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Fermi–Dirac statistics (2,506 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many
Paul Dirac (5,993 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
"Dirac" redirects here. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac OM FRS (/dɪˈræk/ di-RAK; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984)
Dirac delta function (8,133 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
uses, see Delta function (disambiguation). In mathematics, the Dirac delta function, or δ function, is a generalized function, or distribution
Dirac Prize (815 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac Prize is the name of four prominent awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by different
Dirac (video compression format) (1,387 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
dirac-research (formerly just called "Dirac") are open and royalty-free software implementations (video codecs) of Dirac. Dirac format aims to provide high-quality
Dirac fermion (102 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, a Dirac fermion is a fermion which is not its own antiparticle. It is named for Paul Dirac. They can be modelled with the Dirac equation. The
Dirac equation (5,084 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including
Dirac measure (550 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac measure assigns a size to a set based solely on whether it contains a fixed point x or not. It is one way of formalizing the idea of the Dirac delta
Incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral (32 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral for an index j is given by This is an alternate definition of the incomplete polylogarithm. Complete Fermi–Dirac integral
Dirac spinor (1,009 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum field theory, the Dirac spinor is the bispinor in the plane-wave solution of the free Dirac equation, where (in the units ) is a relativistic
Dirac operator (567 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics and quantum mechanics, a Dirac operator is a differential operator that is a formal square root, or half-iterate, of a second-order operator
Dirac sea (1,874 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy. It was first postulated by the British physicist
Kapitsa–Dirac effect (811 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Kapitza–Dirac effect is a quantum mechanical effect consisting of the diffraction of matter by a standing wave of light. The effect was first predicted
Gabriel Andrew Dirac (217 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Gabriel Andrew Dirac (13 March 1925 – 20 July 1984) was a mathematician who mainly worked in graph theory. He stated a sufficient condition for a graph
Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space (540 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac equation, as the relativistic equation that describes spin 1/2 particles in quantum mechanics can be written in terms of the Algebra of physical
Complete Fermi–Dirac integral (137 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, the complete Fermi–Dirac integral, named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, for an index j  is defined by This equals where is the
Dirac algebra (361 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the Dirac algebra is the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(C). This was introduced by the mathematical physicist P. A. M. Dirac in 1928 in developing the Dirac equation
Dirac comb (877 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as an impulse train and sampling function in electrical engineering) is a periodic tempered distribution constructed
Dirac, Charente (46 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Dirac is a commune in the Charente department in the Poitou-Charentes region in southwestern France. Communes
Dirac spectrum (97 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematics, a Dirac spectrum, named after Paul Dirac, is the spectrum of eigenvalues of a Dirac operator on a Riemannian manifold with a spin structure
Dirac string (341 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, a Dirac string is a hypothetical one-dimensional curve in space, conceived of by the physicist Paul Dirac, stretching between two Dirac magnetic
Feynman slash notation (206 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
study of Dirac fields in quantum field theory, Richard Feynman invented the convenient Feynman slash notation (less commonly known as the Dirac slash notation)
Fermionic field (1,008 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of a fermionic field is the Dirac field, which describes fermions with spin-1/2: electrons, protons, quarks, etc. The Dirac field can be described as either
Dirac adjoint (329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum field theory, the Dirac adjoint defines the dual operation of a Dirac spinor. The Dirac adjoint is motivated by the need to form well-behaved
Dirac–von Neumann axioms (365 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac–von Neumann axioms give a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of operators on a Hilbert space. They were introduced by Dirac (1930)
Dirac equation in curved spacetime (247 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
curved spacetime In mathematical physics, the Dirac equation in curved spacetime generalizes the original Dirac equation to curved space. It can be written
Gamma matrices (2,898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, , also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations
Dirac large numbers hypothesis (2,063 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of force
List of things named after Paul Dirac (119 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Maurice Dirac. Dirac notation Dirac bracket Dirac adjoint Dirac constant, see reduced Planck constant Dirac equation Nonlinear Dirac equation Dirac equation
Abraham–Lorentz force (1,744 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of light. Its relativistic generalization is called the "Abraham–Lorentz–Dirac force". Both of these are in the domain of classical physics, not quantum
The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (350 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
