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This article is about the Standard Model of particle physics. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). This article is a non-mathematicalNon-standard model (102 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mathematical logic, a non-standard model is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model). If the intended modelPhysics beyond the Standard Model (4,292 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Physics beyond the Standard Model refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin ofHigh Standard Model 10 (523 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The High Standard Model 10 (HS10) is a gas operated, semi-automatic shotgun that was manufactured by the High Standard Manufacturing Company of HamdenParticle physics (2,563 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensionsGauge boson (611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

by the exchange of gauge bosons—usually as virtual particles. The Standard Model of particle physics recognizes four kinds of gauge bosons: photons,Inner model (501 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

exists a standard model of ZFC (in a given universe) is stronger than the assumption that there exists a model. In fact, if there is a standard model, thenStandard Model (mathematical formulation) (5,701 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

less mathematical description, see Standard Model. This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantumMinimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (4,034 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry. MSSM is the minimal supersymmetricalStandard-Model Extension (1,859 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Standard-Model Extension (SME) is an effective field theory that contains the Standard Model, general relativity, and all possible operators that breakPhenomenology (particle physics) (290 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

theoretical physics to high-energy particle physics experiments. Within the Standard Model, phenomenology is the calculating of detailed predictions for experimentsNoncommutative standard model (842 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

non-commutative Standard Model, mainly due to the French mathematician Alain Connes, uses his noncommutative geometry to devise an extension of the Standard Model toNon-standard model of arithmetic (1,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a non-standard model of arithmetic is a model of (first-order) Peano arithmetic that contains non-standard numbers. The term standard model of arithmeticQuark (6,775 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

color charge and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactionsElementary particle (3,420 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particle physics' Standard Model, science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including theMIT Center for Theoretical Physics (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

energies down through unification and beyond-the-standard-model physics, through the standard model, to QCD, hadrons, quark matter, and nuclei at theAlternatives to the Standard Model Higgs (1,401 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Although the Higgs boson, as included in the Standard Model, is arguably the simplest method of achieving the Higgs mechanism, it is not without problemsSupersymmetry (5,587 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

problem. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is one of the best studied candidates for physics beyond the Standard Model. There is only indirect evidenceX (charge) (60 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

number L (that is B − L), and the weak hypercharge YW via the relation: . Standard Model (mathematical formulation) Noether's theorem X and Y bosonsHiggs boson (18,550 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. Observations of the particle allows scientists toPreon (2,609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

CKM matrix elements. Before the Standard Model (SM) was developed in the 1970s (the key elements of the Standard Model known as quarks were proposed byGaugino (189 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

They are fermions. In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model the following gauginos exist: The gluino (symbol g͂) is the superpartnerWeak hypercharge (339 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

although this is a minority usage. Hypercharge assignments in the Standard Model are determined up to a twofold ambiguity by demanding cancellation ofGlueball (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

that glueballs exist is one of the most important predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics that has not yet been confirmed experimentally.Vacuum expectation value (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of 246 GeV This nonzero value underlies the Higgs mechanism of the Standard Model. The chiral condensate in Quantum chromodynamics, about a factor ofGrand Unified Theory (3,029 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forcesTop quark (3,366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a strange quark or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark. The Standard Model predicts its mean lifetime to be roughly 6975500000000000000♠5×10−25 sLambda-CDM model (2,468 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Standard cosmological model" redirects here. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM modelFundamental interaction (4,209 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mediating radioactive decay. Theoretical physicists working beyond the Standard Model seek to quantize the gravitational field toward predictions that particleWeak isospin (403 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

photon of Quantum Electrodynamics. Field theoretical formulation of standard model Weak hypercharge Ambiguities: I is also used as sign for the 'normal'Sterile neutrino (2,272 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of the Standard Model except gravity. The term sterile neutrino is used to distinguish them from the known active neutrinos in the Standard Model, whichPhoton (10,772 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

existence, and the term photon for light quanta was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are describedStop squark (262 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

wide range of SUSY models that address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM) in a natural way. A boson partner to the top quark would stabilizeDark radiation (195 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

photons mediate electromagnetic interactions between particles in the Standard Model (baryonic matter in cosmology), dark radiation is supposed to mediateYukawa interaction (642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

are pseudoscalar mesons). The Yukawa interaction is also used in the Standard Model to describe the coupling between the Higgs field and massless quarkCP violation (2,592 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

image of the original process. "Direct" CP violation is allowed in the Standard Model if a complex phase appears in the CKM matrix describing quark mixingNext-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (1,028 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

acronym for Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. It is a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model that adds an additional singlet chiralAn Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything (4,002 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

describe how the combined structure and dynamics of all gravitational and Standard Model particle fields, including fermions, are part of the E8 Lie algebraTheory of everything (5,833 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particles, atoms, molecules, etc. QFT successfully implemented the Standard Model and unified the interactions (so-called Grand Unified Theory) betweenNeutrino minimal standard model (84 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The neutrino minimal standard model (often abbreviated as νMSM) is an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, by the addition of three right-handedStandard model (cryptography) (466 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In cryptography the standard model is the model of computation in which the adversary is only limited by the amount of time and computational power availableDark photon (183 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying intoSupergravity (3,081 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

non-gravitational supersymmetric theories, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model). Since the generators of supersymmetry (SUSY) are convoluted with theHypercharge (642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

includes the up, down and strange quarks out of the total 6 quarks in the Standard Model), hypercharge Y is the following combination of the numbers of up (nu)Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (2,242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, sometimes also called KM matrix) is aNeutrino oscillation (4,669 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

has a non-zero mass, which was not included as part of the original Standard Model of particle physics. A great deal of evidence for neutrino oscillationBaryon number (509 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The baryon number is conserved in nearly all the interactions of the Standard Model. 'Conserved' means that the sum of the baryon number of all incomingTevatron (2,379 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1995 of the top quark—the last fundamental fermion predicted by the standard model of particle physics. On July 2, 2012, scientists of the CDF and DØ colliderKinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem (152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Kinoshita–Lee–Nauenberg theorem or KLN theorem states that perturbatively the standard model as a whole is infrared (IR) finite. That is, the infrared divergences