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Fermi–Dirac statistics
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In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of manyPaul Dirac (5,993 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Dirac" redirects here. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac OM FRS (/dɪˈræk/ di-RAK; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984)Dirac delta function (8,133 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

uses, see Delta function (disambiguation). In mathematics, the Dirac delta function, or δ function, is a generalized function, or distributionDirac Prize (815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac Prize is the name of four prominent awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by differentDirac (video compression format) (1,387 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

dirac-research (formerly just called "Dirac") are open and royalty-free software implementations (video codecs) of Dirac. Dirac format aims to provide high-qualityDirac fermion (102 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, a Dirac fermion is a fermion which is not its own antiparticle. It is named for Paul Dirac. They can be modelled with the Dirac equation. TheDirac equation (5,084 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or includingDirac measure (550 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac measure assigns a size to a set based solely on whether it contains a fixed point x or not. It is one way of formalizing the idea of the Dirac deltaIncomplete Fermi–Dirac integral (32 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral for an index j is given by This is an alternate definition of the incomplete polylogarithm. Complete Fermi–Dirac integralDirac spinor (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum field theory, the Dirac spinor is the bispinor in the plane-wave solution of the free Dirac equation, where (in the units ) is a relativisticDirac operator (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics and quantum mechanics, a Dirac operator is a differential operator that is a formal square root, or half-iterate, of a second-order operatorDirac sea (1,874 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy. It was first postulated by the British physicistKapitsa–Dirac effect (811 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Kapitza–Dirac effect is a quantum mechanical effect consisting of the diffraction of matter by a standing wave of light. The effect was first predictedGabriel Andrew Dirac (217 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Gabriel Andrew Dirac (13 March 1925 – 20 July 1984) was a mathematician who mainly worked in graph theory. He stated a sufficient condition for a graphDirac equation in the algebra of physical space (540 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac equation, as the relativistic equation that describes spin 1/2 particles in quantum mechanics can be written in terms of the Algebra of physicalComplete Fermi–Dirac integral (137 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, the complete Fermi–Dirac integral, named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, for an index j is defined by This equals where is theDirac algebra (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the Dirac algebra is the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(C). This was introduced by the mathematical physicist P. A. M. Dirac in 1928 in developing the Dirac equationDirac comb (877 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic tempered distribution constructedDirac, Charente (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Dirac is a commune in the Charente department in the Poitou-Charentes region in southwestern France. CommunesDirac spectrum (97 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, a Dirac spectrum, named after Paul Dirac, is the spectrum of eigenvalues of a Dirac operator on a Riemannian manifold with a spin structureDirac string (341 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, a Dirac string is a hypothetical one-dimensional curve in space, conceived of by the physicist Paul Dirac, stretching between two Dirac magneticFeynman slash notation (206 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

study of Dirac fields in quantum field theory, Richard Feynman invented the convenient Feynman slash notation (less commonly known as the Dirac slash notation)Fermionic field (1,008 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of a fermionic field is the Dirac field, which describes fermions with spin-1/2: electrons, protons, quarks, etc. The Dirac field can be described as eitherDirac adjoint (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum field theory, the Dirac adjoint defines the dual operation of a Dirac spinor. The Dirac adjoint is motivated by the need to form well-behavedDirac–von Neumann axioms (365 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac–von Neumann axioms give a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of operators on a Hilbert space. They were introduced by Dirac (1930)Dirac equation in curved spacetime (247 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

curved spacetime In mathematical physics, the Dirac equation in curved spacetime generalizes the original Dirac equation to curved space. It can be writtenGamma matrices (2,898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, , also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relationsDirac large numbers hypothesis (2,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of forceList of things named after Paul Dirac (119 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Maurice Dirac. Dirac notation Dirac bracket Dirac adjoint Dirac constant, see reduced Planck constant Dirac equation Nonlinear Dirac equation Dirac equationAbraham–Lorentz force (1,744 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of light. Its relativistic generalization is called the "Abraham–Lorentz–Dirac force". Both of these are in the domain of classical physics, not quantumThe Principles of Quantum Mechanics (350 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

monograph on quantum mechanics written by Paul Dirac and first published by Oxford University Press in 1930. Dirac gives an account of quantum mechanics byHelical Dirac fermion (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

