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searching for Entropy (astrophysics) 195 found (3405 total)

alternate case: entropy (astrophysics)

Standard molar entropy (433 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure
Entropy encoding (318 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory an entropy encoding is a lossless data compression scheme that is independent of the specific characteristics of the medium. One
Entropy (information theory) (6,276 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, entropy is the average amount of information contained in each message received. Here, message stands for an event, sample or character
Entropy (9,968 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
This article is about entropy in thermodynamics. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). For a more accessible and less technical introduction
Measure-preserving dynamical system (866 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical system. The entropy of a partition Q is defined as The measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical system
Rényi entropy (1,280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory, the Rényi entropy generalizes the Shannon entropy, the Hartley entropy, the min-entropy, and the collision entropy. Entropies quantify the diversity
Free entropy (432 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A thermodynamic free entropy is an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy. Also known as a Massieu, Planck, or Massieu–Planck potentials
Entropy of vaporization (168 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to be confused with Enthalpy of vaporization. The entropy of vaporization is the increase in entropy upon vaporization of a liquid. This is always positive
Entropy of fusion (237 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a substance. This is almost always positive since the degree of disorder increases in the
Negentropy (1,099 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
negentropy, also negative entropy or syntropy or extropy or entaxy, of a living system is the entropy that it exports to keep its own entropy low; it lies at the
Orders of magnitude (entropy) (118 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy. Orders of magnitude (data) Order of magnitude (terminology) Jean-Bernard Brissaud (14 February 2005). "The Meaning of Entropy". Entropy,
Principle of maximum entropy (2,728 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
learning, see maximum entropy classifier. For other uses, see maximum entropy (disambiguation). The principle of maximum entropy states that, subject
Entropy monitoring (440 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy monitoring is a method of assessing anaesthetic depth. It was commercially developed by Datex-Ohmeda, now part of GE Healthcare. It relies on
Boltzmann's entropy formula (949 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mechanics, Boltzmann's equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the number of microstates
The Entropy Tango (66 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Entropy Tango is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock. It is part of his long running Jerry Cornelius series.
Differential entropy (1,400 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Differential entropy (also referred to as continuous entropy) is a concept in information theory that extends the idea of (Shannon) entropy, a measure of
Nonextensive entropy (90 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has proposed a nonextensive entropy (Tsallis entropy), which is a generalization of the traditional Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. The rationale behind the theory
Entropy (statistical thermodynamics) (2,262 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Clausius is changed to statistical entropy using probability theory. The statistical entropy perspective
Conditional quantum entropy (352 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conditional quantum entropy is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a generalization of the conditional entropy of classical information
Joint entropy (178 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
information theory, joint entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a set of variables. The joint Shannon entropy of two variables and
Von Neumann entropy (1,868 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
statistical mechanics, the von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical Gibbs entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics
Maximum entropy probability distribution (1,458 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
statistics and information theory, a maximum entropy probability distribution is a probability distribution whose entropy is at least as great as that of all other
Conformational entropy (470 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Conformational entropy is the entropy associated with the physical arrangement of a polymer chain that assumes a compact or globular state in solution
Binary entropy function (392 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the binary entropy function, denoted or , is defined as the entropy of a Bernoulli process with probability of success p. Mathematically
Conditional entropy (344 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the conditional entropy (or equivocation) quantifies the amount of information needed to describe the outcome of a random variable
Introduction to entropy (2,973 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the main encyclopedia article, see Entropy. The idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy. Everyone has an intuitive understanding
Entropy (classical thermodynamics) (1,975 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a property of thermodynamical systems invented by Rudolf Clausius who named it from the Greek word τρoπή, "transformation". Later Ludwig Boltzmann
Cross entropy (806 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the cross entropy between two probability distributions over the same underlying set of events measures the average number of bits
Entropy (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
"Entropy" is the 18th episode of season 6 of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The Trio, riding ATVs, pursue two vampires through a cemetery;
Entropy (energy dispersal) (2,354 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The description of entropy as energy dispersal provides an introductory method of teaching the thermodynamic concept of entropy. In physics and physical
Configuration entropy (410 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistical mechanics, configuration entropy is the portion of a system's entropy that is related to the position of its constituent particles rather
