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Fermi–Dirac statistics
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In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of manyPaul Dirac (5,182 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Dirac" redirects here. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac OM FRS (/dɪˈræk/ di-RAK; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984)Dirac Prize (795 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac Prize is the name of four prominent awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by differentDirac (video compression format) (1,360 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

dirac-research (formerly just called 'Dirac') are open and royalty-free software implementations (video codecs) of Dirac. Dirac format aims to provide high-qualityDirac equation (4,980 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or includingDirac measure (550 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac measure assigns a size to a set based solely on whether it contains a fixed point x or not. It is one way of formalizing the idea of the Dirac deltaIncomplete Fermi–Dirac integral (32 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral for an index j is given by This is an alternate definition of the incomplete polylogarithm. Complete Fermi–Dirac integralFeynman slash notation (191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

study of Dirac fields in quantum field theory, Richard Feynman invented the convenient Feynman slash notation (less commonly known as the Dirac slash notation)Kapitsa–Dirac effect (362 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Kapitsa–Dirac effect is a quantum mechanical effect consisting of the diffraction of electrons by a standing wave of light. The effect was first predictedDirac spinor (1,008 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum field theory, the Dirac spinor is the bispinor in the plane-wave solution of the free Dirac equation, where (in the units ) is a relativisticComplete Fermi–Dirac integral (85 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, the complete Fermi–Dirac integral, named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, for an index j is given by This equals where is the polylogarithmGabriel Andrew Dirac (140 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Gabriel Andrew Dirac (March 13, 1925 – July 20, 1984) was a mathematician who mainly worked in graph theory. He stated a sufficient condition for a graphDirac fermion (95 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, a Dirac fermion is a fermion which is not its own antiparticle. It is named for Paul Dirac. They can be modelled with the Dirac equation. TheDirac delta function (8,112 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

uses, see Delta function (disambiguation). In mathematics, the Dirac delta function, or δ function, is a generalized function, or distributionDirac operator (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics and quantum mechanics, a Dirac operator is a differential operator that is a formal square root, or half-iterate, of a second-order operatorDirac algebra (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the Dirac algebra is the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(C). This was introduced by the mathematical physicist P. A. M. Dirac in 1928 in developing the Dirac equationDirac equation in the algebra of physical space (540 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac equation, as the relativistic equation that describes spin 1/2 particles in quantum mechanics can be written in terms of the Algebra of physicalDirac, Charente (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Dirac is a commune in the Charente department in the Poitou-Charentes region in southwestern France. CommunesGamma matrices (2,552 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, , also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relationsDirac sea (1,433 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy. It was first postulated by the British physicistFermionic field (944 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of a fermionic field is the Dirac field, which describes fermions with spin-1/2: electrons, protons, quarks, etc. The Dirac field can be described as either5997 Dirac (27 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

5997 Dirac (1983 TH) is a main-belt asteroid discovered on October 1, 1983 by A. Mrkos at Klet. JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 5997 DiracDirac comb (653 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic Schwartz distribution[citationDirac string (340 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, a Dirac string is a hypothetical one-dimensional curve in space, conceived of by the physicist Paul Dirac, stretching between two Dirac magneticDirac adjoint (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum field theory, the Dirac adjoint defines the dual operation of a Dirac spinor. The Dirac adjoint is motivated by the need to form well-behavedDirac spectrum (96 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In mathematics, a Dirac spectrum, named after Paul Dirac, is the spectrum of eigenvalues of a Dirac operator on a Riemannian manifold with a spin structureDirac equation in curved spacetime (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

curved spacetime In mathematical physics, the Dirac equation in curved spacetime generalizes the original Dirac equation to curved space. It can be writtenList of things named after Paul Dirac (97 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac. Dirac notation Dirac bracket Dirac adjoint Dirac field Dirac Lagrangian Dirac matrices Dirac sea Dirac constant, see reducedDirac–von Neumann axioms (364 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac–von Neumann axioms give a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of operators on a Hilbert space. They were introduced by Dirac (1930)Dirac large numbers hypothesis (2,204 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of forceAbraham–Lorentz force (1,703 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of light. Its relativistic generalization is called the "Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force". Both of these are in the domain of classical physics, not quantumEinstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (691 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (EMD) are related to quantum field theory. The current Big Bang Model is a quantum field theory in a curved spacetimeMagnetic monopole (8,684 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

