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Standard Model (4,952 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

This article is about the Standard Model of particle physics. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). This article is a non-mathematical
Non-standard model (102 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematical logic, a non-standard model is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model). If the intended model
Physics beyond the Standard Model (4,288 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Physics beyond the Standard Model refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin of
High Standard Model 10 (523 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The High Standard Model 10 (HS10) is a gas operated, semi-automatic shotgun that was manufactured by the High Standard Manufacturing Company of Hamden
Particle physics (2,583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fundamental fields and their dynamics are summarized in a theory called the Standard Model, therefore particle physics is largely the study of the Standard Model's
Gauge boson (611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by the exchange of gauge bosons—usually as virtual particles. The Standard Model of particle physics recognizes four kinds of gauge bosons: photons,
Standard Model (mathematical formulation) (5,641 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a less mathematical description, see Standard Model. This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum
Inner model (501 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
exists a standard model of ZFC (in a given universe) is stronger than the assumption that there exists a model. In fact, if there is a standard model, then
Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (3,958 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is an extension to the Standard Model that realizes supersymmetry. MSSM is the minimal supersymmetrical
Standard-Model Extension (1,859 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard-Model Extension (SME) is an effective field theory that contains the Standard Model, general relativity, and all possible operators that break
Phenomenology (particle physics) (290 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theoretical physics to high-energy particle physics experiments. Within the Standard Model, phenomenology is the calculating of detailed predictions for experiments
Noncommutative standard model (842 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
non-commutative Standard Model, mainly due to the French mathematician Alain Connes, uses his noncommutative geometry to devise an extension of the Standard Model to
Non-standard model of arithmetic (1,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a non-standard model of arithmetic is a model of (first-order) Peano arithmetic that contains non-standard numbers. The term standard model of arithmetic
Quark (6,755 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
color charge and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions
Elementary particle (3,419 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particle physics' Standard Model, science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the
MIT Center for Theoretical Physics (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energies down through unification and beyond-the-standard-model physics, through the standard model, to QCD, hadrons, quark matter, and nuclei at the
X (charge) (60 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
number L (that is B − L), and the weak hypercharge YW via the relation: . Standard Model (mathematical formulation) Noether's theorem X and Y bosons
Higgs boson (18,170 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. Its main relevance is that it allows scientists
Preon (2,608 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
CKM matrix elements. Before the Standard Model (SM) was developed in the 1970s (the key elements of the Standard Model known as quarks were proposed by
Glueball (1,597 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that glueballs exist is one of the most important predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics that has not yet been confirmed experimentally.
Supersymmetry (5,660 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
problem. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is one of the best studied candidates for addition to the Standard Model. The failure of the Large Hadron
Grand Unified Theory (3,028 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces
Weak hypercharge (339 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
although this is a minority usage. Hypercharge assignments in the Standard Model are determined up to a twofold ambiguity by demanding cancellation of
Gaugino (189 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
They are fermions. In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model the following gauginos exist: The gluino (symbol g͂) is the superpartner
Vacuum expectation value (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of 246 GeV This nonzero value underlies the Higgs mechanism of the Standard Model. The chiral condensate in Quantum chromodynamics, about a factor of
Hierarchy problem (1,934 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the weak force and Newton's constant for gravity. Furthermore if the Standard Model is used to calculate the quantum corrections to Fermi's constant, it
Higgs mechanism (4,703 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons. In the Standard Model, the three weak bosons gain mass through the Higgs mechanism by interacting