Maximum entropy spectral estimation (385 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Maximum entropy spectral estimation is a method of spectral density estimation. The goal is to improve the spectral quality based on the principle of
Q-exponential distribution (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability distribution arising from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints, including constraining the domain to be
Entropy rate (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the mathematical theory of probability, the entropy rate or source information rate of a stochastic process is, informally, the time density of the
Entropy (comics) (373 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a Cosmic Entity in the Marvel Comics Universe who possesses Nigh-Omnipotence. A representation of Eternity formed at the beginning of time
Temperature–entropy diagram (134 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
diagram. A temperature entropy diagram, or T-s diagram, is used in thermodynamics to visualize changes to temperature and specific entropy during a thermodynamic
Entropy (film) (47 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a 1999 film directed by Phil Joanou, starring Stephen Dorff and featuring the Irish rock band U2. The film is largely autobiographical, covering
Information theory (4,770 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
information is entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed to store or communicate one symbol in a message. Entropy quantifies
Joint quantum entropy (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The joint quantum entropy generalizes the classical joint entropy to the context of quantum information theory. Intuitively, given two quantum states
Entropy (arrow of time) (4,828 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences (apart from certain rare interactions in particle physics; see below) that requires a particular
Cross-entropy method (701 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The cross-entropy (CE) method attributed to Reuven Rubinstein is a general Monte Carlo approach to combinatorial and continuous multi-extremal optimization
Topological entropy (1,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
article is about entropy in geometry and topology. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). In mathematics, the topological entropy of a topological
History of entropy (2,297 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The concept of entropy developed in response to the observation that a certain amount of functional energy released from combustion reactions is always
Entropy (computing) (1,516 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In computing, entropy is the randomness collected by an operating system or application for use in cryptography or other uses that require random data
Entropy and life (2,978 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century. In
Black hole thermodynamics (1,851 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(its) entropy as it falls in, giving a decrease in entropy. Generalized second law introduced as total entropy = black hole entropy + outside entropy. Extremal
Entropy / Send Them (867 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
'"Send Them/Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up)"', is a double A side EP by Asia Born (now known as Lyrics Born) and DJ Shadow and the
Heat death of the universe (2,155 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
this is when the Universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of William Thomson
Entropy (journal) (117 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of entropy and information studies. It was established in 1999
The English Assassin: A Romance of Entropy (196 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Assassin: A Romance of Entropy is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock [1]. Subtitled "A romance of entropy" it was the third
Tsallis entropy (1,612 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, the Tsallis entropy is a generalization of the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. It was introduced in 1988 by Constantino Tsallis as a basis
Entropy of entanglement (311 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The entropy of entanglement is an entanglement measure for many-body quantum state. Bipartite entanglement entropy is defined with respect to a bipartition
Topological entropy in physics (293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy[1] [2], usually denoted by γ, is a number characterizing many-body states that possess topological order. The short form topological entropy is
Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory (2,989 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
close parallels between the mathematical expressions for the thermodynamic entropy, usually denoted by S, of a physical system in the statistical thermodynamics
Isentropic process (901 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
process (ισον = "equal" (Greek); εντροπία entropy = "disorder"(Greek)) is a thermodynamic process such that the entropy of the system remains constant throughout
Volume entropy (524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The volume entropy is an asymptotic invariant of a compact Riemannian manifold that measures the exponential growth rate of the volume of metric balls
Enthalpy–entropy chart (719 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An enthalpy–entropy chart, also known as the h–s chart or Mollier diagram, plots the total heat against entropy, describing the enthalpy of a thermodynamic
Entropy (order and disorder) (2,692 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system. This stems from Rudolf Clausius'
Linear entropy (230 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory, the linear entropy or impurity of a state is a scalar defined as where ρ is the density matrix of the state. The linear entropy can range between
Loop entropy (263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Loop entropy is the entropy lost upon bringing together two residues of a polymer within a prescribed distance. For a single loop, the entropy varies
Maximum-entropy Markov model (751 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Nordic combined skier, see Silvio Memm. In machine learning, a maximum-entropy Markov model (MEMM), or conditional Markov model (CMM), is a graphical
Quantum relative entropy (898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability between two quantum states. It is the quantum mechanical analog of relative entropy. For simplicity
Software entropy (260 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be confused with information entropy. A work on software engineering by Ivar Jacobson et al. describes software entropy as follows: The second law of
Entropy (album) (48 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a split vinyl album by Anathallo and Javelins. Each band has one song featured on the album, released in 2005 on Potential Getaway Driver.
