searching for Entropy (astrophysics) 199 found (3523 total)

alternate case: entropy (astrophysics)

Standard molar entropy
(431 words)
[view diff]
no match in snippet
view article
find links to article

In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under standard conditions (not standard temperature and pressureEntropy encoding (317 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In information theory an entropy encoding is a lossless data compression scheme that is independent of the specific characteristics of the medium. OneEntropy (information theory) (6,421 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

attempts to infer which message was sent. In this context, entropy (more specifically, Shannon entropy) is the expected value (average) of the information containedEntropy (10,166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

This article is about entropy in thermodynamics. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). For a more accessible and less technical introductionMeasure-preserving dynamical system (866 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical system. The entropy of a partition Q is defined as The measure-theoretic entropy of a dynamical systemFree entropy (432 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

A thermodynamic free entropy is an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy. Also known as a Massieu, Planck, or Massieu–Planck potentialsEntropy of fusion (237 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a substance. This is almost always positive since the degree of disorder increases in theEntropy of vaporization (168 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to be confused with Enthalpy of vaporization. The entropy of vaporization is the increase in entropy upon vaporization of a liquid. This is always positiveNegentropy (1,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

also negative entropy, syntropy, extropy, ectropy or entaxy, of a living system is the entropy that it exports to keep its own entropy low; it lies atOrders of magnitude (entropy) (121 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

magnitude of entropy. Orders of magnitude (data) Order of magnitude (terminology) Jean-Bernard Brissaud (14 February 2005). "The Meaning of Entropy" (PDF)Principle of maximum entropy (2,740 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

learning, see maximum entropy classifier. For other uses, see maximum entropy (disambiguation). The principle of maximum entropy states that, subjectEntropy monitoring (440 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Entropy monitoring is a method of assessing anaesthetic depth. It was commercially developed by Datex-Ohmeda, now part of GE Healthcare. It relies onThe Entropy Tango (66 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Entropy Tango is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock. It is part of his long running Jerry Cornelius series.Boltzmann's entropy formula (948 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mechanics, Boltzmann's equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the number of microstatesMaximum entropy probability distribution (1,816 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In statistics and information theory, a maximum entropy probability distribution has entropy that is at least as great as that of all other members ofThe Entropy Plague (111 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Entropy Plague is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It concludesJoint entropy (178 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

information theory, joint entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a set of variables. The joint Shannon entropy of two variables andDifferential entropy (1,363 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Differential entropy (also referred to as continuous entropy) is a concept in information theory that extends the idea of (Shannon) entropy, a measure ofNonextensive entropy (90 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

has proposed a nonextensive entropy (Tsallis entropy), which is a generalization of the traditional Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. The rationale behind the theoryConformational entropy (458 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Not to be confused with configurational entropy. Conformational entropy is the entropy associated with the number of conformations of a molecule. The conceptRényi entropy (1,531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

theory, the Rényi entropy generalizes the Hartley entropy, the Shannon entropy, the collision entropy and the min-entropy. Entropies quantify the diversityVon Neumann entropy (1,868 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

statistical mechanics, the von Neumann entropy, named after John von Neumann, is the extension of classical Gibbs entropy concepts to the field of quantum mechanicsConditional quantum entropy (352 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

conditional quantum entropy is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a generalization of the conditional entropy of classical informationEntropy (statistical thermodynamics) (2,293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Clausius is interpreted as statistical entropy using probability theory. The statistical entropy perspectiveConditional entropy (343 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In information theory, the conditional entropy (or equivocation) quantifies the amount of information needed to describe the outcome of a random variableBinary entropy function (391 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In information theory, the binary entropy function, denoted or , is defined as the entropy of a Bernoulli process with probability of success . MathematicallyCross entropy (785 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In information theory, the cross entropy between two probability distributions over the same underlying set of events measures the average number of bitsConfiguration entropy (381 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In statistical mechanics, configuration entropy is the portion of a system's entropy that is related to the position of its constituent particles ratherIntroduction to entropy (2,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the main encyclopedia article, see Entropy. The idea of "irreversibility" is central to the understanding of entropy. Everyone has an intuitive understandingEntropy (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