Top quark (3,351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a strange quark or, on the rarest of occasions, a down quark. The Standard Model predicts its mean lifetime to be roughly 5×10−25 s. This is about a
Alternatives to the Standard Model Higgs (1,412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Although the Higgs boson, as included in the Standard Model, is arguably the simplest method of achieving the Higgs mechanism, it is not without problems
Lambda-CDM model (2,410 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
"Standard cosmological model" redirects here. For other uses, see Standard model (disambiguation). The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model
Sterile neutrino (2,245 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the Standard Model except gravity. The term sterile neutrino is used to distinguish them from the known active neutrinos in the Standard Model, which
Photon (10,624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
existence, and the term photon for light quanta was accepted. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons are described as a necessary consequence
Weak isospin (403 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photon of Quantum Electrodynamics. Field theoretical formulation of standard model Weak hypercharge Ambiguities: I is also used as sign for the 'normal'
Stop squark (262 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
wide range of SUSY models that address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM) in a natural way. A boson partner to the top quark would stabilize
Dark radiation (194 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
photons mediate electromagnetic interactions between particles in the Standard Model (baryonic matter in cosmology), dark radiation is supposed to mediate
CP violation (2,606 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
image of the original process. "Direct" CP violation is allowed in the Standard Model if a complex phase appears in the CKM matrix describing quark mixing
Yukawa interaction (642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
are pseudoscalar mesons). The Yukawa interaction is also used in the Standard Model to describe the coupling between the Higgs field and massless quark
Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (1,028 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
acronym for Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. It is a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model that adds an additional singlet chiral
An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything (4,003 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describe how the combined structure and dynamics of all gravitational and Standard Model particle fields, including fermions, are part of the E8 Lie algebra
Theory of everything (5,828 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles, atoms, molecules, etc. QFT successfully implemented the Standard Model and unified the interactions (so-called Grand Unified Theory) between
Fundamental interaction (4,165 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mediating radioactive decay. Theoretical physicists working beyond the Standard Model seek to quantize the gravitational field toward predictions that particle
Dark photon (182 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Standard model (cryptography) (466 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In cryptography the standard model is the model of computation in which the adversary is only limited by the amount of time and computational power available
Neutrino oscillation (4,653 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has a non-zero mass, which was not included as part of the original Standard Model of particle physics. A great deal of evidence for neutrino oscillation
Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem (152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kinoshita–Lee–Nauenberg theorem or KLN theorem states that perturbatively the standard model as a whole is infrared (IR) finite. That is, the infrared divergences
Baryon number (508 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The baryon number is conserved in nearly all the interactions of the Standard Model. 'Conserved' means that the sum of the baryon number of all incoming
Tevatron (2,374 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1995 of the top quark—the last fundamental fermion predicted by the standard model of the particle physics. On July 2, 2012, scientists of the CDF and
Supergravity (3,081 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
non-gravitational supersymmetric theories, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model). Since the generators of supersymmetry (SUSY) are convoluted with the
Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (2,239 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, sometimes also called KM matrix) is a
Hylogenesis (202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
not part of the Standard Model. The hidden states have masses near a GeV and very weak couplings to particles in the Standard Model. X and X respectively
W′ and Z′ bosons (1,797 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model. They are named in analogy with the Standard Model W and Z bosons. W′ bosons often arise in
Seesaw mechanism (914 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
several types of models, each extending the Standard Model. The simplest version, type 1, extends the Standard Model by assuming two or more additional right-handed
Physics (7,238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fundamental particles predicted by the standard model, and no others, appear to exist; however, physics beyond the Standard Model, with theories such as supersymmetry
