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Paul Dirac (5,959 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Dirac" redirects here. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac OM FRS (/dɪˈræk/ di-RAK; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984)
Fermi–Dirac statistics (2,506 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many
Dirac delta function (8,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
uses, see Delta function (disambiguation). In mathematics, the Dirac delta function, or δ function, is a generalized function, or distribution
Dirac Prize (815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac Prize is the name of four prominent awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by different
Dirac (video compression format) (1,387 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
dirac-research (formerly just called "Dirac") are open and royalty-free software implementations (video codecs) of Dirac. Dirac format aims to provide high-quality
Dirac fermion (95 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, a Dirac fermion is a fermion which is not its own antiparticle. It is named for Paul Dirac. They can be modelled with the Dirac equation. The
Dirac equation (5,074 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including
Dirac measure (550 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac measure assigns a size to a set based solely on whether it contains a fixed point x or not. It is one way of formalizing the idea of the Dirac delta
Incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral (32 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral for an index j is given by This is an alternate definition of the incomplete polylogarithm. Complete Fermi–Dirac integral
Feynman slash notation (199 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
study of Dirac fields in quantum field theory, Richard Feynman invented the convenient Feynman slash notation (less commonly known as the Dirac slash notation)
Dirac spinor (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum field theory, the Dirac spinor is the bispinor in the plane-wave solution of the free Dirac equation, where (in the units ) is a relativistic
Complete Fermi–Dirac integral (90 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, the complete Fermi–Dirac integral, named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, for an index j  is given by This equals where is the polylogarithm
Dirac operator (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics and quantum mechanics, a Dirac operator is a differential operator that is a formal square root, or half-iterate, of a second-order operator
Kapitsa–Dirac effect (790 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Kapitza–Dirac effect is a quantum mechanical effect consisting of the diffraction of matter by a standing wave of light. The effect was first predicted
Gabriel Andrew Dirac (217 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gabriel Andrew Dirac (13 March 1925 – 20 July 1984) was a mathematician who mainly worked in graph theory. He stated a sufficient condition for a graph
Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space (540 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac equation, as the relativistic equation that describes spin 1/2 particles in quantum mechanics can be written in terms of the Algebra of physical
Dirac algebra (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Dirac algebra is the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(C). This was introduced by the mathematical physicist P. A. M. Dirac in 1928 in developing the Dirac equation
Dirac comb (877 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic tempered distribution constructed
Dirac sea (1,610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy. It was first postulated by the British physicist
Dirac, Charente (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Dirac is a commune in the Charente department in the Poitou-Charentes region in southwestern France. Communes
Dirac spectrum (97 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, a Dirac spectrum, named after Paul Dirac, is the spectrum of eigenvalues of a Dirac operator on a Riemannian manifold with a spin structure
Dirac string (341 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, a Dirac string is a hypothetical one-dimensional curve in space, conceived of by the physicist Paul Dirac, stretching between two Dirac magnetic
Fermionic field (1,008 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of a fermionic field is the Dirac field, which describes fermions with spin-1/2: electrons, protons, quarks, etc. The Dirac field can be described as either
Dirac–von Neumann axioms (365 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac–von Neumann axioms give a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of operators on a Hilbert space. They were introduced by Dirac (1930)
Dirac adjoint (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum field theory, the Dirac adjoint defines the dual operation of a Dirac spinor. The Dirac adjoint is motivated by the need to form well-behaved
List of things named after Paul Dirac (103 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Maurice Dirac. Dirac notation Dirac bracket Dirac adjoint Dirac constant, see reduced Planck constant Dirac equation Nonlinear Dirac equation Dirac equation
Gamma matrices (2,890 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, , also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations
Dirac equation in curved spacetime (247 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
curved spacetime In mathematical physics, the Dirac equation in curved spacetime generalizes the original Dirac equation to curved space. It can be written
Dirac large numbers hypothesis (2,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of force
Abraham–Lorentz force (1,744 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of light. Its relativistic generalization is called the "Abraham–Lorentz–Dirac force". Both of these are in the domain of classical physics, not quantum