"Entropy" is the 18th episode of season 6 of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The Trio, riding ATVs, pursue two vampires through a cemetery;Entropy (energy dispersal) (2,354 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

The description of entropy as energy dispersal provides an introductory method of teaching the thermodynamic concept of entropy. In physics and physicalEntropy rate (242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In the mathematical theory of probability, the entropy rate or source information rate of a stochastic process is, informally, the time density of theMaximum entropy spectral estimation (385 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Maximum entropy spectral estimation is a method of spectral density estimation. The goal is to improve the spectral quality based on the principle ofTemperature–entropy diagram (134 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

diagram. A temperature entropy diagram, or T-s diagram, is used in thermodynamics to visualize changes to temperature and specific entropy during a thermodynamicQ-exponential distribution (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

probability distribution arising from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints, including constraining the domain to beCross-entropy method (704 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The cross-entropy (CE) method attributed to Reuven Rubinstein is a general Monte Carlo approach to combinatorial and continuous multi-extremal optimizationEntropy and life (3,215 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century. InInformation theory (4,693 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

information is entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed to store or communicate one symbol in a message. Entropy quantifiesEntropy (journal) (117 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of entropy and information studies. It was established in 1999Entropy (comics) (373 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a Cosmic Entity in the Marvel Comics Universe who possesses Nigh-Omnipotence. A representation of Eternity formed at the beginning of timeTopological entropy (1,192 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

article is about entropy in geometry and topology. For other uses, see Entropy (disambiguation). In mathematics, the topological entropy of a topologicalEntropy (film) (47 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a 1999 film directed by Phil Joanou, starring Stephen Dorff and featuring the Irish rock band U2. The film is largely autobiographical, coveringEntropy (arrow of time) (4,844 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences (apart from certain rare interactions in particle physics; see below) that requires a particularSoftware entropy (260 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

be confused with information entropy. A work on software engineering by Ivar Jacobson et al. describes software entropy as follows: The second law ofEntropy of entanglement (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The entropy of entanglement is an entanglement measure for many-body quantum state. Bipartite entanglement entropy is defined with respect to a bipartitionHistory of entropy (2,515 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The concept of entropy developed in response to the observation that a certain amount of functional energy released from combustion reactions is alwaysHeat death of the universe (2,388 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of William ThomsonJoint quantum entropy (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The joint quantum entropy generalizes the classical joint entropy to the context of quantum information theory. Intuitively, given two quantum statesBlack hole thermodynamics (1,854 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(its) entropy as it falls in, giving a decrease in entropy. Generalized second law introduced as total entropy = black hole entropy + outside entropy. ExtremalBlack hole thermodynamics (1,854 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(its) entropy as it falls in, giving a decrease in entropy. Generalized second law introduced as total entropy = black hole entropy + outside entropy. ExtremalJoint quantum entropy (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The joint quantum entropy generalizes the classical joint entropy to the context of quantum information theory. Intuitively, given two quantum statesEntropy / Send Them (867 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

'"Send Them/Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up)"', is a double A side EP by Asia Born (now known as Lyrics Born) and DJ Shadow and theThe English Assassin: A Romance of Entropy (196 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Assassin: A Romance of Entropy is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock [1]. Subtitled "A romance of entropy" it was the thirdEntropy in thermodynamics and information theory (3,054 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

close parallels between the mathematical expressions for the thermodynamic entropy, usually denoted by S, of a physical system in the statistical thermodynamicsTsallis entropy (1,597 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In physics, the Tsallis entropy is a generalization of the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy. It was introduced in 1988 by Constantino Tsallis as a basisEntropy (classical thermodynamics) (1,979 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a property of thermodynamical systems invented by Rudolf Clausius who named it from the Greek word τρoπή, "transformation". Later Ludwig BoltzmannTopological entropy in physics (293 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

entropy[1] [2], usually denoted by γ, is a number characterizing many-body states that possess topological order. The short form topological entropy isVolume entropy (524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The volume entropy is an asymptotic invariant of a compact Riemannian manifold that measures the exponential growth rate of the volume of metric ballsLoop entropy (263 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Loop entropy is the entropy lost upon bringing together two residues of a polymer within a prescribed distance. For a single loop, the entropy variesEntropy (order and disorder) (2,571 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system. This stems from Rudolf Clausius'Thermoeconomics (705 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Thermoeconomists argue that economic systems always involve matter, energy, entropy, and information. Moreover, the aim of many economic activities is to achieveEnthalpy–entropy chart (672 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