Transfer entropy (630 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Transfer entropy is a non-parametric statistic measuring the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between two random processes
Entropy (1977 board game) (549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
For the 1994 game, see Entropy (1994 board game). Entropy is an abstract strategy board game for two players designed by Eric Solomon in 1977. The game
Third law of thermodynamics (2,524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: The entropy of a perfect crystal, at absolute zero (zero kelvins), is exactly equal
Quantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Main article: Von Neumann entropy Of particular significance for describing randomness of a state is the von Neumann entropy of S formally defined by
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (5,837 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
discussed below. Another fundamental difference is the difficulty in defining entropy in macroscopic terms for systems not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium
Bousso's holographic bound (254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalization of the black hole entropy bound (cf. holographic principle) to generic systems is that, in quantum gravity, the maximum entropy which can be enclosed
Boltzmann constant (1,755 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant NA: It has the same dimension (energy divided by temperature) as entropy. The accepted value in SI units is 1.3806488(13)×10−23 J/K. Boltzmann's
Entropy power inequality (300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy power inequality is a result in information theory that relates to so-called "entropy power" of random variables. It shows that the entropy power
Sackur–Tetrode equation (636 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas which incorporates quantum considerations which give a
Thermoeconomics (715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Thermoeconomists argue that economic systems always involve matter, energy, entropy, and information. Moreover, the aim of many economic activities is to achieve
Laws of thermodynamics (2,546 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities
Nat (unit) (284 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(symbol nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers of
Poisson binomial distribution (524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
no simple formula for the entropy of a Poisson binomial distribution, but the entropy can be upper bounded by that entropy of a binomial distribution
Second law of thermodynamics (9,021 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
natural thermodynamic process, there is an increase in the sum of the entropies of the participating systems. The second law is an empirical finding that
Wehrl entropy (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum information theory, the Wehrl entropy, named after A. Wehrl, is a type of quasi-entropy defined for the Husimi Q representation Q(x,p) of
Entropy maximization (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An entropy maximization problem is a convex optimization problem of the form maximize subject to where is the optimization variable, and are problem
Gibbs paradox (3,546 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
derivation of the entropy that does not take into account the indistinguishability of particles, yields an expression for the entropy which is not extensive
Catherine (metalcore band) (311 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of Release Title Label 2004 Untitled demo Self Released 2005 A Call To Entropy Self-released 2006 Rumor Has It: Astaroth Has Stolen Your Eyes Rise Records
Paradigm in Entropy (83 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Paradigm in Entropy is the debut album by the California based metal music group Bleed the Sky. The album was released on April 19, 2005 through Nuclear
Maximum entropy thermodynamics (3,465 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inference
Entropy of activation (119 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The entropy of activation is one of the two parameters typically obtained from the temperature dependence of a reaction rate, when these data are analysed
Kullback–Leibler divergence (4,386 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kullback–Leibler divergence (also information divergence, information gain, relative entropy, or KLIC; here abbreviated as KL divergence) is a non-symmetric measure
Entropy estimation (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
learning, and time delay estimation it is useful to estimate the differential entropy of a system or process, given some observations. The simplest and most
Bekenstein bound (1,957 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space which
Q-Gaussian distribution (856 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gaussian in the same way that Tsallis entropy is a generalization of standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy or Shannon entropy. The normal distribution is recovered
Uncertainty coefficient (445 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association. It was first
Fundamental thermodynamic relation (969 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
infinitesimal change in internal energy in terms of infinitesimal changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following
Residual entropy (571 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Residual entropy is the difference in entropy between a non-equilibrium state and crystal state of a substance close to absolute zero. This term is used
Minimal-entropy martingale measure (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability theory, the minimal-entropy martingale measure (MEMM) is the risk-neutral probability measure that minimises the entropy difference between the objective
Ideal gas (2,324 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the entropy is an exact differential, using the chain rule, the change in entropy when going from a reference state 0 to some other state with entropy S
Dissipation (740 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an isolated system. These processes produce entropy (see entropy production) at a certain rate. The entropy production rate times ambient temperature gives
Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (2,127 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
comes from a true random source with high entropy. Ideally, the generation of random numbers in CSPRNGs uses entropy obtained from a high-quality source, which
Holographic principle (3,444 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be
Entropy (anonymous data store) (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy was a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. Entropy was an anonymous data
Diversity index (2,337 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Shannon–Weaver index and the Shannon entropy. The measure was originally proposed by Claude Shannon to quantify the entropy (uncertainty or information content)
