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Longer titles found: Plaintext-aware encryption (view), Plaintext Players (view), Known-plaintext attack (view), Chosen-plaintext attack (view)

searching for Plaintext 299 found (602 total)

alternate case: plaintext

Text editor (2,994 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text. Such programs are sometimes known as "notepad" software, following the naming of Microsoft
M8 (cipher) (1,827 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
plaintext blocks to get the ciphertext. Just as with other stream ciphers, flipping a bit in the ciphertext produces a flipped bit in the plaintext at
Code (cryptography) (2,090 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Security Agency defined a code as "A substitution cryptosystem in which the plaintext elements are primarily words, phrases, or sentences, and the code equivalents
Running key cipher (1,193 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Programming Language (1978 edition), and the tabula recta is the tableau. The plaintext is "Flee at once". Page 63, line 1 is selected as the running key: errors
Rabin cryptosystem (2,087 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
been mathematically proven to be computationally secure against a chosen-plaintext attack as long as the attacker cannot efficiently factor integers, while
M6 (cipher) (259 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
revealed. One known plaintext reduces the complexity of a brute force attack to about 235 trial encryptions; "a few dozen" known plaintexts lowers this number
Differential-linear attack (365 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
expect that for each chosen plaintext pair, the probability of the linear approximation holding for one chosen plaintext but not the other will be lower
Authenticated encryption (1,414 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
generated correctly using the encryption algorithm, thus implying that the plaintext is already known. Implemented correctly, authenticated encryption removes
Madryga (721 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
each round, the algorithm passes over the entire plaintext n times, where n is the length of the plaintext in bytes. The algorithm looks at three bytes at
PHPEdit (285 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
many other languages such as CSS, HTML, JavaScript, INI, PHPEditScript, PlainText, SQL, XML, and XSLT. As of August 2017, both PHPEdit and Waterproof websites
Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (451 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
challenge-value. CHAP requires that both the client and server know the plaintext of the secret, although it is never sent over the network. Thus, CHAP
Four-square cipher (1,528 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to fit). In general, the upper-left and lower-right matrices are the "plaintext squares" and each contain a standard alphabet. The upper-right and lower-left
Meet-in-the-middle attack (3,174 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The meet-in-the-middle attack (MITM), a known plaintext attack, is a generic space–time tradeoff cryptographic attack against encryption schemes that
Phelix (780 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
chosen-plaintext words, but requires nonces to be reused. Souradyuti Paul and Bart Preneel later showed that the number of adaptive chosen-plaintext words
Padding oracle attack (1,402 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cryptographic message to decrypt the ciphertext. In cryptography, variable-length plaintext messages often have to be padded (expanded) to be compatible with the
CRIME (846 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
CVE-2012-4929. The vulnerability exploited is a combination of chosen plaintext attack and inadvertent information leakage through data compression similar
American Airlines Flight 1 (1,346 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Spokane, WA. AP. March 2, 1962. p. 1. Retrieved November 22, 2009. (plaintext) "95 Are Believed Dead in Crash of Jet Airliner" (PDF). The Free-Lance
Distinguishing attack (623 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
can find a structural property in cipher, where the transformation from plaintext to ciphertext is not random. To prove that a cryptographic function is
Black-bag cryptanalysis (398 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
information e.g. cryptographic keys, key-rings, passwords or unencrypted plaintext. The required information is usually copied without removing or destroying
FEAL (543 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
attack requiring 100–10000 chosen plaintexts, and Sean Murphy (1990) found an improvement that needs only 20 chosen plaintexts. Murphy and den Boer's methods
Known-key distinguishing attack (391 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
can find a structural property in cipher, where the transformation from plaintext to ciphertext is not random. There is no common formal definition for
A5/1 (2,545 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Until recently, the weaknesses have been passive attacks using the known plaintext assumption. In 2003, more serious weaknesses were identified which can
WAKE (cipher) (74 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
entries of 32-bit words. The cipher is fast, but vulnerable to chosen plaintext and chosen ciphertext attacks. TEA, XTEA Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography
Kryptos (3,228 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
sculpture visually balanced". There are also three misspelled words in the plaintext of the deciphered first three passages, which Sanborn has said was intentional[dubious
Affine cipher (1,126 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1. It then uses modular arithmetic to transform the integer that each plaintext letter corresponds to into another integer that correspond to a ciphertext
Two-square cipher (1,673 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
basically the same as the system used in four-square, except that the plaintext and ciphertext digraphs use the same matrixes. To encrypt a message, one
Trifid cipher (669 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
three letters of the plaintext and up to three letters of the key. The trifid cipher uses a table to fractionate each plaintext letter into a trigram
Ciphertext indistinguishability (1,889 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
message they encrypt. The property of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack is considered a basic requirement for most provably secure public
Goldwasser–Micali cryptosystem (966 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
as ciphertexts may be several hundred times larger than the initial plaintext. To prove the security properties of the cryptosystem, Goldwasser and
Box-drawing character (1,123 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
APIs. However, they are still useful for command-line interfaces and plaintext comments within source code. Used along with box-drawing characters are
Chaocipher (604 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
consists of two alphabets, with the "right" alphabet used for locating the plaintext letter while the other ("left") alphabet is used for reading the corresponding
SXAL/MBAL (372 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ciphertext byte, processed through the S-box, and XORed with the previous plaintext byte. The key schedule is rather complex, processing the key with SXAL
Paillier cryptosystem (1,679 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
multiplication of plaintexts An encrypted plaintext raised to the power of another plaintext will decrypt to the product of the two plaintexts, D ( E ( m 1
Flying Tiger Line Flight 739 (1,520 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
March 16, 1962. p. 1. (plaintext) "Ship Reports Bright Flash" (PDF). Eugene Register-Guard. AP. March 19, 1962. p. 4. (plaintext) "2 State Soldiers On
IEEE P1619 (782 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
An attacker can derive the LRW tweak key K2 from the ciphertext if the plaintext contains K2||0n or 0n||K2. Here || is the concatenation operator and 0n
Correlation attack (2,381 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
In cryptography, correlation attacks are a class of known plaintext attacks for breaking stream ciphers whose keystream is generated by combining the
Encryption software (1,053 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