An enthalpy–entropy chart, also known as the h–s chart or Mollier diagram, plots the total heat against entropy, describing the enthalpy of a thermodynamicSackur–Tetrode equation (507 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas which incorporates quantum considerations which give aMaximum-entropy Markov model (776 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Nordic combined skier, see Silvio Memm. In machine learning, a maximum-entropy Markov model (MEMM), or conditional Markov model (CMM), is a graphicalQuantum relative entropy (905 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantum relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability between two quantum states. It is the quantum mechanical analog of relative entropy. For simplicityMin entropy (926 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The min entropy, in information theory, is the smallest of the Rényi family of entropies, corresponding to the most conservative way of measuring the unpredictabilityTransfer entropy (635 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Transfer entropy is a non-parametric statistic measuring the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between two random processesSelf-information (767 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

sometimes used as a synonym of the related information-theoretic concept of entropy. These two meanings are not equivalent, and this article covers the firstEntropy estimation (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

learning, and time delay estimation it is useful to estimate the differential entropy of a system or process, given some observations. The simplest and mostWehrl entropy (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum information theory, the Wehrl entropy, named after A. Wehrl, is a type of quasi-entropy defined for the Husimi Q representation Q(x,p) ofThird law of thermodynamics (2,676 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero. At absoluteEntropy (anonymous data store) (220 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy was a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. Entropy was an anonymous dataNon-equilibrium thermodynamics (5,948 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

discussed below. Another fundamental difference is the difficulty in defining entropy in macroscopic terms for systems not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibriumEntropy (1977 board game) (553 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

For the 1994 game, see Entropy (1994 board game). Entropy is an abstract strategy board game for two players designed by Eric Solomon in 1977. The gameBousso's holographic bound (254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

generalization of the black hole entropy bound (cf. holographic principle) to generic systems is that, in quantum gravity, the maximum entropy which can be enclosedQuantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Main article: Von Neumann entropy Of particular significance for describing randomness of a state is the von Neumann entropy of S formally defined byEntropy power inequality (294 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

entropy power inequality is a result in information theory that relates to so-called "entropy power" of random variables. It shows that the entropy powerEntropy (album) (48 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a split vinyl album by Anathallo and Javelins. Each band has one song featured on the album, released in 2005 on Potential Getaway Driver.Boltzmann constant (1,765 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

constant has the dimension energy divided by temperature, the same as entropy. The accepted value in SI units is 6977138064879999999♠1.3806488(13)×10−23 J/KEntropy maximization (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

An entropy maximization problem is a convex optimization problem of the form maximize subject to where is the optimization variable, and are problemKullback–Leibler divergence (4,497 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Kullback–Leibler divergence (also information divergence, information gain, relative entropy, KLIC, or KL divergence) is a measure of the difference between two probabilitySecond law of thermodynamics (10,280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

thermodynamics states that in every natural thermodynamic process the sum of the entropies of all participating bodies is increased. In the idealized limiting caseMaximum entropy thermodynamics (3,468 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inferenceInformation diagram (122 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relationships among Shannon's basic measures of information: entropy, joint entropy, conditional entropy and mutual information. Information diagrams are a usefulMinimal-entropy martingale measure (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

probability theory, the minimal-entropy martingale measure (MEMM) is the risk-neutral probability measure that minimises the entropy difference between the objectiveGibbs paradox (3,728 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

