian fluid whose viscosity depends upon shear rate according to the following equation: where is viscosity as a function of shear rate,
Vascular resistance (2,355 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
vessels. Blood viscosity increases as blood is more hemoconcentrated, and decreases as blood is more dilute. The greater the viscosity of blood, the larger
Viscous coupling unit (697 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
on the fluid will cause it to heat and become nearly solid because the viscosity of dilatant fluids rapidly increases with shear. The fluid in this state
Annealing (glass) (488 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
annealing temperature, at which its viscosity, η, drops to 1013 Poise ("Poise" is a measure of absolute viscosity; 1 poise = 1 dyne-second/cm²). For most
Power-law fluid (809 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
effective viscosity would decrease with increasing shear rate indefinitely, requiring a fluid with infinite viscosity at rest and zero viscosity as the shear
Effusive eruption (487 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surrounding areas. Play media A volcanic eruption is effusive when low-viscosity magma, usually basaltic in composition, is released from the Earth's crust
Marangoni number (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
length, (SI units: m); : thermal diffusivity, (SI units: m2/s); η: dynamic viscosity, (SI units: kg/(s·m)); ∆T: temperature difference, (SI units: K). Marangoni
Lost circulation (815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
depending on the severity. Minor losses may be controlled by increasing the viscosity of the fluid with bentonite and/or polymers, or with the addition of other
Viscous liquid (467 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interchangeably to designate liquids that are at the same time highly viscous (see Viscosity of amorphous materials), supercooled, and able to form a glass.
Laplace number (87 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
follows: where: σ = surface tension ρ = density L = length μ = liquid viscosity Laplace number is related to Reynolds number (Re) and Weber number (We)
Viscoelasticity (3,007 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of bond stretching along crystallographic planes in an ordered solid, viscosity is the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside an amorphous
Fuel viscosity control (120 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fuel viscosity control is a technique to control viscosity and temperature of fuel oil (FO) for efficient combustion in diesel engines of motor vessels
Galilei number (144 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
m/s2) L: characteristic length, (SI units: m) ν: characteristic kinematic viscosity, (SI units: m2/s) Re: the Reynolds number Ri: the Richardson number Archimedes
Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy (124 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
acoustic rheometers, the raw data are converted into extensional viscosity or volume viscosity. Instruments that employ ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy
Fluid mechanics (2,687 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Evangelista Torricelli (invented the barometer), Isaac Newton (investigated viscosity) and Blaise Pascal (researched hydrostatics, formulated Pascal's law)
Dilatant (2,275 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
material). A dilatant (also termed shear thickening) material is one in which viscosity increases with the rate of shear strain. Such a shear thickening fluid
Shear stress (998 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity is the constant of proportionality. However, for non-Newtonian fluids, this is no longer the case as for these fluids the viscosity is not
Hagen–Poiseuille equation (2,331 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
where: is the pressure loss is the length of pipe is the dynamic viscosity is the volumetric flow rate is the radius is the diameter is the mathematical
Guar gum (3,560 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
loss of viscosity, and alkalies in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. It is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents. The viscosity attained
Weissenberg effect (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Weissenberg effect is a phenomenon that occurs when a spinning rod is inserted into a solution of elastic liquid. Instead of being thrown outward,
Prandtl number (484 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity), , (SI units: m2/s)  : thermal diffusivity, , (SI units: m2/s)  : dynamic viscosity, (SI units: Pa s = N s/m2)  :
Outer core (442 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
modeling work has shown that the outer core is a low viscosity fluid (about ten times the viscosity of liquid metals at the surface) that convects turbulently
Acoustic attenuation (938 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity, and are therefore not ideal media. When sound propagates in such media, there is always thermal consumption of energy caused by viscosity.