into stream ciphers and block ciphers. Stream ciphers typically encrypt plaintext a bit or byte at a time, and are most commonly used to encrypt real-time
University of Arizona Press (615 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the Press publishes books of personal essays, such as Nancy Mairs's Plaintext and two series in literature: Sun Tracks: An American Indian Literary
DUDEK (369 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
symmetric keys provided on paper tapes, which were XORed by the unit with the plaintext provided from the teleprinter or recorded on different paper tapes. The
List of document markup languages (1,082 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
exchanging geographic information for use with Google Earth. Markdown - simple plaintext markup popular as language of blog/cms posts and comments, multiple implementations
Reservehandverfahren (341 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
substitution. In the transposition stage, the cipher clerk would write out the plaintext into a "cage" — a shape on a piece of paper. Pairs of letters were then
Rasterschlüssel 44 (389 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Cryptanalysis, if successful, generally required a 40 letter crib (known plaintext) and some two weeks, making the tactical information outdated before it
PeerGuardian (1,528 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
compatible one. The original format for PeerGuardian version 1.x was a simple plaintext format. Unfortunately this meant that lists became very large and cost
Stream cipher attacks (1,013 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Stream ciphers, where plaintext bits are combined with a cipher bit stream by an exclusive-or operation (xor), can be very secure if used properly[citation
Lai–Massey scheme (638 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
\ldots ,n} respectively. Then the basic operation is as follows: Split the plaintext block into two equal pieces, ( L 0 {\displaystyle L_{0}} , R 0 {\displaystyle
Variably Modified Permutation Composition (430 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
allows for efficient in software implementations; to encrypt L bytes of plaintext do: All arithmetic is performed modulo 256. i := 0 while GeneratingOutput:
Codebook (427 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
plaintext to ciphertext, the other for the opposite purpose. They are usually organized similar to a language translation dictionary, with plaintext words
Boomerang attack (877 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cryptanalysis, an attacker exploits how differences in the input to a cipher (the plaintext) can affect the resultant difference at the output (the ciphertext). A
Message authentication (499 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to verify the source of the message, but they don't bother hiding the plaintext contents of the message – from authenticated encryption systems. Some
Timing attack (1,410 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
information may be significantly easier than using cryptanalysis of known plaintext, ciphertext pairs. Sometimes timing information is combined with cryptanalysis
Datagram Transport Layer Security (953 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
University of London discovered an attack which allowed them to recover plaintext from a DTLS connection using the OpenSSL implementation of DTLS when Cipher
M-209 (2,570 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
if it were plaintext; this maps to "M" in the ciphertext alphabet, or "P" after shifting three positions, thus giving the original plaintext back. Continuing
Threefish (1,207 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
∈ { 4 , 8 , 16 } {\displaystyle N_{w}\in \{4,8,16\}} is the number of plaintext words and also of key words. The tweak consists of two words. All additions
OpenSSL (3,173 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
OpenSSL is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at
Sed (2,553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
notably with the substitution command. Popular alternative tools for plaintext string manipulation and "stream editing" include AWK and Perl. First appearing
RC4 (4,964 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
stream cipher, these can be used for encryption by combining it with the plaintext using bit-wise exclusive-or; decryption is performed the same way (since
Encrypting File System (3,054 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
When encrypting files with EFS – when converting plaintext files to encrypted files – the plaintext files are not wiped, but simply deleted (i.e. data
Cayley–Purser algorithm (1,155 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Science Fair project Flannery prepared a demonstration where the same plaintext was enciphered using both RSA and her new Cayley–Purser algorithm and
Blum–Goldwasser cryptosystem (2,131 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Because encryption is performed using a probabilistic algorithm, a given plaintext may produce very different ciphertexts each time it is encrypted. This
Watermarking attack (456 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and files are likely to be largely contiguous), then there is a chosen plaintext attack which can reveal the existence of encrypted data. The problem is
Beaufort cipher (538 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the last column serve the same purpose. To encrypt, first choose the plaintext character from the top row of the tableau; call this column P. Secondly
Oracle attack (250 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the use of adaptive data compression on a mixture of chosen plaintext and unknown plaintext can result in content-sensitive changes in the length of the
VIC cipher (2,505 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
weaker version was used by the Rote Kapelle network. In both versions, the plaintext was first converted to digits by use of a straddling checkerboard rather
Hansa (market) (618 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
website to learn about careless users: All user passwords were recorded in plaintext (allowing police to log into other markets if users had re-used passwords)
RSA Secret-Key Challenge (567 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
code by finding the original plaintext and the cryptographic key that will generate the posted ciphertext from the plaintext. The challenge consisted of
Rip van Winkle cipher (195 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
publicly transmitting a series of random numbers. The sender encrypts a plaintext message by XORing it with the random numbers, then holding it some length
Giovan Battista Bellaso (1,486 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
phrase called countersign, placed over the plaintext. With reference to the table, one substitutes the plaintext letter with the letter that is above or
CBC-MAC (2,544 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
previous block. This interdependence ensures that a change to any of the plaintext bits will cause the final encrypted block to change in a way that cannot
List of important publications in cryptography (1,197 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Matsui, Mitsuru; Yamagishi, Atsuhiro (1993). "A New Method for Known Plaintext Attack of FEAL Cipher". Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT '92. Lecture
LEA (cipher) (2,819 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
[ 3 ] {\displaystyle P=P[0]\|P[1]\|P[2]\|P[3]} be a 128-bit block of plaintext and C = C [ 0 ] ‖ C [ 1 ] ‖ C [ 2 ] ‖ C [ 3 ] {\displaystyle C=C[0]\|C[1]\|C[2]\|C[3]}
Comparison of backup software (42 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
chunking Yes; AES, SHA256 HMAC with PBKDF2 encrypted keyfiles Yes; by MAC of plaintext and ciphertext No No Yes; through deduplication No No BackupPC Yes Yes;
Japanese cryptology from the 1500s to Meiji (6,100 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
alphabet. In practice these could start in any corner. To encipher, find the plaintext letter in the square and replace it with the number of that row and column
EFAIL (987 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
such an "OpenPGP Disclosure Group". "Decade-old Efail flaws can leak plaintext of PGP- and S/MIME-encrypted emails". arstechnica.com. "EFF on Twitter"
DROWN attack (871 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
encrypting only 40-bit of the master secret and revealing the other 88-bits as plaintext. The 48-byte SSLv3/TLS encrypted RSA ciphertext is "trimmed" to 40-bit
Bit slip (444 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