derivation of the entropy that does not take into account the indistinguishability of particles, yields an expression for the entropy which is not extensiveResidual entropy (572 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Residual entropy is the difference in entropy between a non-equilibrium state and crystal state of a substance close to absolute zero. This term is usedUncertainty coefficient (445 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association. It was firstCatherine (metalcore band) (311 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

of Release Title Label 2004 Untitled demo Self Released 2005 A Call To Entropy Self-released 2006 Rumor Has It: Astaroth Has Stolen Your Eyes Rise RecordsParadigm in Entropy (83 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Paradigm in Entropy is the debut album by the California based metal music group Bleed the Sky. The album was released on April 19, 2005 through NuclearIsentropic process (1,273 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

definition. In this occasional reading, it means a process in which the entropy of the system remains unchanged, for example because work done on the systemBraunstein-Ghosh-Severini Entropy (132 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

network theory, the Braunstein-Ghosh-Severini entropy (BGS entropy) of a network is the von Neumann entropy of a density matrix given by a normalized LaplacianFundamental thermodynamic relation (973 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

infinitesimal change in internal energy in terms of infinitesimal changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the followingQ-Gaussian distribution (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Gaussian in the same way that Tsallis entropy is a generalization of standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy or Shannon entropy. The normal distribution is recoveredHolographic principle (3,422 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might bePoisson binomial distribution (608 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

no simple formula for the entropy of a Poisson binomial distribution, but the entropy can be upper bounded by that entropy of a binomial distributionEntropy of activation (318 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In chemical kinetics, the entropy of activation of a reaction is one of the two parameters (along with the enthalpy of activation) which are typicallyDissipation (742 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

an isolated system. These processes produce entropy (see entropy production) at a certain rate. The entropy production rate times ambient temperature givesSocial entropy (531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Social entropy is a macrosociological systems theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can refer to the decomposition ofGeneralized entropy index (302 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The generalized entropy index has been proposed as a measure of income inequality in a population. It is derived from information theory as a measureSocial entropy (531 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Social entropy is a macrosociological systems theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can refer to the decomposition ofDiversity index (2,395 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Shannon–Weaver index and the Shannon entropy. The measure was originally proposed by Claude Shannon to quantify the entropy (uncertainty or information content)Password strength (5,214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

scheme to roughly estimate the entropy of human-generated passwords: The entropy of the first character is four bits; The entropy of the next seven charactersDual total correlation (355 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In information theory, dual total correlation (Han 1978), excess entropy (Olbrich 2008), or binding information (Abdallah and Plumbley 2010) is one ofDudley's theorem (226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

expected upper bound and regularity properties of a Gaussian process to its entropy and covariance structure. The result was proved in a landmark 1967 paperClausius theorem (1,121 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

flow in a system and the entropy of the system and its surroundings. Clausius developed this in his efforts to explain entropy and define it quantitativelyEntropy: A New World View (259 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Entropy: A New World View is a non-fiction book by Jeremy Rifkin and Ted Howard, with an Afterword by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. First published by TheWrapped Cauchy distribution (518 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

expressions into the entropy integral, exchanging the order of integration and summation, and using the orthogonality of the cosines, the entropy may be written:Gibbs algorithm (229 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

algorithm to non-equilibrium systems with the principle of maximum entropy and maximum entropy thermodynamics. Physicists call the result of applying the GibbsPhilosophy of thermal and statistical physics (1,196 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mechanics, and related theories. Its central questions include: What is entropy, and what does the second law of thermodynamics say about it? Does eitherNat (unit) (284 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