magnetic charge started with a paper by the physicist Paul A.M. Dirac in 1931. In this paper, Dirac showed that if any magnetic monopoles exist in the universeThe Principles of Quantum Mechanics (345 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

monograph on quantum mechanics written by Paul Dirac and first published by Oxford University Press in 1930. Dirac gives an account of quantum mechanics byHelical Dirac fermion (58 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

A Helical Dirac fermion is a charge carrier that behaves as a massless relativistic particle with its intrinsic spin locked to its translational momentumKronecker delta (1,269 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Not to be confused with the Dirac delta function, nor with the Kronecker symbol. In mathematics, the Kronecker delta or Kronecker's delta, named afterPauli equation (565 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

external electromagnetic field. It is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are moving at speeds much lessFermion (965 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics. These particles obeyClifford analysis (2,303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is the study of Dirac operators, and Dirac type operators in analysis and geometry, together with their applications. Examples of Dirac type operatorsThe Strangest Man (457 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Quantum Genius is a 2009 biography of quantum physicist Paul Dirac written by British physicist and authorDirac hole theory (175 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac hole theory is a theory in quantum mechanics, named after English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. The theory poses that the continuum of negativeNonlinear Dirac equation (712 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

notation. In quantum field theory, the nonlinear Dirac equation is a model of self-interacting Dirac fermions. This model is widely considered in quantumTwo-body Dirac equations (3,904 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

subfields of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the two-body Dirac equations (TBDE) of constraint dynamics provide a three-dimensional yetBra–ket notation (3,831 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the ket /kɛt/. The notation was introduced in 1939 by Paul Dirac and is also known as Dirac notation, though the notation has precursors in Grassmann'sInteraction picture (878 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum mechanics, the interaction picture (also known as the Dirac picture) is an intermediate representation between the Schrödinger picture andElectron magnetic moment (1,775 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

from the Dirac equation, a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties. Reduction of the Dirac equation forDirac bracket (3,139 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Dirac bracket is a generalization of the Poisson bracket developed by Paul Dirac to treat classical systems with second class constraints in HamiltonianParticle statistics (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the assembly exist in the same state. Main article: Fermi–Dirac statistics In Fermi–Dirac statistics (F–D statistics) interchanging any two particlesAntiproton (1,132 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

predicted by Paul Dirac in his 1933 Nobel Prize lecture. Dirac received the Nobel Prize for his previous 1928 publication of his Dirac Equation that predictedZitterbewegung (591 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation. The existence of such motion was first proposed by Erwin SchrödingerBispinor (1,524 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

into each other. The Dirac bispinor is connected with the Weyl bispinor by a unitary transformation to the Dirac basis, The Dirac basis is the one mostKarnut (78 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Dirak, Iran. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Coordinates: 40°47′01″N 43°57′15″E / 40.78361°N 43.95417°EBargmann–Wigner equations (2,917 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the first half of the twentieth century. Main article: Dirac equation For reference, the Dirac equation is summarized below. It is the basis for buildingRarita–Schwinger equation (592 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic field equation of spin-3/2 fermions. It is similar to the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 fermions. This equation was first introduced by WilliamBishop Road Primary School (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

primary school in Bristol, notable for having educated Cary Grant, Paul Dirac, John Polkinghorne and Ben J. Green. "Bishop Road Primary School InspectionEnrico Fermi (9,635 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics. Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are calledPositron (2,742 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1928, Paul Dirac published a paper proposing that electrons can have both a positive charge and negative energy. This paper introduced the Dirac equationPhoton (10,609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantum theory. Dirac's work was the foundation of quantum electrodynamics, i.e., the quantization of the electromagnetic field itself. Dirac's approach isBreit equation (700 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic wave equation derived by Gregory Breit in 1929 based on the Dirac equation, which formally describes two or more massive spin-1/2 particlesElectron (13,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In 1928, building on Wolfgang Pauli's work, Paul Dirac produced a model of the electron – the Dirac equation, consistent with relativity theory, by applyingWasp (novel) (1,233 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