Huggins equation (136 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity of a dilute polymer solution to the concentration of the polymer in solution. The Huggins equation states: Where is the reduced viscosity
Helium (11,707 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to 10−8 m it has no measurable viscosity. However, when measurements were done between two moving discs, a viscosity comparable to that of gaseous helium
Lubricant (4,493 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
point (in order to stay liquid within a wide range of temperature) high viscosity index thermal stability hydraulic stability demulsibility corrosion prevention
Laminar flow (991 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
either of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid: laminar flow or turbulent flow. Laminar flow tends to occur
Sutherland's Law (206 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
For the dynamic viscosity formula, see Viscosity. Sutherland's Law is a television series made by BBC Scotland between 1973 and 1976. The series had originated
Bejan number (649 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensionless pressure drop along a channel of length : where is the dynamic viscosity is the momentum diffusivity In the context of heat transfer. the Bejan
Joint injection (135 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
common of which are corticosteroids. Hyaluronic acid, because of its high viscosity, is sometimes used to replace bursa fluids. The technique may be used
Lava (4,139 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
chemistry of lava also tends to correlate with the magma temperature, its viscosity and its mode of eruption. Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and
Accretion disk (3,282 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
hand, viscosity itself was not enough to explain the transport of angular momentum to the exterior parts of the disk. Turbulence-enhanced viscosity was
Marsh funnel (743 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Marsh funnel is a simple device for measuring viscosity by observing the time it takes a known volume of liquid to flow from a cone through a short
Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model (502 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
solves a modelled transport equation for the kinematic eddy turbulent viscosity. The Spalart-Allmaras model was designed specifically for aerospace applications
Gear oil (1,069 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
It is of a higher viscosity to better protect the gears and usually is associated with a strong sulfur smell. The high viscosity ensures transfer of
Blood flow (2,831 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
rates of shear. Typical values for the viscosity of normal human plasma at 37 °C is 1.4 mN·s/m2. The viscosity of normal plasma varies with temperature
Erdosteine (249 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
radical scavenging activity. Erdosteine modulates mucus production and viscosity and increases mucociliary transport, thereby improving expectoration.
Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine (84 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
products (soaps, shampoos, lotions etc.). It has uses as a foam booster, viscosity builder, and an antistatic agent. Patch tests with human subjects
Ohnesorge number (274 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in his 1936 doctoral thesis. It is defined as: Where μ is the liquid viscosity ρ is the liquid density σ is the surface tension L is the characteristic
Liniment (198 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the skin. Sometimes called balms, liniments are of a similar or lesser viscosity than lotions and are rubbed in to create friction, unlike lotions, ointments
Boundary layer (3,820 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. In the Earth's atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer
FLiBe (1,227 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mixture was never used in practice due to the overwhelming increase in viscosity caused by the BeF2 addition in the eutectic mixture. BeF2, which behaves
Oil additive (1,134 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
oil to be oxidized. Viscosity modifiers make an oil's viscosity higher at elevated temperatures, improving its viscosity index (VI). This combats
Rayleigh–Plesset equation (851 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
assumed to be constant is the radius of the bubble is the kinematic viscosity of the surrounding liquid, assumed to be constant is the surface tension
Magma (2,082 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
structures as well as upon temperature and pressure and composition. Viscosity is a key melt property in understanding the behaviour of magmas. More
Fragility (986 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationship between viscosity and diffusion. Formally, fragility reflects to what degree the temperature dependence of the viscosity (or relaxation time)
Turbulence (4,191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which the kinetic energy dies out due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity is called laminar flow. While there is no theorem relating the non-dimensional
Navier–Stokes equations (5,524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expressing the shear tensor in terms of viscosity and fluid velocity, and assuming constant density and viscosity, the Cauchy equations will lead to the
Strain rate (776 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to the expansion rate (the bulk viscosity coefficient) and one relating to the shear rate (the "ordinary" viscosity coefficient). The definition of
Darcy's law (1,854 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
between the instantaneous discharge rate through a porous medium, the viscosity of the fluid and the pressure drop over a given distance. . The total
Thickening agent (2,010 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties. Edible
Kelvin–Voigt material (436 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a viscoelastic material having the properties both of elasticity and viscosity. It is named after the British physicist and engineer Lord Kelvin and
Ketchup (3,138 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
condiment a pseudoplastic or "shear thinning" property. This increases the viscosity of the ketchup considerably with a relatively small amount added—usually
Fåhræus–Lindqvist effect (831 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity of a fluid, in this case blood, changes with the diameter of the tube it travels through; in particular there's a decrease of viscosity as
Acoustic rheometer (359 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
considered as extensional viscosity In the case of Newtonian liquid attenuation yields information on the volume viscosity. Stokes' law (sound attenuation)