(symbol nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers ofPaul Erlich (305 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Science degree in physics from Yale University. His invention of harmonic entropy has received significant attention from music theorists such as WilliamLaws of thermodynamics (2,634 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems. The laws describe how these quantitiesEntropy exchange (70 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

processing, the entropy exchange of a quantum operation acting on the density matrix of a system is defined as where is the von Neumann entropy of the systemTsallis distribution (238 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

probability distribution derived from the maximization of the Tsallis entropy under appropriate constraints. There are several different families ofEntropy (video game) (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy is a space MMORPG video game developed by the Norwegian game studio Artplant. The company is known for creating the MMORPG Battlestar GalacticaSample entropy (535 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Sample entropy (SampEn) is a modification of approximate entropy (ApEn), used extensively for assessing the complexity of a physiological time-seriesThermodynamics (13,054 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

chemical work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It statesIrreversible process (1,738 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

irreversible process increases the entropy of the universe. However, because entropy is a state function, the change in entropy of a system is the same whetherEntropy production (2,407 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditionersCarnot cycle (2,150 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of heat energy Q2 and of entropy to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir. (This is the same amount of entropy absorbed in step 1, as canSabayon Linux (2,194 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

cycle, its own software repository and a package management system called Entropy. Sabayon is available in both x86 and AMD64 distributions and there isRecurrence period density entropy (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) is a method, in the fields of dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and time series analysis, for determiningFree expansion (283 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

or enters the piston. Nevertheless, there is an entropy change. But the well-known formula for entropy change, does not apply because the process is notSpontaneous process (899 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

source of energy. The term is used to refer to macro processes in which entropy increases; such as a smell diffusing in a room, ice melting in lukewarmLoschmidt's paradox (1,433 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which was an attempt to explain using kinetic theory the increase of entropy in an ideal gas from a non-equilibrium state, when the molecules of theTheil index (998 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which is the maximum possible entropy of the data minus the observed entropy. It is a special case of the generalized entropy index. It can be viewed asIdeal gas (2,348 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the entropy is an exact differential, using the chain rule, the change in entropy when going from a reference state 0 to some other state with entropy SHartley function (421 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

also known as the Hartley entropy. The Hartley function coincides with the Shannon entropy (as well as with the Rényi entropies of all orders) in the caseNegative temperature (2,423 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

through its more rigorous definition as the tradeoff between energy and entropy, with the reciprocal of the temperature, thermodynamic beta, as the moreApproximate entropy (1,103 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In statistics, an approximate entropy (ApEn) is a technique used to quantify the amount of regularity and the unpredictability of fluctuations over time-seriesEnthalpy–entropy compensation (2,441 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Enthalpy–entropy compensation is a specific example of the compensation effect. The compensation effect refers to the behavior of a series of closelyGibbs free energy (3,180 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is the only one that is occurring. Then the entropy released or absorbed by the system equals the entropy that the environment must absorb or releaseEntropy of mixing (3,796 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each inGold universe (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

universe starts with a Big Bang and expands for some time, with increasing entropy and a thermodynamic arrow of time pointing in the direction of the expansionMutual information (3,301 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

X) alone, namely the entropy of Y (or X). Moreover, this mutual information is the same as the entropy of X and as the entropy of Y. (A very specialFrank L. Lambert (1,316 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the definition of thermodynamic entropy as "disorder" in US general chemistry texts to its replacement by viewing entropy as a measure of energy dispersalBekenstein bound (1,915 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space whichIndex of information theory articles (96 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

conditional entropy conditional quantum entropy confusion and diffusion cross entropy data compression entropic uncertainty (Hirchman uncertainty) entropy encodingAlgorithmic cooling (277 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which the processing of certain types of computation results in negative entropy and thus a cooling effect. The phenomenon is a result of the connectionExtremal black hole (301 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

radiation. Their black hole entropy can be calculated in string theory. It has been suggested by Sean Carroll that the entropy of an extremal black holeThermochemistry (617 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In combination with entropy determinations, it is also used to predict whether a reaction is spontaneousCarnot heat engine (1,757 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mathematically elaborated upon by Rudolf Clausius in 1857 from which the concept of entropy emerged. Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. A thermodynamicConjugate variables (thermodynamics) (1,405 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature and entropy or pressure and volume. In fact, all thermodynamic potentials are expressedEntropic uncertainty (1,289 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Fourier analysis, the entropic uncertainty or Hirschman uncertainty is defined as the sum of the temporal and spectral Shannon entropies. It turns out thatEntropic explosion (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat. The chemical decompositionEquilibrium thermodynamics (395 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a minimum of its components' Gibbs free energy and a maximum of their entropy. Equilibrium thermodynamics differs from non-equilibrium thermodynamicsMinkowski–Bouligand dimension (1,197 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and lower box dimension. The upper box dimension is sometimes called the entropy dimension, Kolmogorov dimension, Kolmogorov capacity, limit capacity orFluctuation theorem (2,608 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relative probability that the entropy of a system which is currently away from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., maximum entropy) will increase or decreaseFluctuation theorem (2,608 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relative probability that the entropy of a system which is currently away from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., maximum entropy) will increase or decreaseMinkowski–Bouligand dimension (1,197 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and lower box dimension. The upper box dimension is sometimes called the entropy dimension, Kolmogorov dimension, Kolmogorov capacity, limit capacity orLandauer's principle (1,118 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