Social entropy (531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Social entropy is a macrosociological systems theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can refer to the decomposition of
Password strength (5,121 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
scheme to roughly estimate the entropy of human-generated passwords: The entropy of the first character is four bits; The entropy of the next seven characters
Wrapped Cauchy distribution (518 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expressions into the entropy integral, exchanging the order of integration and summation, and using the orthogonality of the cosines, the entropy may be written:
Dudley's theorem (226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expected upper bound and regularity properties of a Gaussian process to its entropy and covariance structure. The result was proved in a landmark 1967 paper
Molecular binding (620 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be primarily entropy-driven (release of ordered solvent molecules around the isolated molecule that results in a net increase of entropy of the system)
Self-information (747 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
calculation. The term self-information is also sometimes used as a synonym of entropy, i.e. the expected value of self-information in the first sense, because
Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini Entropy (132 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
network theory, the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy (BGS entropy) of a network is the von Neumann entropy of a density matrix given by a normalized Laplacian
Paul Erlich (301 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Science degree in physics from Yale University. His invention of harmonic entropy has received significant attention from music theorists such as William
Entropy: A New World View (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy: A New World View is a non-fiction book by Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard, with an Afterword by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. First published by The
Generalized entropy index (176 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The generalized entropy index is a general formula for measuring redundancy in data. The redundancy can be viewed as inequality, lack of diversity, non-randomness
Min entropy (926 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The min entropy, in information theory, is the smallest of the Rényi family of entropies, corresponding to the most conservative way of measuring the unpredictability
Information diagram (150 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationships among Shannon's basic measures of information: entropy, joint entropy, conditional entropy and mutual information. Information diagrams are a useful
Irreversible process (1,738 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
irreversible process increases the entropy of the universe. However, because entropy is a state function, the change in entropy of a system is the same whether
Thermodynamics (13,287 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It states
Tsallis distribution (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability distribution derived from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints. There are several different families of
Negative temperature (2,257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
through its more rigorous definition as the tradeoff between energy and entropy, with the reciprocal of the temperature, thermodynamic beta, as the more
Carnot cycle (2,099 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of heat energy Q2 and of entropy to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir. (This is the same amount of entropy absorbed in step 1, as can
Loschmidt's paradox (1,451 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which was an attempt to explain using kinetic theory the increase of entropy in an ideal gas from a non-equilibrium state, when the molecules of the
Free expansion (281 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
or enters the piston. Nevertheless, there is an entropy change, and the well-known formula for entropy change, does not apply because the process is not
Entropy production (2,405 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditioners
Theil index (1,002 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which is the maximum possible entropy of the data minus the observed entropy. It is a special case of the generalized entropy index. It can be viewed as
Hartley function (421 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
also known as the Hartley entropy. The Hartley function coincides with the Shannon entropy (as well as with the Rényi entropies of all orders) in the case
Gibbs free energy (3,133 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
reaction going on in the universe. Thus the entropy released or absorbed by the system is actually the entropy that the environment must absorb or release
Entropy exchange (70 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
processing, the entropy exchange of a quantum operation acting on the density matrix of a system is defined as where is the von Neumann entropy of the system
Spontaneous process (900 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
source of energy. The term is used to refer to macro processes in which entropy increases; such as a smell diffusing in a room, ice melting in lukewarm
Clausius theorem (861 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flow in a system and the entropy of the system and its surroundings. Clausius developed this in his efforts to explain entropy and define it quantitatively
Approximate entropy (1,103 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistics, an approximate entropy (ApEn) is a technique used to quantify the amount of regularity and the unpredictability of fluctuations over time-series
Recurrence period density entropy (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) is a method, in the fields of dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and time series analysis, for determining
Entropy of mixing (3,796 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in
Entropy (video game) (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy is a space MMORPG video game developed by the Norwegian game studio Artplant. The company is known for creating the MMORPG Battlestar Galactica
Frank L. Lambert (1,315 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the definition of thermodynamic entropy as "disorder" in US general chemistry texts to its replacement by viewing entropy as a measure of energy dispersal
Algorithmic cooling (277 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which the processing of certain types of computation results in negative entropy and thus a cooling effect. The phenomenon is a result of the connection