The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (350 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
monograph on quantum mechanics written by Paul Dirac and first published by Oxford University Press in 1930. Dirac gives an account of quantum mechanics by
Helical Dirac fermion (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A Helical Dirac fermion is a charge carrier that behaves as a massless relativistic particle with its intrinsic spin locked to its translational momentum
Pauli equation (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
external electromagnetic field. It is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are moving at speeds much less
Dirac hole theory (175 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac hole theory is a theory in quantum mechanics, named after English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. The theory poses that the continuum of negative
Kronecker delta (1,271 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Not to be confused with the Dirac delta function, nor with the Kronecker symbol. In mathematics, the Kronecker delta or Kronecker's delta, named after
Clifford analysis (2,304 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is the study of Dirac operators, and Dirac type operators in analysis and geometry, together with their applications. Examples of Dirac type operators
Nonlinear Dirac equation (712 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
notation. In quantum field theory, the nonlinear Dirac equation is a model of self-interacting Dirac fermions. This model is widely considered in quantum
Fermion (984 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics. These particles obey
The Strangest Man (457 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Quantum Genius is a 2009 biography of quantum physicist Paul Dirac written by British physicist and author
Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (691 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (EMD) are related to quantum field theory. The current Big Bang Model is a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime
Bra–ket notation (3,911 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the ket /kɛt/. The notation was introduced in 1939 by Paul Dirac and is also known as Dirac notation, though the notation has precursors in Grassmann's
Interaction picture (913 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum mechanics, the interaction picture (also known as the Dirac picture) is an intermediate representation between the Schrödinger picture and
Two-body Dirac equations (3,898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
subfields of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the two-body Dirac equations (TBDE) of constraint dynamics provide a three-dimensional yet
Electron magnetic moment (1,860 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
from the Dirac equation, a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties. Reduction of the Dirac equation for
Magnetic monopole (8,958 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetic charge started with a paper by the physicist Paul A.M. Dirac in 1931. In this paper, Dirac showed that if any magnetic monopoles exist in the universe
Periodic summation (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
summation of a Dirac delta function is the Dirac comb. Likewise, the periodic summation of an integrable function is its convolution with the Dirac comb. If
Dirac bracket (3,161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac bracket is a generalization of the Poisson bracket developed by Paul Dirac to treat classical systems with second class constraints in Hamiltonian
Particle statistics (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the assembly exist in the same state. Main article: Fermi–Dirac statistics In Fermi–Dirac statistics (F–D statistics) interchanging any two particles
Bispinor (1,527 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
into each other. The Dirac bispinor is connected with the Weyl bispinor by a unitary transformation to the Dirac basis, The Dirac basis is the one most
Antiproton (1,153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
predicted by Paul Dirac in his 1933 Nobel Prize lecture. Dirac received the Nobel Prize for his previous 1928 publication of his Dirac Equation that predicted
Quantum electrodynamics (5,079 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
British scientist Paul Dirac, who (during the 1920s) was able to compute the coefficient of spontaneous emission of an atom. Dirac described the quantization
Zitterbewegung (590 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation. The existence of such motion was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger
Karnut (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Dirak, Iran. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Coordinates: 40°47′01″N 43°57′15″E / 40.78361°N 43.95417°E
Breit equation (711 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic wave equation derived by Gregory Breit in 1929 based on the Dirac equation, which formally describes two or more massive spin-1/2 particles
Wasp (novel) (1,184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
registers the rebel organisation Dirac Angestun Gesept as a legitimate organisation: Title of organization: Dirac Angestun Gesept. Purpose of organization:
Bishop Road Primary School (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
primary school in Bristol, notable for having educated Cary Grant, Paul Dirac and Ben J. Green. "Bishop Road Primary School Inspection Report" (PDF)
Positron (2,751 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1928, Paul Dirac published a paper proposing that electrons can have both a positive charge and negative energy. This paper introduced the Dirac equation
Rarita–Schwinger equation (591 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic field equation of spin-3/2 fermions. It is similar to the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 fermions. This equation was first introduced by William