merging of two computation paths, must be accompanied by a corresponding entropy increase in non-information-bearing degrees of freedom of the information-processingEquilibrium thermodynamics (395 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a minimum of its components' Gibbs free energy and a maximum of their entropy. Equilibrium thermodynamics differs from non-equilibrium thermodynamicsCircular uniform distribution (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

differential information entropy of the uniform distribution is simply where is any interval of length . This is the maximum entropy any circular distributionQuantities of information (580 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

logarithmic base in the following formulae determines the unit of information entropy that is used. The most common unit of information is the bit, based onFortuna (PRNG) (765 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

unreliable) estimators of entropy. There are several "pools" of entropy; each entropy source distributes its alleged entropy evenly over the pools; andMonster (physics) (176 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

has maximum disorder. The high-entropy state of monsters has been theorized as being responsible for the high entropy of black holes; while the likelihoodTrouton's rule (466 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the entropy of vaporization is almost the same value, about 85–88 J K−1 mol−1, for various kinds of liquids at their boiling points. The entropy of vaporizationLimiting density of discrete points (340 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

for differential entropy. It was formulated by Edwin Thompson Jaynes to address defects in the initial definition of differential entropy. Shannon originallyThermodynamic diagrams (583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

consequences of manipulating this material. For instance, a temperature-entropy diagram (T-S diagram) may be used to demonstrate the behavior of a fluidQuasistatic process (325 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

irreversible, if there is heat flowing (in to or out of the system) or if entropy is being created in some other way. An example of a quasistatic processEntropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground Up) (390 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Entropy (Hip Hop Reconstruction from the Ground up), is a B-side of 12" vinyl record that coupling of Asia Born and DJ Shadow and the Groove Rubbers.Maxwell's demon (3,585 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

behavior causes one chamber to warm up as the other cools, thus decreasing entropy and violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The thought experimentTable of thermodynamic equations (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

articles: List of thermodynamic properties, Thermodynamic potential, Free entropy, Defining equation (physical chemistry) Many of the definitions below areWrapped normal distribution (609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

e−σ2, and ln(1/Re2) will be a (biased) estimator of σ2 The information entropy of the wrapped normal distribution is defined as: where is any intervalMeasuring instrument (3,589 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

multipying the thermal potential by the amount of entropy found at that potential: temperature times entropy. Entropy can be created by friction but not annihilatedImmirzi parameter (1,127 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

its value is currently fixed by matching the semiclassical black hole entropy, as calculated by Stephen Hawking, and the counting of microstates in loopMaterial properties (thermodynamics) (219 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

expansion where P is pressure, V is volume, T is temperature, S is entropy, and N is the number of particles. For a single component system, onlyBridgman's thermodynamic equations (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relationships). The extensive variables of the system are fundamental. Only the entropy S , the volume V and the four most common thermodynamic potentials willThermodynamic process (1,432 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

thermal insulator. If a system has an entropy which has not yet reached its maximum equilibrium value, the entropy will increase even though the systemThermodynamic cycle (1,955 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Decrease in pressure (P), Decrease in entropy (S), Decrease in temperature (T) 3→4: Isentropic Compression: Constant entropy (s), Increase in pressure (P), DecreaseID3 algorithm (1,053 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and calculates the entropy (or information gain ) of that attribute. It then selects the attribute which has the smallest entropy (or largest information/dev/random (2,490 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