burst of errors, but eventually recover and produce the correct decrypted plaintext. A bit-slip error when using any other block cipher mode of operation
Khufu and Khafre (833 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1500 chosen plaintexts or 238 known plaintexts. Similarly, 24 rounds can be attacked using 253 chosen plaintexts or 259 known plaintexts. General R.C
AES implementations (1,174 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in particular around side-channel attacks. The algorithm operates on plaintext blocks of 16 bytes. Encryption of shorter blocks is possible only by padding
Cyberformance (1,089 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
performed in IRC; their earliest performance was "Hamnet" in 1993. The Plaintext Players. Founded by Antoinette LaFarge, this group performs in MOOs and
Polygraphic substitution (565 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of English plaintext, but it takes only the most frequent 8% of the 676 digrams to achieve the same potency. In addition, even in a plaintext many thousands
Custom hardware attack (654 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
space and, in some situations, with a comparison test value (see known plaintext attack). Output consists of a signal that the IC has found an answer and
Password cracking (2,928 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 million plaintext passwords to be recovered. One method of preventing a password from being
Format-transforming encryption (199 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
format-transforming encryption (FTE) refers to encryption where the format of the input plaintext and output ciphertext are configurable. Descriptions of formats can vary
OCB mode (788 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
be empty. Poettering and Iwata improved the forgery attack to a full plaintext recovery attack just a couple of days later. The four authors later produced
Bildschirmtext (404 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
was called Videotex (VTX). Data was transferred unauthenticated and in plaintext, leading to the well-known BTX hack by Wau Holland in 1984. The BTX hack
Feistel cipher (1,298 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
\ldots ,n} respectively. Then the basic operation is as follows: Split the plaintext block into two equal pieces, ( L 0 {\displaystyle L_{0}} , R 0 {\displaystyle
Wadsworth's cipher (196 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
substitution for a character did not repeat until all 33 characters for the plaintext letter had been used. A similar device was invented by Charles Wheatstone
2012 Yahoo! Voices hack (551 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
The email addresses and passwords are still available to download in a plaintext file on the hacker's website. The hacker group described the hack as a
Information leakage (708 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ratio to reveal correlations between known (or deliberately injected) plaintext and secret data combined in a single compressed stream. Another example
Apple File System (1,865 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to have a bug that causes the disk encryption password to be logged in plaintext. Since macOS High Sierra, all devices with flash storage are automatically
Van Eck phreaking (1,386 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
communications during World War II and was able to produce 75% of the plaintext being processed in a secure facility from a distance of 80 feet (24 metres)
Bzip2 (2,763 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
length of plaintext that a single 900 kB bzip2 block can contain is around 46 MB (45,899,236 bytes). This can occur if the whole plaintext consists entirely
3-subset meet-in-the-middle attack (1,556 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
A_{0}} : Calculate the intermediate value i {\displaystyle i} from the plaintext, for all key-bit combinations in A 1 {\displaystyle A_{1}} Calculate the
FIPS 140-2 (1,808 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
coatings or seals that must be broken to attain physical access to the plaintext cryptographic keys and critical security parameters (CSPs) within the
Hyper-encryption (496 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
public information cannot be stored at the time of transmission, the plaintext can be shown to be impossible to recover, regardless of the computational
MULTI2 (566 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
instead of forcing single byte differences in the key, they are in the plaintext into Pi3 produces a zero-delta output and possibly leading to a 1R differential
Decipherment (291 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Cryptography. Springer, p.3. ("Action to transform a ciphertext into a plaintext by an authorized party [emphasis added]") http://dictionary.reference
Contact analysis (cryptanalysis) (315 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
or letters. In some ciphers, these properties of the natural language plaintext are preserved in the ciphertext, and have the potential to be exploited
Ares Galaxy (538 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hashlinks for its chatrooms and its direct chat tool. As from Ares 1.9.6 plaintext hashlinks are supported using the following format: arlnk://chatroom:127
Horton Principle (382 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
decryption key used and that the authentication must be applied to the plaintext instead of the ciphertext. The problem is that the MAC is only authenticating
LCS35 (296 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
then be used to decrypt the ciphertext z, another 616 digit integer. The plaintext provides the concealed information about the factorisation of n, allowing
Smithy code (1,071 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
for generating the plaintext from the ciphertext is: repeating the eight-letter key, add the relevant key letter to each plaintext letter, and then take
SIGABA (2,638 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
in that it used a series of rotors to encipher every character of the plaintext into a different character of ciphertext. Unlike Enigma's three rotors
HC-9 (152 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
14(2), April 1990, pp. 139–144 H. P. Greenough, Cryptanalysis of the Swedish HC-9: A Known-Plaintext Approach, Cryptologia, 1997, 21(4), pp353–367.
Hurricane Javier (2004) (1,142 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
1949-2007". National Hurricane Center. 2008-03-21. Archived from the original (Plaintext) on January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-11. Franklin (2004-09-10). "Tropical
Security parameter (789 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
information, e.g. by examining the distribution of ciphertexts for a fixed plaintext encrypted under different randomness. In the second case, it may be that
Otway–Rees protocol (777 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
observe that the original description does not require that S check the plaintext A and B to be the same as the A and B in the two ciphertexts. This allows
Cubana de Aviación Flight 493 (811 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(plaintext) "Airliner in Collision" (PDF). The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney, Australia. AP. April 27, 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 2009-11-22. (plaintext) "Raising
Alphabetum Kaldeorum (261 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
frequency analysis method should fail. "Nulla", cipher-letters with no plaintext assignment which were to be ignored, were also often added to the enciphered
DES Challenges (402 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Challenge II-1 was solved by distributed.net in 39 days in early 1998. The plaintext message being solved for was "The secret message is: Many hands make light
Xor–encrypt–xor (412 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
search attacks, Ron Rivest proposed DESX: XOR a prewhitening key to the plaintext, encrypt the result with DES using a secret key, and then XOR a postwhitening
Squared-circle postmark (276 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
curved along the inside top of the inner circle, with a time of day (plaintext or coded, using several systems), and date underneath. The squared circles
LISTSERV (913 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
term has been common at times. Individual user passwords were stored in plaintext until version 15.0. This made them available to users who are listed as
Typex (1,968 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