Trouton's ratio (62 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
. In rheology, Trouton's ratio is the ratio of extensional viscosity to shear viscosity. For a Newtonian fluid Trouton's ratio is 3. Frederick Thomas
Rheological weldability (622 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their rheological properties: viscosity (η) and activation energy (Ea). According to RW criterion, the lower the viscosity (η) during welding process and
Rheometer (1,805 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the
Dashpot (891 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A dashpot is a mechanical device, a damper which resists motion via viscous friction. The resulting force is proportional to the velocity, but acts in
Mooney viscometer (646 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A mooney viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the mooney viscosity of a substance (mainly elastomers and rubbers). Invented by Melvin Mooney
Taylor number (449 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
overall rotational flow. However, in this case the effects of rotation and viscosity are usually characterized by the Ekman number and the Rossby number rather
Hemodynamics (2,338 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and blood viscosity, as indicated by the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. The equation is as follows: ∆P: pressure drop/gradient µ: viscosity l: length of
Rouse number (220 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kármán constant in the equation, which is a constant which correlates eddy viscosity to eddy diffusivity. This is generally taken to be equal to 1, and therefore
Electrorheological fluid (1,701 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
micrometres diameter) in an electrically insulating fluid. The apparent viscosity of these fluids changes reversibly by an order of up to 100,000 in response
Cebeci–Smith model (271 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
0-equation eddy viscosity model used in computational fluid dynamics analysis of turbulent boundary layer flows. The model gives eddy viscosity, , as a function
Diluent (449 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
ease this restricted movement, diluents are added. This decreases the viscosity of the fluids, thereby also decreasing the pumping/transportation costs
Oat beta-glucan (2,371 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
β-glucans do become insoluble above a certain concentration. The total viscosity is determined by the level of solubility, the molecular weight, and the
Fumed silica (335 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
density and high surface area. Its three-dimensional structure results in viscosity-increasing, thixotropic behavior when used as a thickener or reinforcing
Metre squared per second (83 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Metre squared per second is the SI derived unit of kinematic viscosity and of specific relative angular momentum. The unit is written in symbols as m2/s
Hele-Shaw clutch (794 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inventor, Professor Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, who was noted for his work in viscosity and flows through small gaps between parallel plates. The clutch was innovative
Hele-Shaw clutch (794 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inventor, Professor Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, who was noted for his work in viscosity and flows through small gaps between parallel plates. The clutch was innovative
Ball bearing (3,835 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity is 12 mm²/s. Note that dynamic viscosity of oil varies strongly with temperature: a temperature increase of 50–70 °C causes the viscosity to
FTCS scheme (402 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
hyperbolic partial differential equation, it is unstable unless artificial viscosity is included. The abbreviation FTCS was first used by Patrick Roache.
Dukhin number (265 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dielectric permittivity εm is fluid dielectric permittivity η is dynamic viscosity D is diffusion coefficient There are several ways to measure Dukhin number
International Standard Atmosphere (1,356 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations
Hydraulic engineering (2,319 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
incompressible and has no viscosity. Real fluid has viscosity. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all fluids that exist have some viscosity. A viscous fluid
Steam injection (oil industry) (808 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
is related to near-wellbore cleanup. In this case, steam reduces the viscosity that ties paraffins and asphaltenes to the rock surfaces while steam distillation
Maxwell material (525 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a viscoelastic material having the properties both of elasticity and viscosity. It is named for James Clerk Maxwell who proposed the model in 1867. It
Mantle (geology) (3,386 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
GRACE satellites and the long wavelength nonhydrostatic geoid indicated viscosity increases by a factor of ten to 150 about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) below
Bagnold number (217 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
density, is the grain diameter, is the shear rate and is the dynamic viscosity of the interstitial fluid. The parameter is known as the linear concentration
Wax (1,340 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar
Crème fraîche (560 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content. European labeling regulation disallows any ingredients
Morton number (174 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
number is defined as where g is the acceleration of gravity, is the viscosity of the surrounding fluid, the density of the surrounding fluid, the
Self-consolidating concrete (347 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characterized by a low yield stress, high deformability, and moderate viscosity necessary to ensure uniform suspension of solid particles during transportation
Tetrahydrofuran (1,175 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
cyclic ether. It is a colorless, water-miscible organic liquid with low viscosity. It is mainly used as a precursor to polymers. Being polar and having
Meat glaze (50 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by reducing brown stock through evaporation by slow heating. Its high viscosity and salt content gives it an unusually long shelf life. Demi-glace
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (742 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