monograph on quantum mechanics written by Paul Dirac and first published by Oxford University Press in 1930. Dirac gives an account of quantum mechanics by
Helical Dirac fermion (59 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A Helical Dirac fermion is a charge carrier that behaves as a massless relativistic particle with its intrinsic spin locked to its translational momentum
Pauli equation (574 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
external electromagnetic field. It is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and can be used where particles are moving at speeds much less
Kronecker delta (1,329 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Not to be confused with the Dirac delta function, nor with the Kronecker symbol. In mathematics, the Kronecker delta (named after Leopold Kronecker) is
Clifford analysis (2,304 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is the study of Dirac operators, and Dirac type operators in analysis and geometry, together with their applications. Examples of Dirac type operators
Fermion (984 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics. These particles obey
Bra–ket notation (3,968 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the ket /kɛt/. The notation was introduced in 1939 by Paul Dirac and is also known as the Dirac notation, though the notation has precursors in Grassmann's
Nonlinear Dirac equation (740 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
notation. In quantum field theory, the nonlinear Dirac equation is a model of self-interacting Dirac fermions. This model is widely considered in quantum
The Strangest Man (462 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Quantum Genius is a 2009 biography of quantum physicist Paul Dirac written by British physicist and author
Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (691 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations (EMD) are related to quantum field theory. The current Big Bang Model is a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime
Dirac hole theory (175 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac hole theory is a theory in quantum mechanics, named after English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. The theory poses that the continuum of negative
Interaction picture (913 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In quantum mechanics, the interaction picture (also known as the Dirac picture) is an intermediate representation between the Schrödinger picture and
Two-body Dirac equations (3,898 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
subfields of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the two-body Dirac equations (TBDE) of constraint dynamics provide a three-dimensional yet
Magnetic monopole (8,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
magnetic charge started with a paper by the physicist Paul A.M. Dirac in 1931. In this paper, Dirac showed that if any magnetic monopoles exist in the universe
Electron magnetic moment (1,875 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
from the Dirac equation, a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties. Reduction of the Dirac equation for
Constant of motion (890 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
thus the `constants of motion' of the gauge generators and referred to as Dirac observables. "Binney, J. and Tremaine, S.: Galactic Dynamics.". Princeton
Dirac bracket (3,161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Dirac bracket is a generalization of the Poisson bracket developed by Paul Dirac to treat classical systems with second class constraints in Hamiltonian
Periodic summation (203 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
summation of a Dirac delta function is the Dirac comb. Likewise, the periodic summation of an integrable function is its convolution with the Dirac comb. If
Bispinor (1,527 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
into each other. The Dirac bispinor is connected with the Weyl bispinor by a unitary transformation to the Dirac basis, The Dirac basis is the one most
Particle statistics (850 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the assembly exist in the same state. Main article: Fermi–Dirac statistics In Fermi–Dirac statistics (F–D statistics) interchanging any two particles
Antiproton (1,159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
predicted by Paul Dirac in his 1933 Nobel Prize lecture. Dirac received the Nobel Prize for his previous 1928 publication of his Dirac Equation that predicted
Quantum electrodynamics (5,079 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
British scientist Paul Dirac, who (during the 1920s) was able to compute the coefficient of spontaneous emission of an atom. Dirac described the quantization
Zitterbewegung (590 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
motion of elementary particles, in particular electrons, that obey the Dirac equation. The existence of such motion was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger
Breit equation (711 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic wave equation derived by Gregory Breit in 1929 based on the Dirac equation, which formally describes two or more massive spin-1/2 particles
Karnut (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Dirak, Iran. For other uses, see Dirac (disambiguation). Coordinates: 40°47′01″N 43°57′15″E / 40.78361°N 43.95417°E
Wasp (novel) (1,184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
registers the rebel organisation Dirac Angestun Gesept as a legitimate organisation: Title of organization: Dirac Angestun Gesept. Purpose of organization:
Rarita–Schwinger equation (592 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic field equation of spin-3/2 fermions. It is similar to the Dirac equation for spin-1/2 fermions. This equation was first introduced by William
Bishop Road Primary School (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
primary school in Bristol, notable for having educated Cary Grant, Paul Dirac and Ben J. Green. "Bishop Road Primary School Inspection Report" (PDF)
Positron (2,936 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1928, Paul Dirac published a paper proposing that electrons can have both a positive charge and negative energy. This paper introduced the Dirac equation
