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Viscosity (5,115 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal
Volume viscosity (448 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Volume viscosity (also called second viscosity or bulk viscosity) becomes important only for such effects where fluid compressibility is essential. Examples
Extensional viscosity (119 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
about extensional viscosity. For other uses, see Rheology. Extensional viscosity (also known as elongational viscosity) is a viscosity coefficient when
Orders of magnitude (viscosity) (79 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
- 2.2.3 Viscosities "Viscosity of Liquids and Gases". Retrieved 2014-08-12.  "Viscosity Tables". Retrieved 2014-08-12.  "Units of viscosity" (PDF).
Relative viscosity (30 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Relative viscosity () (a synonym of "viscosity ratio") is the ratio of the viscosity of a solution () to the viscosity of the solvent used (), . Inherent
Intrinsic viscosity (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Intrinsic viscosity is a measure of a solute's contribution to the viscosity of a solution. It should not be confused with inherent viscosity, which is
Mooney viscosity (95 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Mooney viscosity is a measure of viscosity commonly used for rubbers taken at a certain temperature, it is named after Melvin Mooney. It is measured by
Viscometer (3,416 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid. For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions, an instrument called
Viscosity index (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary measure for the change of viscosity with variations in temperature. The lower the VI, the greater the change of viscosity
Motor oil (7,874 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – then using inefficient combinations of petroleum
Apparent viscosity (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Apparent viscosity (sometimes denoted η) is the shear stress applied to a fluid divided by the shear rate (). For a Newtonian fluid, the apparent viscosity is
Inherent viscosity (74 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Inherent viscosity is the ratio of the natural logarithm of the relative viscosity to the mass concentration of the polymer. Inherent viscosity is defined
Poise (270 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The poise (symbol P, /ˈpɔɪz/) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. It is named after Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
Viscosity solution (1,317 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, the viscosity solution concept was introduced in the early 1980s by Pierre-Louis Lions and Michael G. Crandall as a generalization of
Temperature dependence of liquid viscosity (756 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The temperature dependence of liquid viscosity is the phenomenon by which liquid viscosity tends to decrease (or, alternatively, its fluidity tends to
Rheology (3,130 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be characterized by a single coefficient of viscosity for a specific temperature. Although this viscosity will change with temperature, it does not change
Non-Newtonian fluid (1,493 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
time-dependent (Time Dependent Viscosity). Therefore, a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined. Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used in
Viscosity (imaging software) (31 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Viscosity is also an out-of-print image and animation editing utility published by Sonic Foundry. It can work with PNG, GIF, JPG/JPEG, BMP, AVI and its
Schmidt number (376 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) and mass diffusivity, and is used to characterize fluid flows in which
Newtonian fluid (788 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe the viscous stress and the strain rate are related by a constant viscosity tensor that does not depend on the stress state and velocity of the flow
Hemorheology (3,908 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
properties play significant roles in disease processes. Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cell, which
Turbulence modeling (585 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
proportionality constant , the turbulence eddy viscosity, has been introduced. Models of this type are known as eddy viscosity models or EVM's. Which can be written
Zahn cup (259 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A Zahn cup; manufactured exclusively by Paul N. Gardner Company, is a viscosity measurement device widely used in the paint industry. Consisting of a
Smart fluid (446 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity) can be changed by applying an electric field or a magnetic field. The most developed smart fluids today are fluids whose viscosity increases
Thixotropy (778 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed (time dependent viscosity). They then take a fixed time to return to a more viscous state. In more
Ford viscosity cup (183 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Ford viscosity cup is a simple gravity device that permits the timed flow of a known volume of liquid passing through an orifice located at the bottom
Heavy crude oil (2,216 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gravity of less than 10° and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10 000 centipoises. When reservoir viscosity measurements are not available, extra-heavy
Inviscid flow (337 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inviscid flow is the flow of an ideal fluid that is assumed to have no viscosity. In fluid dynamics there are problems that are easily solved by using