Endothermic process (334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
analysis of a reaction is the Gibbs free energy (∆G), which includes an entropy (∆S) and temperature term in addition to the enthalpy. A reaction could
Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics (1,196 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mechanics, and related theories. Its central questions include: What is entropy, and what does the second law of thermodynamics say about it? Does either
Conjugate variables (thermodynamics) (1,385 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature and entropy or pressure and volume. In fact, all thermodynamic potentials are expressed
Fluctuation theorem (2,603 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relative probability that the entropy of a system which is currently away from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., maximum entropy) will increase or decrease
Entropic uncertainty (1,263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fourier analysis, the entropic uncertainty or Hirschman uncertainty is defined as the sum of the temporal and spectral Shannon entropies. It turns out that
Extremal black hole (295 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
radiation. Their black hole entropy can be calculated in string theory. It has been suggested by Sean Carroll that the entropy of an extremal black hole
H-theorem (2,749 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
nearly-ideal gas of molecules. As this quantity H was meant to represent the entropy of thermodynamics, the H-theorem was an early demonstration of the power
Thermochemistry (616 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In combination with entropy determinations, it is also used to predict whether a reaction is spontaneous
Equilibrium thermodynamics (395 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a minimum of its components' Gibbs free energy and a maximum of their entropy. Equilibrium thermodynamics differs from non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Circular uniform distribution (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
differential information entropy of the uniform distribution is simply where is any interval of length . This is the maximum entropy any circular distribution
Clausius–Duhem inequality (399 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surface of the body, is the mass density of the body, is the specific entropy (entropy per unit mass), is the normal velocity of , is the velocity of particles
Limiting density of discrete points (376 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
for differential entropy. It was formulated by Edwin Thompson Jaynes to address defects in the initial definition of differential entropy. Shannon originally
Index of information theory articles (89 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Secrecy Systems conditional entropy conditional quantum entropy confusion and diffusion cross entropy data compression entropy encoding Fisher information
Quantities of information (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
logarithmic base in the following formulae determines the unit of information entropy that is used. The most common unit of information is the bit, based on
Mutual information (3,263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
X) alone, namely the entropy of Y (or X). Moreover, this mutual information is the same as the entropy of X and as the entropy of Y. (A very special
Quasistatic process (311 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
irreversible, if there is heat flowing (in to or out of the system) or if entropy is being created in some other way. An example of a quasistatic process
Enthalpy–entropy compensation (2,441 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Enthalpy–entropy compensation is a specific example of the compensation effect. The compensation effect refers to the behavior of a series of closely
Thermodynamic diagrams (581 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
consequences of manipulating this material. For instance, a temperature-entropy diagram (T-S diagram) may be used to demonstrate the behavior of a fluid
Fortuna (PRNG) (748 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
unreliable) estimators of entropy. There are several "pools" of entropy; each entropy source distributes its alleged entropy evenly over the pools; and
Measuring instrument (3,578 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
multipying the thermal potential by the amount of entropy found at that potential: temperature times entropy. Entropy can be created by friction but not annihilated
Minkowski–Bouligand dimension (1,197 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and lower box dimension. The upper box dimension is sometimes called the entropy dimension, Kolmogorov dimension, Kolmogorov capacity, limit capacity or
Entropic explosion (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat. The chemical decomposition
Sabayon Linux (2,136 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
cycle, its own software repository and a package management system called Entropy. Sabayon is available in both x86 and AMD64 distributions and there is
Landauer's principle (1,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
merging of two computation paths, must be accompanied by a corresponding entropy increase in non-information bearing degrees of freedom of the information
Trouton's rule (464 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the entropy of vaporization is almost the same value, about 85–88 J K−1 mol−1, for various kinds of liquids at their boiling points. The entropy of vaporization
Redundancy (information theory) (554 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. For memoryless sources, this is merely the entropy of each symbol, while, in the most general
Maxwell's demon (3,215 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to gradually heat up while the other side cools down, thus decreasing entropy. The thought experiment first appeared in a letter Maxwell wrote to Peter
Table of thermodynamic equations (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
articles: List of thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic potential, Free entropy, Defining equation (physical chemistry) Many of the definitions below are
Monster (physics) (168 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has maximum disorder. The high-entropy state of monsters has been theorized as being responsible for the high entropy of black holes; while the likelihood
Gold universe (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Universe starts with a Big Bang and expands for some time, with increasing entropy and a thermodynamic arrow of time pointing in the direction of the expansion
Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up) (390 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground up), is a B-side of 12" vinyl record that coupling of Asia Born and DJ Shadow and the Groove Rubbers.