Photon (10,538 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum theory. Dirac's work was the foundation of quantum electrodynamics, i.e., the quantization of the electromagnetic field itself. Dirac's approach is
Spin geometry (107 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
differential geometry and topology where objects like spin manifolds and Dirac operators, and the various associated index theorems have come to play a
Higgsino (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
superpartner of the Higgs boson, as predicted by supersymmetry. The Higgsino is a Dirac fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the Standard
Electron (13,264 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In 1928, building on Wolfgang Pauli's work, Paul Dirac produced a model of the electron – the Dirac equation, consistent with relativity theory, by applying
Van der Waerden notation (285 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is represented as where In this notation the Dirac adjoint (also called the Dirac conjugate) is Dirac equation bra–ket notation Infeld–van der Waerden
Point (geometry) (1,153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
primitive together with the one of inclusion or connection. Main article: Dirac delta function Often in physics and mathematics, it is useful to think of
Hydrogen-like atom (2,668 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Schrödinger equation can be solved in analytic form, as can the (relativistic) Dirac equation. The solutions are one-electron functions and are referred to as
Sterile neutrino (2,278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles are initially massless under the Standard Model, since there are no Dirac mass terms in the Standard Model's Lagrangian. The only mass terms are generated
Majorana fermion (2,486 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermions
Enrico Fermi (9,681 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics. Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are called
Anomalous magnetic dipole moment (938 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
result), can be calculated from the Dirac equation. It is usually expressed in terms of the g-factor; the Dirac equation predicts g = 2. For particles
Bargmann–Wigner equations (3,624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the first half of the twentieth century. Main article: Dirac equation For reference, the Dirac equation is summarized below. It is the basis for building
Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Adolf Wouthuysen in 1949 to understand the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation, the equation for the spin-1/2 particles. A detailed general discussion
Primary constraint (412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
forget about the distinction between primary and secondary constraints. Dirac (1964, p.43) In Hamiltonian mechanics, a primary constraint is a relation
Thirring model (695 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
solvable quantum field theory which describes the self-interactions of a Dirac field in (1+1) dimensions. The Thirring model is given by the Lagrangian
Relativistic quantum mechanics (7,696 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. The key result is the Dirac equation, from which these predictions emerge automatically. By contrast
List of mathematical topics in quantum theory (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entanglement spinor, spinor group, spinor bundle Dirac sea Spin foam Poincaré group gamma matrices Dirac adjoint Wigner's classification anyon Copenhagen
Probability of occupation (51 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energy level to be occupied. Fermions such as electrons follow a Fermi–Dirac distribution and bosons such as phonons and photons follow a Bose–Einstein
Durrës (3,778 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
converted to Islam and many mosques were erected. This city was renamed as Dıraç but did not prosper under the Ottomans and its importance declined greatly
Yukawa interaction (643 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type (scalar) or (pseudoscalar). The Yukawa interaction
't Hooft–Polyakov monopole (463 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole is a topological soliton similar to the Dirac monopole but without any singularities. It arises in the case of a Yang–Mills
Antiparticle (1,995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an infinite negative charge for the universe—a problem of which Dirac was aware. Dirac tried[clarification needed] to argue that we would perceive this
Canonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantization techniques for constrained Hamiltonian systems invented by Paul Dirac.[3] Dirac's approach allows the quantization of systems that include gauge symmetries
Relativistic wave equations (2,070 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
were comfortable with the "Dirac sea" of negative energy states). The natural problem became clear: to generalize the Dirac equation to particles with
Klein–Gordon equation (2,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
spinless particles. Its theoretical relevance is the same as that of the Dirac equation, Electromagnetic interactions can be incorporated, forming the
Fermi surface (1,073 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Consider a spinless ideal Fermi gas of particles. According to Fermi–Dirac statistics, the mean occupation number of a state with energy is given
Kogut–Susskind fermion (89 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kogut–Susskind fermions are a lattice version of Kähler–Dirac fermions, which obey a first-order differential equation by taking an alternative[clarification
Majorana equation (300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation similar to the Dirac equation but includes the charge conjugate ψc of a spinor ψ. It is named after
Fermi gas (624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermions. Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles that obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. These statistics determine the energy distribution of fermions