Saybolt universal second (143 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Saybolt universal second (SUS or SSU) is a measure of kinematic viscosity used in classical mechanics. It is the time that 60 cm3 of oil takes to
Visbreaker (1,712 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
e., breaks) the viscosity of the residual oil. The process is non-catalytic. The objectives of visbreaking are: Reduce the viscosity of the feed stream:
Molecular mass (820 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic
Mooney units (60 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
unit used to measure the mooney viscosity of certain rubbers and elastomers. It is difficult to convert mooney viscosity to other units because it is measured
Rheometry (160 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be determined. This can be the steady shear viscosity, the linear viscoelastic properties (complex viscosity respectively elastic modulus), the elongational
High viscosity mixer (193 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
High viscosity mixers are mixers designed for mixing materials with laminar mixing processes because the ingredients have such high viscosities that a
Liquid (3,255 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their properties as lubricants. Lubricants such as oil are chosen for viscosity and flow characteristics that are suitable throughout the operating temperature
Prandtl number (347 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) to thermal diffusivity. That is, the Prandtl number is given as: where:  : kinematic viscosity, , (SI units : m2/s)  :
Aerodynamic drag (988 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surface, symbolized , and forces due to skin friction, which is a result of viscosity, denoted . Alternatively, calculated from the flowfield perspective (far-field
Effusive eruption (192 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
called lava domes due to their viscosity. Play media Effusive eruptions occur when hot, (1200 °C) low-viscosity magmas reach the surface of the
Fluid (540 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fluid is not entirely obvious. The distinction is made by evaluating the viscosity of the substance. Silly Putty can be considered to behave like a solid
Reduced viscosity (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is recommended. relative viscosity increment: see also relative viscosity, viscosity, intrinsic viscosity "reduced viscosity of a polymer". IUPAC. 
Farinograph (713 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and viscosity of a mixture of flour and water. The primary units of the farinograph are Brabender Units, an arbitrary unit of measuring the viscosity of
Galactomannan (393 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
often used in food products to increase the viscosity of the water phase. Guar gum has been used to add viscosity to artificial tears, but is not as stable
Mucokinetics (366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
bonding to surfaces (stickiness) and by the viscosity of mucous secretions in the lungs. In turn, the viscosity is dependent upon the concentration of mucoprotein
Poiseuille (153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Poiseuille is an SI-derived unit for absolute viscosity and dynamic viscosity, named after the French physicist Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille
Grease (lubricant) (1,702 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
initial viscosity, which upon the application of shear, drops to give the effect of an oil-lubricated bearing of approximately the same viscosity as the
Constant Viscosity Elastic (Boger) Fluids (869 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Constant Viscosity Elastic Liquids are elastic fluids with constant viscosity. This creates an effect in the fluid where it flows like a liquid, yet behaves
Time-dependent viscosity (1,158 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Time-dependent viscosity is a property of one class of non-Newtonian fluids in which the apparent viscosity of the fluid changes with time as the fluid
Roshko number (156 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic length (for example hydraulic diameter); ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Olim, A. M.; Riethmuller, M. L.; Gameiro da Silva, M. C
Freestar experiment (552 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
measure ozone by the next generation of weather satellites. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 Experiment measures the viscous behavior of xenon – a heavy
Reynolds number (3,310 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
river systems) (m) is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m² or kg/(m·s)) is the kinematic viscosity () (m²/s) is the density of the fluid
Trouton's ratio (58 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
. In rheology, Trouton's ratio is the ratio of extensional viscosity to shear viscosity. For a Newtonian fluid Trouton's ratio is 3. Frederick Thomas
Lax–Friedrichs method (519 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the FTCS (forward in time, centered in space) scheme with an artificial viscosity term of 1/2. One can view the Lax–Friedrichs method as an alternative
Rotational viscosity (425 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Viscosity is usually described as the property of a fluid which determines the rate at which local momentum differences are equilibrated. Rotational viscosity
Guar gum (2,438 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
loss of viscosity, and alkalies in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. It is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents. The viscosity attained