Bridgman's thermodynamic equations (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationships). The extensive variables of the system are fundamental. Only the entropy S , the volume V  and the four most common thermodynamic potentials will
Material properties (thermodynamics) (219 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expansion where P  is pressure, V  is volume, T  is temperature, S  is entropy, and N  is the number of particles. For a single component system, only
ID3 algorithm (879 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and calculates the entropy (or information gain ) of that attribute. It then selects the attribute which has the smallest entropy (or largest information
Wrapped normal distribution (609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
e−σ2, and ln(1/Re2) will be a (biased) estimator of σ2 The information entropy of the wrapped normal distribution is defined as: where is any interval
Thermodynamic process (1,390 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermal insulator. If a system has an entropy which has not yet reached its maximum equilibrium value, the entropy will increase even though the system
State function (714 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
equilibrium state of a system. For example, internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy are state quantities because they describe quantitatively an equilibrium
Gibbs algorithm (184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
principle of maximum entropy, and the MaxEnt view of thermodynamics. This general result of the Gibbs algorithm is then a maximum entropy probability distribution
Thermodynamic cycle (1,847 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Decrease in pressure (P), Decrease in entropy (S), Decrease in temperature (T) 3→4: Isentropic Compression: Constant entropy (s), Increase in pressure (P), Decrease
Immirzi parameter (1,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
its value is currently fixed by matching the semiclassical black hole entropy, as calculated by Stephen Hawking, and the counting of microstates in loop
Reversible process (thermodynamics) (816 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
means of infinitesimal changes in some property of the system without entropy production (i.e. dissipation of energy). Due to these infinitesimal changes
Strong Subadditivity of Quantum Entropy (1,987 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of entropy (SSA) was long known and appreciated in classical probability theory and information theory. Its extension to quantum mechanical entropy (the
Heat (7,542 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flows from a hotter body to a colder one. It results in a net increase in entropy. The pathway can be direct, as in conduction and radiation, or indirect
Chi distribution (302 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
following relationships: Mean: Variance: Skewness: Kurtosis excess: The entropy is given by: where is the polygamma function. If then (chi-squared
Gibbs' inequality (299 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
statement about the mathematical entropy of a discrete probability distribution. Several other bounds on the entropy of probability distributions are
Catabiosis (148 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
their entropy as waste. However, basic components of living systems—DNA, proteins, lipids and sugars—tend towards the state of maximum entropy while continuously
Von Mises distribution (1,090 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with a preferred orientation. The von Mises distribution is the maximum entropy distribution for a given expectation value of . The von Mises distribution
Differential pulse-code modulation (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of 2 to 4 can be achieved if differences are subsequently entropy coded, because the entropy of the difference signal is much smaller than that of the
Onsager reciprocal relations (1,433 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
may be solved for the entropy density: The above expression of the first law in terms of entropy change defines the entropic conjugate variables of
High entropy alloys (828 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are substances that are constructed with equivalent quantities of five or more metals. Research indicates that HEAs are also
Thermodynamic free energy (2,683 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that cannot be used to perform work. This unusable energy is given by the entropy of a system multiplied by the temperature of the system. Like the internal
Thermodynamic databases for pure substances (3,130 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamic properties for substances, the most important being enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Numerical values of these thermodynamic properties
Arrow of time (2,318 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
technical discussion and for information related to current research, see Entropy (arrow of time). The Arrow of Time, or Time's Arrow, is a concept
The Demons of Red Lodge and Other Stories (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which they accepted unsolicited amateur submissions. Rick Briggs's "The Entropy Composition" was chosen from about 1200 submissions. The Doctor - Peter
Carnot heat engine (1,372 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematically elaborated upon by Rudolf Clausius in 1857 from which the concept of entropy emerged. Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. A thermodynamic
Hard hexagon model (564 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Bibcode:1988JPhA...21L.983J, doi:10.1088/0305-4470/21/20/005, ISSN 0305-4470, MR 966792  Weisstein, Eric W., "Hard Hexagon Entropy Constant", MathWorld.
Transcritical cycle (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energy
Leanne Frahm (551 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in The Patternmaker : Nine Science Fiction Stories (ed. Lucy Sussex) "Entropy" (1995) in Bonescribes: Year's Best Australian Horror: 1995 (ed. Bill Congreve
Principle of minimum energy (1,598 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
states that for a closed system, with constant external parameters and entropy, the internal energy will decrease and approach a minimum value at equilibrium
Ground state (662 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, such
Coherent information (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Coherent information is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a property of a quantum state ρ and a quantum channel ; intuitively
Large deviations theory (1,575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with relating entropy with rate function). Main article: asymptotic equipartition property The rate function is related to the entropy in statistical
High-efficiency hybrid cycle (93 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energy
Half-normal distribution (357 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
parameter of the new distribution. The entropy of the half-normal distribution is exactly one bit less the entropy of a zero-mean normal distribution with