Higgsino (333 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
superpartner of the Higgs boson, as predicted by supersymmetry. The Higgsino is a Dirac fermion and that is a weak isodoublet with hypercharge half under the Standard
Van der Waerden notation (285 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is represented as where In this notation the Dirac adjoint (also called the Dirac conjugate) is Dirac equation bra–ket notation Infeld–van der Waerden
Spin geometry (107 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
differential geometry and topology where objects like spin manifolds and Dirac operators, and the various associated index theorems have come to play a
Electron (13,267 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
In 1928, building on Wolfgang Pauli's work, Paul Dirac produced a model of the electron – the Dirac equation, consistent with relativity theory, by applying
Point (geometry) (1,153 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
primitive together with the one of inclusion or connection. Main article: Dirac delta function Often in physics and mathematics, it is useful to think of
Hydrogen-like atom (2,668 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Schrödinger equation can be solved in analytic form, as can the (relativistic) Dirac equation. The solutions are one-electron functions and are referred to as
Majorana fermion (2,578 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Dirac fermion, which describes fermions that are not their own antiparticles. All of the Standard Model fermions except the neutrino behave as Dirac fermions
Sterile neutrino (2,278 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles are initially massless under the Standard Model, since there are no Dirac mass terms in the Standard Model's Lagrangian. The only mass terms are generated
Enrico Fermi (9,704 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to an ideal gas, employing a statistical formulation now known as Fermi–Dirac statistics. Today, particles that obey the exclusion principle are called
Anomalous magnetic dipole moment (995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
result), can be calculated from the Dirac equation. It is usually expressed in terms of the g-factor; the Dirac equation predicts g = 2. For particles
Bargmann–Wigner equations (3,659 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the first half of the twentieth century. Main article: Dirac equation For reference, the Dirac equation is summarized below. It is the basis for building
Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Adolf Wouthuysen in 1949 to understand the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation, the equation for the spin-1/2 particles. A detailed general discussion
Relativistic quantum mechanics (7,708 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. The key result is the Dirac equation, from which these predictions emerge automatically. By contrast
Thirring model (687 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
solvable quantum field theory which describes the self-interactions of a Dirac field in (1+1) dimensions. The Thirring model is given by the Lagrangian
Photon (10,636 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantum theory. Dirac's work was the foundation of quantum electrodynamics, i.e., the quantization of the electromagnetic field itself. Dirac's approach is
List of mathematical topics in quantum theory (351 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
entanglement spinor, spinor group, spinor bundle Dirac sea Spin foam Poincaré group gamma matrices Dirac adjoint Wigner's classification anyon Copenhagen
Primary constraint (412 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
forget about the distinction between primary and secondary constraints. Dirac (1964, p.43) In Hamiltonian mechanics, a primary constraint is a relation
Durrës (3,626 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
converted to Islam and many mosques were erected. This city was renamed as Dıraç but did not prosper under the Ottomans and its importance declined greatly
Antiparticle (1,995 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an infinite negative charge for the universe—a problem of which Dirac was aware. Dirac tried[clarification needed] to argue that we would perceive this
Probability of occupation (51 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
energy level to be occupied. Fermions such as electrons follow a Fermi–Dirac distribution and bosons such as phonons and photons follow a Bose–Einstein
't Hooft–Polyakov monopole (463 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole is a topological soliton similar to the Dirac monopole but without any singularities. It arises in the case of a Yang–Mills
Canonical quantum gravity (2,715 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quantization techniques for constrained Hamiltonian systems invented by Paul Dirac.[3] Dirac's approach allows the quantization of systems that include gauge symmetries
Relativistic wave equations (2,091 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
were comfortable with the "Dirac sea" of negative energy states). The natural problem became clear: to generalize the Dirac equation to particles with
Klein–Gordon equation (2,041 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
spinless particles. Its theoretical relevance is the same as that of the Dirac equation, Electromagnetic interactions can be incorporated, forming the
Kogut–Susskind fermion (89 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Kogut–Susskind fermions are a lattice version of Kähler–Dirac fermions, which obey a first-order differential equation by taking an alternative[clarification
Fermi surface (1,073 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Consider a spinless ideal Fermi gas of particles. According to Fermi–Dirac statistics, the mean occupation number of a state with energy is given
Majorana equation (300 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation similar to the Dirac equation but includes the charge conjugate ψc of a spinor ψ. It is named after
Fermi gas (625 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
fermions. Fermions, named after Enrico Fermi, are particles that obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. These statistics determine the energy distribution of fermions