registers the rebel organisation Dirac Angestun Gesept as a legitimate organisation: Title of organization: Dirac Angestun Gesept. Purpose of organization:Spin geometry (107 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

differential geometry and topology where objects like spin manifolds and Dirac operators, and the various associated index theorems have come to play aHiggsino (337 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

superpartner of the Higgs boson, as predicted by supersymmetry. The Higgsino is a Dirac fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the StandardPoint (geometry) (1,153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

primitive together with the one of inclusion or connection. Main article: Dirac delta function Often in physics and mathematics, it is useful to think ofMajorana fermion (2,405 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermionsHydrogen-like atom (2,661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Schrödinger equation can be solved in analytic form, as can the (relativistic) Dirac equation. The solutions are one-electron functions and are referred to asVan der Waerden notation (281 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is represented as where In this notation the Dirac adjoint (also called the Dirac conjugate) is Dirac equation bra–ket notation Infeld–van der WaerdenQuantum topology (129 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

mathematics that connects quantum mechanics with low-dimensional topology. Dirac notation provides a viewpoint of quantum mechanics which becomes amplifiedSterile neutrino (2,245 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particles are initially massless under the Standard Model, since there are no Dirac mass terms in the Standard Model's Lagrangian. The only mass terms are generatedFoldy–Wouthuysen transformation (2,849 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Adolf Wouthuysen in 1949 to understand the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation, the equation for the spin-1/2 particles. A detailed general discussionCumrun Vafa (314 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow. He is the recipient of the 2008 Dirac Medal. Cumrun Vafa was born in Tehran, Iran in 1960. He graduated fromAnomalous magnetic dipole moment (873 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

result), can be calculated from the Dirac equation. It is usually expressed in terms of the g-factor; the Dirac equation predicts g = 2. For particlesDurrës (4,005 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and Serbian empires. This is also the root of the Ottoman Turkish name Dıraç. In English usage, the Italian form Durazzo used to be widespread, but theThirring model (671 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

solvable quantum field theory which describes the self-interactions of a Dirac field in (1+1) dimensions. The Thirring model is given by the LagrangianLamb shift (962 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of the hydrogen atom in quantum electrodynamics (QED). According to the Dirac equation, the 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 orbitals should have the same energy. HoweverRelativistic quantum mechanics (7,679 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. The key result is the Dirac equation, from which these predictions emerge automatically. By contrastCanonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quantization techniques for constrained Hamiltonian systems invented by Paul Dirac.[3] Dirac's approach allows the quantization of systems that include gauge symmetries't Hooft–Polyakov monopole (464 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole is a topological soliton similar to the Dirac monopole but without any singularities. It arises in the case of a Yang–MillsKogut–Susskind fermion (71 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Kogut–Susskind fermions are a lattice version of Kähler–Dirac fermions, which obey a first-order differential equation by taking an alternative[clarificationRelativistic wave equations (2,066 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

were comfortable with the "Dirac sea" of negative energy states). The natural problem became clear: to generalize the Dirac equation to particles withList of mathematical topics in quantum theory (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

entanglement spinor, spinor group, spinor bundle Dirac sea Spin foam Poincaré group gamma matrices Dirac adjoint Wigner's classification anyon CopenhagenPrimary constraint (412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

forget about the distinction between primary and secondary constraints. Dirac (1964, p.43) In Hamiltonian mechanics, a primary constraint is a relationGlobal symmetry (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the (for a constant - making it a global transformation) group on the Dirac Lagrangian: Under this transformation the wavefunction changes as andAntiparticle (1,967 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

positrons, and not protons. Dirac was aware of the problem that his picture implied an infinite negative charge for the universe. Dirac tried to argue that weHeaviside step function (727 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

indefinitely. It is also used in structural mechanics together with the Dirac delta function to describe different types of structural loads. It was namedMajorana equation (300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation similar to the Dirac equation but includes the charge conjugate ψc of a spinor ψ. It is named afterFermi gas (616 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