A Helical Dirac fermion is a charge carrier that behaves as a massless relativistic particle with its intrinsic spin locked to its translational momentumPauli equation (574 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

external electromagnetic field. It is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are moving at speeds much lessKronecker delta (1,329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Not to be confused with the Dirac delta function, nor with the Kronecker symbol. In mathematics, the Kronecker delta (named after Leopold Kronecker) isClifford analysis (2,304 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is the study of Dirac operators, and Dirac type operators in analysis and geometry, together with their applications. Examples of Dirac type operatorsFermion (984 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics. These particles obeyBra–ket notation (3,968 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the ket /kɛt/. The notation was introduced in 1939 by Paul Dirac and is also known as the Dirac notation, though the notation has precursors in Grassmann'sNonlinear Dirac equation (740 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

notation. In quantum field theory, the nonlinear Dirac equation is a model of self-interacting Dirac fermions. This model is widely considered in quantumThe Strangest Man (462 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Quantum Genius is a 2009 biography of quantum physicist Paul Dirac written by British physicist and authorEinstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (691 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (EMD) are related to quantum field theory. The current Big Bang Model is a quantum field theory in a curved spacetimeDirac hole theory (175 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac hole theory is a theory in quantum mechanics, named after English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. The theory poses that the continuum of negativeInteraction picture (913 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum mechanics, the interaction picture (also known as the Dirac picture) is an intermediate representation between the Schrödinger picture andTwo-body Dirac equations (3,898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

subfields of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the two-body Dirac equations (TBDE) of constraint dynamics provide a three-dimensional yetMagnetic monopole (8,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

magnetic charge started with a paper by the physicist Paul A.M. Dirac in 1931. In this paper, Dirac showed that if any magnetic monopoles exist in the universeElectron magnetic moment (1,875 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

from the Dirac equation, a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties. Reduction of the Dirac equation forConstant of motion (890 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

thus the `constants of motion' of the gauge generators and referred to as Dirac observables. "Binney, J. and Tremaine, S.: Galactic Dynamics.". PrincetonDirac bracket (3,161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac bracket is a generalization of the Poisson bracket developed by Paul Dirac to treat classical systems with second class constraints in HamiltonianPeriodic summation (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

summation of a Dirac delta function is the Dirac comb. Likewise, the periodic summation of an integrable function is its convolution with the Dirac comb. IfBispinor (1,527 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

into each other. The Dirac bispinor is connected with the Weyl bispinor by a unitary transformation to the Dirac basis, The Dirac basis is the one mostParticle statistics (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the assembly exist in the same state. Main article: Fermi–Dirac statistics In Fermi–Dirac statistics (F–D statistics) interchanging any two particlesAntiproton (1,159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

predicted by Paul Dirac in his 1933 Nobel Prize lecture. Dirac received the Nobel Prize for his previous 1928 publication of his Dirac Equation that predictedQuantum electrodynamics (5,079 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

British scientist Paul Dirac, who (during the 1920s) was able to compute the coefficient of spontaneous emission of an atom. Dirac described the quantizationZitterbewegung (590 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation. The existence of such motion was first proposed by Erwin SchrödingerBreit equation (711 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic wave equation derived by Gregory Breit in 1929 based on the Dirac equation, which formally describes two or more massive spin-1/2 particlesKarnut (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Dirak, Iran. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Coordinates: 40°47′01″N 43°57′15″E / 40.78361°N 43.95417°EWasp (novel) (1,184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

registers the rebel organisation Dirac Angestun Gesept as a legitimate organisation: Title of organization: Dirac Angestun Gesept. Purpose of organization:Rarita–Schwinger equation (592 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic field equation of spin-3/2 fermions. It is similar to the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 fermions. This equation was first introduced by WilliamBishop Road Primary School (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

primary school in Bristol, notable for having educated Cary Grant, Paul Dirac and Ben J. Green. "Bishop Road Primary School Inspection Report" (PDF)Positron (2,936 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1928, Paul Dirac published a paper proposing that electrons can have both a positive charge and negative energy. This paper introduced the Dirac equationHiggsino (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