Large Hadron Collider (8,079 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics like the Standard Model, and particularly prove or disprove the existence of the theorized Higgs
SFIAPlus (510 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
SFIAplus is the IT training and development model of the British Computer Society (BCS) . Based on the original Industry Structure Model, first published
Sfermion (226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sparticle) of its associated fermion. In supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model (SM) each particle has a superpartner with spin that differs by 1⁄2
Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (673 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gran Sasso Laboratory." This finding indicates a deficiency in the Standard Model of particle physics, as neutrinos would have to have mass for this change
Flavour (particle physics) (1,820 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flavour or flavor refers to a species of an elementary particle. The Standard Model counts six flavours of quarks and six flavours of leptons. They are
Neutrino minimal standard model (84 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The neutrino minimal standard model (often abbreviated as νMSM) is an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, by the addition of three right-handed
Timeline of particle discoveries (1,299 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
are: Elementary particles from the Standard Model of particle physics that have so far been observed. The Standard Model is the most comprehensive existing
Subatomic particle (1,496 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
or a fermion (a half-integer spin). The elementary particles of the Standard Model include: Six "flavors" of quarks: up, down, bottom, top, strange, and
Ruger Standard (1,337 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Ruger Standard model is a firearm introduced in 1949 as the first product manufactured by Sturm, Ruger and Company, and was the founding member of
Top quark condensate (432 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particle physics, the top quark condensate theory is an alternative to the Standard Model fundamental Higgs field, replaced by a composite field of the top quark
Super-Kamiokande (1,053 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Baryogenesis (1,694 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum operator with the (perturbative) Standard Model hamiltonian is zero: . However, the Standard Model is known to violate the conservation of baryon
Cosmological constant (2,448 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
it is constant in both space and time, and this leads to the current standard model of cosmology known as the Lambda-CDM model, which provides a good fit
Gravitino (677 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
breaking, but if supersymmetry is to solve the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model, the gravitino cannot be more massive than about 1 TeV/c2. If the gravitino
Proton decay (1,606 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
currently no experimental evidence that proton decay occurs. In the Standard Model, protons, a type of baryon, are theoretically stable because baryon
Higgsino (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the Standard Model gauge symmetries. After electroweak symmetry breaking the Higgsino becomes
Helicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the Standard Model, using quantum field theory it is conventional to use the helicity basis to simplify calculations (of cross sections, for example)
DONUT (514 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
neutrino. It confirmed the existence of the last lepton predicted by the Standard Model. The data from the experiment was also used to put an upper limit on
Fermion (965 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
behavior under extreme conditions, such as superconductivity. The Standard Model recognizes two types of elementary fermions, quarks and leptons. In
Universal extra dimension (334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensions; in contrast, the ADD model requires that the fields of the Standard Model are confined to a four-dimensional membrane, while only gravity propagates
Exotic baryon (583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dibaryons. Several types of exotic baryons that require physics beyond the Standard Model have been conjectured in order to explain specific experimental anomalies
Electron (13,212 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
collision energies of 209 GeV and made important measurements for the Standard Model of particle physics. Individual electrons can now be easily confined
Neutron electric dipole moment (1,163 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
problem. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model, such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, generally lead to a large CP-violation. Typical
Conformal gravity (788 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Broken Conformal Symmetry and the Standard Model", https://www.keepandshare.com/doc11/7947/conformal-standard-model-pdf-78k?da=y Pawlowski, M.; Raczka
Test theories of special relativity (2,007 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory. Another, more extensive model is the Standard-Model Extension, which also includes the standard model and general relativity. Howard Percy Robertson
Infrared fixed point (698 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
coupling constants that determine the masses of very heavy quarks. In the Standard Model, quarks and leptons have "Yukawa couplings" to the Higgs boson [1].
