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searching for Entropy (astrophysics) 199 found (3565 total)

alternate case: entropy (astrophysics)

Standard molar entropy (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressure
Entropy encoding (317 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory an entropy encoding is a lossless data compression scheme that is independent of the specific characteristics of the medium. One
Entropy (information theory) (6,279 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
attempts to infer which message was sent. In this context, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the expected value (average) of the information contained
Entropy (10,210 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
This article is about entropy in thermodynamics. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). For a more accessible and less technical introduction
Measure-preserving dynamical system (866 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical system. The entropy of a partition Q is defined as The measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical system
Free entropy (432 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A thermodynamic free entropy is an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy. Also known as a Massieu, Planck, or Massieu–Planck potentials
Entropy of fusion (237 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a substance. This is almost always positive since the degree of disorder increases in the
Entropy of vaporization (168 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to be confused with Enthalpy of vaporization. The entropy of vaporization is the increase in entropy upon vaporization of a liquid. This is always positive
Negentropy (1,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
also negative entropy, syntropy, extropy, ectropy or entaxy, of a living system is the entropy that it exports to keep its own entropy low; it lies at
Orders of magnitude (entropy) (121 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
magnitude of entropy. Orders of magnitude (data) Order of magnitude (terminology) Jean-Bernard Brissaud (14 February 2005). "The Meaning of Entropy" (PDF)
Principle of maximum entropy (2,771 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
learning, see maximum entropy classifier. For other uses, see maximum entropy (disambiguation). The principle of maximum entropy states that, subject
Entropy monitoring (439 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy monitoring is a method of assessing anaesthetic depth. It was commercially developed by Datex-Ohmeda, now part of GE Healthcare. It relies on
Boltzmann's entropy formula (948 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mechanics, Boltzmann's equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the number of microstates
The Entropy Tango (66 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Entropy Tango is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock. It is part of his long running Jerry Cornelius series.
The Entropy Plague (111 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Entropy Plague is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It concludes
Maximum entropy probability distribution (1,816 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistics and information theory, a maximum entropy probability distribution has entropy that is at least as great as that of all other members of
Joint entropy (186 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
information theory, joint entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a set of variables. The joint Shannon entropy of two variables and
Nonextensive entropy (90 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has proposed a nonextensive entropy (Tsallis entropy), which is a generalization of the traditional Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. The rationale behind the theory
Differential entropy (1,363 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Differential entropy (also referred to as continuous entropy) is a concept in information theory that extends the idea of (Shannon) entropy, a measure of
Entropy (film) (54 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a 1999 film directed by Phil Joanou, starring Stephen Dorff and featuring the Irish rock band U2. A largely autobiographical film about director
Conditional quantum entropy (352 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conditional quantum entropy is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a generalization of the conditional entropy of classical information
Rényi entropy (1,531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory, the Rényi entropy generalizes the Hartley entropy, the Shannon entropy, the collision entropy and the min-entropy. Entropies quantify the diversity
Conformational entropy (458 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Not to be confused with configurational entropy. Conformational entropy is the entropy associated with the number of conformations of a molecule. The concept
Von Neumann entropy (1,863 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
statistical mechanics, the von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical Gibbs entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanics
Binary entropy function (391 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the binary entropy function, denoted or , is defined as the entropy of a Bernoulli process with probability of success . Mathematically
Entropy (statistical thermodynamics) (2,258 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
the entropy function earlier introduced by Rudolf Clausius is interpreted as statistical entropy using probability theory. The statistical entropy perspective