could achieve a speed of 20 words a minute, and the output ciphertext or plaintext was printed on paper tape. For some portable versions, such as the Mark
Wire (software) (2,235 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
unhashed password to the central server over TLS, the server hashes the plaintext password with scrypt, and the hash is compared to the hash stored by the
Schmidt-Samoa cryptosystem (368 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle c=m^{N}\mod N.} To decrypt a ciphertext c we compute the plaintext as m = c d mod p q , {\displaystyle m=c^{d}\mod pq,} which like for Rabin
Nancy Mairs (479 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
dissertation became the book that was eventually published the essay collection Plaintext (1986). Mairs published poetry and essays regularly, and was particularly
PeachPie (1,429 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
able to run PHP code about twice as fast on Azure. Using the TechEmpower plaintext benchmark, it was measured that WordPress running on PeachPie was able
Blinding (cryptography) (655 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
between 1 and N and relatively prime to N (i.e. gcd(r, N) = 1), x is the plaintext, e is the public RSA exponent and N is the RSA modulus. As usual, the
Wired Equivalent Privacy (2,605 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the original on 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2008-03-16. "An Inductive Chosen Plaintext Attack against WEP/WEP2". cs.umd.edu. Retrieved 2008-03-16. IEEE 802.11i-2004:
Cryptosystem (381 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}} is a set called the "plaintext space". Its elements are called plaintexts. C {\displaystyle {\mathcal {C}}} is a set called
Crypt (C) (2,771 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
is that it's very resistant to key recovery even in the face of known plaintext situations. It is theoretically possible that two different passwords
Py (cipher) (1,270 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
scenario from the point of view of attacker, given only known plaintext (rather than chosen plaintext), there is also a distinguishing attack on the keystream
Biclique attack (3,166 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
plaintexts, P i {\displaystyle P_{i}} . Step four: The attacker chooses an internal state, S j {\displaystyle S_{j}} and the corresponding plaintext,
Android application package (692 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
may be in Android binary XML that can be converted into human-readable plaintext XML with tools such as AXMLPrinter2, apktool, or Androguard. classes.dex:
ISAAC (cipher) (487 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Encryption 1996, pp. 41–49. The ISAAC Cipher Marina Pudovkina, A known plaintext attack on the ISAAC keystream generator, 2001, Cryptology ePrint Archive:
W. T. Tutte (4,595 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
reflected the characteristics of the original plaintext. Because any repeated characters in the plaintext would always generate •, and similarly ∆ ψ {\displaystyle
D'Agapeyeff cipher (554 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
an index of coincidence much higher than what is expected for English plaintext. The structure of the D'Agapeyeff Cipher has similarities to the Polybius
Column level encryption (388 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
securely, data goes through encryption, which is the process of encoding plaintext into ciphertext. Non-designated readers or receivers will not be able
Distributed.net (1,491 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1997 after 250 days. The correct key was "0x532B744CC20999" and the plaintext message read "The unknown message is: It's time to move to a longer key
Monty Python's Personal Best (649 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
featuring The Rutles. John Cleese's Personal Best: The show begins with a plaintext "memorial" to the "late" John Cleese. It then cuts to a fairytale starring
Homomorphic encryption (3,911 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
encryption and decryption functions can be thought of as homomorphisms between plaintext and ciphertext spaces. Homomorphic encryption includes multiple types
Lempel–Ziv–Welch (3,307 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
typically necessary before the compression builds up efficiency. The plaintext to be encoded (from an alphabet using only the capital letters) is:
CIKS-1 (289 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
proposed a differential cryptanalysis of CIKS-1 which uses 256 chosen plaintexts. B. Kidney, H. Heys, T. Norvell (November 12, 2003). "A Weight Based Attack
SMTPS (691 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
where these could exchange email in an encrypted form rather than in plaintext. The registration was quickly revoked however, as standardization efforts
Polyalphabetic cipher (683 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
well as the first description of a polyalphabetic cipher, in which each plaintext letter is assigned more than one substitute. However, it has been claimed
European Nucleotide Archive (2,294 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
or stop codons. The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database uses a flat file plaintext format to represent and store data which is typically referred to as EMBL-Bank
ARRL Radiogram (2,835 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
through traffic nets, called the National Traffic System (NTS). It is a plaintext message, along with relevant metadata (headers), that is placed into a
Denver, Norfolk (405 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/ssd?id=mdp.39015051116740;page=ssd;view=plaintext;seq=23 . Information from Genuki Norfolk on Denver. Denver windmill history[permanent
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (1,582 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
has access to the entire ciphertext packet. Upon retrieving the entire plaintext of the same packet, the attacker has access to the keystream of the packet
Comparison of HTML5 and Flash (3,173 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
loading native code, such as compiled C++ code. Code delivery format Plaintext Plaintext JavaScript with limited obfuscation, WebAssembly bytecode, GLSL for
Mercury (cipher machine) (509 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
rotors, the message maze, the latter used to encrypt and decrypt the plaintext and ciphertext. A sixth rotor in the message maze was controlled independently
VEST (1,515 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
mode similar to that of Phelix but authenticating ciphertext rather than plaintext at the same speed and occupying the same area as keystream generation
Network encryption cracking (449 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
tricking access points (active attack) Injecting traffic based on known plaintext (active attack) Gathering traffic and performing brute force/dictionary
Fred Cate (671 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Academy of Sciences Committee on Law Enforcement and Intelligence Access to Plaintext Information in an Era of Widespread Strong Encryption and served as a
Key feedback mode (381 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ciphertext produces an inverted bit in the plaintext at the same location, but does not affect further parts of the plaintext. This property allows many error correcting
Cryptomeria cipher (678 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
succeeded in recovering parts of the S-box in 15 hours of CPU time, using 2 plaintext-ciphertext pairs. A paper by Julia Borghoff, Lars Knudsen, Gregor Leander
Blacker (security) (154 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Defense Data Network. RED/BLACK concept for segregation of sensitive plaintext information (RED signals) from encrypted ciphertext (BLACK signals) Weissman
POST (HTTP) (1,226 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
history and the web server's logs will likely contain the full URL in plaintext, which may be exposed if either system is hacked. In these cases, HTTP
CRYPTREC (1,166 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mechanism) 128 bit block ciphers are preferable if possible Size of the plaintext should be multiples of 64 bit. Use of RSA-1024 and SHA-1 is permitted
Northwest Airlines Flight 421 (1,351 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. AP. August 30, 1948. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-11-24. (plaintext) "36 Killed In Plane Crash During Storm". The Progress. Clearfield, PA