Capillary number (186 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity effects, but the surface tension forces tend to minimize the surface. The capillary number is defined as: where µ is the dynamic viscosity
Lava dome (935 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high
Shear thinning (476 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
used in rheology to describe non-Newtonian fluids which have decreased viscosity when subjected to shear strain. The term is sometimes considered to be
Rayleigh number (784 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Grashof number, which describes the relationship between buoyancy and viscosity within a fluid, and the Prandtl number, which describes the relationship
Magnetic Prandtl number (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetohydrodynamics which approximates the ratio of momentum diffusivity (viscosity) and magnetic diffusivity. It is defined as: where: Rem is the magnetic
Fuel oil (3,394 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity also increases with number, and the heaviest oil has to be heated to get
Mark–Houwink equation (326 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight : From this equation the molecular weight of a polymer can be determined from data on the intrinsic viscosity and
Mafic (153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to the older basic rock class. Mafic lava, before cooling, has a low viscosity, in comparison to felsic lava, due to the lower silica content in mafic
Polyethylene terephthalate (6,475 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
as intrinsic viscosity (IV). The intrinsic viscosity of the material, found by extrapolating to zero concentration of relative viscosity to concentration
Lost circulation (811 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
depending on the severity. Minor losses may be controlled by increasing the viscosity of the fluid with bentonite and/or polymers, or with the addition of other
Ohnesorge number (274 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in his 1936 doctoral thesis. It is defined as: Where μ is the liquid viscosity ρ is the liquid density σ is the surface tension L is the characteristic
Gas reinjection (365 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
production. The basic difference between light crude and heavy crude is its viscosity and pumpability - the lighter the crude the easier it is to pump. Recovery
Stokes' law of sound attenuation (392 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid's viscosity. It states that the amplitude of a plane wave decreases exponentially
Microviscosity (266 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Microviscosity, also known as microscopic viscosity, is the friction experienced by a single particle undergoing diffusion because of its interaction
Melting (972 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generally have reduced viscosity as the temperature increases. An exception to this principle is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases to a point
Molar mass distribution (1,112 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mass or Mz Viscosity average molar mass or Mv Here a is the exponent in the Mark–Houwink equation that relates the intrinsic viscosity to molar mass
Lotion (641 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
low- to heavy-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity. Lotions are
Viscotherm (313 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe equipment for control of viscosity and temperature of a fluid, in particular of fuel oil in fuel viscosity control systems. The term originated
Cross fluid (81 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalized Newtonian fluid whose viscosity depends upon shear rate according to the following equation: where is viscosity as a function of shear rate,
Electroviscous effects (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an IUPAC definition, are the effects of the particle surface charge on viscosity of a fluid. Viscoelectric is an effect by which an electric field near
Mooney viscometer (646 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A mooney viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the mooney viscosity of a substance (mainly elastomers and rubbers). Invented by Melvin Mooney
Power-law fluid (805 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
effective viscosity would decrease with increasing shear rate indefinitely, requiring a fluid with infinite viscosity at rest and zero viscosity as the shear
Congelation (56 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
increase in viscosity can be achieved through a reduction in temperature or through chemical reactions. Sometimes the increase in viscosity is great enough
Hyperviscosity syndrome (435 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
group of symptoms triggered by increase in the viscosity of the blood. Symptoms of high blood viscosity include spontaneous bleeding from mucous membranes
Laplace number (87 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
follows: where: σ = surface tension ρ = density L = length μ = liquid viscosity Laplace number is related to Reynolds number (Re) and Weber number (We)
Marangoni number (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
length, (SI units: m); : thermal diffusivity, (SI units: m2/s); η: dynamic viscosity, (SI units: kg/(s·m)); ∆T: temperature difference, (SI units: K). Marangoni
Dilatant (2,384 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A dilatant (also termed shear thickening) material is one in which viscosity increases with the rate of shear strain. Such a shear thickening fluid, also
Viscous liquid (467 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interchangeably to designate liquids that are at the same time highly viscous (see Viscosity of amorphous materials), supercooled, and able to form a glass.