superpartner of the Higgs boson, as predicted by supersymmetry. The Higgsino is a Dirac fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the StandardVan der Waerden notation (285 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is represented as where In this notation the Dirac adjoint (also called the Dirac conjugate) is Dirac equation bra–ket notation Infeld–van der WaerdenSpin geometry (107 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

differential geometry and topology where objects like spin manifolds and Dirac operators, and the various associated index theorems have come to play aElectron (13,267 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In 1928, building on Wolfgang Pauli's work, Paul Dirac produced a model of the electron – the Dirac equation, consistent with relativity theory, by applyingPoint (geometry) (1,153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

primitive together with the one of inclusion or connection. Main article: Dirac delta function Often in physics and mathematics, it is useful to think ofHydrogen-like atom (2,668 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Schrödinger equation can be solved in analytic form, as can the (relativistic) Dirac equation. The solutions are one-electron functions and are referred to asMajorana fermion (2,578 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermionsSterile neutrino (2,278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particles are initially massless under the Standard Model, since there are no Dirac mass terms in the Standard Model's Lagrangian. The only mass terms are generatedEnrico Fermi (9,704 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics. Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are calledAnomalous magnetic dipole moment (995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

result), can be calculated from the Dirac equation. It is usually expressed in terms of the g-factor; the Dirac equation predicts g = 2. For particlesBargmann–Wigner equations (3,659 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the first half of the twentieth century. Main article: Dirac equation For reference, the Dirac equation is summarized below. It is the basis for buildingFoldy–Wouthuysen transformation (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Adolf Wouthuysen in 1949 to understand the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation, the equation for the spin-1/2 particles. A detailed general discussionRelativistic quantum mechanics (7,708 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. The key result is the Dirac equation, from which these predictions emerge automatically. By contrastThirring model (687 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

solvable quantum field theory which describes the self-interactions of a Dirac field in (1+1) dimensions. The Thirring model is given by the LagrangianPhoton (10,636 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantum theory. Dirac's work was the foundation of quantum electrodynamics, i.e., the quantization of the electromagnetic field itself. Dirac's approach isList of mathematical topics in quantum theory (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

entanglement spinor, spinor group, spinor bundle Dirac sea Spin foam Poincaré group gamma matrices Dirac adjoint Wigner's classification anyon CopenhagenPrimary constraint (412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

forget about the distinction between primary and secondary constraints. Dirac (1964, p.43) In Hamiltonian mechanics, a primary constraint is a relationDurrës (3,626 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

converted to Islam and many mosques were erected. This city was renamed as Dıraç but did not prosper under the Ottomans and its importance declined greatlyAntiparticle (1,995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

an infinite negative charge for the universe—a problem of which Dirac was aware. Dirac tried[clarification needed] to argue that we would perceive thisProbability of occupation (51 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

energy level to be occupied. Fermions such as electrons follow a Fermi–Dirac distribution and bosons such as phonons and photons follow a Bose–Einstein't Hooft–Polyakov monopole (463 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole is a topological soliton similar to the Dirac monopole but without any singularities. It arises in the case of a Yang–MillsCanonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantization techniques for constrained Hamiltonian systems invented by Paul Dirac.[3] Dirac's approach allows the quantization of systems that include gauge symmetriesRelativistic wave equations (2,091 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

were comfortable with the "Dirac sea" of negative energy states). The natural problem became clear: to generalize the Dirac equation to particles withKlein–Gordon equation (2,041 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

spinless particles. Its theoretical relevance is the same as that of the Dirac equation, Electromagnetic interactions can be incorporated, forming theKogut–Susskind fermion (89 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Kogut–Susskind fermions are a lattice version of Kähler–Dirac fermions, which obey a first-order differential equation by taking an alternative[clarificationFermi surface (1,073 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Consider a spinless ideal Fermi gas of particles. According to Fermi–Dirac statistics, the mean occupation number of a state with energy is givenMajorana equation (300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation similar to the Dirac equation but includes the charge conjugate ψc of a spinor ψ. It is named afterFermi gas (625 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