Conditional entropy (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the conditional entropy (or equivocation) quantifies the amount of information needed to describe the outcome of a random variable
Cross entropy (785 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, the cross entropy between two probability distributions over the same underlying set of events measures the average number of bits
Introduction to entropy (2,995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the main encyclopedia article, see Entropy. The idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy. Everyone has an intuitive understanding
Configuration entropy (381 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistical mechanics, configuration entropy is the portion of a system's entropy that is related to the position of its constituent particles rather
Entropy (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
"Entropy" is the 18th episode of season 6 of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The Trio, riding ATVs, pursue two vampires through a cemetery;
Entropy (energy dispersal) (2,354 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
The description of entropy as energy dispersal provides an introductory method of teaching the thermodynamic concept of entropy. In physics and physical
Entropy rate (242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In the mathematical theory of probability, the entropy rate or source information rate of a stochastic process is, informally, the time density of the
Information theory (4,937 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
other forms of data analysis. A key measure in information theory is "entropy". Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random
Temperature–entropy diagram (137 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
diagram. A temperature entropy diagram, or T-s diagram, is used in thermodynamics to visualize changes to temperature and specific entropy during a thermodynamic
Q-exponential distribution (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability distribution arising from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints, including constraining the domain to be
Maximum entropy spectral estimation (385 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Maximum entropy spectral estimation is a method of spectral density estimation. The goal is to improve the spectral quality based on the principle of
Cross-entropy method (704 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The cross-entropy (CE) method attributed to Reuven Rubinstein is a general Monte Carlo approach to combinatorial and continuous multi-extremal optimization
Topological entropy (1,192 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
article is about entropy in geometry and topology. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). In mathematics, the topological entropy of a topological
Entropy (comics) (373 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a Cosmic Entity in the Marvel Comics Universe who possesses Nigh-Omnipotence. A representation of Eternity formed at the beginning of time
Entropy (journal) (117 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of entropy and information studies. It was established in 1999
Linear entropy (230 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
theory, the linear entropy or impurity of a state is a scalar defined as where ρ is the density matrix of the state. The linear entropy can range between
Entropy of entanglement (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The entropy of entanglement is an entanglement measure for many-body quantum state. Bipartite entanglement entropy is defined with respect to a bipartition
Software entropy (260 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
be confused with information entropy. A work on software engineering by Ivar Jacobson et al. describes software entropy as follows: The second law of
Entropy (arrow of time) (4,844 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences (apart from certain rare interactions in particle physics; see below) that requires a particular
History of entropy (2,515 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The concept of entropy developed in response to the observation that a certain amount of functional energy released from combustion reactions is always
Black hole thermodynamics (1,853 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(its) entropy as it falls in, giving a decrease in entropy. Generalized second law introduced as total entropy = black hole entropy + outside entropy. Extremal
Heat death of the universe (2,388 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of William Thomson
Joint quantum entropy (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The joint quantum entropy generalizes the classical joint entropy to the context of quantum information theory. Intuitively, given two quantum states
Heat death of the universe (2,388 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of William Thomson
The English Assassin: A Romance of Entropy (202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A Romance of Entropy is a 1972 novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock [1]. Subtitled "A romance of entropy" it was the third
Volume entropy (524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The volume entropy is an asymptotic invariant of a compact Riemannian manifold that measures the exponential growth rate of the volume of metric balls
Entropy / Send Them (867 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
'"Send Them/Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up)"', is a double A side EP by Asia Born (now known as Lyrics Born) and DJ Shadow and the
Tsallis entropy (1,597 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, the Tsallis entropy is a generalization of the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. It was introduced in 1988 by Constantino Tsallis as a basis