fermions. Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles that obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. These statistics determine the energy distribution of fermionsKlein–Gordon equation (1,485 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particle propagates both forwards and backwards in time. Any solution to the Dirac equation is automatically a solution to the Klein–Gordon equation, but theSupport (measure theory) (1,221 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

line R. It seems clear that λ "lives on" the whole of the real line. A Dirac measure δp at some point p ∈ R. Again, intuition suggests that the measureProbability of occupation (51 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

energy level to be occupied. Fermions such as electrons follow a Fermi–Dirac distribution and bosons such as phonons and photons follow a Bose–EinsteinJoseph Polchinski (498 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

to theoretical physics, D-branes are the best known. In 2008 he won the Dirac Medal for his work in superstring theory. In 1990, commenting on the NovikovFeynman parametrization (252 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

which simplifies evaluating integrals like: More generally, using the Dirac delta function: Even more generally, provided that for all : See alsoYCgCo (453 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

This is supported by video compression codecs such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and Dirac since it can losslessly be converted to and from RGB with fewer bits requiredPlanck constant (6,346 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

constant. The resulting constant is called the reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant. It is equal to the Planck constant divided by 2π, and is denotedWolfgang Pauli (2,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

sometimes said to have influenced Paul Dirac in his creation of the Dirac equation for the relativistic electron, though Dirac stated that he invented these sameLaplacian of the indicator (3,025 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

indicator of the domain D is a generalisation of the derivative of the Dirac delta function to higher dimensions, and is non-zero only on the surfaceGross–Neveu model (693 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 1 spatial and 1 time dimension. ItChirality (physics) (1,279 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

transformation between the two is called parity. Invariance under parity by a Dirac fermion is called chiral symmetry. An experiment on the weak decay of cobalt-60Ralph H. Fowler (654 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

made a Fellow of the Royal Society. He became research supervisor to Paul Dirac and, in 1926, worked with him on the statistical mechanics of white dwarfBoson (1,483 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath BoseJohn Cardy (391 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

received the Dirac Medal of the IoP in 2000, was awarded the Lars Onsager Prize by the APS in 2004, the Boltzmann Medal by IUPAP in 2010, and the Dirac MedalParastatistics (779 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

better known particle statistics models (Bose–Einstein statistics, Fermi–Dirac statistics and Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics). Other alternatives includeThirring–Wess model (273 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

an exactly solvable quantum field theory describing the interaction of a Dirac field with a vector field in dimension two. The Lagrangian density isJ. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize (547 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

speech for the inaugural award to Dirac was published as The Development of Quantum Theory (1971). 1969 – Paul Dirac 1970 – Freeman Dyson 1971 – AbdusTheodore James Courant (195 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

contributions to the study of Dirac manifolds, which generalize both symplectic manifolds and Poisson manifolds, and are related to the Dirac theory of constraintsSatyendra Nath Bose (2,609 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, bosons, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac. A self-taught scholar and a polyglot, he had a wide range of interestsDavid Olive (151 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997Yukawa interaction (642 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type (scalar) or (pseudoscalar). The Yukawa interactionChiral anomaly (959 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

state with some particles in the other vacuum. In particular, there is a Dirac sea of fermions and, when such a tunneling happens, it causes the energyChiral symmetry (520 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

of the Lagrangian under which the left-handed and right-handed parts of Dirac fields transform independently. The chiral symmetry transformation can beIncomplete polylogarithm (76 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the polylogarithm function. It is sometimes known as the incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral or the incomplete Bose–Einstein integral. It may be defined by:Quantum mechanics (10,659 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

been further unified and formalized by the work of David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantumFirst-order hold (714 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

necessary because, in the sampling and reconstruction theorem, a sequence of dirac impulses, xs(t), representing the discrete samples, x(nT), is low-pass filteredDyon (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Schwinger in 1969 as a phenomenological alternative to quarks. He extended the Dirac quantization condition to the dyon and used the model to predict the existenceSoler model (290 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