fermions. Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles that obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. These statistics determine the energy distribution of fermionsJoseph Polchinski (500 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to theoretical physics, D-branes are the best known. In 2008 he won the Dirac Medal for his work in superstring theory. In 1990, commenting on the NovikovCumrun Vafa (325 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow. He is the recipient of the 2008 Dirac Medal. Cumrun Vafa was born in Tehran, Iran in 1960. He graduated fromSupport (measure theory) (1,241 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

line R. It seems clear that λ "lives on" the whole of the real line. A Dirac measure δp at some point p ∈ R. Again, intuition suggests that the measureLaplacian of the indicator (3,202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

indicator of the domain D is a generalisation of the derivative of the Dirac delta function to higher dimensions, and is non-zero only on the surfaceGross–Neveu model (706 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 1 spatial and 1 time dimension. ItQuantum topology (129 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mathematics that connects quantum mechanics with low-dimensional topology. Dirac notation provides a viewpoint of quantum mechanics which becomes amplifiedYCgCo (520 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

This is supported by video compression codecs such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and Dirac since it can losslessly be converted to and from RGB with fewer bits requiredPlanck constant (6,384 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

constant. The resulting constant is called the reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant. It is equal to the Planck constant divided by 2π, and is denotedWolfgang Pauli (3,104 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

sometimes said to have influenced Paul Dirac in his creation of the Dirac equation for the relativistic electron, though Dirac stated that he invented these sameFirst class constraint (3,047 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Not to be confused with Primary constraint. Main article: Dirac bracket A first class constraint is a dynamical quantity in a constrained HamiltonianRalph H. Fowler (653 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

made a Fellow of the Royal Society. He became research supervisor to Paul Dirac and, in 1926, worked with him on the statistical mechanics of white dwarfJohn Cardy (409 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

received the Dirac Medal of the IoP in 2000, was awarded the Lars Onsager Prize by the APS in 2004, the Boltzmann Medal by IUPAP in 2010, and the Dirac MedalBoson (1,605 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath BoseYukawa interaction (674 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type (scalar) or (pseudoscalar). The Yukawa interactionParastatistics (779 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

better known particle statistics models (Bose–Einstein statistics, Fermi–Dirac statistics and Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics). Other alternatives includeG-factor (physics) (1,029 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

charged, spin-1/2 particle that does not possess any internal structure (a Dirac particle) is given by where μ is the spin magnetic moment of the particleFierz identity (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physicist Markus Fierz. There is a version of the Fierz identities for Dirac spinors and there is another version for Weyl spinors. And there are versionsDavid Olive (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997Quantum superposition (4,530 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which is a linear superposition of the "basis states" and . Here is the Dirac notation for the quantum state that will always give the result 0 when convertedC-number (131 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

term c-number (or classical number) is an old nomenclature used by Paul Dirac which refers to real and complex numbers. It is used to distinguish fromChiral anomaly (960 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

state with some particles in the other vacuum. In particular, there is a Dirac sea of fermions and, when such a tunneling happens, it causes the energyList of open-source codecs (522 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

others). Decoders in the libavcodec (H.264, SVQ3, WMV3, VP3, Theora, Indeo, Dirac, Lagarith and others). Lagarith – Video codec designed for strong losslessFirst-order hold (714 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

necessary because, in the sampling and reconstruction theorem, a sequence of Dirac impulses, xs(t), representing the discrete samples, x(nT), is low-pass filteredRajiah Simon (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. HANDBOOK OF SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR PRIZE WINNERS ( 1958 -Valuation (measure theory) (661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

called Dirac valuation. This concept bears its origin from distribution theory as it is an obvious transposition to valuation theory of Dirac distribution:ELKO field (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

scalar-like mass dimension they differ significantly from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions. A slightly old reference is a 2013 preprint. The results followingSpacetime algebra (1,427 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Thus , , otherwise . The basis vectors share these properties with the Dirac matrices, but no explicit matrix representation is utilized in STA. ThisJ. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

speech for the inaugural award to Dirac was published as The Development of Quantum Theory (1971). 1969 – Paul Dirac 1970 – Freeman Dyson 1971 – AbdusZero-order hold (629 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