Joseph Polchinski (500 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to theoretical physics, D-branes are the best known. In 2008 he won the Dirac Medal for his work in superstring theory. In 1990, commenting on the Novikov
Cumrun Vafa (325 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow. He is the recipient of the 2008 Dirac Medal. Cumrun Vafa was born in Tehran, Iran in 1960. He graduated from
Support (measure theory) (1,234 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
line R. It seems clear that λ "lives on" the whole of the real line. A Dirac measure δp at some point p ∈ R. Again, intuition suggests that the measure
Laplacian of the indicator (3,113 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
indicator of the domain D is a generalisation of the derivative of the Dirac delta function to higher dimensions, and is non-zero only on the surface
Quantum topology (129 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematics that connects quantum mechanics with low-dimensional topology. Dirac notation provides a viewpoint of quantum mechanics which becomes amplified
Gross–Neveu model (699 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 1 spatial and 1 time dimension. It
Wolfgang Pauli (3,104 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sometimes said to have influenced Paul Dirac in his creation of the Dirac equation for the relativistic electron, though Dirac stated that he invented these same
Planck constant (6,445 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant. The resulting constant is called the reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant. It is equal to the Planck constant divided by , and is denoted
Ralph H. Fowler (653 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
made a Fellow of the Royal Society. He became research supervisor to Paul Dirac and, in 1926, worked with him on the statistical mechanics of white dwarf
Soler model (290 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Soler model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 3 spatial and 1 time dimension. It was
Thirring–Wess model (273 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an exactly solvable quantum field theory describing the interaction of a Dirac field with a vector field in dimension two. The Lagrangian density is
First class constraint (3,047 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Not to be confused with Primary constraint. Main article: Dirac bracket A first class constraint is a dynamical quantity in a constrained Hamiltonian
YCgCo (520 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
This is supported by video compression codecs such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and Dirac since it can losslessly be converted to and from RGB with fewer bits required
Incomplete polylogarithm (76 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the polylogarithm function. It is sometimes known as the incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral or the incomplete Bose–Einstein integral. It may be defined by:
John Cardy (392 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
received the Dirac Medal of the IoP in 2000, was awarded the Lars Onsager Prize by the APS in 2004, the Boltzmann Medal by IUPAP in 2010, and the Dirac Medal
Boson (1,606 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose
G-factor (physics) (1,029 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
charged, spin-1/2 particle that does not possess any internal structure (a Dirac particle) is given by where μ is the spin magnetic moment of the particle
Parastatistics (779 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
better known particle statistics models (Bose–Einstein statistics, Fermi–Dirac statistics and Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics). Other alternatives include
David Olive (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997
Chiral anomaly (960 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
state with some particles in the other vacuum. In particular, there is a Dirac sea of fermions and, when such a tunneling happens, it causes the energy
First-order hold (714 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
necessary because, in the sampling and reconstruction theorem, a sequence of Dirac impulses, xs(t), representing the discrete samples, x(nT), is low-pass filtered
Quantum superposition (5,024 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which is a linear superposition of the "basis states" and . Here is the Dirac notation for the quantum state that will always give the result 0 when converted
Valuation (measure theory) (656 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
called Dirac valuation. This concept bears its origin from distribution theory as it is an obvious transposition to valuation theory of Dirac distribution:
List of open-source codecs (522 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
others). Decoders in the libavcodec (H.264, SVQ3, WMV3, VP3, Theora, Indeo, Dirac, Lagarith and others). Lagarith – Video codec designed for strong lossless
ELKO field (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
scalar-like mass dimension they differ significantly from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions. A slightly old reference is a 2013 preprint. The results following
Fierz identity (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physicist Markus Fierz. There is a version of the Fierz identities for Dirac spinors and there is another version for Weyl spinors. And there are versions
Zero-order hold (629 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
impulse response equal to a rect function, and with input being a sequence of dirac impulses scaled to the sample values. The filter can then be analyzed in
Rajiah Simon (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. HANDBOOK OF SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR PRIZE WINNERS ( 1958 -
C-number (131 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