glycerol and fatty acids (usually castor bean derived). PGPR reduces the viscosity of chocolate and similar coatings and compounds. It works by decreasing
Gas (5,231 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
behavior. Compared to the other states of matter, gases have low density and viscosity. Pressure and temperature influence the particles within a certain volume
Hadamard–Rybczynski equation (176 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the bubble. the density of the ambient fluid. the viscosity of the bubble. the viscosity of the ambient fluid. The Hadamard–Rybczynski equation
K-value (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of a biological population. K value (viscosity), is an empirical parameter closely related to intrinsic viscosity, often defined in slightly different
Biodiesel (13,089 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
concerns regarding biodiesel is its viscosity. The viscosity of diesel is 2.5–3.2 cSt at 40 °C and the viscosity of biodiesel made from soybean oil is
Brinkman number (316 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
processing. There are several definitions; one is where μ is the dynamic viscosity; u is the flow velocity; κ is the thermal conductivity; T0 is the bulk
Brookfield Engineering (569 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
required to turn an object, such as a spindle, in a fluid indicates the viscosity of the fluid. Torque is applied through a calibrated spring to a disk
Hagen number (213 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is a characteristic length ρ is the fluid density ν is the kinematic viscosity For natural convection and so the Hagen number then coincides with the
Shoe polish (3,253 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
plastic bottle, with a small sponge applicator at the end. To decrease its viscosity, bottled polish usually has a very low wax content. There are many products
Rheopecty (380 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
time-dependent increase in viscosity (Time Dependent Viscosity); the longer the fluid undergoes shearing force, the higher its viscosity. Rheopectic fluids,
Syrup (667 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which
Vinasse (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
vinasse. Vinasse is sold after a partial dehydration and usually has a viscosity comparable to molasses. Commercially offered vinasse comes either from
Pitot-static system (2,343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
on a vehicle as a function of the temperature, density, pressure and viscosity of the fluid in which it is operating. Other instruments that might be
Melt flow index (1,123 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inversely proportional to viscosity of the melt at the conditions of the test, though it should be borne in mind that the viscosity for any such material
Superfluidity (841 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in
Stratovolcano (1,869 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate
Jet (fluid) (237 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
assumed to be made up of the same fluid as the jet, and this fluid has a viscosity, the surrounding fluid is carried along with the jet in a process called
Hartmann number (66 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic length scale σ is the electrical conductivity μ is the dynamic viscosity Magnetohydrodynamics Kenneth R.Cramer, Shih-l Pai (1973). Magnetofluid
Aerodynamics (4,519 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flows. The Euler equations were extended to incorporate the effects of viscosity in the first half of the 1800s, resulting in the Navier-Stokes equations
Pierre-Louis Lions (510 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the paper "Viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations" (1983), written with Michael G. Crandall, he introduced the notion of viscosity solutions
Glass fiber (3,450 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of 5 °C per minute". The strain point is reached when the glass has a viscosity of 1014.5 poise. The annealing point, which is the temperature where the
Pressure drop (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity through the pipe and fluid viscosity. Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional shear forces within
Wake (2,151 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flow immediately behind a moving or stationary blunt body, caused by viscosity, which may be accompanied by flow separation and turbulence, or the wave
Hot-melt adhesive (5,240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sticks are used, for more rapid heating time.[citation needed] Melt viscosity: one of the most noticeable properties. Influences the spread of applied
Oleo strut (610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
increases dramatically, because the air is being compressed, while the viscosity of the oil dampens the rebound movement The largest cargo airplanes in
Ekman layer (1,159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
respectively, is the local Coriolis parameter, and is the diffusive eddy viscosity, which can be derived using mixing length theory. Note that is a modified
UV pinning (134 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photochemical properties. As a result, the ink droplets move to a higher viscosity state, but stop short of full cure. This is also referred to as the "gelling"
Carbocisteine (169 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(INN), also called carbocysteine (USAN), is a mucolytic that reduces the viscosity of sputum and so can be used to help relieve the symptoms of chronic obstructive
Bingham plastic (1,275 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
stress is achieved. For the Newtonian fluid the slope of this line is the viscosity, which is the only parameter needed to describe its flow. By contrast
Stokes' law (1,314 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
small Reynolds numbers of the Navier–Stokes equations: The force of viscosity on a small sphere moving through a viscous fluid is given by: where:
Hypromellose (1,219 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscometer acceptable ranges of error, viscosity is typically given as a mean, or as a range. Typical viscosity test will specify the following: Solution
Coolant (1,552 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
use or dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, chemically inert, and neither causes nor promotes
Honey (9,687 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
content generally has a viscosity around 400 poise, while a honey containing 20% water has a viscosity around 20 poise. Viscosity increase due to temperature
Vegetable oil fuel (1,789 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Conventional diesel engines can be modified to help ensure that the viscosity of the vegetable oil is low enough to allow proper atomization of the