Partial-matching meet-in-the-middle attack (704 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
attack, i {\displaystyle i} and j {\displaystyle j} , computed from the plaintext and ciphertext, are matched on only a few select bits, instead of on the
Gobby (462 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Unicode support it has been suggested the product is suitable for producing plaintext rather than formatted documents. Free Software portal Collaborative real-time
Pretty Good Privacy (5,415 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
To do so, PGP computes a hash (also called a message digest) from the plaintext and then creates the digital signature from that hash using the sender's
RC6 (689 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
user-supplied key. // Encryption/Decryption with RC6-w/r/b // // Input: Plaintext stored in four w-bit input registers A, B, C & D // r is the number of
Non-repudiation (945 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(MAC or digital signature), one simply appends a tag to the otherwise plaintext, visible message. If confidentiality is also required, then an encryption
SQL injection (5,140 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Hannaford Brothers. In December 2009, an attacker breached a RockYou plaintext database containing the unencrypted usernames and passwords of about 32 million
EFF DES cracker (918 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
allows members of the general public to recover a DES key from a known plaintext–ciphertext pair in about 24 hours. "DES (Data Encryption Standard) Review
Yarrow algorithm (1,435 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
values. SHA-1 hash function Block cipher E() Resistant to known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks High statistical performance of outputs when given highly
DRYAD (646 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
choose a different letter in the same column. All the digits in a single plaintext number are encoded from the same row. (There is also a provision for encoding
SAFER (829 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
stage, and finally a diffusion layer. In the first key-mixing stage, the plaintext block is divided into eight 8-bit segments, and subkeys are added using
James Mark Baldwin (2,606 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
III (bibliog.)   part I part II Internet Archive Flipbook, DjVu, DjVu's plaintext Book pdf, DjVu, & .txt file All 3 volumes (but some hard to read) Google
Content Security Policy (1,775 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
browser's policy on pages loaded over HTTPS and linking content over plaintext HTTP Upgrade Insecure Requests, hinting browsers on how to handle legacy
EnRUPT (133 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
two words (64 bits) Structure Unbalanced Feistel Network Rounds 8 * (plaintext words) + 4 * (key words) Best public cryptanalysis 2480 complexity meet-in-the-middle
C-52 (cipher machine) (657 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Greenough, Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin C-52 and similar machines a known plaintext attack, Cryptologia, 23(2), July 1999, pp139–156. Louis Kruh, The Hagelin
Maria Brontë (697 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and works of Charlotte Brontë and her sisters. 7. Smith, Elder & Co. Plaintext Patrick Brontë to Elizabeth Gaskell, 1855, Brontë Society Transactions
Copiale cipher (904 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
character stands for a particular plaintext character, but several ciphertext characters may encode the same plaintext character. For example, all the unaccented
Schlüsselgerät 41 (785 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Instead of using a lampboard like the Enigma, the SG-41 printed both the plaintext and ciphertext of the message onto two paper tapes. Due to wartime shortages
Robert John Jenkins Junior (99 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(1993-1996), ISAAC and RC4. Accessed on 2009-05-29. Marina Pudovkina, A known plaintext attack on the ISAAC keystream generator Bob Jenkins (1997), Hash functions
Robert John Jenkins Junior (99 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(1993-1996), ISAAC and RC4. Accessed on 2009-05-29. Marina Pudovkina, A known plaintext attack on the ISAAC keystream generator Bob Jenkins (1997), Hash functions
Decius Wadsworth (664 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
substitution for a character did not repeat until all 33 characters for the plaintext letter had been used. He received recognition for this method only posthumously
Evite (831 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
on Evite (but did not require them to do so). Also, since Evite stored plaintext passwords (not password hashes), if passwords were reused elsewhere, those
Schlüsselgerät 41 (785 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Instead of using a lampboard like the Enigma, the SG-41 printed both the plaintext and ciphertext of the message onto two paper tapes. Due to wartime shortages
EncFS (1,690 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
filenames. This is because encrypted filenames are always longer than plaintext filenames. "EncFS Directory Encryption Notes". "EncFS Security Audit"
Ciphertext expansion (114 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of possible ciphertexts is necessarily greater than the set of input plaintexts. Certain schemes, such as Cocks Identity Based Encryption, or the Goldwasser-Micali
Rail fence cipher (1,068 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
rail is reached, the message is written downwards again until the whole plaintext is written out. The message is then read off in rows. For example, if
Translation Memory eXchange (296 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
<header creationtool="XYZTool" creationtoolversion="1.01-023" datatype="PlainText" segtype="sentence" adminlang="en-us" srclang="en" o-tmf="ABCTransMem"/>
RC5 (1,439 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
are used in this algorithm: A, B - The two words composing the block of plaintext to be encrypted. A = A + S[0] B = B + S[1] for i = 1 to r do: A = ((A
Rubber-hose cryptanalysis (1,162 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
encryption – Encryption techniques where an adversary cannot prove that the plaintext data exists Key disclosure law Social engineering – Psychological manipulation
Hasty Pudding cipher (1,312 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
similarities. Three inputs are used to determine the ciphertext: the plaintext (in several 64-bit words plus one "fragment"), the spice (eight 64-bit
Boneh–Franklin scheme (1,083 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle \textstyle c=\left(u,v\right)\in {\mathcal {C}}} , the plaintext can be retrieved using the private key: m = v ⊕ H 2 ( e ( d I D , u )
BlitzMail (927 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
client does not officially support HTML-based e-mail, dealing only in plaintext. (HTML files are viewed as attachments.) There is unofficial support to
Preimage attack (819 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
store password validation data for authentication. Rather than store the plaintext of user passwords, an access control system stores a hash of the password
GOST (block cipher) (1,218 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
for any block cipher with block size of n bits, the maximum amount of plaintext that can be encrypted before rekeying must take place is 2n/2 blocks,
AES-GCM-SIV (366 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
repeated. To accomplish this, encryption is a function of a nonce, the plaintext message, and optional additional associated data (a.k.a. AAD). In the
Pepper (cryptography) (1,132 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
discover the pepper, rendering it ineffective. If an attacker knows a plaintext password and a user's salt, as well as the algorithm used to hash the
KeeLoq (1,414 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
cryptanalytic attack described above which requires about 65536 chosen plaintext-ciphertext pairs and days of calculation on a PC to recover the key, the
PlayerScale (455 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
occurred, leaking 882 unique email addresses, usernames and passwords in plaintext, along with in-game report files. DeNA GREE List of mergers and acquisitions
Graphics Device Interface (1,904 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"minidrivers", which describe the printer's capabilities and command set in plaintext, rather than having to do kernel mode driver development. Each time a