The Soler model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 3 spatial and 1 time dimension. It wasLucasian Professor of Mathematics (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

include Isaac Newton, Joseph Larmor, Charles Babbage, George Stokes, Paul Dirac and Stephen Hawking. Lucas, in his will, bequeathed his library of 4,000Valuation (measure theory) (656 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

called Dirac valuation. This concept bears its origin from distribution theory as it is an obvious transposition to valuation theory of Dirac distribution:Fierz identity (213 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physicist Markus Fierz. There is a version of the Fierz identities for Dirac spinors and there is another version for Weyl spinors. And there are versionsSpacetime algebra (1,427 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Thus , , otherwise . The basis vectors share these properties with the Dirac matrices, but no explicit matrix representation is utilized in STA. ThisZero-order hold (620 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

impulse response equal to a rect function, and with input being a sequence of dirac impulses scaled to the sample values. The filter can then be analyzed inRajagopalan Parthasarathy (152 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

discrete series of representations of a semisimple Lie group in the space of Dirac Spinors. He made considerable progress in many central problems in representationELKO field (231 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

scalar-like mass dimension they differ significantly from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions. An up-to-date reference is a 2013 preprint. D.V. AhluwaliaC-number (114 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

term c-number (or classical number) is an old nomenclature used by Paul Dirac which refers to real and complex numbers. It is used to distinguish fromCanonical quantization (2,934 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy"Hydrogen atom (2,920 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

solutions it yields for the hydrogen atom are not entirely correct. The Dirac equation of relativistic quantum theory improves these solutions (see below)Helicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and are the momentum-space Dirac spinors for a fermion and anti-fermion respectively. Put it more explicitly, the Dirac spinors in the helicity basisJogesh Pati (371 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Retrieved 24 April 2012. received the Dirac Medal for the year 2000 (with Howard Georgi and Helen Quinn). "Dirac medal goes to particle theorists - physicsworldQuantum electrodynamics (5,085 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

British scientist Paul Dirac, who (during the 1920s) was first able to compute the coefficient of spontaneous emission of an atom. Dirac described the quantizationMonopole (173 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Monopole may refer to: Magnetic monopole, or Dirac monopole, a hypothetical particle that may be loosely described as a magnet with only one pole, orRajiah Simon (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. HANDBOOK OF SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR PRIZE WINNERS ( 1958 -Spinor bundle (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

(2000), Dirac Operators in Riemannian Geometry, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2055-1 page 53 Friedrich, Thomas (2000), Dirac OperatorsHistory of quantum field theory (3,499 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

physics, the history of quantum field theory starts with its creation by Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field in the late 1920sA System of Logic (228 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the history of science, being a strong influence on scientists such as Dirac. Mill, John Stuart, A System of Logic, University Press of the PacificKilling spinor (312 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

spinor indicates those twistor spinors which are also eigenspinors of the Dirac operator. The term is named after Wilhelm Killing. Another equivalent definitionMildred Dresselhaus (1,878 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

construct various Dirac-cone materials, including single-Dirac-cone materials, bi-Dirac-cone materials, tri-Dirac-cone materials, quasi-Dirac-cone materialsGraphene (17,146 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

understanding the electronic properties of 3D graphite. The emergent massless Dirac equation was first pointed out by Gordon Walter Semenoff and David P. DeVincenzoBlack star (semiclassical gravity) (448 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations system, which is the (super)classical limit of quantum electrodynamics, and for the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac system, whichAdric (1,286 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

name Adric is an anagram derived from Nobel Prize-winning physicist Paul Dirac. Waterhouse is the youngest male actor to play a companion so far in thePeriodic table (9,821 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

inaccurate when applied to such an element. Relativistic Dirac equation The relativistic Dirac equation has problems for elements with more than 137 protonsList of scientific constants named after people (455 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

constant () – Max Planck Reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant (-bar, ħ) – Max Planck, Paul Dirac Ramanujan–Soldner constant – Srinivasa RamanujanExpanded Universe (Heinlein) (227 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Inside Intourist" "Searchlight" (*) "The Pragmatics of Patriotism" "Paul Dirac, Antimatter, and You" "Larger than Life", a memoir in tribute to E. E. "Doc"Spin quantum number (1,519 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