Carreau fluid (101 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fluid where viscosity, , depends upon the shear rate, , by the following equation: Where: , , and are material coefficients. = viscosity at zero shear
Galilei number (136 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
m/s2) L: characteristic length, (SI units: m) ν: characteristic kinematic viscosity, (SI units: m2/s) Archimedes number VDI-Wärmeatlas; 5., extended Edition;
Ubbelohde viscometer (395 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which uses a capillary based method of measuring viscosity. It is recommended for higher viscosity cellulosic polymer solutions. The advantage of this
Fluid mechanics (2,670 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Evangelista Torricelli (invented the barometer), Isaac Newton (investigated viscosity) and Blaise Pascal (researched hydrostatics, formulated Pascal's law)
Gas (5,222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
behavior. Compared to the other states of matter, gases have low density and viscosity. Pressure and temperature influence the particles within a certain volume
Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy (124 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
acoustic rheometers, the raw data are converted into extensional viscosity or volume viscosity. Instruments that employ ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy
Hagen–Poiseuille equation (2,296 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
where: is the pressure loss is the length of pipe is the dynamic viscosity is the volumetric flow rate is the radius is the diameter is the mathematical
Macroglobulin (92 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
macroglobulins (macroglobulinemia) may cause manifestations of excess blood viscosity (as is the case for IgM antibodies in Waldenström macroglobulinemia) and/or
Fragility (923 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationship between viscosity and diffusion. Formally, fragility reflects to what degree the temperature dependence of the viscosity (or relaxation time)
Shear stress (972 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity is the constant of proportionality. However, for non-Newtonian fluids, this is no longer the case as for these fluids the viscosity is not
Viscous coupling unit (663 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
on the fluid will cause it to heat and become nearly solid because the viscosity of dilatant fluids rapidly increases with shear. The fluid in this state
Helium (11,521 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to 10−8 m it has no measurable viscosity. However, when measurements were done between two moving discs, a viscosity comparable to that of gaseous helium
Bejan number (649 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensionless pressure drop along a channel of length : where is the dynamic viscosity is the momentum diffusivity In the context of heat transfer. the Bejan
Laminar flow (729 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
either of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid: laminar flow or turbulent flow. Laminar flow tends to occur
Weissenberg effect (55 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Weissenberg effect is a phenomenon that occurs when a spinning rod is inserted into a solution of liquid polymer. Instead of being thrown outward,
Lubricant (4,508 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
point (in order to stay liquid within a wide range of temperature) high viscosity index thermal stability hydraulic stability demulsibility corrosion prevention
Lava (4,050 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
magnesian magmas. The viscosity of lava is important because it determines how the lava will behave. Lavas with high viscosity are rhyolite, dacite, andesite
Rheopecty (339 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
time-dependent increase in viscosity (Time Dependent Viscosity); the longer the fluid undergoes shearing force, the higher its viscosity. Rheopectic fluids,
Joint injection (135 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
common of which are corticosteroids. Hyaluronic acid, because of its high viscosity, is sometimes used to replace bursa fluids. The technique may be used
Acoustic attenuation (938 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity, and are therefore not ideal media. When sound propagates in such media, there is always thermal consumption of energy caused by viscosity.
Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine (84 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
products (soaps, shampoos, lotions etc.). It has uses as a foam booster, viscosity builder, and an antistatic agent. Patch tests with human subjects
Rheological weldability (615 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their rheological properties: viscosity (η) and activation energy (Ea). According to RW criterion, the lower the viscosity (η) during welding process and
Erdosteine (249 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
radical scavenging activity. Erdosteine modulates mucus production and viscosity and increases mucociliary transport, thereby improving expectoration.
