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Standard Model (4,982 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

This article is about the Standard Model of particle physics. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). This article is a non-mathematical
Non-standard model (110 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematical logic, a non-standard model is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model). If the intended model
High Standard Model 10 (533 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The High Standard Model 10 (HS10) is a gas operated, semi-automatic shotgun that was manufactured by the High Standard Manufacturing Company of Hamden
Physics beyond the Standard Model (4,341 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin
Particle physics (2,611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions
Standard Model (mathematical formulation) (5,778 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
less mathematical description, see Standard Model. This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum
Inner model (501 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
exists a standard model of ZFC (in a given universe) is stronger than the assumption that there exists a model. In fact, if there is a standard model, then
Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (4,052 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry. MSSM is the minimal supersymmetrical
Phenomenology (particle physics) (290 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
of adding the most general set of beyond-the-Standard-Model effects in a given sector of the Standard Model, usually parameterized in terms of anomalous
Noncommutative standard model (842 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
non-commutative Standard Model, mainly due to the French mathematician Alain Connes, uses his noncommutative geometry to devise an extension of the Standard Model to
Supersymmetry (4,721 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
so-called Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, is one of the best studied candidates for physics beyond the Standard Model. There is only indirect evidence
Non-standard model of arithmetic (1,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a non-standard model of arithmetic is a model of (first-order) Peano arithmetic that contains non-standard numbers. The term standard model of arithmetic
Gauge boson (671 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
composite, non-force-carrying bosons, such as certain atoms. The Standard Model of particle physics recognizes four kinds of gauge bosons: photons,
Quark (6,861 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
color charge and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions
Elementary particle (3,397 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particle physics' Standard Model, science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the
MIT Center for Theoretical Physics (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energies down through unification and beyond-the-standard-model physics, through the standard model, to QCD, hadrons, quark matter, and nuclei at the
Standard-Model Extension (1,879 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard-Model Extension (SME) is an effective field theory that contains the Standard Model, general relativity, and all possible operators that break
Preon (2,643 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
CKM matrix elements. Before the Standard Model (SM) was developed in the 1970s (the key elements of the Standard Model known as quarks were proposed by
X (charge) (60 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
lepton number L (that is B − L), and the weak hypercharge YW via the relation: Standard Model (mathematical formulation) Noether's theorem X and Y bosons
Higgs boson (18,845 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the quantum excitation of the Higgs field—a fundamental field
Weak hypercharge (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
although this is a minority usage. Hypercharge assignments in the Standard Model are determined up to a twofold ambiguity by demanding cancellation of
Grand Unified Theory (3,026 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces
Vacuum expectation value (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of 246 GeV This nonzero value underlies the Higgs mechanism of the Standard Model. The chiral condensate in Quantum chromodynamics, about a factor of
W′ and Z′ bosons (1,797 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model. They are named in analogy with the Standard Model W and Z bosons. W′ bosons often arise in
Top quark (3,362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a strange quark, or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark. The Standard Model predicts its mean lifetime to be roughly 6975500000000000000♠5×10−25 s
Glueball (1,719 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expected of a Standard Model glueball. The prediction that glueballs exist is one of the most important predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics
Alternatives to the Standard Model Higgs (1,399 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Although the Higgs boson, as included in the Standard Model, is arguably the simplest method of achieving the Higgs mechanism, it is not without problems
Extra dimensions (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the hierarchy problem. This theory requires that the fields of the Standard Model are confined to a four-dimensional membrane, while gravity propagates
Weak interaction (3,047 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
force is best understood in terms of electro-weak theory (EWT). In the Standard Model of particle physics, the weak interaction is caused by the emission
Dark radiation (195 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photons mediate electromagnetic interactions between particles in the Standard Model (baryonic matter in cosmology), dark radiation is supposed to mediate