Entropy (classical thermodynamics) (1,984 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a property of thermodynamical systems. The concept of entropy was developed by Rudolf Clausius who named it from the Greek word τρoπή, "transformation"
Topological entropy in physics (293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy[1] [2], usually denoted by γ, is a number characterizing many-body states that possess topological order. The short form topological entropy is
Maximum-entropy Markov model (785 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Nordic combined skier, see Silvio Memm. In machine learning, a maximum-entropy Markov model (MEMM), or conditional Markov model (CMM), is a graphical
Enthalpy–entropy chart (672 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An enthalpy–entropy chart, also known as the h–s chart or Mollier diagram, plots the total heat against entropy, describing the enthalpy of a thermodynamic
Entropy and life (3,223 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century. In
Min entropy (926 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The min entropy, in information theory, is the smallest of the Rényi family of entropies, corresponding to the most conservative way of measuring the unpredictability
Entropy (order and disorder) (2,549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system. This stems from Rudolf Clausius'
Loop entropy (263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Loop entropy is the entropy lost upon bringing together two residues of a polymer within a prescribed distance. For a single loop, the entropy varies
Wehrl entropy (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum information theory, the Wehrl entropy, named after A. Wehrl, is a type of quasi-entropy defined for the Husimi Q representation Q(x,p) of
Entropy estimation (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
learning, and time delay estimation it is useful to estimate the differential entropy of a system or process, given some observations. The simplest and most
Transfer entropy (635 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Transfer entropy is a non-parametric statistic measuring the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between two random processes
Quantum relative entropy (905 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability between two quantum states. It is the quantum mechanical analog of relative entropy. For simplicity
Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory (3,492 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
close parallels between the mathematical expressions for the thermodynamic entropy, usually denoted by S, of a physical system in the statistical thermodynamics
Self-information (767 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sometimes used as a synonym of the related information-theoretic concept of entropy. These two meanings are not equivalent, and this article covers the first
Third law of thermodynamics (2,699 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero. At absolute
Bousso's holographic bound (254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalization of the black hole entropy bound (cf. holographic principle) to generic systems is that, in quantum gravity, the maximum entropy which can be enclosed
Quantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Main article: Von Neumann entropy Of particular significance for describing randomness of a state is the von Neumann entropy of S formally defined by
Second law of thermodynamics (10,461 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
second law of thermodynamics specifies the characteristic change in the entropy of a system undergoing a real process. The law accounts for the irreversibility
Entropy (anonymous data store) (220 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy was a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. Entropy was an anonymous data
Boltzmann constant (1,786 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant has the dimension energy divided by temperature, the same as entropy. The accepted value in SI units is 6977138064851999999♠1.38064852(79)×10−23 J/K
Entropy power inequality (294 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entropy power inequality is a result in information theory that relates to so-called "entropy power" of random variables. It shows that the entropy power
Thermoeconomics (815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constrained maximum information-entropy equilibrium,. Thermoeconomists argue that economic systems always involve matter, energy, entropy, and information. Moreover
Kullback–Leibler divergence (4,522 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kullback–Leibler divergence (also information divergence, information gain, relative entropy, KLIC, or KL divergence) is a measure of the difference between two probability
Sackur–Tetrode equation (619 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas which incorporates quantum considerations which give a
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (4,824 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
very important difference is the difficulty or impossibility in defining entropy at an instant of time in macroscopic terms for systems not in thermodynamic
Entropy maximization (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An entropy maximization problem is a convex optimization problem of the form maximize subject to where is the optimization variable, and are problem
Entropy (album) (48 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a split vinyl album by Anathallo and Javelins. Each band has one song featured on the album, released in 2005 on Potential Getaway Driver.
Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (2,600 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
comes from a true random source with high entropy. Ideally, the generation of random numbers in CSPRNGs uses entropy obtained from a high-quality source, generally
Maximum entropy thermodynamics (3,468 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inference
Minimal-entropy martingale measure (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability theory, the minimal-entropy martingale measure (MEMM) is the risk-neutral probability measure that minimises the entropy difference between the objective
Isentropic process (1,300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
definition. In this occasional reading, it means a process in which the entropy of the system remains unchanged, for example because work done on the system
Information diagram (122 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationships among Shannon's basic measures of information: entropy, joint entropy, conditional entropy and mutual information. Information diagrams are a useful
Residual entropy (603 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Residual entropy is the difference in entropy between a non-equilibrium state and crystal state of a substance close to absolute zero. This term is used
Gibbs paradox (3,736 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
derivation of the entropy that does not take into account the indistinguishability of particles, yields an expression for the entropy which is not extensive
Uncertainty coefficient (445 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association. It was first
Paradigm in Entropy (83 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Paradigm in Entropy is the debut album by the California based metal music group Bleed the Sky. The album was released on April 19, 2005 through Nuclear
Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini Entropy (132 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
network theory, the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy (BGS entropy) of a network is the von Neumann entropy of a density matrix given by a normalized Laplacian
Catherine (metalcore band) (311 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
of Release Title Label 2004 Untitled demo Self Released 2005 A Call To Entropy Self-released 2006 Rumor Has It: Astaroth Has Stolen Your Eyes Rise Records
Dissipation (770 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an isolated system. These processes produce entropy (see entropy production) at a certain rate. The entropy production rate times ambient temperature gives
Poisson binomial distribution (608 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
no simple formula for the entropy of a Poisson binomial distribution, but the entropy can be upper bounded by that entropy of a binomial distribution
Holographic principle (3,448 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an enormous entropy whose increase is greater than the entropy carried by the gas. Bekenstein assumed that black holes are maximum entropy objects—that
Social entropy (531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Social entropy is a macrosociological systems theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can refer to the decomposition of
Q-Gaussian distribution (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gaussian in the same way that Tsallis entropy is a generalization of standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy or Shannon entropy. The normal distribution is recovered
Entropy of activation (318 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In chemical kinetics, the entropy of activation of a reaction is one of the two parameters (along with the enthalpy of activation) which are typically
Password strength (5,251 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
scheme to roughly estimate the entropy of human-generated passwords: The entropy of the first character is four bits; The entropy of the next seven characters
Diversity index (2,397 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Shannon–Weaver index and the Shannon entropy. The measure was originally proposed by Claude Shannon to quantify the entropy (uncertainty or information content)
Dual total correlation (355 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In information theory, dual total correlation (Han 1978), excess entropy (Olbrich 2008), or binding information (Abdallah and Plumbley 2010) is one of
Clausius theorem (1,121 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
flow in a system and the entropy of the system and its surroundings. Clausius developed this in his efforts to explain entropy and define it quantitatively
Generalized entropy index (306 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The generalized entropy index has been proposed as a measure of income inequality in a population. It is derived from information theory as a measure
Gibbs algorithm (229 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
algorithm to non-equilibrium systems with the principle of maximum entropy and maximum entropy thermodynamics. Physicists call the result of applying the Gibbs
Dudley's theorem (226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expected upper bound and regularity properties of a Gaussian process to its entropy and covariance structure. The result was proved in a landmark 1967 paper
Laws of thermodynamics (2,678 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantities
Nat (unit) (286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
(symbol nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers of
Entropy: A New World View (259 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy: A New World View is a non-fiction book by Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard, with an Afterword by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. First published by The
Paul Erlich (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Science degree in physics from Yale University. His invention of harmonic entropy has received significant attention from music theorists such as William
Recurrence period density entropy (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) is a method, in the fields of dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and time series analysis, for determining
Entropy exchange (70 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