Solitaire (cipher) (1,285 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
keystream algorithm below. Add each keystream value to the corresponding plaintext number, subtracting 26 if the resulting value is greater than 26. (In
Al-Kindi (6,164 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
an encrypted message, if we know its language, is to find a different plaintext of the same language long enough to fill one sheet or so, and then we
Kleptography (980 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
knowledge of the backdoor, it would remain useless for him to extract the plaintext without the attacker's private key. Kleptographic attacks can be constructed
Hebern rotor machine (1,103 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the substitutions. They then typed in the ciphertext and out came the plaintext. Better yet, several rotors can be placed such that the output of the
Misión San Fernando Rey de España de Velicatá (428 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?q1=velicata;id=uc1.b3929749;view=plaintext;start=1;sz=10;page=root;size=100;seq=117;num=61) http://www.questconnect
Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem (1,125 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
is aborted and the output is rejected. Otherwise, Alice computes the plaintext as m = e / ( u 1 z ) {\displaystyle m=e/({u}_{1}^{z})\,} . The decryption
EMV (8,751 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
EMV. They are[citation needed] Signature Offline plaintext PIN Offline enciphered PIN Offline plaintext PIN and signature Offline enciphered PIN and signature
Damgård–Jurik cryptosystem (746 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
. Using recursive Paillier decryption this gives us directly the plaintext m. The Damgård–Jurik cryptosystem interactive simulator demonstrates a
Martijn Koster (179 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"ANNOUNCEMENT: ALIWEB (Archie-Like Indexing for the WEB)". comp.infosystems (plaintext version). External link in |work= (help) "List of PostScript files for
List of cryptographers (2,146 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter. Charles Babbage, UK, 19th century mathematician who, about the
Agrippa (A Book of the Dead) (4,237 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
cipher exhibited a regular pattern due to repeated text in the original plaintext. The LZW compression itself does not hide the letter frequencies. The
Key Wrap (621 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
attacks, while the AKW2 algorithm is designed to be secure only under known-plaintext (or weaker) attacks. (The stated goal of AKW2 is for use in legacy systems
HTTP compression (1,796 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Server, only implement gzip encoding. Compression allows a form of chosen plaintext attack to be performed: if an attacker can inject any chosen content into
Arvid Gerhard Damm (1,147 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
keyboard. A later version (1921) could print the plaintext together with two copies of the plaintext onto tape. The machine used a chain of links, which
Tupper's self-referential formula (847 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{mod} \left(\lfloor y\rfloor ,17\right)},2\right)\right\rfloor } or, as plaintext, 1/2 < floor(mod(floor(y/17)*2^(-17*floor(x)-mod(floor(y),17)),2)) where
OpenSSH (2,542 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
openssh, it was possible for an attacker to recover up to 14 bits of plaintext with a success probability of 2−14. The vulnerability was related to the
KL-7 (1,276 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of supporting large networks that was considered secure against known plaintext attack. Some 25,000 machines were in use in the mid-1960s. The KL-7 was
DOT (graph description language) (1,146 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
tediously hand-positioned nodes. For example: digraph g { node [shape=plaintext]; A1 -> B1; A2 -> B2; A3 -> B3; A1 -> A2 [label=f]; A2 -> A3 [label=g];
John the Ripper (553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the possible plaintexts, hashing each one and then comparing it to the input hash. John uses character frequency tables to try plaintexts containing more
Disemvoweling (1,181 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
paragraph that's the problem, I'll disemvowel that and leave the rest in plaintext. Crecente, Brian (8 August 2008). "Kotaku's New Tool: The Straight Razor
Crypto-PAn (1,139 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
) {\displaystyle I_{i}=x_{[0,i)}{\mathit {pad}}_{[i,128)}} using the plaintext bits of x {\displaystyle x} decrypted so far, rather than using the ciphertext
The Gulag Archipelago (3,295 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Gulag Archipelago (in Russian). All volumes for reading in browser, or plaintext: parts 1 and 2, parts 3 and 4, and parts 5, 6, and 7. Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr
Thomas Preston (writer) (1,429 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Cambyses: Google Books copy 1, Google Books copy 2, archive.org Cambises, plaintext ed. Gerard NeCastro (closer to original spelling) in his collection Medieval
List of Category 5 Pacific hurricanes (2,108 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
1949-2007". National Hurricane Center. 2008-03-21. Archived from the original (plaintext) on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-09-14. Chris Landsea (2002-06-11). "Subject:
Random oracle (1,433 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
random permutation decrypts each ciphertext block into one and only one plaintext block and vice versa, so there is a one-to-one correspondence. Some cryptographic
Caddy (web server) (1,020 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
directives in the Caddyfile (a text file used to configure Caddy). HTTP/1.1 (plaintext HTTP), HTTP/2 (default for HTTPS connections), and as of 2.0 beta 17,
Type B Cipher Machine (3,996 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
uniformly distributed. This suggested the Type B used a similar division of plaintext letters as used in the Type A. The weaker encryption used for the "sixes"
Heart symbol (3,065 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
representation &#x2764; or &#10084; ❤︎ U+2764 HEAVY BLACK HEART in explicit plaintext representation &#x2764;&#xfe0e; ❤️ U+2764 HEAVY BLACK HEART in explicit
List of computer algebra systems (577 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ASCII graphic formulae and math font printing. The ability to generate plaintext files is also a sought-after feature because it allows a work to be understood
GSM (3,900 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
time needed to carry out an attack) and have found new sources for known plaintext attacks. He said that it is possible to build "a full GSM interceptor
Password synchronization (494 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
algorithm is the same. In general, this is not the case and access to a plaintext password is required. Two processes which yields synchronized passwords
Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir attack (845 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the PRNG used to generate the keystream. Because the first byte of the plaintext comes from the WEP SNAP header, an attacker can assume he can derive the
David Kahn (writer) (1,186 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
France; Freiburg, Germany; Oxford, England; and Great Neck, New York. Plaintext in the new unabridged: An examination of the definitions on cryptology
End-to-end encryption (2,502 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
operations to a smart card such as Google's Project Vault. However, since plaintext input and output are still visible to the host system, malware can monitor
Neo4j (850 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
defined function privileges, Role-Based Access Control Default graph, PLAINTEXT and ENCRYPTED password in user creation, SHOW CURRENT USER, SHOW PRIVILEGES
Crypt (Unix) (720 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
written in 1984-1985, is an interactive tool that provides successive plaintext guesses that must be corrected by the user. It also provides a working
Pseudorandom permutation (1,117 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(keyed) block cipher is a truly random permutation on the mappings between plaintext and ciphertext. If a distinguishing algorithm exists that achieves significant