Sterile neutrino (2,278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interactions of the Standard Model. The term sterile neutrino is used to distinguish them from the known active neutrinos in the Standard Model, which are charged
Standard model (cryptography) (450 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
In cryptography the standard model is the model of computation in which the adversary is only limited by the amount of time and computational power available
Stop squark (262 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
wide range of SUSY models that address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM) in a natural way. A boson partner to the top quark would stabilize
An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything (4,697 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe how the combined structure and dynamics of all gravitational and Standard Model particle fields, including fermions, are part of the E8 Lie algebra
Fundamental interaction (4,258 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to be the dominant force. Theoretical physicists working beyond the Standard Model seek to quantize the gravitational field toward predictions that particle
Weak isospin (414 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photon of Quantum Electrodynamics. Field theoretical formulation of standard model Weak hypercharge Ambiguities: I is also used as sign for the 'normal'
Yukawa interaction (674 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
are pseudoscalar mesons). The Yukawa interaction is also used in the Standard Model to describe the coupling between the Higgs field and massless quark
Dark photon (378 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Laboratory, which appears to be three to four standard deviations above the Standard-Model values of Hagawara et al. and Davier et al. However, dark photons were
Gaugino (196 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
They are fermions. In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model the following gauginos exist: The gluino (symbol g͂) is the superpartner
Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (1,028 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
acronym for Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. It is a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model that adds an additional singlet chiral
CP violation (2,700 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
image of the original process. "Direct" CP violation is allowed in the Standard Model if a complex phase appears in the CKM matrix describing quark mixing
Baryon number (582 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The baryon number is conserved in nearly all the interactions of the Standard Model. 'Conserved' means that the sum of the baryon number of all incoming
Theory of everything (6,069 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles, atoms, molecules, etc. QFT successfully implemented the Standard Model and unified the interactions (so-called Grand Unified Theory) between
Neutrino minimal standard model (84 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The neutrino minimal standard model (often abbreviated as νMSM) is an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, by the addition of three right-handed
Hypercharge (655 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
includes the up, down and strange quarks out of the total 6 quarks in the Standard Model), hypercharge Y is the following combination of the numbers of up (nu)
Supergravity (3,152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
non-gravitational supersymmetric theories, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model). Since the generators of supersymmetry (SUSY) are convoluted with the
Neutrino oscillation (4,800 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has a non-zero mass, which was not included as part of the original Standard Model of particle physics. The discovery of proof for neutrino oscillation
Higgs mechanism (4,922 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons
Tevatron (2,500 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1995 of the top quark—the last fundamental fermion predicted by the standard model of particle physics. On July 2, 2012, scientists of the CDF and DØ collider
Topological Dipole Field Theory (373 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in research literature. This theory is a slight extension of the Standard model of particle physics. This extension allows a modified behavior of quantum
Lambda-CDM model (3,464 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
"Standard cosmological model" redirects here. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model
Cosmological constant (2,583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
it is constant in both space and time, and this leads to the current standard model of cosmology known as the Lambda-CDM model, which provides a good fit
Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem (152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kinoshita–Lee–Nauenberg theorem or KLN theorem states that perturbatively the standard model as a whole is infrared (IR) finite. That is, the infrared divergences
Seesaw mechanism (914 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
several types of models, each extending the Standard Model. The simplest version, type 1, extends the Standard Model by assuming two or more additional right-handed
Universal extra dimension (334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensions; in contrast, the ADD model requires that the fields of the Standard Model are confined to a four-dimensional membrane, while only gravity propagates
Hylogenesis (202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
not part of the Standard Model. The hidden states have masses near a GeV and very weak couplings to particles in the Standard Model. X and X respectively
List of Large Hadron Collider experiments (262 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the accuracy of the Standard Model (and particularly to search for the Higgs boson), and look for physics beyond the Standard Model such as supersymmetry
Ruger Standard (1,334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Ruger Standard model is a firearm introduced in 1949 as the first product manufactured by Sturm, Ruger & Co., and was the founding member of a product
Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (761 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gran Sasso Laboratory." This finding indicates a deficiency in the Standard Model of particle physics, as neutrinos would have to have mass for this change
Hierarchy problem (2,040 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the weak force and Newton's constant for gravity. Furthermore, if the Standard Model is used to calculate the quantum corrections to Fermi's constant, it
Subatomic particle (1,510 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
or a fermion (a half-integer spin). The elementary particles of the Standard Model include: Six "flavors" of quarks: up, down, bottom, top, strange, and
Flavour (particle physics) (1,878 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
flavour or flavor refers to a species of an elementary particle. The Standard Model counts six flavours of quarks and six flavours of leptons. They are
Sfermion (226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sparticle) of its associated fermion. In supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model (SM) each particle has a superpartner with spin that differs by 1⁄2
Baryogenesis (1,699 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum operator with the (perturbative) Standard Model hamiltonian is zero: . However, the Standard Model is known to violate the conservation of baryon
Conformal gravity (780 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
force in this model. By adding a suitable gravitational term to the standard model action with gravitational coupling, the theory develops a local conformal
Helicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the Standard Model, using quantum field theory it is conventional to use the helicity basis to simplify calculations (of cross sections, for example)
Timeline of particle discoveries (1,234 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
are: Elementary particles from the Standard Model of particle physics that have so far been observed. The Standard Model is the most comprehensive existing
Electron electric dipole moment (651 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the direction of the electron's magnetic moment (spin). Within the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, such a dipole is predicted to be non-zero
Proca action (383 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Romanian physicist Alexandru Proca. The Proca equation is involved in the Standard model and describes there the three massive vector bosons, i.e. the Z and
Quark–lepton complementarity (474 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
well as quarks come in three "colors". Such theory may reproduce the Standard Model at low energies, and hence quark–lepton symmetry may be realized in
Gravitino (684 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
breaking, but if supersymmetry is to solve the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, the gravitino cannot be more massive than about 1 TeV/c2. If the gravitino
Higgsino (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the Standard Model gauge symmetries. After electroweak symmetry breaking the Higgsino becomes
Proton decay (1,557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
currently no experimental evidence that proton decay occurs. In the Standard Model, protons, a type of baryon, are theoretically stable because baryon
Photon (10,636 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an independent existence, and the term photon was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described
Exotic baryon (398 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
collaboration. Several types of exotic baryons that require physics beyond the Standard Model have been conjectured in order to explain specific experimental anomalies
Large Hadron Collider (9,035 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theorists expect new physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge at the TeV energy level, as the Standard Model appears to be unsatisfactory. Issues possibly
SFIAPlus (510 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
SFIAplus is the IT training and development model of the British Computer Society (BCS) . Based on the original Industry Structure Model, first published
DONUT (514 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
neutrino. It confirmed the existence of the last lepton predicted by the Standard Model. The data from the experiment was also used to put an upper limit on
Fermion (984 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and neutrons, are the key building blocks of everyday matter. The Standard Model recognizes two types of elementary fermions: quarks and leptons. In
Neutron electric dipole moment (1,178 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
problem. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, generally lead to a large CP-violation. Typical
Top quark condensate (435 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quark condensate theory (or top condensation) is an alternative to the Standard Model fundamental Higgs field, replaced by a composite field of the top quark
Superstring theory (2,630 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
ranges. For instance, the mass constraint of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model squarks has been up to 1.1 TeV, and gluinos up to 500 GeV. No report
Electron (13,267 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
collision energies of 209 GeV and made important measurements for the Standard Model of particle physics. Individual electrons can now be easily confined
Leptogenesis (physics) (538 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
currently accepted model for the elementary interactions, the so-called Standard Model, it is not possible to create only "standalone" leptons as these processes
Infrared fixed point (758 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
coupling constants that determine the masses of very heavy quarks. In the Standard Model, quarks and leptons have "Yukawa couplings" to the Higgs boson [1].
Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (2,244 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, sometimes also called KM matrix) is a
Boson (1,605 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the recently discovered Higgs boson, and the hypothetical graviton
Technicolor (physics) (8,169 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Technicolor theories are models of physics beyond the standard model that address electroweak gauge symmetry breaking, the mechanism through which W and
Dirac fermion (102 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermion is a Majorana fermion. In particle physics, all fermions in the standard model, except possibly neutrinos, are Dirac fermions. In condensed matter
Naturalness (physics) (584 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
234000 or 0.000234. This is in contrast to current theory like the standard model, where there are a number of parameters that vary by many orders of
Spontaneous symmetry breaking (3,254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
superconductivity of metals and the origin of particle masses in the standard model of particle physics. One important consequence of the distinction between
Particle physics in cosmology (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics, place constraints on the conditions of the early universe. The success of the Standard Model at explaining
List of particles (2,098 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
half-integer spin while bosons have integer spin. All the particles of the Standard Model have been experimentally observed, recently including the Higgs boson
Model building (particle physics) (450 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
building refers to a construction of new quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model that have certain features making them attractive theoretically or for
W and Z bosons (2,307 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The experimental discovery was a triumph for what is now known as the Standard Model of particle physics. The W bosons are named after the weak force. The
Remington Model 552 (172 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
slender profile. The rifle was manufactured from 1957 to 1988 in a standard model and is available in an upgraded "BDL" model, which has checkered butt
Vacuum state (2,481 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interactions are unified in the theory of the electroweak interaction. The Standard Model is a generalization of the QED work to include all the known elementary
Electroweak interaction (1,296 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
hypercharge from U(1), respectively, all of which are massless. In the Standard Model, the W± and Z0 bosons, and the photon, are produced by the spontaneous
Flavor-changing neutral current (617 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
observed in experiment. Flavor-changing neutral currents may occur in the Standard Model beyond the tree level, but they are highly suppressed by the GIM mechanism
Pressuron (926 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The pressuron is a hypothetical scalar particle which couples to both gravity and matter theorised in 2013. Although originally postulated without self-interaction
Legal liability (323 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
residence (assuming they do not give personal guarantees). This is the standard model for larger businesses, in which a shareholder will only lose the amount
Minimal model (set theory) (441 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
In set theory, the minimal model is the minimal standard model of ZFC. The minimal model was introduced by Shepherdson (1951, 1952, 1953) and rediscovered
Chargino (188 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard Model of particle physics Large Hadron Collider tunnel at CERN Background Particle physics Standard Model Quantum field theory Gauge theory
ATLAS experiment (4,841 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that it will shed light on new theories of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. ATLAS is 46 metres long, 25 metres in diameter, and weighs about 7
Local symmetry (310 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
associated with local gauge symmetries in Yang–Mills theory (see also standard model) where the Lagrangian is locally symmetric under some compact Lie group
Force carrier (757 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Wave–particle duality In particle physics, quantum field theories such as the Standard Model describe nature in terms of fields. Each field has a complementary description
Peskin–Takeuchi parameter (1,363 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
parameters agree with the Standard Model. They can then be used to constrain models of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The Peskin–Takeuchi parameters
ELKO field (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimension one. Since the field has a mass dimensionality mismatch with standard model matter fields it was suggested as a dark matter candidate. As a result
String-net liquid (693 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
chiral coupling between the fermions and the SU(2) gauge bosons in the standard model. For strings labeled by the positive integers, string-nets are the spin
Supersplit supersymmetry (225 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(beyond those of the Standard Model) which are decoupled, leaving no trace at low energies, therefore leaving just the Standard Model. The paper argued that
Minicharged particle (279 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
weakly interact with matter. Minicharged particles are not part of the Standard Model. One proposal to detect them involved photons tunneling through an opaque
Superfluid vacuum theory (2,494 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thus makes it yet another free parameter of the Standard Model. Within the framework of the Standard Model (or its extensions) the theoretical estimates
Howard Georgi (417 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