processing, the entropy exchange of a quantum operation acting on the density matrix of a system is defined as where is the von Neumann entropy of the system
Thermodynamics (13,124 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It states
Entropy production (2,407 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditioners
Sample entropy (534 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Sample entropy (SampEn) is a modification of approximate entropy (ApEn), used extensively for assessing the complexity of a physiological time-series
Irreversible process (1,764 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
irreversible process increases the entropy of the universe. However, because entropy is a state function, the change in entropy of the system is the same whether
Index of information theory articles (96 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
conditional entropy conditional quantum entropy confusion and diffusion cross entropy data compression entropic uncertainty (Hirchman uncertainty) entropy encoding
Sabayon Linux (2,201 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
cycle, its own software repository and a package management system called Entropy. Sabayon is available in both x86 and AMD64 distributions and there is
Carnot cycle (2,159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of heat energy Q2 and of entropy to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir. (This is the same amount of entropy absorbed in step 1, as can
Tsallis distribution (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
probability distribution derived from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints. There are several different families of
Entropy (video game) (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy is a space MMORPG video game developed by the Norwegian game studio Artplant. The company is known for creating the MMORPG Battlestar Galactica
Hartley function (421 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
also known as the Hartley entropy. The Hartley function coincides with the Shannon entropy (as well as with the Rényi entropies of all orders) in the case
Loschmidt's paradox (1,430 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of Boltzmann, which employed kinetic theory to explain the increase of entropy in an ideal gas from a non-equilibrium state, when the molecules of the
Theil index (1,001 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which is the maximum possible entropy of the data minus the observed entropy. It is a special case of the generalized entropy index. It can be viewed as
Ideal gas (2,348 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the entropy is an exact differential, using the chain rule, the change in entropy when going from a reference state 0 to some other state with entropy S
Free expansion (283 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
or enters the piston. Nevertheless, there is an entropy change. But the well-known formula for entropy change, does not apply because the process is not
Negative temperature (2,423 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
through its more rigorous definition as the tradeoff between energy and entropy, with the reciprocal of the temperature, thermodynamic beta, as the more
Approximate entropy (1,103 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In statistics, an approximate entropy (ApEn) is a technique used to quantify the amount of regularity and the unpredictability of fluctuations over time-series
Mutual information (3,479 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
variable. The concept of mutual information is intricately linked to that of entropy of a random variable, a fundamental notion in information theory, that
Gibbs free energy (3,299 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is the only one that is occurring. Then the entropy released or absorbed by the system equals the entropy that the environment must absorb or release
Gold universe (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
universe starts with a Big Bang and expands for some time, with increasing entropy and a thermodynamic arrow of time pointing in the direction of the expansion
Fundamental thermodynamic relation (1,088 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
infinitesimal change in internal energy in terms of infinitesimal changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following
Enthalpy–entropy compensation (2,441 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Enthalpy–entropy compensation is a specific example of the compensation effect. The compensation effect refers to the behavior of a series of closely
Cooperativity (981 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
measure of cooperativity. In all of the above types of cooperativity, entropy plays a role. For example, in the case of oxygen binding to hemoglobin
Entropy of mixing (3,867 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in
Algorithmic cooling (277 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which the processing of certain types of computation results in negative entropy and thus a cooling effect. The phenomenon is a result of the connection
Extremal black hole (301 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
radiation. Their black hole entropy can be calculated in string theory. It has been suggested by Sean Carroll that the entropy of an extremal black hole
Frank L. Lambert (1,316 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the definition of thermodynamic entropy as "disorder" in US general chemistry texts to its replacement by viewing entropy as a measure of energy dispersal
Carnot heat engine (1,757 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematically elaborated upon by Rudolf Clausius in 1857 from which the concept of entropy emerged. Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. A thermodynamic
Strong Subadditivity of Quantum Entropy (1,991 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of entropy (SSA) was long known and appreciated in classical probability theory and information theory. Its extension to quantum mechanical entropy (the
Entropic uncertainty (1,289 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Fourier analysis, the entropic uncertainty or Hirschman uncertainty is defined as the sum of the temporal and spectral Shannon entropies. It turns out that
Landauer's principle (1,118 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