Outer core (453 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
modeling work has shown that the outer core is a low viscosity fluid (about ten times the viscosity of liquid metals at the surface) that convects turbulently
Accretion disc (3,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
hand, viscosity itself was not enough to explain the transport of angular momentum to the exterior parts of the disc. Turbulence-enhanced viscosity was
Gear oil (1,074 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
It is of a higher viscosity to better protect the gears and usually is associated with a strong sulfur smell. The high viscosity ensures transfer of
Blood flow (2,695 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
rates of shear. Typical values for the viscosity of normal human plasma at 37 °C is 1.4 mN·s/m2. The viscosity of normal plasma varies with temperature
Liniment (198 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the skin. Sometimes called balms, liniments are of a similar or lesser viscosity than lotions and are rubbed in to create friction, unlike lotions, ointments
Boundary layer (3,819 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. In the Earth's atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer
Magma (2,032 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
structures as well as upon temperature and pressure and composition. Viscosity is a key melt property in understanding the behaviour of magmas. More
Turbulence (4,152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which the kinetic energy dies out due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity is called laminar flow. While there is no theorem relating the non-dimensional
Rayleigh–Plesset equation (804 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
assumed to be constant is the radius of the bubble is the kinematic viscosity of the surrounding liquid, assumed to be constant is the surface tension
Viscoelasticity (3,234 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of bond stretching along crystallographic planes in an ordered solid, viscosity is the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside an amorphous
FLiBe (1,193 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mixture was never used in practice due to the overwhelming increase in viscosity caused by the BeF2 addition in the eutectic mixture. BeF2, which behaves
Carbocisteine (141 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Carbocisteine is a mucolytic that reduces the viscosity of sputum and so can be used to help relieve the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder
Elastomer (674 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (having both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak inter-molecular forces, generally having low Young's
Thickening agent (2,010 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties. Edible
Drag (physics) (3,242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
cause of a drag is viscous friction, the turbulent drag is independent of viscosity. Drag forces always decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object
Fuel viscosity control (120 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fuel viscosity control is a technique to control viscosity and temperature of fuel oil (FO) for efficient combustion in diesel engines of motor vessels
Marsh funnel (743 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Marsh funnel is a simple device for measuring viscosity by observing the time it takes a known volume of liquid to flow from a cone through a short
Navier–Stokes equations (5,562 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expressing the shear tensor in terms of viscosity and fluid velocity, and assuming constant density and viscosity, the Cauchy equations will lead to the
Diffusivity (31 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
diffusivity (often called "diffusion coefficient") Eddy diffusion, eddy diffusivity Viscosity#Kinematic_viscosity, momentum diffusivity Magnetic diffusivity
Rheometer (1,805 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is used for those fluids which cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the
Dashpot (865 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A dashpot is a mechanical device, a damper which resists motion via viscous friction. The resulting force is proportional to the velocity, but acts in
Taylor number (449 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
overall rotational flow. However, in this case the effects of rotation and viscosity are usually characterized by the Ekman number and the Rossby number rather
Ketchup (3,077 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
condiment a pseudoplastic or "shear thinning" property. This increases the viscosity of the ketchup considerably with a relatively small amount added - usually
Kelvin–Voigt material (436 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a viscoelastic material having the properties both of elasticity and viscosity. It is named after the British physicist and engineer Lord Kelvin and
Hemodynamics (2,276 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and blood viscosity, as indicated by the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. The equation is as follows: ∆P: pressure drop/gradient µ: viscosity l: length of
Darcy's law (1,866 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
between the instantaneous discharge rate through a porous medium, the viscosity of the fluid and the pressure drop over a given distance. . The total
Electrorheological fluid (1,698 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
micrometres diameter) in an electrically insulating fluid. The apparent viscosity of these fluids changes reversibly by an order of up to 100,000 in response
Strain rate (778 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to the expansion rate (the bulk viscosity coefficient) and one relating to the shear rate (the "ordinary" viscosity coefficient). The definition of
Rouse number (220 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kármán constant in the equation, which is a constant which correlates eddy viscosity to eddy diffusivity. This is generally taken to be equal to 1, and therefore
Diluent (449 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
ease this restricted movement, diluents are added. This decreases the viscosity of the fluids, thereby also decreasing the pumping/transportation costs
Acoustic rheometer (358 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