light for the magnetic moment to be of the observed strength. In 1930, Paul Dirac developed a new version of the Wave Equation which was relativisticallyNarasimhaiengar Mukunda (163 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. Handbook of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize Winners (1958 -Spin (physics) (5,742 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")Positronium (1,449 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

using finite element methods of J. Shertzer. The Dirac equation whose Hamiltonian comprises two Dirac particles and a static Coulomb potential is not relativisticallySilicene (2,408 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Silicene and graphene have similar electronic structures. Both have a Dirac cone and linear electronic dispersion around the k point. Both also haveGiorgio Parisi (921 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Giorgio Parisi has been awarded several honors; the Boltzmann Medal and the Dirac Medal. He is one of the two Italian physicists to be member of the AmericanAlexander Markovich Polyakov (557 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

RAS Polyakov, Alexandre. NAS Section: Physics Dirac Medalist Elected to NAS. ICTP News. 9/5/2005 Dirac Medal 1986 citation Departmental homepage at PrincetonHamiltonian (quantum mechanics) (2,350 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

principle of detailed balance. However, in the more general formalism of Dirac, the Hamiltonian is typically implemented as an operator on a Hilbert spaceThermal de Broglie wavelength (664 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

wavelength; in this case the gas will obey Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, whichever is appropriate. This is for example the case for electronsCurtis Callan (198 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

instanton physics and to the theory of monopoles and strings") and the Dirac Medal in 2004. Callan received his B.Sc. in physics from Haverford CollegeFeynman checkerboard (1,151 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

one spatial dimension. It provides a representation of solutions of the Dirac equation in (1+1)-dimensional spacetime as discrete sums. The model canMoyal bracket (961 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

succeeded in publishing his work in 1949 after a lengthy dispute with Paul Dirac. In the meantime this idea was independently introduced in 1946 by Hip GroenewoldZirconium(II) hydride (161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

low temperature. Zirconium(II) hydride has repeatedly been the subject of Dirac–Hartree–Fock relativistic calculation studies, which investigate the stabilitiesTransformation theory (quantum mechanics) (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

transformation theory refers to a procedure and a "picture" used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927. This "transformation"Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim (244 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

with the help of the assumption that electrons in metals obeyed Fermi-Dirac statistics, derived an (approximate) emission equation. Over time, thisQuasi Fermi level (698 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

function of the electrons at the energy level of E is presented by Fermi–Dirac distribution function. In this case the Fermi level is defined as the levelSchwinger model (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

2D (1 spatial dimension + time) Euclidean quantum electrodynamics with a Dirac fermion. This model exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the U(1)Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics (4,619 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Jordan, and the foundational work of John von Neumann, Hermann Weyl and Paul Dirac, and it became possible to unify several different approaches in terms ofRelativistic particle (191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

relativistic particles, with a prominent example being postulations through Dirac equations of single particle motion. Massive particles are relativisticMichele Parrinello (301 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

movements of atoms and molecules). Parrinello and Roberto Car were awarded the Dirac Medal and the Sidney Fernbach Award in 2009 for their continuing developmentOggConvert (242 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

various types into the free Ogg Vorbis audio format, and the Theora, VP8 and Dirac video formats. It supports Ogg, Matroska and WebM containers for outputBargmann's limit (53 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

number Nl of bound states in a system. It takes the form Note that the Dirac delta function potential attains this limit. Bargmann, Proc. Nat. AcadIndex of physics articles (D) (1,782 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Diproton Diquark Dirac Prize Dirac adjoint Dirac delta function Dirac equation Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space Dirac fermion Dirac large numbersLéon Rosenfeld (114 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

work in quantum electrodynamics that predates by two decades the work by Dirac and Bergmann. He coined the name lepton. In 1949 Léon Rosenfeld was awardedKlein transformation (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

commutation/anticommutation relations until we're done. This explains the equivalence between parastatistics and the more familiar Bose–Einstein/Fermi–Dirac statistics.Fundamental solution (603 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