impulse response equal to a rect function, and with input being a sequence of dirac impulses scaled to the sample values. The filter can then be analyzed inBargmann's limit (53 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

number Nl of bound states in a system. It takes the form Note that the Dirac delta function potential attains this limit. Bargmann, Proc. Nat. AcadQuantum mechanics (10,749 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David HilbertSpin quantum number (1,661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Stern, Frisch and Easterman. In 1928, Paul Dirac developed a relativistic wave equation now termed the Dirac equation, which predicted the spin magneticHelicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and are the momentum-space Dirac spinors for a fermion and anti-fermion respectively. Put it more explicitly, the Dirac spinors in the helicity basisCanonical quantization (2,939 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy"Dyon (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Schwinger in 1969 as a phenomenological alternative to quarks. He extended the Dirac quantization condition to the dyon and used the model to predict the existenceSilicene (2,644 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Silicene and graphene have similar electronic structures. Both have a Dirac cone and linear electronic dispersion around the k point. Both also haveQuantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

· Louis de Broglie · Satyendra Nath Bose · Wolfgang Pauli · Paul Dirac Concepts Topology · space · time · energy · matter · work randomness ·Chirality (physics) (2,251 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

transformation between the two is called parity. Invariance under parity by a Dirac fermion is called chiral symmetry. An experiment on the weak decay of cobalt-60Killing spinor (312 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

spinor indicates those twistor spinors which are also eigenspinors of the Dirac operator. The term is named after Wilhelm Killing. Another equivalent definitionSpinor bundle (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(2000), Dirac Operators in Riemannian Geometry, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2055-1 page 53 Friedrich, Thomas (2000), Dirac OperatorsMildred Dresselhaus (2,161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

construct various Dirac-cone materials, including single-Dirac-cone materials, bi-Dirac-cone materials, tri-Dirac-cone materials, quasi-Dirac-cone materialsHistory of quantum field theory (3,803 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, the history of quantum field theory starts with its creation by Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field in the late 1920sTransformation theory (quantum mechanics) (250 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

transformation theory refers to a procedure and a "picture" used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927. This "transformation"Hydrogen atom (3,569 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Paul Dirac found an equation that was fully compatible with Special Relativity, and (as a consequence) made the wave function a 4-component "Dirac spinor"Quantum state (4,190 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

74–93, pp. 75–76 Dirac, P.A.M. (1958). The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK. Dirac (1958), p. 16: "eachQuantum field theory (9,425 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

usually considered to be Dirac's famous 1927 paper on “The quantum theory of the emission and absorption of radiation”. Here Dirac coined the name “quantumBlack star (semiclassical gravity) (447 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations system, which is the (super)classical limit of quantum electrodynamics, and for the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac system, whichGlobal symmetry (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the (for a constant - making it a global transformation) group on the Dirac Lagrangian: Under this transformation the wavefunction changes as andHeaviside step function (974 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

function: The Heaviside function can also be defined as the integral of the Dirac delta function: H′ = δ. This is sometimes written as although this expansionNarasimhaiengar Mukunda (182 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. "Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams. I & II. Symmetry structureFeynman checkerboard (1,166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

one spatial dimension. It provides a representation of solutions of the Dirac equation in (1+1)-dimensional spacetime as discrete sums. The model canLagrangian (field theory) (2,000 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

form. The Lagrangian density for a Dirac field is: where ψ is a Dirac spinor (annihilation operator), is its Dirac adjoint (creation operator), andWrapped distribution (977 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

basis vector. A fundamental wrapped distribution is the Dirac comb which is a wrapped Dirac delta function: Using the delta function, a general wrappedList of scientific constants named after people (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

constant () – Max Planck Reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant (-bar, ħ) – Max Planck, Paul Dirac Ramanujan–Soldner constant – Srinivasa RamanujanDirac membrane (615 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