considered as extensional viscosity In the case of Newtonian liquid attenuation yields information on the volume viscosity. Stokes' law (sound attenuation)
Ball bearing (3,835 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscosity is 12 mm²/s. Note that dynamic viscosity of oil varies strongly with temperature: a temperature increase of 50–70 °C causes the viscosity to
Limoncello (459 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Varying sugar to water ratio and temperature will affect the clarity, viscosity, and flavor. Opaque limoncellos are the result of spontaneous emulsification
Grashof number (941 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
bulk temperature L = characteristic length D = diameter ν = kinematic viscosity The transition to turbulent flow occurs in the range for natural convection
Modified starch (1,023 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
or freezing; to change their texture; to decrease or increase their viscosity; to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time; or to increase their visco-stability
Chandrasekhar number (172 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in magnetic convection to represent ratio of the Lorentz force to the viscosity. It is named after the Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Dukhin number (261 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dielectric permittivity εm is fluid dielectric permittivity η is dynamic viscosity D is diffusion coefficient There are several ways to measure Dukhin number
Hydraulic engineering (2,319 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
incompressible and has no viscosity. Real fluid has viscosity. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all fluids that exist have some viscosity. A viscous fluid
Potato starch (623 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
approximately 800 ppm phosphate bound to the starch; this increases the viscosity and gives the solution a slightly anionic character, a low gelatinisation
Meat glaze (50 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by reducing brown stock through evaporation by slow heating. Its high viscosity and salt content gives it an unusually long shelf life. Demi-glace
Fåhræus–Lindqvist effect (763 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity of a fluid, in this case blood, changes with the diameter of the tube it travels through; in particular there's a decrease of viscosity as
Fåhræus–Lindqvist effect (763 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the viscosity of a fluid, in this case blood, changes with the diameter of the tube it travels through; in particular there's a decrease of viscosity as
Cebeci–Smith model (271 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
0-equation eddy viscosity model used in computational fluid dynamics analysis of turbulent boundary layer flows. The model gives eddy viscosity, , as a function
Fumed silica (320 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
density and high surface area. Its three-dimensional structure results in viscosity-increasing, thixotropic behavior when used as a thickener or reinforcing
International Standard Atmosphere (1,288 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations
Hele-Shaw clutch (794 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inventor, Professor Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, who was noted for his work in viscosity and flows through small gaps between parallel plates. The clutch was innovative
Steam injection (oil industry) (808 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
is related to near-wellbore cleanup. In this case, steam reduces the viscosity that ties paraffins and asphaltenes to the rock surfaces while steam distillation
Bagnold number (217 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
density, is the grain diameter, is the shear rate and is the dynamic viscosity of the interstitial fluid. The parameter is known as the linear concentration
Burgers' equation (541 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
incompressible flow with the pressure term removed. For a given velocity and viscosity coefficient , the general form of Burgers' equation (also known as viscous
Mantle (geology) (3,030 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
has a relatively low viscosity. In contrast, the lower mantle is under tremendous pressure and therefore has a higher viscosity than the upper mantle
Wax (1,376 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
lipid. Characteristically, they melt above 45 °C (113 °F) to give a low viscosity liquid. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar
Morton number (174 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
number is defined as where g is the acceleration of gravity, is the viscosity of the surrounding fluid, the density of the surrounding fluid, the
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (717 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
glycerol and fatty acids (usually castor bean derived). PGPR reduces the viscosity of chocolate and similar coatings and compounds. It works by decreasing
Tetrahydrofuran (1,136 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
cyclic ether. It is a colorless, water-miscible organic liquid with low viscosity. THF has an odor similar to acetone. It is mainly used as a precursor
Spray nozzle (1,746 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
atomizing gas than an external mix atomizer and is better suited to higher viscosity streams. Many compound internal-mix nozzles are commercially used; e.g
Brookfield Engineering (569 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
required to turn an object, such as a spindle, in a fluid indicates the viscosity of the fluid. Torque is applied through a calibrated spring to a disk
Biodiesel (12,834 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
concerns regarding biodiesel is its viscosity. The viscosity of diesel is 2.5–3.2 cSt at 40 °C and the viscosity of biodiesel made from soybean oil is
Maxwell material (525 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a viscoelastic material having the properties both of elasticity and viscosity. It is named for James Clerk Maxwell who proposed the model in 1867. It
Brinkman number (318 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
processing. There are several definitions; one is where μ is the dynamic viscosity; u is the flow velocity; κ is the thermal conductivity; T0 is the bulk
GX 339-4 (165 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
monotonically decreases since the CENBOL recedes away from the black hole after viscosity is decreased. The frequency variation is thus well modeled by the propagating