Leptogenesis (physics) (515 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
currently accepted model for the elementary interactions, the so-called Standard Model, it is not possible to create only "standalone" leptons as these processes
Hypercharge (642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
includes the up, down and strange quarks out of the total 6 quarks in the Standard Model), hypercharge Y is the following combination of the numbers of up (nu)
Boson (1,485 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the Higgs boson, and the still-theoretical graviton of quantum gravity;
Electron electric dipole moment (520 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the direction of the electron's magnetic moment (spin). Within the standard model of elementary particle physics, such a dipole is predicted to be non-zero
Naturalness (physics) (584 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
234000 or 0.000234. This is in contrast to current theory like the standard model, where there are a number of parameters that vary by many orders of
Spontaneous symmetry breaking (3,263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
superconductivity of metals and the origin of particle masses in the standard model of particle physics. One important consequence of the distinction between
Model building (particle physics) (450 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
building refers to a construction of new quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model that have certain features making them attractive theoretically or for
List of particles (2,084 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
half-integer spin while bosons have integer spin. All the particles of the Standard Model have been experimentally observed, recently including the Higgs boson
Flavor-changing neutral current (521 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
observed in experiment. Flavor-changing neutral currents may occur in the Standard Model beyond the tree level, but they are highly suppressed by the GIM mechanism
W and Z bosons (2,356 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
3×10−25 s. Their discovery was a major success for what is now called the Standard Model of particle physics. The W bosons are named after the weak force. The
Gauge covariant derivative (451 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the eight Gell-Mann matrices, . The covariant derivative in the Standard Model can be expressed in the following form: Kinetic momentum Connection
Electroweak interaction (1,285 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
hypercharge from U(1), respectively, all of which are massless. In the Standard Model, the W± and Z0 bosons, and the photon, are produced by the spontaneous
Remington Model 552 (172 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
slender profile. The rifle was manufactured from 1957 to 1988 in a standard model and is available in an upgraded "BDL" model, which has checkered butt
Vacuum state (2,468 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interactions are unified in the theory of the electroweak interaction. The Standard Model is a generalization of the QED work to include all the known elementary
Particle physics in cosmology (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics, place constraints on the conditions of the early universe. The success of the Standard Model at explaining
ATLAS experiment (4,777 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
It might shed light on new theories of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. ATLAS is 46 metres long, 25 metres in diameter, and weighs about 7
Legal liability (315 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
residence (assuming they do not give personal guarantees). This is the standard model for larger businesses, in which a shareholder will only lose the amount
Pressuron (898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The pressuron is a hypothetical scalar particle which couples to both gravity and matter theorised in 2013. Although originally postulated without self-interaction
Chargino (142 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard Model of particle physics Large Hadron Collider tunnel at CERN Background Particle physics Standard Model Quantum field theory Gauge theory
String-net liquid (675 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
chiral coupling between the fermions and the SU(2) gauge bosons in the standard model. For strings labeled by the positive integers, string-nets are the spin
Force carrier (757 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Wave–particle duality In particle physics, quantum field theories such as the Standard Model describe nature in terms of fields. Each field has a complementary description
Peskin–Takeuchi parameter (1,361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
parameters agree with the Standard Model. They can then be used to constrain models of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The Peskin–Takeuchi parameters
Random oracle (912 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
being secure in the random oracle model, as opposed to secure in the standard model. In practice, random oracles are typically used as an ideal replacement
Minimal model (set theory) (430 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In set theory, a minimal model is a minimal standard model of ZFC. Minimal models were introduced by (Shepherdson 1951, 1952, 1953). The existence of a
Superstring theory (2,870 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
ranges. For instance, the mass constraint of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model squarks has been up to 1.1 TeV, and gluinos up to 500 GeV. No report
Bismarck tower (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
specific form of a Bismarck monument, built according to a more or less standard model across the former German Reich to honour the first chancellor Otto von
Howard Georgi (461 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
foundational works for the supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). After the measurements of the three Standard Model gauge couplings at LEP I in 1991, it was
Superfluid vacuum theory (2,569 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thus makes it yet another free parameter of the Standard Model. Within the framework of the Standard Model (or its extensions) the theoretical estimates
Local symmetry (310 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