term c-number (or classical number) is an old nomenclature used by Paul Dirac which refers to real and complex numbers. It is used to distinguish from
Spacetime algebra (1,427 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Thus , , otherwise . The basis vectors share these properties with the Dirac matrices, but no explicit matrix representation is utilized in STA. This
J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
speech for the inaugural award to Dirac was published as The Development of Quantum Theory (1971). 1969 – Paul Dirac 1970 – Freeman Dyson 1971 – Abdus
Quantum mechanics (10,709 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David Hilbert
Spin quantum number (1,659 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Stern, Frisch and Easterman. In 1928, Paul Dirac developed a relativistic wave equation now termed the Dirac equation, which predicted the spin magnetic
Helicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and are the momentum-space Dirac spinors for a fermion and anti-fermion respectively. Put it more explicitly, the Dirac spinors in the helicity basis
Bargmann's limit (53 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
number Nl of bound states in a system. It takes the form Note that the Dirac delta function potential attains this limit. Bargmann, Proc. Nat. Acad
Canonical quantization (2,939 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy"
Dyon (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Schwinger in 1969 as a phenomenological alternative to quarks. He extended the Dirac quantization condition to the dyon and used the model to predict the existence
Chirality (physics) (2,254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
transformation between the two is called parity. Invariance under parity by a Dirac fermion is called chiral symmetry. An experiment on the weak decay of cobalt-60
Silicene (2,644 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Silicene and graphene have similar electronic structures. Both have a Dirac cone and linear electronic dispersion around the k point. Both also have
Quantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
 · Louis de Broglie  · Satyendra Nath Bose  · Wolfgang Pauli  · Paul Dirac Concepts space · time · energy · matter · work randomness · information ·
Killing spinor (312 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
spinor indicates those twistor spinors which are also eigenspinors of the Dirac operator. The term is named after Wilhelm Killing. Another equivalent definition
Spinor bundle (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(2000), Dirac Operators in Riemannian Geometry, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2055-1  page 53 Friedrich, Thomas (2000), Dirac Operators
Mildred Dresselhaus (2,084 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
construct various Dirac-cone materials, including single-Dirac-cone materials, bi-Dirac-cone materials, tri-Dirac-cone materials, quasi-Dirac-cone materials
History of quantum field theory (3,647 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, the history of quantum field theory starts with its creation by Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field in the late 1920s
Quantum state (3,939 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
criterion is Dirac, P.A.M. (1958). The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK. Dirac (1958), p. 16: "each
Global symmetry (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the (for a constant - making it a global transformation) group on the Dirac Lagrangian: Under this transformation the wavefunction changes as and
Hydrogen atom (3,570 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Paul Dirac found an equation that was fully compatible with Special Relativity, and (as a consequence) made the wave function a 4-component "Dirac spinor"
Transformation theory (quantum mechanics) (250 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
transformation theory refers to a procedure and a "picture" used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927. This "transformation"
Quantum field theory (9,185 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
usually considered to be Dirac's famous 1927 paper on “The quantum theory of the emission and absorption of radiation”. Here Dirac coined the name “quantum
Heaviside step function (974 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
function: The Heaviside function can also be defined as the integral of the Dirac delta function: H′ = δ. This is sometimes written as although this expansion
A System of Logic (228 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the history of science, being a strong influence on scientists such as Dirac. Mill, John Stuart, A System of Logic, University Press of the Pacific
Black star (semiclassical gravity) (447 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations system, which is the (super)classical limit of quantum electrodynamics, and for the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac system, which
Wrapped distribution (977 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
basis vector. A fundamental wrapped distribution is the Dirac comb which is a wrapped Dirac delta function: Using the delta function, a general wrapped
Adric (1,286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
name Adric is an anagram derived from Nobel Prize-winning physicist Paul Dirac. Waterhouse is the youngest male actor to play a companion so far in the
List of scientific constants named after people (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant () – Max Planck Reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant (-bar, ħ) – Max Planck, Paul Dirac Ramanujan–Soldner constant – Srinivasa Ramanujan
Narasimhaiengar Mukunda (182 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. "Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams. I & II. Symmetry structure
Satyendra Nath Bose (2,454 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, bosons, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac. A self-taught scholar and a polyglot, he had a wide range of interests
Feynman checkerboard (1,166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