A model of a charged membrane introduced by Paul Dirac in 1962. Dirac's original motivation was to explain the mass of the Muon as an excitation of theAdric (1,231 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

name Adric is an anagram derived from Nobel Prize-winning physicist Paul Dirac. Waterhouse is the youngest male actor to play a companion so far in theFeynman parametrization (323 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which simplifies evaluating integrals like: More generally, using the Dirac delta function: Even more generally, provided that for all : See alsoSatyendra Nath Bose (2,452 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, bosons, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac. A self-taught scholar and a polyglot, he had a wide range of interestsWeyl semimetal (838 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

were predicted from a solution to the Dirac equation derived by Hermann Weyl. For example, one-half of a charged Dirac fermion of a definite chirality isIncomplete polylogarithm (91 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the polylogarithm function. It is sometimes known as the incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral or the incomplete Bose–Einstein integral. It may be defined by:Spin (physics) (5,862 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")Moyal bracket (964 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

succeeded in publishing his work in 1949 after a lengthy dispute with Paul Dirac. In the meantime this idea was independently introduced in 1946 by Hip GroenewoldSpin (physics) (5,862 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics) (2,366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

principle of detailed balance. However, in the more general formalism of Dirac, the Hamiltonian is typically implemented as an operator on a Hilbert spaceCurtis Callan (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

instanton physics and to the theory of monopoles and strings") and the Dirac Medal in 2004. Callan received his B.Sc. in physics from Haverford CollegeSchwinger model (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

2D (1 spatial dimension + time) Euclidean quantum electrodynamics with a Dirac fermion. This model exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the U(1)Relativistic particle (191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic particles, with a prominent example being postulations through Dirac equations of single particle motion. Massive particles are relativisticFlorida State University (17,177 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Retrieved 8 September 2012. "Dirac Science library". fsu.edu. "The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library". The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library. Florida StateTheodore James Courant (184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

contributions to the study of Dirac manifolds, which generalize both symplectic manifolds and Poisson manifolds, and are related to the Dirac theory of constraintsInterpretations of quantum mechanics (9,558 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of "why bother?'ers", for example Paul Dirac. Some writers differ from Bell's opinion on the leanings of Dirac. Bell himself was responsible for a vigorousParticle physics (2,611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Chadwick · Bose · Sudarshan · Koshiba · Davis, Jr. · Anderson · Fermi · Dirac · Feynman · Rubbia · Gell-Mann · Kendall · Taylor · Friedman · Powell ·Thermal de Broglie wavelength (666 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

wavelength; in this case the gas will obey Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, whichever is appropriate. This is for example the case for electronsMathematical formulation of quantum mechanics (4,803 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Jordan, and the foundational work of John von Neumann, Hermann Weyl and Paul Dirac, and it became possible to unify several different approaches in terms ofGreg Moore (physicist) (330 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

physics and four-manifold theory." In 2015, he was jointly awarded the 2015 Dirac Medal by ICTP. Moore was a member of the Advisory Board for Springer's EncyclopediaLothar Wolfgang Nordheim (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

with the help of the assumption that electrons in metals obeyed Fermi-Dirac statistics, derived an (approximate) emission equation. Over time, thisKlein paradox (729 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potentialThirring–Wess model (334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

an exactly solvable quantum field theory describing the interaction of a Dirac field with a vector field in dimension two. The Lagrangian density isKlein transformation (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

commutation/anticommutation relations until we're done. This explains the equivalence between parastatistics and the more familiar Bose–Einstein/Fermi–Dirac statistics.Zirconium(II) hydride (161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

low temperature. Zirconium(II) hydride has repeatedly been the subject of Dirac–Hartree–Fock relativistic calculation studies, which investigate the stabilitiesQuasi Fermi level (791 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

function of the electrons at the energy level of E is presented by Fermi–Dirac distribution function. In this case the Fermi level is defined as the levelOggConvert (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

various types into the free Ogg Vorbis audio format, and the Theora, VP8 and Dirac video formats. It supports Ogg, Matroska and WebM containers for outputRajagopalan Parthasarathy (160 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

discrete series of representations of a semisimple Lie group in the space of Dirac Spinors. He made considerable progress in many central problems in representationFermi level (2,990 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

it generally provides correct results when applied correctly. The Fermi–Dirac distribution, , gives the probability that (at thermodynamic equilibrium)Jogesh Pati (413 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Retrieved 24 April 2012. received the Dirac Medal for the year 2000 (with Howard Georgi and Helen Quinn). "Dirac medal goes to particle theorists - physicsworldSoler model (297 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Soler model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 3 spatial and 1 time dimension. It wasRegularization (physics) (1,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

formal coefficients that must eventually be disposed of by renormalization. Dirac was persistently, extremely critical about procedures of renormalizationIndex of physics articles (D) (1,782 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