IC power-supply pin (1,045 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and encrypted (red/black) subsystems to prevent leakage of sensitive plaintext. 4000 series 7400 series Bob Widlar Differential amplifier List of 4000
GNUnet (2,109 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hash].[query hash].[file size in bytes] File hash is the hash of the plaintext file, which allows decrypting it once it is downloaded. Query hash is
MediaWiki version history (59 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{{REVISIONUSER}} 1.14 2009-02-22 Full release notes, Language support Supports a plaintext copyright notice (other than Creative Commons or GFDL) Images can link
Wei Dai (950 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Bard, Gregory V. "A Challenging but Feasible Blockwise-Adaptive Chosen-Plaintext Attack on SSL". University of Maryland, Department of Mathematics. CiteSeerX 10
Falsifiability (17,754 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
an adversary cannot prove that the plaintext data exists - claim that a ciphertext decrypts to a particular plaintext can be falsified by possible decryption
Seq2seq (613 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
successor, the 175 billion parameter GPT-3, trained on a "45TB dataset of plaintext words (45,000 GB) that was ... filtered down to 570 GB." Seq2seq turns
Data in use (882 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that the output (the ciphertext) is in the same format as the input (the plaintext) Blinding is a cryptography technique by which an agent can provide a
8chan (5,208 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Moon, Joshua (December 19, 2015). "qt2ww". Archived from the original (Plaintext) on December 19, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015. Brennan, Fredrick
LastPass (1,844 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
independent online security firm Detectify detailed a method for reading plaintext passwords for arbitrary domains from a LastPass user's vault when that
Linear referencing (1,141 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
landmark along the road. This information can be communicated concisely via plaintext. For example: "State route 4, 20 feet east of mile marker 187." Giving
CiviCRM (938 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
strengths. A large number of tokens are available for inclusion in HTML or plaintext emails, or for producing PDF files for printing. Data-integration formats
Japanese naval codes (2,051 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
messages, such as "I have the honor to inform your excellency" (see known plaintext attack). Later versions of JN-25 were introduced: JN-25c from 28 May 1942
XML editor (1,109 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
convenient. An XML editor goes beyond the syntax highlighting offered by many plaintext editors and generic source code editors, verifying the XML source based
Lossless compression (4,247 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
list of lossless video codecs. Cryptosystems often compress data (the "plaintext") before encryption for added security. When properly implemented, compression
Suppression list (392 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
distributing these lists is to avoid sending the email addresses themselves as plaintext, but instead send a list with one "hash" per line, each hash generated
Cryptographic hash function (5,546 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
hashes is to store password authentication data. Rather than store the plaintext of user passwords, a controlled access system stores the hash of each
Very smooth hash (1,983 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
security. The naive approach could be easily broken under CPA (chosen-plaintext attack). Efficiency: The cost of each iteration is less than the cost
Privacy-enhancing technologies (2,661 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
that the output (the ciphertext) is in the same format as the input (the plaintext) Blinding is a cryptography technique by which an agent can provide a
SubStation Alpha (621 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
video containers including 'Subtitles Character Encoding Conversion' for plaintext files and special characters iSubtitle MacOS Freeware Encoding of soft
American Airlines Flight 28 (1,556 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Crash" (PDF). St. Petersburg Times. United Press. October 29, 1942. p. 4. (plaintext) "Wilson to Face Air Crash Count" (PDF). The Bend Bulletin. Associated
KeePass (1,388 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
format), the integrity of the data is checked using a SHA-256 hash of the plaintext, whereas in KeePass 2.x (KDBX database format), the authenticity of the
Claude Shannon (4,775 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
characteristics as the one-time pad: the key must be truly random, as large as the plaintext, never reused in whole or part, and be kept secret. In 1948, the promised
L. Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman? (1,126 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
by Brian Ambry Full Text of Messiah or Madman?, Operation Clambake, Plaintext version 1.0, August 18, 1998 Chambers, Marcia (1988-03-20). "In Short:
Time/memory/data tradeoff attack (2,432 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
possible plaintexts and ciphertexts to be N {\displaystyle N} . Also let the given data be a single ciphertext block of a specific plaintext counterpart
Cybersecurity information technology list (1,789 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
computer security certifications The art of secret writing or code. A "plaintext" message is converted by the sender to "ciphertext" by means of a mathematical
Secure Remote Password protocol (2,488 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
and must safely erase it at this step, because it is equivalent to the plaintext password p. This step is completed before the system is used as part of
Key encapsulation (692 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
function is one-way. An attacker who somehow recovers M cannot get the plaintext m. With the padding approach, he can. Thus KEM is said to encapsulate
James A. Baker (government attorney) (1,236 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
should embrace strong encryption and adapt to the lack of easy access to plaintext messages in a published essay and in a press interview. Timeline of investigations
Email privacy (4,438 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
STARTTLS. It is a TLS (SSL) layer over the plaintext communication, allowing email servers to upgrade their plaintext communication to encrypted communication
Julius Adler (politician) (469 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
Scene Duisburg I. 1933 - 1945 resistance and persecution in Nazi Germany. Plaintext Verlag, Essen, 1989, ISBN 3-88474-140-3 , p 292ff. Julius Adler in the
SyncML (814 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article
No No No commercial Synthesis Windows, Linux, OS X SQL, ODBC, SQLite3, PlainText Yes Yes Yes Yes * * * Programming SDK w/API's in C, C++, Delphi, Java
Eastern Air Lines Flight 663 (1,337 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Archived from the original (PDF) on January 26, 2013. Retrieved 2009-12-06. (plaintext) "Ocean Is Searched Today For Plane Crash Victims". The Free-Lance Star
Juliana Mickwitz (810 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Agency (NSA) and founded a linguistic unit, which she managed to translate plaintext voice. She remained with the agency until 1963, when she retired, receiving
Earth (16,202 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
(15). 9 April 2015. Archived from the original (.DAT file (displays as plaintext in browser)) on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015. Seidelmann, P
Server Message Block (5,895 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
like NTLMv2 and Kerberos in favor of protocols like NTLMv1, LanMan, or plaintext passwords. Real-time attack tracking shows that SMB is one of the primary
Password strength (6,171 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
online dictionaries for various human languages, breached databases of plaintext and hashed passwords from various online business and social accounts
Pseudorandom generator (1,739 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
message m in a way that the cipher text provides no information on the plaintext, the key k used must be random over strings of length |m|. Perfectly secure
Comparison of browser engines (HTML support) (4,863 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