distribution theory of the older idea of a Green's function. In terms of the Dirac delta "function" δ(x), a fundamental solution F is the solution of the inhomogeneousWomen in Somalia (1,097 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

like Eid, women wear the dirac, a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton, polyester or saree fabric. The dirac is related to the short-sleevedTheora (2,811 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

other codecs. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carter's Controller on1928 in science (1,043 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

and K. S. Krishnan discover Raman scattering in liquids. Paul Dirac proposes the Dirac equation as a relativistic equation of motion for the wavefunctionExotic probability (170 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the quaternions. Youssef also cites the work of Richard Feynman, P. A. M. Dirac, Stanley Gudder and S. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theoriesFermi energy (1,601 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

a typical value for the Fermi energy is usually given as 38 MeV. Fermi–Dirac statistics: the distribution of electrons over stationary states for a non-interactingKlein paradox (729 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potentialAnyon (1,512 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

bosons, according to their statistical behaviour. Fermions obey the Fermi–Dirac statistics while bosons obey the Bose–Einstein statistics. In the languageLaurent Schwartz (1,184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

distributions, which gives a well-defined meaning to objects such as the Dirac delta function. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work onEddington (111 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

ESA mission to search for extrasolar planets Eddington–Dirac number, alternative name for the Dirac large numbers hypothesis Eddington (horse), an AmericanCausal fermion system (2,778 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

is the fact that the Dirac equation in Minkowski space has solutions of negative energy which are usually associated to the Dirac sea. Taking the conceptSinc function (1,222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

"Sinc" redirects here. For the designation used in the United Kingdom for areas of wildlife interest, see Site of Importance for Nature Conservation. ForDelta potential (1,674 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the delta potential is a potential well mathematically described by the Dirac delta function - a generalized function. Qualitatively, it corresponds toStochastic interpretation (193 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Phase-space Schrödinger Sum-over-histories (path integral) Equations Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger Interpretations OverviewSign function (582 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

distribution theory, the derivative of the signum function is two times the Dirac delta function, which can be demonstrated using the identity (where H(x)Comparison of video codecs (2,692 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Retrieved 2009-10-06 Theora.org FAQ: what is the license for Theora? Dirac Video Compression, Retrieved on 2009-08-08 x264 - a free h264/avc encoderFermi level (2,981 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

it generally provides correct results when applied correctly. The Fermi–Dirac distribution gives the probability that (at thermodynamic equilibrium)List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1930 (61 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Allen Sir Edward Battersby Bailey Frederick Tom Brooks Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac Harold Ward Dudley Charles Alfred Edwards Harry Eltringham Sir Charles EdwardJames Bjorken (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (1979–1989). He was awarded the Dirac Medal of the ICTP in 2004 and in 2015 the Wolf Prize in Physics. BjorkenWrapped distribution (881 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

written as the convolution of the "unwrapped" distribution and a Dirac comb: The Dirac comb may also be expressed as a sum of exponentials, so we may write:Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model (699 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairsN-slit interferometric equation (1,250 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

applied to optics, and interference in particular, by Paul Dirac. Feynman, in his lectures, uses Dirac's notation to describe thought experiments on double-slitLagrangian (4,036 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

form. The Lagrangian density for a Dirac field is: where ψ is a Dirac spinor (annihilation operator), is its Dirac adjoint (creation operator), andLichnerowicz formula (280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

1963, and Roland Weitzenböck. The formula gives a relationship between the Dirac operator and the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on spinors, in which theGas in a box (1,519 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

either Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, and considering the limit of a very large box, the Thomas-FermiParticle physics (2,583 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Chadwick · Bose · Sudarshan · Koshiba · Davis, Jr. · Anderson · Fermi · Dirac · Feynman · Rubbia · Gell-Mann · Kendall · Taylor · Friedman · Powell ·David J. Thouless (274 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

Among his many awards are the Wolf Prize for Physics (1990), the Paul Dirac Medal of the Institute of Physics (1993), and the Lars Onsager Prize ofBose–Einstein statistics (2,726 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

temperatures, bosons behave differently from fermions (which obey the Fermi–Dirac statistics) in a way that an unlimited number of them can "condense" into