Joseph Polchinski (500 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to theoretical physics, D-branes are the best known. In 2008 he won the Dirac Medal for his work in superstring theory. In 1990, commenting on the Novikov
Cumrun Vafa (325 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow. He is the recipient of the 2008 Dirac Medal. Cumrun Vafa was born in Tehran, Iran in 1960. He graduated from
Support (measure theory) (1,241 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
line R. It seems clear that λ "lives on" the whole of the real line. A Dirac measure δp at some point p ∈ R. Again, intuition suggests that the measure
Laplacian of the indicator (3,202 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
indicator of the domain D is a generalisation of the derivative of the Dirac delta function to higher dimensions, and is non-zero only on the surface
Gross–Neveu model (706 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Gross-Neveu model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 1 spatial and 1 time dimension. It
Quantum topology (129 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
mathematics that connects quantum mechanics with low-dimensional topology. Dirac notation provides a viewpoint of quantum mechanics which becomes amplified
YCgCo (520 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
This is supported by video compression codecs such as H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and Dirac since it can losslessly be converted to and from RGB with fewer bits required
Planck constant (6,384 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant. The resulting constant is called the reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant. It is equal to the Planck constant divided by 2π, and is denoted
Wolfgang Pauli (3,104 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
sometimes said to have influenced Paul Dirac in his creation of the Dirac equation for the relativistic electron, though Dirac stated that he invented these same
First class constraint (3,047 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Not to be confused with Primary constraint. Main article: Dirac bracket A first class constraint is a dynamical quantity in a constrained Hamiltonian
Ralph H. Fowler (653 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
made a Fellow of the Royal Society. He became research supervisor to Paul Dirac and, in 1926, worked with him on the statistical mechanics of white dwarf
John Cardy (409 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
received the Dirac Medal of the IoP in 2000, was awarded the Lars Onsager Prize by the APS in 2004, the Boltzmann Medal by IUPAP in 2010, and the Dirac Medal
Boson (1,605 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
particles, the other being fermions. The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose
Yukawa interaction (674 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type (scalar) or (pseudoscalar). The Yukawa interaction
Parastatistics (779 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
better known particle statistics models (Bose–Einstein statistics, Fermi–Dirac statistics and Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics). Other alternatives include
G-factor (physics) (1,029 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
charged, spin-1/2 particle that does not possess any internal structure (a Dirac particle) is given by where μ is the spin magnetic moment of the particle
Fierz identity (214 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physicist Markus Fierz. There is a version of the Fierz identities for Dirac spinors and there is another version for Weyl spinors. And there are versions
David Olive (159 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997
Quantum superposition (4,530 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which is a linear superposition of the "basis states" and . Here is the Dirac notation for the quantum state that will always give the result 0 when converted
C-number (131 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
term c-number (or classical number) is an old nomenclature used by Paul Dirac which refers to real and complex numbers. It is used to distinguish from
Chiral anomaly (960 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
state with some particles in the other vacuum. In particular, there is a Dirac sea of fermions and, when such a tunneling happens, it causes the energy
List of open-source codecs (522 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
others). Decoders in the libavcodec (H.264, SVQ3, WMV3, VP3, Theora, Indeo, Dirac, Lagarith and others). Lagarith – Video codec designed for strong lossless
First-order hold (714 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
necessary because, in the sampling and reconstruction theorem, a sequence of Dirac impulses, xs(t), representing the discrete samples, x(nT), is low-pass filtered
Rajiah Simon (99 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. HANDBOOK OF SHANTI SWARUP BHATNAGAR PRIZE WINNERS ( 1958 -
Valuation (measure theory) (661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
called Dirac valuation. This concept bears its origin from distribution theory as it is an obvious transposition to valuation theory of Dirac distribution:
ELKO field (303 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
scalar-like mass dimension they differ significantly from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions. A slightly old reference is a 2013 preprint. The results following
Spacetime algebra (1,427 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Thus , , otherwise . The basis vectors share these properties with the Dirac matrices, but no explicit matrix representation is utilized in STA. This
J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize (575 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
speech for the inaugural award to Dirac was published as The Development of Quantum Theory (1971). 1969 – Paul Dirac 1970 – Freeman Dyson 1971 – Abdus
Zero-order hold (629 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
impulse response equal to a rect function, and with input being a sequence of dirac impulses scaled to the sample values. The filter can then be analyzed in