foundational works for the supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). After the measurements of the three Standard Model gauge couplings at LEP I in 1991, it was
John Clive Ward (1,629 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conceived a two-stage device". Ward is also one of the authors of the Standard Model of gauge particle interactions: his contributions were published in
Marble Hill House (583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
upon Thames. The compact design soon became famous and furnished a standard model for the Georgian English villa and for plantation houses in the American
Lepton (3,739 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fermilab announced its discovery. Leptons are an important part of the Standard Model. Electrons are one of the components of atoms, alongside protons and
Memory consolidation (5,776 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
synapses in memory encoding neuronal circuits."[citation needed] The standard model of synaptic consolidation suggests that alterations of synaptic protein
Physics (7,770 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fundamental particles predicted by the standard model, and no others, appear to exist; however, physics beyond the Standard Model, with theories such as supersymmetry
Stueckelberg action (512 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Stueckelberg Lagrangian of the StSM (Stueckelberg extension of the Standard Model) consists of a gauge invariant kinetic term for a massive U(1) gauge
Michel parameters (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Louis Michel. Sometimes instead of , the product is quoted. Within the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, these parameters are expected to be Precise
Tetron Model (369 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
representations the quarks and leptons and also the vector bosons of the standard model can be ordered (see figure). A possible explanation of this ordering
Particle zoo (163 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The set of particles believed today to be elementary is known as the Standard Model, and includes quarks, bosons and leptons. A Tour of the Subatomic Zoo:
Parity (physics) (2,915 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
because there is more than one spin group. See also: (−1)F In the Standard Model of fundamental interactions there are precisely three global internal
Search for the Higgs boson (6,646 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fundamental particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, and its discovery would be the "ultimate verification" of the Standard Model. In March 2013, the
Sigma baryon (537 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quark. However, the top Sigmas are not expected to be observed as the Standard Model predicts the mean lifetime of top quarks to be roughly 6975500000000000000♠5×10−25 s
Causal dynamical triangulation (1,265 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Sphaleron (665 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(time-independent) solution to the electroweak field equations of the Standard Model of particle physics, and it is involved in processes that violate baryon
Majorana fermion (2,578 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermions at low energy
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (1,993 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
BTeV experiment (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
challenge the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of bottom and charm quark states. The Standard Model has been the baseline
B meson (804 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of neutral B meson oscillations is a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It has been measured in the B0–B0 system to be
India-based Neutrino Observatory (2,148 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Test theories of special relativity (2,079 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory. Another, more extensive model is the Standard-Model Extension, which also includes the standard model and general relativity. Howard Percy Robertson
Sundance Bilson-Thompson (737 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
loop quantum gravity, as they may represent a way of incorporating the Standard Model into loop quantum gravity. This would make loop quantum gravity a candidate
Mass generation (1,090 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of gravitational interaction reconciles with the currently popular Standard Model of particle physics. There are two types of mass generation models:
Tetraquark (658 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard Model of particle physics Large Hadron Collider tunnel at CERN Background Particle physics Standard Model Quantum field theory Gauge theory
Hyperon (493 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard Model of particle physics Large Hadron Collider tunnel at CERN Background Particle physics Standard Model Quantum field theory Gauge theory
Big Bang (11,616 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
investigations of theoretical cosmology. The Lambda-CDM model is the standard model of Big Bang cosmology, the simplest model that provides a reasonably
R-parity (1,258 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
R-parity is a concept in particle physics. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, baryon number and lepton number are no longer conserved by all of the
Leica Standard (721 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Leica Standard, Model E was the fourth version of the original 35 mm Leica camera to be launched from Ernst Leitz in Wetzlar, Germany. The concept
Canonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (761 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (SUPL) is a laboratory under construction 1 km deep in the Stawell Goldmine, located in Stawell, Victoria, Australia
Muonium (611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
studying bound-state QED and also for searching for physics beyond the standard model. Normally in the nomenclature of particle physics, an atom composed
Gauge covariant derivative (1,256 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