associated with local gauge symmetries in Yang–Mills theory (see also standard model) where the Lagrangian is locally symmetric under some compact Lie group
John Clive Ward (1,617 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conceived a two-stage device". Ward is also one of the authors of the Standard Model of gauge particle interactions: his contributions were published in
ZEUS (particle detector) (557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
used to test and study the Standard Model of particle physics, as well as searching for particles beyond the Standard Model. DESY was founded in 1959
Tetron Model (369 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
representations the quarks and leptons and also the vector bosons of the standard model can be ordered (see figure). A possible explanation of this ordering
Lepton (3,751 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fermilab announced its discovery. Leptons are an important part of the Standard Model. Electrons are one of the components of atoms, alongside protons and
String theory (9,700 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
states of these strings. In addition to the particles postulated by the standard model of particle physics, string theory naturally incorporates gravity and
ELKO field (231 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimension one. Since the field has a mass dimensionality mismatch with standard model matter fields it was suggested as a dark matter candidate. As a result
Stueckelberg action (512 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Stueckelberg Lagrangian of the StSM (Stueckelberg extension of the Standard Model) consists of a gauge invariant kinetic term for a massive U(1) gauge
Weak interaction (2,956 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
force is best understood in terms of electro-weak theory (EWT). In the Standard Model of particle physics, the weak interaction is caused by the emission
Minicharged particle (279 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
weakly interact with matter. Minicharged particles are not part of the Standard Model. One proposal to detect them involved photons tunneling through an opaque
Symmetry (physics) (2,803 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the standard model. Supersymmetry is based on the idea that there is another physical symmetry beyond those already developed in the standard model, specifically
Memory consolidation (5,426 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to be a possible underlying process in synaptic consolidation. The standard model of synaptic consolidation suggests that alterations of synaptic protein
Sundance Bilson-Thompson (743 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
loop quantum gravity, as they may represent a way of incorporating the Standard Model into loop quantum gravity. This would make loop quantum gravity a candidate
Michel parameters (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Louis Michel. Sometimes instead of , the product is quoted. Within the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, these parameters are expected to be Precise
Parity (physics) (2,914 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
because there is more than one spin group. See also: (−1)F In the Standard Model of fundamental interactions there are precisely three global internal
Causal dynamical triangulation (1,297 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Sigma baryon (529 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quark. However, the top Sigmas are not expected to be observed as the Standard Model predicts the mean lifetime of top quarks to be roughly 5×10−25 s. This
Supersplit supersymmetry (225 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(beyond those of the Standard Model) which are decoupled, leaving no trace at low energies, therefore leaving just the Standard Model. The paper argued that
Majorana fermion (2,411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermions at low energy
Particle zoo (163 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The set of particles believed today to be elementary is known as the Standard Model. According to string theory, all particles in the "zoo" have a common
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (1,721 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Standard atmosphere (86 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
altitudes The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), an international standard model, defining typical atmospheric properties with altitude, at mid-latitude
Search for the Higgs boson (6,582 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fundamental particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, and its discovery would be the "ultimate verification" of the Standard Model. In March 2013, the
Andrew Strominger (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1980s about the relevance of Calabi-Yau manifolds for obtaining the Standard Model from string theory other articles discussing the dS/CFT correspondence
B–Bbar oscillation (370 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of the neutral particle oscillation, a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the phenomenon of B mesons changing (or oscillating)
BTeV experiment (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
challenge the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of bottom and charm quark states. The Standard Model has been the baseline
India-based Neutrino Observatory (1,955 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
Quantum field theory (6,837 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
formulated as relativistic quantum field theories, such as QED, QCD, and the Standard Model. QED, the quantum field-theoretic description of the electromagnetic
R-parity (1,256 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
R-parity is a concept in particle physics. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, baryon number and lepton number are no longer conserved by all of the
Big Bang (10,585 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
investigations of theoretical cosmology. The Lambda-CDM model is the standard model of Big Bang cosmology, the simplest model that provides a reasonably
John Iliopoulos (354 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kalamata) is a Greek physicist and the first person to present the Standard Model of particle physics in a single report. He is best known for his prediction