samp, code, CSS 3.1 125 3.3 Yes menu Menu list ? 4 ul, ol Yes Yes Yes plaintext Designates that all HTML be ignored, and to display the page as is ? 3
CipherSaber (1,204 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
point can recover the keystream at that point from the ciphertext and plaintext. Then the attacker can replace the original content with any other content
Data breach (5,511 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
RockYou! password database was breached containing 32 million usernames and plaintext passwords, further compromising the use of weak passwords for any purpose
GGH encryption scheme (764 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
schemes. Nguyen showed that every ciphertext reveals information about the plaintext and that the problem of decryption could be turned into a special closest
CipherSaber (1,204 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
point can recover the keystream at that point from the ciphertext and plaintext. Then the attacker can replace the original content with any other content
Mobile payment (4,967 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
SMS/USSD encryption ends in the radio interface, then the message is a plaintext. High cost – There are many high costs associated with this method of
McEliece cryptosystem (1,847 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
{\displaystyle ({\hat {G}},t)} but not the private key, deducing the plaintext from some intercepted ciphertext y ∈ F 2 n {\displaystyle y\in \mathbb
AIDS (Trojan horse) (847 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
removal program for the Trojan and the CLEARAID program recovered encrypted plaintext after the Trojan triggered. CLEARAID automatically reversed the encryption
Kenny Paterson (481 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
attacks. Distinguished Paper Award for work with Nadhem AlFardan presenting plaintext recovery attacks against DTLS published at NDSS 2012 Applied Networking
Distributed key generation (1,131 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
employees to recover a private key without giving the escrow service a plaintext copy. Distributed key generation is also useful in server-side password
UMTS security (505 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
different networks. The basic idea of MAPSEC can be described as follows. The plaintext MAP message is encrypted and the result is put into a ‘container’ in another
ALTS (648 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Curve25519. The handshake protocol consists of four messages, sent in plaintext: ClientInit, initiated by the client, and contains the client's certificate
Forth (programming language) (6,446 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
the sum of the array bytes at i and j. This is XORed with a byte of the plaintext to encrypt, or the ciphertext to decrypt. The array is initialized by
Hieronymus van Beverningh (1,317 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the States-General to send the instruction in cipher, under a letter in plaintext in his own hand, warning Beverningh of what was afoot. Thus forewarned
JuffEd (164 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
JavaScript, Lua, HTML, Makefiles, Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby, SQL, XML) Plaintext- and regexp-based text search/replacement Line numbers Text wrapping Autocomplete
List of Google products (7,680 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
"google/googletest". July 29, 2020 – via GitHub. "Titan in depth: Security in plaintext". Google Cloud Blog. "Titan: a custom TPM and more". March 12, 2017. "Titan
Have I Been Pwned? (2,176 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
who provided him with a dump of 13.5 million users' email addresses and plaintext passwords, claiming it came from 000webhost, a free web hosting provider
Wireless sensor network (5,361 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
to decrypt the encrypted data to perform aggregation. This exposes the plaintext at the aggregators, making the data vulnerable to attacks from an adversary
Ruins of the church in Trzęsacz (553 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
ostsee-urlaub-polen.de/pobierowo/trzesac_hoff.htm http://www.hs.ta.pl/plaintext/kategorie3/index.html Church in Trzesacz, 1870 A photo of the church,
MediaWiki (9,401 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
forgetting to sign posts with four tildes (~~~~), or manually entering a plaintext signature, due to unfamiliarity with the idiosyncratic particulars involved
Telegram (software) (12,102 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
nature and they "did not see any way of turning the attack into a full plaintext-recovery attack". Nevertheless, they said they saw "no reason why [Telegram]
Mezangelle (1,705 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
palm". wollongong.starway.net.au. Retrieved 2014-07-07. http://cramer.plaintext.cc:70/essays/textviren_-_mez/textviren_mez.pdf Mez. ".starting:: the data][h
1975 Pacific hurricane season (3,023 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Calgary Herald. Retrieved 2011-02-11. "Pacific hurricane name history" (Plaintext). Atlantic Tropical Weather Center. Retrieved 2008-10-30. Eastern North
Legal issues with BitTorrent (2,610 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
save computer resources, The Pirate Bay entirely switched to providing plaintext magnet links instead of traditional torrent files. As the most popular
Mary Webster (alleged witch) (1,169 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
1879. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076467875&view=plaintext&seq=301 Calef's letter is dated November 24, 1693, according to his own
Heinrich Ehrhardt (575 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
industrial history and structural change in the light of biographies . Plaintext Verlag, Essen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8375-0036-3, p 91-98 Hugo Racine: Ehrhardt
Radiogram (message) (1,979 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article
through traffic nets, called the National Traffic System (NTS). It is a plaintext message, along with relevant metadata (headers), that is placed into a
Google Compute Engine (2,262 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
2014. "7 ways we harden our KVM hypervisor at Google Cloud: security in plaintext". Google Cloud Blog. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2020. "Google
List of cyberattacks (2,133 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
of its private data. IEEE – in September 2012, it exposed user names, plaintext passwords, and website activity for almost 100,000 of its members. LivingSocial
Greek Anthology (3,647 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Mackail, edited with excerpts in Greek (unicode) and a search engine Plaintext of Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4, and Vol. 5 on Google Books. Epigrams
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (3,377 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
forced to reveal his encryption passphrase but can be forced to provide a plaintext (decrypted) copy of their encrypted data, if the defendant had previously
Freenet (5,694 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
a document (after encryption, which itself depends on the hash of the plaintext) and thus a node can check that the document returned is correct by hashing
UpStage (1,275 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
archives): Avatar Body Collision ActiveLayers Anaesthesia Associates [Plaintext_Players] (Antoinette LaFarge & company) Ben Unterman and colleagues Marlena
Information security audit (3,256 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
the decryption process is deployed to restore the ciphertext back to plaintext. Proxy servers hide the true address of the client workstation and can
TextSecure (3,322 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
message contained either the phone number of the sender or the receiver in plaintext. This metadata could in theory have allowed the creation of "a detailed
Warez (5,868 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
or [5]. 2600 A Guide to Piracy – An article on the warez scene (ASCII plaintext and image scans from 2600: The Hacker Quarterly) "The Shadow Internet"
George T. Felbeck (338 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
Administration. "Noted Men Lose Lives In Crash" (PDF). The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, WA. AP. March 2, 1962. p. 1. Retrieved November 22, 2009. (plaintext)