Lamb–Oseen vortex (201 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dynamics, the Lamb–Oseen vortex models a line vortex that decays due to viscosity. This vortex is named after Horace Lamb and Carl Wilhelm Oseen. The
Hadamard–Rybczynski equation (169 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the bubble. the density of the ambient fluid. the viscosity of the bubble. the viscosity of the ambient fluid. The Hadamard–Rybczynski equation
Shoe polish (3,052 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
plastic bottle, with a small sponge applicator at the end. To decrease its viscosity, bottled polish usually has a very low wax content. There are many products
Melt flow index (1,124 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inversely proportional to viscosity of the melt at the conditions of the test, though it should be borne in mind that the viscosity for any such material
Hagen number (213 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is a characteristic length ρ is the fluid density ν is the kinematic viscosity For natural convection and so the Hagen number then coincides with the
Brake fluid (1,363 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
consistent brake system operation, brake fluid must maintain a constant viscosity under a wide range of temperatures, including extreme cold. This is especially
Glass fusing (154 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
important to realize that glasses with different coefficients of expansion or viscosity cannot be fused together. Upon cooling or after a period of time, the
Stratovolcano (1,860 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate
Synovial fluid (1,577 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristics; the viscosity coefficient is not a constant and the fluid is not linearly viscous. Synovial fluid has thixotropic characteristics; viscosity decreases
Aerodynamics (4,531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flows. The Euler equations were extended to incorporate the effects of viscosity in the first half of the 1800s, resulting in the Navier-Stokes equations
Newtonian (88 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
perpendicular to the plane of shear Non-Newtonian fluids, in which the viscosity changes with the applied shear force List of things named after Isaac
Syrup (662 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which
Glass ionomer cement (6,681 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
as "high-viscosity" in comparison to "low-viscosity" GIC. Instead, a higher success rate was noted for restorations placed with "high-viscosity" glass-ionomer
Jet (fluid) (242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
assumed to be made up of the same fluid as the jet, and this fluid has a viscosity, than the surrounding fluid near the jet is assumed to be carried along
Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet (3,425 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of ships. Main article: Stokes' law His work on fluid motion and viscosity led to his calculating the terminal velocity for a sphere falling in a
UV pinning (134 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photochemical properties. As a result, the ink droplets move to a higher viscosity state, but stop short of full cure. This is also referred to as the "gelling"
Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (403 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
HTPB is a translucent liquid with a color similar to wax paper and a viscosity similar to corn syrup. The properties cannot be precisely stated because
Pierre-Louis Lions (345 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the paper "Viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations" (1983), written with Michael G. Crandall, he introduced the notion of viscosity solutions
Superfluidity (849 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in
Ekman layer (1,145 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
respectively, is the local Coriolis parameter, and is the diffusive eddy viscosity, which can be derived using mixing length theory. Note that is a modified
Pressure drop (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity through the pipe and fluid viscosity. Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional shear forces within
Oleo strut (610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
increases dramatically, because the air is being compressed, while the viscosity of the oil dampens the rebound movement The largest cargo airplanes in
Hypromellose (1,172 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
viscometer acceptable ranges of error, viscosity is typically given as a mean, or as a range. Typical viscosity test will specify the following: Solution
Vegetable oil fuel (1,820 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Conventional diesel engines can be modified to help ensure that the viscosity of the vegetable oil is low enough to allow proper atomization of the
Stokes' law (1,332 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
small Reynolds numbers of the Navier–Stokes equations: The force of viscosity on a small sphere moving through a viscous fluid is given by: where Fd
Hartmann number (66 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristic length scale σ is the electrical conductivity μ is the dynamic viscosity Magnetohydrodynamics Kenneth R.Cramer, Shih-l Pai (1973). Magnetofluid
Dilbit (2,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
usually natural-gas condensate, for the purpose of meeting pipeline viscosity and density specifications, where the density of the diluent included
Blood vessel (1,171 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
accumulation of three different factors: blood viscosity, blood vessel length, and vessel radius. Blood viscosity is the thickness of the blood and its resistance
Fluid dynamics (3,830 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
such as those involving solid boundaries may require that the viscosity be included. Viscosity cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the no-slip
Drilling fluid (3,765 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
string itself. Air/water: The same as above, with water added to increase viscosity, flush the hole, provide more cooling, and/or to control dust. Air/polymer:
Hot-melt adhesive (5,082 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inch sticks are used, no doubt for the more rapid heating time. Melt viscosity: one of the most noticeable properties. Influences the spread of applied