group at all (and, in practice, being only U(1), SU(2) or SU(3) in the Standard Model). Note that Lie groups do not come equipped with a metric. A yet more
Georgi–Glashow model (1,442 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
proposed by Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow in 1974. In this model the standard model gauge groups SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1) are combined into a single simple
Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (277 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
evidence of neutrino oscillation, and its results conflict with the standard model expectation of only three neutrino flavors, when considered in the context
B–Bbar oscillation (410 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the neutral particle oscillation, a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the phenomenon of B mesons changing (or oscillating)
C-symmetry (379 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conjugation into a left-handed antineutrino, which does not interact in the Standard Model. This property is what is meant by the "maximal violation" of C-symmetry
Generation (particle physics) (816 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
interactions are identical. There are three generations according to the Standard Model of particle physics. Each generation is divided into two types of leptons
Universe (12,914 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Standard Model, a theory that is concerned with electromagnetic interactions and the weak and strong nuclear interactions. The Standard Model is supported
Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (1,833 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Majoron (1,046 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
modeled by allowing them to propagate through a material while all other Standard Model forces are fixed to an orbifold point. Experiments studying double
Studillac (94 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
engine. The assemblers charged about $1500 more than the Studebaker standard model. An option was a dual-range Hydra-Matic transmission, at an additional
Tachyon (3,149 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of standard model particles moving at superluminal speeds can be modeled using Lorentz invariance violating terms, for example in the Standard-Model Extension
Nonoblique correction (232 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particular type of radiative correction to the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Nonoblique corrections are defined in four-fermion scattering processes
Bismarck tower (516 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
specific form of a Bismarck monument, built according to a more or less standard model across the former German Reich to honour the first chancellor Otto von
BaBar experiment (1,368 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
KEK laboratory in Japan. CP violation was already predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics, and well established in the neutral kaon system
Quantum field theory (9,377 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
formulated as relativistic quantum field theories, such as QED, QCD, and the Standard Model. QED, the quantum field-theoretic description of the electromagnetic
Chiral anomaly (960 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
using the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. See Fujikawa's method. The Standard Model of electroweak interactions has all the necessary ingredients for successful
Soft SUSY breaking (178 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
SUSY breaking adds explicit symmetry breaking to the supersymmetric Standard Model Lagrangian. The source of SUSY breaking results from a different sector
Winchester Model 1906 (293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
different variants produced by Winchester; the .22 Short Model, the Standard Model, and the Expert Model. The .22 Short Model was made until 1908, when
331 model (409 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Standard Model is that the gauge anomalies cancel exactly for each of the three known quark-lepton families independently. The Standard Model thus
Leptoquark (484 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and baryon numbers. They are encountered in various extensions of the Standard Model, such as technicolor theories or GUTs based on Pati–Salam model, SU(5)
Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics (3,194 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
new particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model after experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. 2000 Steven Weinberg
Beta function (physics) (719 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004. Main article: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model § Gauge-Coupling Unification Callan-Symanzik equation Quantum triviality
Quantum gravity (5,870 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gravity is in many ways a much better quantum field theory than the Standard Model, since it appears to be valid all the way up to its cutoff at the Planck
Quantum triviality (1,500 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Nevertheless, because the Higgs boson plays a central role in the Standard Model of particle physics, the question of triviality in Higgs models is of
Exocomet (599 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
important elements for understanding planet formation. Indeed, in the standard model of planet formation by accretion, planets are the result of the agglomeration
Ducati Multistrada 1200 (661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the S-Sport and the S-Touring. The S models include ABS (optional on standard model) and electronically adjustable suspension, called DES (Ducati Electronic
Baryon asymmetry (872 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
matter and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe. Neither the standard model of particle physics, nor the theory of general relativity provides an
Ubuntu Edge (839 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