Bargmann's limit (53 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
number Nl of bound states in a system. It takes the form Note that the Dirac delta function potential attains this limit. Bargmann, Proc. Nat. Acad
Quantum mechanics (10,749 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David Hilbert
Spin quantum number (1,661 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Stern, Frisch and Easterman. In 1928, Paul Dirac developed a relativistic wave equation now termed the Dirac equation, which predicted the spin magnetic
Helicity basis (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
and are the momentum-space Dirac spinors for a fermion and anti-fermion respectively. Put it more explicitly, the Dirac spinors in the helicity basis
Canonical quantization (2,939 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy"
Dyon (257 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Schwinger in 1969 as a phenomenological alternative to quarks. He extended the Dirac quantization condition to the dyon and used the model to predict the existence
Silicene (2,644 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Silicene and graphene have similar electronic structures. Both have a Dirac cone and linear electronic dispersion around the k point. Both also have
Quantum statistical mechanics (825 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
 · Louis de Broglie  · Satyendra Nath Bose  · Wolfgang Pauli  · Paul Dirac Concepts Topology · space · time · energy · matter · work randomness ·
Chirality (physics) (2,251 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
transformation between the two is called parity. Invariance under parity by a Dirac fermion is called chiral symmetry. An experiment on the weak decay of cobalt-60
Killing spinor (312 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
spinor indicates those twistor spinors which are also eigenspinors of the Dirac operator. The term is named after Wilhelm Killing. Another equivalent definition
Spinor bundle (222 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(2000), Dirac Operators in Riemannian Geometry, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2055-1  page 53 Friedrich, Thomas (2000), Dirac Operators
Mildred Dresselhaus (2,161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
construct various Dirac-cone materials, including single-Dirac-cone materials, bi-Dirac-cone materials, tri-Dirac-cone materials, quasi-Dirac-cone materials
History of quantum field theory (3,803 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
physics, the history of quantum field theory starts with its creation by Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field in the late 1920s
Transformation theory (quantum mechanics) (250 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
transformation theory refers to a procedure and a "picture" used by P. A. M. Dirac in his early formulation of quantum theory, from around 1927. This "transformation"
Hydrogen atom (3,569 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Paul Dirac found an equation that was fully compatible with Special Relativity, and (as a consequence) made the wave function a 4-component "Dirac spinor"
Quantum state (4,190 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
74–93, pp. 75–76 Dirac, P.A.M. (1958). The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, 4th edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK. Dirac (1958), p. 16: "each
Quantum field theory (9,425 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
usually considered to be Dirac's famous 1927 paper on “The quantum theory of the emission and absorption of radiation”. Here Dirac coined the name “quantum
Black star (semiclassical gravity) (447 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations system, which is the (super)classical limit of quantum electrodynamics, and for the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac system, which
Global symmetry (82 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the (for a constant - making it a global transformation) group on the Dirac Lagrangian: Under this transformation the wavefunction changes as and
Heaviside step function (974 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
function: The Heaviside function can also be defined as the integral of the Dirac delta function: H′ = δ. This is sometimes written as although this expansion
Narasimhaiengar Mukunda (182 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
by working out the focusing action of a magnetic quadrupole using the Dirac Equation. "Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams. I & II. Symmetry structure
Feynman checkerboard (1,166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
one spatial dimension. It provides a representation of solutions of the Dirac equation in (1+1)-dimensional spacetime as discrete sums. The model can
Lagrangian (field theory) (2,000 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
form. The Lagrangian density for a Dirac field is: where ψ is a Dirac spinor (annihilation operator), is its Dirac adjoint (creation operator), and
Wrapped distribution (977 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
basis vector. A fundamental wrapped distribution is the Dirac comb which is a wrapped Dirac delta function: Using the delta function, a general wrapped
List of scientific constants named after people (431 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
constant () – Max Planck Reduced Planck constant or Dirac constant (-bar, ħ) – Max Planck, Paul Dirac Ramanujan–Soldner constant – Srinivasa Ramanujan
Dirac membrane (615 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
A model of a charged membrane introduced by Paul Dirac in 1962. Dirac's original motivation was to explain the mass of the Muon as an excitation of the
Adric (1,231 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
name Adric is an anagram derived from Nobel Prize-winning physicist Paul Dirac. Waterhouse is the youngest male actor to play a companion so far in the
Feynman parametrization (323 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
which simplifies evaluating integrals like: More generally, using the Dirac delta function: Even more generally, provided that for all : See also