Sphaleron (664 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(time-independent) solution to the electroweak field equations of the Standard Model of particle physics, and it is involved in processes that violate baryon
Generation (particle physics) (771 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
interactions are identical. There are three generations according to the Standard Model of particle physics. Each generation is divided into two leptons and
Hyperon (501 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Standard Model of particle physics Large Hadron Collider tunnel at CERN Background Particle physics Standard Model Quantum field theory Gauge theory
Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
evidence of neutrino oscillation, and its results conflict with the standard model expectation of only three neutrino flavors, when considered in the context
Female tank (230 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
both heavy armament and lighter machine guns). This has become the standard model for tank designs since World War I and since then the terms "male" and
C-symmetry (372 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conjugation into a left-handed antineutrino, which does not interact in the Standard Model. This property is what is meant by the "maximal violation" of C-symmetry
Canonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Beyond the Standard Model Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into
∞-groupoid (63 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
complex) is a fibrant object in the category of simplicial sets (with the standard model structure). It is an ∞-category generalization of a groupoid, a category
Studillac (94 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
engine. The assemblers charged about $1500 more than the Studebaker standard model. An option was a dual-range Hydra-Matic transmission, at an additional
Muonium (560 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
studying bound-state QED and also for searching for physics beyond the standard model. What is called "true muonium", a bound state of a muon and an antimuon
Beta function (physics) (720 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004. Main article: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model § Gauge-Coupling Unification Callan-Symanzik equation Quantum triviality
Mass generation (1,075 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of gravitational interaction reconciles with the currently popular Standard Model of particle physics. There are two types of mass generation models:
Soft SUSY breaking (178 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
SUSY breaking adds explicit symmetry breaking to the supersymmetric Standard Model Lagrangian. The source of SUSY breaking results from a different sector
Tachyon (3,224 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of standard model particles moving at superluminal speeds can be modeled using Lorentz invariance violating terms, for example in the Standard-Model Extension
Chiral anomaly (959 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
using the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. See Fujikawa's method. The Standard Model of electroweak interactions has all the necessary ingredients for successful
BaBar experiment (1,333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
KEK laboratory in Japan. CP violation was already predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics, and well established in the neutral kaon system
Infusion (roller coaster) (475 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
coaster at Blackpool Pleasure Beach, Lancashire, England. It is a 689m standard model Vekoma Suspended Looping Coaster (SLC) and the first to be suspended
Georgi–Glashow model (1,412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
proposed by Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow in 1974. In this model the standard model gauge groups SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1) are combined into a single simple
Technicolor (physics) (8,462 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Technicolor theories are models of physics beyond the standard model that address electroweak gauge symmetry breaking, the mechanism through which W and
Ducati Multistrada 1200 (665 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the S-Sport and the S-Touring. The S models include ABS (optional on standard model) and electronically adjustable suspension, called DES (Ducati Electronic
Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics (3,188 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
new particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model after experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. 2000 Steven Weinberg
Leptoquark (484 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and baryon numbers. They are encountered in various extensions of the Standard Model, such as technicolor theories or GUTs based on Pati–Salam model, SU(5)
Dynamic energy budget (1,221 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to capture product formation and explain indirect calorimetry. The standard model quantifies the metabolism of isomorphs with 1 reserve and 1 structure
Winchester Model 1906 (293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
different variants produced by Winchester; the .22 Short Model, the Standard Model, and the Expert Model. The .22 Short Model was made until 1908, when
Nonoblique correction (232 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particular type of radiative correction to the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Nonoblique corrections are defined in four-fermion scattering processes
Dirac fermion (95 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermion is a Majorana fermion. In particle physics, all fermions in the standard model, except possibly neutrinos, are Dirac fermions. In condensed matter
Alan Kostelecký (495 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory models, and proposed a new version of the Standard Model of particle physics, called the Standard-Model Extension that catalogs the various ways in
C. R. Hagen (880 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
University of Rochester. He is most noted for his contributions to the Standard Model and Symmetry breaking as well as the co-discovery of the Higgs mechanism
Muon (4,122 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
was observed in the decay of other charged mesons. In the eventual Standard Model of particle physics codified in the 1970s, all mesons other than the
Exocomet (557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