generator keeps an estimate of the number of bits of noise in the entropy pool. From this entropy pool random numbers are created. When read, the /dev/randomArrow of time (2,453 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

technical discussion and for information related to current research, see Entropy (arrow of time). The Arrow of Time, or Time's Arrow, is a conceptVon Mises distribution (1,090 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

with a preferred orientation. The von Mises distribution is the maximum entropy distribution for a given expectation value of . The von Mises distributionDifferential pulse-code modulation (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of 2 to 4 can be achieved if differences are subsequently entropy coded, because the entropy of the difference signal is much smaller than that of theHard hexagon model (565 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Bibcode:1988JPhA...21L.983J, doi:10.1088/0305-4470/21/20/005, ISSN 0305-4470, MR 966792 Weisstein, Eric W., "Hard Hexagon Entropy Constant", MathWorld.The Demons of Red Lodge and Other Stories (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which they accepted unsolicited amateur submissions. Rick Briggs's "The Entropy Composition" was chosen from about 1200 submissions. The Doctor - PeterChi distribution (319 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

following relationships: Mean: Variance: Skewness: Kurtosis excess: The entropy is given by: where is the polygamma function. If then (chi-squaredGround state (655 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, suchThermodynamic databases for pure substances (3,125 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

thermodynamic properties for substances, the most important being enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Numerical values of these thermodynamic propertiesOnsager reciprocal relations (1,435 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

may be solved for the entropy density: The above expression of the first law in terms of entropy change defines the entropic conjugate variables ofThermodynamic free energy (2,700 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

that cannot be used to perform work. This unusable energy is given by the entropy of a system multiplied by the temperature of the system. Like the internalGibbs' inequality (299 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

statement about the mathematical entropy of a discrete probability distribution. Several other bounds on the entropy of probability distributions arePrinciple of minimum energy (1,598 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

states that for a closed system, with constant external parameters and entropy, the internal energy will decrease and approach a minimum value at equilibriumLarge deviations theory (1,614 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

with relating entropy with rate function). Main article: asymptotic equipartition property The rate function is related to the entropy in statisticalEndothermic process (408 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the enthalpy of the products is higher. Entropy and enthalpy are different terms, so the change in entropic energy can overcome an opposite change inTranscritical cycle (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energyCoherent information (162 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Coherent information is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a property of a quantum state ρ and a quantum channel ; intuitivelyLeanne Frahm (551 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

in The Patternmaker : Nine Science Fiction Stories (ed. Lucy Sussex) "Entropy" (1995) in Bonescribes: Year's Best Australian Horror: 1995 (ed. Bill CongreveHigh-efficiency hybrid cycle (93 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

equations Table of thermodynamic equations Potentials Free energy Free entropy Internal energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energyGeneralized relative entropy (790 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relative entropy (-relative entropy) is a measure of dissimilarity between two quantum states. It is a "one-shot" analogue of quantum relative entropy andHalf-normal distribution (357 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

parameter of the new distribution. The entropy of the half-normal distribution is exactly one bit less the entropy of a zero-mean normal distribution withRedundancy (information theory) (557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

a source of information is the average entropy per symbol. For memoryless sources, this is merely the entropy of each symbol, while, in the most generalPort Entropy (75 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Port Entropy is the fourth studio album from Japanese multi-instrumentalist Shugo Tokumaru. It was released on April 21, 2010 on P-Vine Records to generallyInformation gain ratio (319 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

for the result attribute. In this case the relative entropies subtracted from the total entropy are 0. The intrinsic value for a test is defined asRudolf Clausius (1,344 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem which applied to heat. ClausiusTowards the End of the Morning (190 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

what he sees as encroaching entropy - indeed, the book was published in the United States under the title Against Entropy. Existential Ennui: BeautifulKolmogorov complexity (4,135 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

as descriptive complexity, Kolmogorov–Chaitin complexity, algorithmic entropy, or program-size complexity) of an object, such as a piece of text, is