funding goal, raising only $12,809,906, with 5682 pledges to purchase the standard model of the handset. The Edge was designed as a hybrid device, which would
Anne Fausto-Sterling (1,958 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
role to a gender, we have created a standard model of what it means to be male or female. In essence, the standard model characterizes by masculinity and
Muon (4,443 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
was observed in the decay of other charged mesons. In the eventual Standard Model of particle physics codified in the 1970s, all mesons other than the
Dynamic energy budget (1,221 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to capture product formation and explain indirect calorimetry. The standard model quantifies the metabolism of isomorphs with 1 reserve and 1 structure
Alan Kostelecký (495 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory models, and proposed a new version of the Standard Model of particle physics, called the Standard-Model Extension that catalogs the various ways in
Symmetry (physics) (2,923 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
the standard model. Supersymmetry is based on the idea that there is another physical symmetry beyond those already developed in the standard model, specifically
Oblique correction (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particular type of radiative correction to the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Oblique corrections are defined in four-fermion scattering processes
Kaluza–Klein theory (4,950 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
there are new particles beyond the Standard Model, they could potentially change the ratio of the predicted Standard Model H → γγ cross-section to the experimentally
The Road to Reality (617 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004. It covers the basics of the Standard Model of particle physics, discussing general relativity and quantum mechanics
Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (1,469 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
explain the neutrino oscillations predicted by Bruno Pontecorvo. The Standard Model of particle physics contains three generations or "flavors" of neutrinos
Hidden sector (91 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
boson forces of the Standard Model. Most typically, hidden sectors include a gauge group that is independent from the Standard Model gauge group. Nevertheless
Gibson Les Paul bass (400 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and a carved-top Standard model. Les Paul basses were available in 4 or 5-string models. The first 1990s version of the Standard model featured Bartolini
ZEUS (particle detector) (603 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
used to test and study the Standard Model of particle physics, as well as searching for particles beyond the Standard Model. DESY was founded in 1959
Quantum chromodynamics (4,936 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in quantum electrodynamics. The theory is an important part of the Standard Model of particle physics. A large body of experimental evidence for QCD has
Scalar–tensor theory (2,091 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dicke with the one of Symmetry Breakdown, which is essential within the Standard Model SM of elementary particles, where the so-called Symmetry Breakdown leads
Group (mathematics) (10,150 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
one after the other. Lie groups are the symmetry groups used in the Standard Model of particle physics; Point groups are used to help understand symmetry
Carl Gustav Hempel (716 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation, which was considered the "standard model" of scientific explanation during the 1950s and 1960s. He is also known
Weinberg angle (429 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, part of the standard model of particle physics, and is usually denoted as θW. It is the angle by
Color charge (1,495 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
development since the 1970s and constitutes an important component of the Standard Model of particle physics.[citation needed] In QCD, a quark's color can
Lisa Randall (901 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensions of space. She has advanced the understanding and testing of the Standard Model, supersymmetry, possible solutions to the hierarchy problem concerning
Unparticle physics (789 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles using the Standard Model of particle physics, because its components are scale invariant. Howard
Random oracle (1,200 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
being secure in the random oracle model, as opposed to secure in the standard model of cryptography. Random oracles are typically used as an ideal replacement
Ribot's Law (1,304 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
example for memory consolidation and storage. As a component of the standard model memory of systems consolidation, it is challenged by the multiple trace
Dark energy (7,646 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that
Split supersymmetry (979 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, split supersymmetry is a recent proposal for physics beyond the Standard Model. It was proposed separately in three papers. The first by James Wells
Biological determinism (1,225 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
how this standard model shapes doctors’ ideas about gender and what is socially acceptable. She claims that (according to the standard model) “Bodies
Dimensionless physical constant (2,188 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
calculation, but so far, this goal has remained elusive. The original standard model of particle physics from the 1970s contained 19 fundamental dimensionless
Noether's second theorem (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
elements of all modern field theories of physics, such as the prevailing Standard Model. Noether's first theorem Noether identities Gauge symmetry (mathematics)
Honda Elite (363 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
150) and that the Elite 150 was now being sold in two editions, the standard model, and a deluxe model. The deluxe model (CH150D) shared an almost identical