Satyendra Nath Bose (2,452 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, bosons, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac. A self-taught scholar and a polyglot, he had a wide range of interests
Weyl semimetal (838 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
were predicted from a solution to the Dirac equation derived by Hermann Weyl. For example, one-half of a charged Dirac fermion of a definite chirality is
Incomplete polylogarithm (91 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the polylogarithm function. It is sometimes known as the incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral or the incomplete Bose–Einstein integral. It may be defined by:
Spin (physics) (5,862 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")
Moyal bracket (964 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
succeeded in publishing his work in 1949 after a lengthy dispute with Paul Dirac. In the meantime this idea was independently introduced in 1946 by Hip Groenewold
Spin (physics) (5,862 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Paul Dirac published the Dirac equation, which described the relativistic electron. In the Dirac equation, a four-component spinor (known as a "Dirac spinor")
Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics) (2,366 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
principle of detailed balance. However, in the more general formalism of Dirac, the Hamiltonian is typically implemented as an operator on a Hilbert space
Curtis Callan (240 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
instanton physics and to the theory of monopoles and strings") and the Dirac Medal in 2004. Callan received his B.Sc. in physics from Haverford College
Schwinger model (187 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
2D (1 spatial dimension + time) Euclidean quantum electrodynamics with a Dirac fermion. This model exhibits a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the U(1)
Relativistic particle (191 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
relativistic particles, with a prominent example being postulations through Dirac equations of single particle motion. Massive particles are relativistic
Florida State University (17,177 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 8 September 2012.  "Dirac Science library". fsu.edu.  "The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library". The Paul A. M. Dirac Science Library. Florida State
Theodore James Courant (184 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
contributions to the study of Dirac manifolds, which generalize both symplectic manifolds and Poisson manifolds, and are related to the Dirac theory of constraints
Interpretations of quantum mechanics (9,558 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
of "why bother?'ers", for example Paul Dirac. Some writers differ from Bell's opinion on the leanings of Dirac. Bell himself was responsible for a vigorous
Particle physics (2,611 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Chadwick · Bose · Sudarshan · Koshiba · Davis, Jr. · Anderson · Fermi · Dirac · Feynman · Rubbia · Gell-Mann · Kendall · Taylor · Friedman · Powell ·
Thermal de Broglie wavelength (666 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
wavelength; in this case the gas will obey Bose–Einstein statistics or Fermi–Dirac statistics, whichever is appropriate. This is for example the case for electrons
Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics (4,803 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Jordan, and the foundational work of John von Neumann, Hermann Weyl and Paul Dirac, and it became possible to unify several different approaches in terms of
Greg Moore (physicist) (330 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
physics and four-manifold theory." In 2015, he was jointly awarded the 2015 Dirac Medal by ICTP. Moore was a member of the Advisory Board for Springer's Encyclopedia
Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
with the help of the assumption that electrons in metals obeyed Fermi-Dirac statistics, derived an (approximate) emission equation. Over time, this
Klein paradox (729 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1929, physicist Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result by applying the Dirac equation to the familiar problem of electron scattering from a potential
Thirring–Wess model (334 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
an exactly solvable quantum field theory describing the interaction of a Dirac field with a vector field in dimension two. The Lagrangian density is
Klein transformation (327 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
commutation/anticommutation relations until we're done. This explains the equivalence between parastatistics and the more familiar Bose–Einstein/Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Zirconium(II) hydride (161 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
low temperature. Zirconium(II) hydride has repeatedly been the subject of Dirac–Hartree–Fock relativistic calculation studies, which investigate the stabilities
Quasi Fermi level (791 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
function of the electrons at the energy level of E is presented by Fermi–Dirac distribution function. In this case the Fermi level is defined as the level
OggConvert (246 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
various types into the free Ogg Vorbis audio format, and the Theora, VP8 and Dirac video formats. It supports Ogg, Matroska and WebM containers for output
Rajagopalan Parthasarathy (160 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
discrete series of representations of a semisimple Lie group in the space of Dirac Spinors. He made considerable progress in many central problems in representation
Fermi level (2,990 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
it generally provides correct results when applied correctly. The Fermi–Dirac distribution, , gives the probability that (at thermodynamic equilibrium)
Jogesh Pati (413 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 24 April 2012. received the Dirac Medal for the year 2000 (with Howard Georgi and Helen Quinn).  "Dirac medal goes to particle theorists - physicsworld