important elements for understanding planet formation. Indeed, in the standard model of planet formation by accretion, planets are the result of the agglomeration
Quantum gravity (5,585 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
gravity is in many ways a much better quantum field theory than the Standard Model, since it appears to be valid all the way up to its cutoff at the Planck
Ubuntu Edge (839 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
funding goal, raising only $12,809,906, with 5682 pledges to purchase the standard model of the handset. The Edge was designed as a hybrid device, which would
Kaluza–Klein theory (4,590 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
there are new particles beyond the Standard Model, they could potentially change the ratio of the predicted Standard Model H → γγ cross-section to the experimentally
Group (mathematics) (10,093 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
one after the other. Lie groups are the symmetry groups used in the Standard Model of particle physics; Point groups are used to help understand symmetry
Oblique correction (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particular type of radiative correction to the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Oblique corrections are defined in four-fermion scattering processes
Carl Gustav Hempel (710 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation, which was considered the "standard model" of scientific explanation during the 1950s and 1960s. He is also known
Scalar–tensor theory (2,092 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dicke with the one of Symmetry Breakdown, which is essential within the Standard Model SM of elementary particles, where the so-called Symmetry Breakdown leads
Quantum triviality (1,335 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Nevertheless, because the Higgs boson plays a central role in the Standard Model of particle physics, the question of triviality in Higgs models is of
Baryon asymmetry (960 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
matter and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe. Neither the standard model of particle physics, nor the theory of general relativity provides an
Quantum chromodynamics (4,885 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in quantum electrodynamics. The theory is an important part of the Standard Model of particle physics. A huge body of experimental evidence for QCD has
Anne Fausto-Sterling (1,942 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
role to a gender, we have created a standard model of what it means to be male or female. In essence, the standard model characterizes by masculinity and
Gibson Les Paul bass (399 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and a carved-top Standard model. Les Paul basses were available in 4 or 5-string models. The first 1990s version of the Standard model featured Bartolini
Charge (physics) (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
introduced by theories of particle physics. These include the charges of the Standard Model: The color charge of quarks. The color charge generates the SU(3) color
Color charge (1,505 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
development since the 1970s and constitutes an important component of the Standard Model of particle physics.[citation needed] In QCD, a quark's color can
Lisa Randall (842 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dimensions of space. She has advanced the understanding and testing of the Standard Model, supersymmetry, possible solutions to the hierarchy problem concerning
Dimensionless physical constant (2,202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
calculation, but so far, this goal has remained elusive. The original standard model of particle physics from the 1970s contained 19 fundamental dimensionless
Hidden sector (91 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
boson forces of the Standard Model. Most typically, hidden sectors include a gauge group that is independent from the Standard Model gauge group. Nevertheless
Trimaximal mixing (549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Trimaximal mixing (also known as threefold maximal mixing) refers to the highly symmetric, maximally CP-violating, fermion mixing configuration, characterised
B meson (656 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of neutral B meson oscillations is a fundamental prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. It has been measured in the B0–B0 system to be
Honda Elite (360 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
150) and that the Elite 150 was now being sold in two editions, the standard model, and a deluxe model. The deluxe model (CH150D) shared an almost identical
SIG Sauer Mosquito (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
trigger action. The pistol is available in five different configurations: Standard model, Sport, Threaded barrel, Two-tone, Reversed two-tone, and four special
Noether's second theorem (284 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
elements of all modern field theories of physics, such as the prevailing Standard Model. Noether's first theorem Noether identities Gauge symmetry (mathematics)
Strong interaction (1,793 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
strong force is described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a part of the standard model of particle physics. Mathematically, QCD is a non-Abelian gauge theory
Dark energy (6,907 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
accelerating rate. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, on a mass–energy equivalence basis, the observable universe
Gauge theory (5,140 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
electromagnetic four-potential, with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3)
Unparticle physics (788 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of matter that cannot be explained in terms of particles using the Standard Model of particle physics, because its components are scale invariant. Howard
European Physical Journal C (154 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
scattering High energy nuclear reactions Standard model precision tests Search for new physics beyond the standard model Heavy flavour physics Neutrino physics
Peter Higgs (3,528 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
properties and see whether it has the properties expected from the Standard Model Higgs boson. On 14 March 2013, the newly discovered particle was tentatively