one spatial dimension. It provides a representation of solutions of the Dirac equation in (1+1)-dimensional spacetime as discrete sums. The model can
Lagrangian (field theory) (1,979 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
form. The Lagrangian density for a Dirac field is: where ψ is a Dirac spinor (annihilation operator), is its Dirac adjoint (creation operator), and
Feynman parametrization (316 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which simplifies evaluating integrals like: More generally, using the Dirac delta function: Even more generally, provided that for all : See also
Spin (physics) (5,815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")
Moyal bracket (964 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
succeeded in publishing his work in 1949 after a lengthy dispute with Paul Dirac. In the meantime this idea was independently introduced in 1946 by Hip Groenewold
Weyl semimetal (838 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
were predicted from a solution to the Dirac equation derived by Hermann Weyl. For example, one-half of a charged Dirac fermion of a definite chirality is
Curtis Callan (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
instanton physics and to the theory of monopoles and strings") and the Dirac Medal in 2004. Callan received his B.Sc. in physics from Haverford College
Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics) (2,366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
principle of detailed balance. However, in the more general formalism of Dirac, the Hamiltonian is typically implemented as an operator on a Hilbert space
Positronium (1,638 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
using finite element methods of J. Shertzer. The Dirac equation whose Hamiltonian comprises two Dirac particles and a static Coulomb potential is not relativistically
Florida State University (16,989 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 8 September 2012.  "Dirac Science library". fsu.edu.  "The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library". The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library. Florida State
Theodore James Courant (184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
contributions to the study of Dirac manifolds, which generalize both symplectic manifolds and Poisson manifolds, and are related to the Dirac theory of constraints
Schwinger model (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
2D (1 spatial dimension + time) Euclidean quantum electrodynamics with a Dirac fermion. This model exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the U(1)
Relativistic particle (191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic particles, with a prominent example being postulations through Dirac equations of single particle motion. Massive particles are relativistic
Particle physics (2,614 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Chadwick · Bose · Sudarshan · Koshiba · Davis, Jr. · Anderson · Fermi · Dirac · Feynman · Rubbia · Gell-Mann · Kendall · Taylor · Friedman · Powell ·
Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics (4,786 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Jordan, and the foundational work of John von Neumann, Hermann Weyl and Paul Dirac, and it became possible to unify several different approaches in terms of
Thermal de Broglie wavelength (666 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
wavelength; in this case the gas will obey Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, whichever is appropriate. This is for example the case for electrons
Greg Moore (physicist) (323 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
physics and four-manifold theory." In 2015, he was jointly awarded the 2015 Dirac Medal by ICTP. Moore was a member of the Advisory Board for Springer's
Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with the help of the assumption that electrons in metals obeyed Fermi-Dirac statistics, derived an (approximate) emission equation. Over time, this
Klein paradox (729 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potential
Zirconium(II) hydride (161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
low temperature. Zirconium(II) hydride has repeatedly been the subject of Dirac–Hartree–Fock relativistic calculation studies, which investigate the stabilities
OggConvert (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
various types into the free Ogg Vorbis audio format, and the Theora, VP8 and Dirac video formats. It supports Ogg, Matroska and WebM containers for output
Rajagopalan Parthasarathy (153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
discrete series of representations of a semisimple Lie group in the space of Dirac Spinors. He made considerable progress in many central problems in representation
Jogesh Pati (371 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 24 April 2012. received the Dirac Medal for the year 2000 (with Howard Georgi and Helen Quinn).  "Dirac medal goes to particle theorists - physicsworld
Klein transformation (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
commutation/anticommutation relations until we're done. This explains the equivalence between parastatistics and the more familiar Bose–Einstein/Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Quasi Fermi level (698 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
function of the electrons at the energy level of E is presented by Fermi–Dirac distribution function. In this case the Fermi level is defined as the level
Exotic probability (170 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the quaternions. Youssef also cites the work of Richard Feynman, P. A. M. Dirac, Stanley Gudder and S. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theories
Fermi level (2,969 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
it generally provides correct results when applied correctly. The Fermi–Dirac distribution gives the probability that (at thermodynamic equilibrium)