Soler model (297 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Soler model is a quantum field theory model of Dirac fermions interacting via four fermion interactions in 3 spatial and 1 time dimension. It was
Regularization (physics) (1,985 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
formal coefficients that must eventually be disposed of by renormalization. Dirac was persistently, extremely critical about procedures of renormalization
Index of physics articles (D) (1,782 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
Diproton Diquark Dirac Prize Dirac adjoint Dirac delta function Dirac equation Dirac equation in the algebra of physical space Dirac fermion Dirac large numbers
Fundamental solution (610 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
(which normally further addresses boundary conditions). In terms of the Dirac delta "function" δ(x), a fundamental solution F is the solution of the inhomogeneous
N-slit interferometric equation (1,226 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
applied to optics, and interference in particular, by Paul Dirac. Feynman, in his lectures, uses Dirac's notation to describe thought experiments on double-slit
Exotic probability (170 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the quaternions. Youssef also cites the work of Richard Feynman, P. A. M. Dirac, Stanley Gudder and S. K. Srinivasan as relevant to exotic probability theories
Stochastic interpretation (201 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Phase-space Schrödinger Sum-over-histories (path integral) Equations Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger Yin Field Yang Field Interpretations
Laurent Schwartz (1,235 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
distributions, which gives a well-defined meaning to objects such as the Dirac delta function. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work on
Theora (2,843 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
other codecs. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carter's Controller on
Higher-dimensional gamma matrices (834 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
generalize to arbitrary dimension the four-dimensional Gamma matrices of Dirac, which are a mainstay of relativistic quantum mechanics. They are utilized
Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (409 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
include Isaac Newton, Joseph Larmor, Charles Babbage, George Stokes, Paul Dirac and Stephen Hawking. Lucas, in his will, bequeathed his library of 4,000
State space (physics) (166 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article
vectors, using Dirac's bra–ket notation, can often be treated like coordinate vectors and operated on using the rules of linear algebra. This Dirac formalism
Causal fermion system (2,784 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
is the fact that the Dirac equation in Minkowski space has solutions of negative energy which are usually associated to the Dirac sea. Taking the concept
Lichnerowicz formula (280 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
1963, and Roland Weitzenböck. The formula gives a relationship between the Dirac operator and the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on spinors, in which the
Fermi energy (1,619 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
a typical value for the Fermi energy is usually given as 38 MeV. Fermi–Dirac statistics: the distribution of electrons over stationary states for a non-interacting
Modern physics (537 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
to account for the observed behaviour of the gas, and the (modern) Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distributions have to be used instead. German physicist
University of Bristol (7,972 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
associated with 12 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy
Comparison of video codecs (2,497 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
Retrieved 2009-10-06 Theora.org FAQ: what is the license for Theora? Dirac Video Compression, Retrieved on 2009-08-08 x264 - a free h264/avc encoder
A System of Logic (230 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the history of science, being a strong influence on scientists such as Dirac[citation needed]. Mill, John Stuart, A System of Logic, University Press
Sign function (624 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
distribution theory, the derivative of the signum function is two times the Dirac delta function, which can be demonstrated using the identity (where H(x)
Delta potential (1,676 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
the delta potential is a potential well mathematically described by the Dirac delta function - a generalized function. Qualitatively, it corresponds to
Geoffrey A. Landis (2,549 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
He won the 1989 Nebula Award for best short story for "Ripples in the Dirac Sea" (Asimov's Science Fiction, October 1988), the 1992 Hugo Award for "A
Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model (694 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
complicated effective theory of nucleons and mesons constructed from interacting Dirac fermions with chiral symmetry, paralleling the construction of Cooper pairs
Women in Somalia (1,100 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
like Eid, women wear the dirac, a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton, polyester or saree fabric. The dirac is related to the short-sleeved
List of Nobel laureates (1,131 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
JohnJohn Galsworthy None — 1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger; Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin
List of mathematical functions (947 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
polylogarithm Clausen function Complete Fermi–Dirac integral, an alternate form of the polylogarithm. Incomplete Fermi–Dirac integral Kummer's function Spence's
Lamb shift (1,072 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy. Interaction
Fermi filter (48 words) [view diff] no match in snippet view article find links to article
The Fermi filter is a common image processing filter that uses the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the Frequency domain to perform a low-pass filter or high-pass