merging of two computation paths, must be accompanied by a corresponding entropy increase in non-information-bearing degrees of freedom of the information-processing
Conjugate variables (thermodynamics) (1,405 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature and entropy or pressure and volume. In fact, all thermodynamic potentials are expressed
Minkowski–Bouligand dimension (1,212 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
referred to as entropy numbers, and are somewhat analogous to the concepts of thermodynamic entropy and information-theoretic entropy, in that they measure
Thermochemistry (616 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In combination with entropy determinations, it is also used to predict whether a reaction is spontaneous
Fluctuation theorem (2,646 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relative probability that the entropy of a system which is currently away from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., maximum entropy) will increase or decrease
Wavelet entropy (181 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Shannon entropy. The wavelet Renyi entropy combines "wavelet transform" with "Renyi entropy". Gomez-Pilar, Javier applied wavelet entropy to analyze
Bekenstein bound (1,915 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space which
H-theorem (2,753 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
nearly-ideal gas of molecules. As this quantity H was meant to represent the entropy of thermodynamics, the H-theorem was an early demonstration of the power
Entropic explosion (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat. The chemical decomposition
Monster (physics) (176 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
has maximum disorder. The high-entropy state of monsters has been theorized as being responsible for the high entropy of black holes; while the likelihood
Trouton's rule (466 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the entropy of vaporization is almost the same value, about 85–88 J K−1 mol−1, for various kinds of liquids at their boiling points. The entropy of vaporization
Spontaneous process (696 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surroundings, spontaneous processes are characterized by an increase in entropy. In general, the spontaneity of a process only determines whether or
Fortuna (PRNG) (765 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
unreliable) estimators of entropy. There are several "pools" of entropy; each entropy source distributes its alleged entropy evenly over the pools; and
Circular uniform distribution (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
differential information entropy of the uniform distribution is simply where is any interval of length . This is the maximum entropy any circular distribution
Homentropic flow (58 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
has uniform and constant entropy. It distinguishes itself from an isentropic or particle isentropic flow, where the entropy level of each fluid particle
Quantities of information (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
logarithmic base in the following formulae determines the unit of information entropy that is used. The most common unit of information is the bit, based on
Thermodynamic diagrams (585 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
consequences of manipulating this material. For instance, a temperature-entropy diagram (T-S diagram) may be used to demonstrate the behavior of a fluid
Limiting density of discrete points (340 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
for differential entropy. It was formulated by Edwin Thompson Jaynes to address defects in the initial definition of differential entropy. Shannon originally
Maxwell's demon (3,593 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
behavior causes one chamber to warm up as the other cools, thus decreasing entropy and violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The thought experiment
Entropy (1977 board game) (553 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
For the 1994 game, see Entropy (1994 board game). Entropy is an abstract strategy board game for two players designed by Eric Solomon in 1977. The game
Quasistatic process (369 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
irreversible, if there is heat flowing (in to or out of the system) or if entropy is being created in some other way. An example of a quasistatic process
/dev/random (2,539 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generator keeps an estimate of the number of bits of noise in the entropy pool. From this entropy pool random numbers are created. When read, the /dev/random
Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up) (390 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground up), is a B-side of 12" vinyl record that coupling of Asia Born and DJ Shadow and the Groove Rubbers.
Measuring instrument (3,591 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
multipying the thermal potential by the amount of entropy found at that potential: temperature times entropy. Entropy can be created by friction but not annihilated
Table of thermodynamic equations (412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
articles: List of thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic potential, Free entropy, Defining equation (physical chemistry) Many of the definitions below are
Material properties (thermodynamics) (219 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
expansion where P  is pressure, V  is volume, T  is temperature, S  is entropy, and N  is the number of particles. For a single component system, only
Asymmetric Laplace distribution (451 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with parameters (m1-m2, λ, κ) The differential entropy of the ALD is The ALD has the maximum entropy of all distributions with a fixed value (1/λ) of
Thermodynamic cycle (1,955 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Decrease in pressure (P), Decrease in entropy (S), Decrease in temperature (T) 3→4: Isentropic Compression: Constant entropy (s), Increase in pressure (P), Decrease
Wrapped normal distribution (609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
e−σ2, and ln(1/Re2) will be a (biased) estimator of σ2 The information entropy of the wrapped normal distribution is defined as: where is any interval