Index of physics articles (D) (1,782 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Diproton Diquark Dirac Prize Dirac adjoint Dirac delta function Dirac equation Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space Dirac fermion Dirac large numbers
Fundamental solution (610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(which normally further addresses boundary conditions). In terms of the Dirac delta "function" δ(x), a fundamental solution F is the solution of the inhomogeneous
Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (411 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
include Isaac Newton, Joseph Larmor, Charles Babbage, George Stokes, Paul Dirac and Stephen Hawking. Lucas, in his will, bequeathed his library of 4,000
Stochastic interpretation (201 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Phase-space Schrödinger Sum-over-histories (path integral) Equations Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger Interpretations Overview
Theora (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
other codecs. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carter's Controller on
Laurent Schwartz (1,204 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
distributions, which gives a well-defined meaning to objects such as the Dirac delta function. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work on
James Bjorken (545 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (1979–1989). He was awarded the Dirac Medal of the ICTP in 2004; and, in 2015, the Wolf Prize in Physics and the
Higher-dimensional gamma matrices (834 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalize to arbitrary dimension the four-dimensional Gamma matrices of Dirac, which are a mainstay of relativistic quantum mechanics. They are utilized
Causal fermion system (2,771 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is the fact that the Dirac equation in Minkowski space has solutions of negative energy which are usually associated to the Dirac sea. Taking the concept
State space (physics) (166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
vectors, using Dirac's bra–ket notation, can often be treated like coordinate vectors and operated on using the rules of linear algebra. This Dirac formalism
Fermi energy (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a typical value for the Fermi energy is usually given as 38 MeV. Fermi–Dirac statistics: the distribution of electrons over stationary states for a non-interacting
N-slit interferometric equation (1,226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
applied to optics, and interference in particular, by Paul Dirac. Feynman, in his lectures, uses Dirac's notation to describe thought experiments on double-slit
Delta potential (1,676 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the delta potential is a potential well mathematically described by the Dirac delta function - a generalized function. Qualitatively, it corresponds to
University of Bristol (7,977 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
associated with 12 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy
Lichnerowicz formula (280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1963, and Roland Weitzenböck. The formula gives a relationship between the Dirac operator and the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on spinors, in which the
Comparison of video codecs (2,339 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 2009-10-06 Theora.org FAQ: what is the license for Theora? Dirac Video Compression, Retrieved on 2009-08-08 x264 - a free h264/avc encoder
Modern physics (537 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to account for the observed behaviour of the gas, and the (modern) Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distributions have to be used instead. German physicist
Charles L. Kane (232 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
PMID 20631773. Retrieved 2013-02-06.  Dirac prize citation - 2012 Durrani, Matin. "Condensed-matter trio scoop Dirac prize - physicsworld.com". Retrieved
List of Nobel laureates (1,126 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
JohnJohn Galsworthy None — 1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger; Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin
Sign function (582 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
distribution theory, the derivative of the signum function is two times the Dirac delta function, which can be demonstrated using the identity (where H(x)
Women in Somalia (1,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
like Eid, women wear the dirac, a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton, polyester or saree fabric. The dirac is related to the short-sleeved
Léon Rosenfeld (254 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
work in quantum electrodynamics that predates by two decades the work by Dirac and Bergmann. Rosenfeld contributed to a wide range of physics fields, from
Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model (680 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairs
M-theory (7,549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
called branes. Such objects had been considered as early as 1962 by Paul Dirac, and they were reconsidered by a small but enthusiastic group of physicists
Center for Theoretical Studies, University of Miami (288 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Among others, the long term resident members of the Center included Paul Dirac (1969–1972) and Lars Onsager (1972–1976), while the affiliated faculty included
Periodic table (12,013 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
inaccurate when applied to such an element. Relativistic Dirac equation The relativistic Dirac equation has problems for elements with more than 137 protons
Gas in a box (1,532 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
either Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, and considering the limit of a very large box, the Thomas-Fermi
Wave function (10,494 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Griffiths 2004 Zettili 2009, p. 463 Shankar 1994, p. 378–379 Dirac 1982 Dirac 1939 (Peleg et al. 2010) pp. 64–65. (Peleg et al. 2010, pp. 68–69)