Diproton Diquark Dirac Prize Dirac adjoint Dirac delta function Dirac equation Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space Dirac fermion Dirac large numbersFundamental solution (610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(which normally further addresses boundary conditions). In terms of the Dirac delta "function" δ(x), a fundamental solution F is the solution of the inhomogeneousN-slit interferometric equation (1,226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

applied to optics, and interference in particular, by Paul Dirac. Feynman, in his lectures, uses Dirac's notation to describe thought experiments on double-slitExotic probability (170 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the quaternions. Youssef also cites the work of Richard Feynman, P. A. M. Dirac, Stanley Gudder and S. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theoriesStochastic interpretation (201 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Phase-space Schrödinger Sum-over-histories (path integral) Equations Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger Yin Field Yang Field InterpretationsLaurent Schwartz (1,235 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

distributions, which gives a well-defined meaning to objects such as the Dirac delta function. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work onTheora (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

other codecs. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carter's Controller onHigher-dimensional gamma matrices (834 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

generalize to arbitrary dimension the four-dimensional Gamma matrices of Dirac, which are a mainstay of relativistic quantum mechanics. They are utilizedLucasian Professor of Mathematics (409 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

include Isaac Newton, Joseph Larmor, Charles Babbage, George Stokes, Paul Dirac and Stephen Hawking. Lucas, in his will, bequeathed his library of 4,000State space (physics) (166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article

vectors, using Dirac's bra–ket notation, can often be treated like coordinate vectors and operated on using the rules of linear algebra. This Dirac formalismCausal fermion system (2,784 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is the fact that the Dirac equation in Minkowski space has solutions of negative energy which are usually associated to the Dirac sea. Taking the conceptLichnerowicz formula (280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1963, and Roland Weitzenböck. The formula gives a relationship between the Dirac operator and the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on spinors, in which theFermi energy (1,619 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a typical value for the Fermi energy is usually given as 38 MeV. Fermi–Dirac statistics: the distribution of electrons over stationary states for a non-interactingModern physics (537 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to account for the observed behaviour of the gas, and the (modern) Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distributions have to be used instead. German physicistUniversity of Bristol (7,972 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

associated with 12 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, DorothyComparison of video codecs (2,497 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Retrieved 2009-10-06 Theora.org FAQ: what is the license for Theora? Dirac Video Compression, Retrieved on 2009-08-08 x264 - a free h264/avc encoderA System of Logic (230 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the history of science, being a strong influence on scientists such as Dirac[citation needed]. Mill, John Stuart, A System of Logic, University PressSign function (624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

distribution theory, the derivative of the signum function is two times the Dirac delta function, which can be demonstrated using the identity (where H(x)Delta potential (1,676 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the delta potential is a potential well mathematically described by the Dirac delta function - a generalized function. Qualitatively, it corresponds toGeoffrey A. Landis (2,549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

He won the 1989 Nebula Award for best short story for "Ripples in the Dirac Sea" (Asimov's Science Fiction, October 1988), the 1992 Hugo Award for "ANambu–Jona-Lasinio model (694 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairsWomen in Somalia (1,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

like Eid, women wear the dirac, a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton, polyester or saree fabric. The dirac is related to the short-sleevedList of Nobel laureates (1,131 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

JohnJohn Galsworthy None — 1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger; Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan BuninList of mathematical functions (947 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

polylogarithm Clausen function Complete Fermi–Dirac integral, an alternate form of the polylogarithm. Incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral Kummer's function Spence'sLamb shift (1,072 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy. InteractionFermi filter (48 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Fermi filter is a common image processing filter that uses the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the Frequency domain to perform a low-pass filter or high-pass