Bridgman's thermodynamic equations (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relationships). The extensive variables of the system are fundamental. Only the entropy S , the volume V  and the four most common thermodynamic potentials will
Immirzi parameter (1,127 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
its value is currently fixed by matching the semiclassical black hole entropy, as calculated by Stephen Hawking, and the counting of microstates in loop
ID3 algorithm (1,053 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and calculates the entropy (or information gain ) of that attribute. It then selects the attribute which has the smallest entropy (or largest information
Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics (1,235 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mechanics, and related theories. Its central questions include: What is entropy, and what does the second law of thermodynamics say about it? Does either
Principle of minimum energy (1,598 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
states that for a closed system, with constant external parameters and entropy, the internal energy will decrease and approach a minimum value at equilibrium
Differential pulse-code modulation (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of 2 to 4 can be achieved if differences are subsequently entropy coded, because the entropy of the difference signal is much smaller than that of the
Arrow of time (2,453 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
technical discussion and for information related to current research, see Entropy (arrow of time). The Arrow of Time, or Time's Arrow, is a concept
Wrapped Cauchy distribution (942 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
expressions into the entropy integral, exchanging the order of integration and summation, and using the orthogonality of the cosines, the entropy may be written:
The Demons of Red Lodge and Other Stories (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which they accepted unsolicited amateur submissions. Rick Briggs's "The Entropy Composition" was chosen from about 1200 submissions. The Doctor - Peter
Gibbs' inequality (299 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
statement about the mathematical entropy of a discrete probability distribution. Several other bounds on the entropy of probability distributions are
Thermodynamic free energy (2,700 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that cannot be used to perform work. This unusable energy is given by the entropy of a system multiplied by the temperature of the system. Like the internal
Leanne Frahm (551 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
in The Patternmaker : Nine Science Fiction Stories (ed. Lucy Sussex) "Entropy" (1995) in Bonescribes: Year's Best Australian Horror: 1995 (ed. Bill Congreve
Von Mises distribution (1,090 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with a preferred orientation. The von Mises distribution is the maximum entropy distribution for a given expectation value of . The von Mises distribution
Chi distribution (319 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
following relationships: Mean: Variance: Skewness: Kurtosis excess: The entropy is given by: where is the polygamma function. If then (chi-squared
Coherent information (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Coherent information is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a property of a quantum state ρ and a quantum channel ; intuitively
Ground state (648 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, such
Thermodynamic databases for pure substances (3,125 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thermodynamic properties for substances, the most important being enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Numerical values of these thermodynamic properties
Onsager reciprocal relations (1,439 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
may be solved for the entropy density: The above expression of the first law in terms of entropy change defines the entropic conjugate variables of
High-efficiency hybrid cycle (93 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energy
Clausius–Duhem inequality (408 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
surface of the body, is the mass density of the body, is the specific entropy (entropy per unit mass), is the normal velocity of , is the velocity of particles
Transcritical cycle (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energy
Endothermic process (416 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the enthalpy of the products is higher. Entropy and enthalpy are different terms, so the change in entropic energy can overcome an opposite change in
Hard hexagon model (565 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Bibcode:1988JPhA...21L.983J, doi:10.1088/0305-4470/21/20/005, ISSN 0305-4470, MR 966792  Weisstein, Eric W., "Hard Hexagon Entropy Constant", MathWorld.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (8,897 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
second laws of thermodynamics: "The energy of the world is constant. The entropy of the world tends towards a maximum." Gibbs's monograph rigorously and
Large deviations theory (1,642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with relating entropy with rate function). Main article: asymptotic equipartition property The rate function is related to the entropy in statistical
Hardware random number generator (4,469 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
high entropy as a result. Maintain a stream cipher with a key and Initialization vector (IV) obtained from an entropy pool. When enough bits of entropy have
Redundancy (information theory) (557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. For memoryless sources, this is merely the entropy of each symbol, while, in the most general
Port Entropy (75 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Port Entropy is the fourth studio album from Japanese multi-instrumentalist Shugo Tokumaru. It was released on April 21, 2010 on P-Vine Records to generally
Rudolf Clausius (1,344 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem which applied to heat. Clausius
Generalized relative entropy (790 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relative entropy (-relative entropy) is a measure of dissimilarity between two quantum states. It is a "one-shot" analogue of quantum relative entropy and